Abstract: A compact hybrid-mode antenna is proposed for sub-6 GHz communication. The proposed antenna is composed of a slotted rectangular patch, a feeding dipole, and a balun. Three modes are sequentially excited in a shared patch to achieve a compact size. A prototype antenna with a major size of 0.48 λ0 × 0.31 λ0 × 0.16 λ0 (λ0 is the wavelength in the free space at the center of the operating frequency band) is fabricated and measured. The measured results demonstrate an impedance bandwidth of 56.87% from 2.97 GHz to 5.33 GHz and an average gain of approximately 8.00 dBi with 1 dB variation in the operating frequency band of 3.0–5.0 GHz. The proposed antenna can be an element for microbase stations in sub-6 GHz communication. PubDate: Fri, 31 Jul 2020 07:20:15 +000

Abstract: This paper presents a dual-band step impedance resonator (SIR) antenna based on metamaterial-inspired periodic structure of coupled complementary split-ring resonators substrate-integrated waveguide (CSRR-SIW). The antenna supports wireless local area networks (WLAN) bands at 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz. The CSRRs and two branches of the SIR element are etched on the top and bottom metal surfaces of the substrate. The SIR element produces a fundamental frequency f1 at 2.4 GHz and a second harmonic frequency fs2 at 5.7 GHz. Meanwhile, the CSRRs produces a resonant frequency at high-frequency band around 5.2 GHz, which can be combined with the second harmonic frequency fs2 at 5.7 GHz. The high-frequency bandwidth can then be broadened. The simulated and measured results show that the dual operation bands with bandwidths of 16% from 2.25 GHz to 2.64 GHz and 18.2% from 5 GHz to 6 GHz for |S11| PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2020 14:35:14 +000

Abstract: This paper presents a broadband band-pass filter with cross-coupled line structure. The cross-coupled line structure is composed of the parallel coupled lines and an open stub. It can be analyzed by the odd- and even-mode method due to its symmetric structure. There are three transmission poles in the passband and two transmission zeros out of passband. Then, the influence of the impedance parameters on the transmission zeros and transmission poles are analyzed. Then, the physical parameters of the proposed band-pass filter are given. And using HFSS for simulation and optimization, the final insertion loss and return loss of filter are obtained. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement, which validates the design idea. PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 06:35:07 +000

Abstract: A multiwideband bandpass filter (MW-BPF) using a quad cross-stub stepped impedance resonator (QC-SSIR) was simulated, fabricated, and measured. The proposed QC-SSIR is designed on a four-series arrangement of crossed open stub (COS) structures where each open stub is developed with a step impedance resonator (SIR) structure to generate a wide bandwidth. Compared to the COS resonator, the QC-SSIR has a wider fractional bandwidth and good transmission coefficients and is compact. ABCD matrix analysis is used to investigate the filter structure. Furthermore, the MW-BPF is designed on an FR4 microstrip substrate with εr = 4.4, thickness h = 1.6 mm, and tan δ = 0.0265. The results show that the proposed MW-BPF using a QC-SSIR achieves transmission coefficients/fractional bandwidths of −0.60 dB/49.3%, −1.49 dB/18.7%, and −1.93 dB/13.9% at 0.81 GHz, 1.71 GHz, and 2.58 GHz, respectively. Furthermore, to reduce the filter size, a folded QC-SSIR (FQC-SSIR) structure was also proposed. The results show that the proposed MW-BPF using an FQC-SSIR achieves transmission coefficients/fractional bandwidths of −0.57 dB/49.6%, −1.21 dB/17.7%, and −1.76 dB/12.5% at 0.82 GHz, 1.80 GHz, and 2.62 GHz, respectively. The size of the proposed MW-BPF using an FQC-SSIR is reduced by up to 46% compared with the MW-BPF using a QC-SSIR. Finally, the performance of the simulated MW-BPF based on the QC-SSIR and FQC-SSIR was in good agreement with the measurement results. PubDate: Fri, 24 Jul 2020 14:05:07 +000

Abstract: System analysis is a powerful tool for researching modern wireless systems. This includes breaking such systems into parts that make them up and studying how these parts work together. All these parts can be represented as “black boxes” in the form of two-port or multiport networks with the common system of parameters. Antenna is an integral part of any wireless system, so it should be also represented as a two-port network. In this paper, an analytical model of an arbitrary single antenna in the form of a two-port network, whose electrical and noise parameters are described in terms of scattering matrices, is obtained. The initial data for creating the model are the antenna fundamental parameters, viz., the input reflection coefficient and the radiation efficiency. Applications of this model for antenna analysis operating in the transmitting, receiving, and scattering modes are demonstrated. A numerical example using the antenna scattering matrix for computer simulation of a wireless connection is given. PubDate: Fri, 24 Jul 2020 06:05:03 +000

Abstract: This paper presents a compact Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna with high isolation and low envelope correlation (ECC) for fifth-generation applications using spatial diversity technique. The proposed MIMO antenna consists of two single antennas, each having size of 13 × 12.8 mm2, symmetrically arranged next to each other. The single and MIMO antennas are simulated and analyzed. To verify the simulated results, the prototype antennas were fabricated and measured. A good agreement between measurements and simulations is obtained. The proposed antenna covers the 28 GHz band (27.5–28.35 GHz) allocated by the FCC for 5G applications. Moreover, the isolation is more than 35 dB and the ECC is less than 0.0004 at the operating band, which means that the mutual coupling between the two elements is negligible. The MIMO parameters, such as diversity gain (DG), total active reflection coefficient (TARC), realized gain, and efficiency, are also studied. Thus, the results demonstrate that our antenna is suitable for 5G MIMO applications. PubDate: Fri, 24 Jul 2020 05:20:05 +000

Abstract: In this work, the numerical steepest descent path (NSDP) method is proposed to compute the highly oscillatory physical optics (PO) scattered fields from the concave surfaces, including both the monostatic and the bistatic cases. Quadratic variations are adopted to approximate the integrands of the PO type integral into the canonical form. Then, on involving the NSDP method, we deform the integration paths of the integrals into several NSDPs on the complex plain, through which the highly oscillatory integrands are converted to exponentially decay integrands. The RCS results of the PO scattered field are calculated and are compared with the high frequency asymptotic (HFA) method and the brute force (BF) method. The results demonstrate that the proposed NSDP method for calculating PO scattered fields from concave surfaces is frequency-independent and error-controllable. Numerical examples are provided to verify the efficiencies of the NSDP method. PubDate: Thu, 23 Jul 2020 05:20:02 +000

Abstract: This paper studies optimal resource allocation in the wireless powered communication networks (WPCN) combined with time reversal (TR) in which one hybrid access point (H-AP) broadcasts constant wireless energy to a set of distributed users in the downlink (DL) and receives information from the users via space division multiple access (SDMA) in the uplink (UL). Inevitable interferences will occur when users transmit information in the UL simultaneously and the special space-time focusing of TR is used to suppress the interferences. An efficient protocol is proposed to support wireless energy transfer (WET) and TR in the DL and wireless information transmission in the UL for the proposed TR-WPCN. We optimize the time allocations to the H-AP for DL WET, DL TR, and UL WIT to maximize the sum throughput. Due to the nonconvexity of the studied optimization problem, we optimize variables successively, where the nonconvex optimization problem is transformed into the convex optimization problem. The approximate convex optimization problem can then be solved iteratively combined with the dichotomy method. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively suppress interferences and improve system performance. PubDate: Wed, 22 Jul 2020 05:35:03 +000

Abstract: Two hypotheses for the blocking effect mechanisms under the electromagnetic radiation are presented, and the corresponding dual-frequency interference prediction models are proposed, which can be used to predict the working state of equipment under the condition that the single-frequency susceptibility is known. By taking a radar and a communication radio as the EUT, the experiments of dual-frequency continuous wave electromagnetic radiation are designed and carried out to verify the prediction models. The test results show that the sensitive bandwidth of blocking interference effect for the tested radar and the communication station is consistent with their working bandwidth, respectively. By substituting the test data into the proposed prediction models, the prediction errors of the models are less than 13%. Moreover, it can be found that the tested radar is more sensitive to the peak value of electric field, and the tested communication station is more sensitive to the effective value of electric field. PubDate: Wed, 15 Jul 2020 13:05:01 +000

Abstract: The performance of direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for sparse arrays applied to the distributed source is worse than that applied to the point source model. In this paper, we introduce the coprime array with a large array aperture into the DOA estimation algorithm of the exponential-type coherent distributed source. In particular, we focus on the fourth-order cumulant (FOC) of the received signal which can provide more useful information when the signal is non-Gaussian than when it is Gaussian. The proposed algorithm extends the array aperture by combining the sparsity of array space domain with the fourth-order cumulant characteristics of signals, which improves the estimation accuracy and degree of freedom (DOF). Firstly, the signal-received model of the sparse array is established, and the fourth-order cumulant matrix of the received signal of the sparse array is calculated based on the characteristics of distributed sources, which extend the array aperture. Then, the virtual array is constructed by the sum aggregate of physical array elements, and the position set of its maximum continuous part array element is obtained. Finally, the center DOA estimation of the distributed source is realized by the subspace method. The accuracy and DOF of the proposed algorithm are higher than those of the distributed signal parameter estimator (DSPE) algorithm and least-squares estimation signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (LS-ESPRIT) algorithm when the array elements are the same. Complexity analysis and numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. PubDate: Sat, 11 Jul 2020 13:20:03 +000

Abstract: A radio frequency identification reader antenna having multitag identification for medical systems is presented, which consists of four PIFAs, two hybrid couplers, and four power dividers. The high isolation is achieved by the symmetric design of the antenna geometry and four power dividers, which are fed by two hybrid couplers. The experimental results show an isolation of more than 40 dB in the North American (902–928 MHz), Korean (917–923.5 MHz), and Japanese (916.7–923.5 MHz) RFID frequency bands. PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 06:05:02 +000

Abstract: This paper introduces a wideband rectenna that can scavenge ambient wireless power to a range of frequency band from 0.91 GHz to 2.55 GHz efficiently. The proposed rectenna is based on a wideband 2 × 2 fractal monopole antenna array with omnidirectional radiation patterns and high gains of 5 to 8.3 dBi at the desired bands. An improved two-branch impedance matching technique is presented which is designed to enhance the rectifier circuit performance with a relatively low input power ranging from −25 dBm to 10 dBm. Also, a full-wave wideband rectifier that can suitably improve the RF-to-DC power conversion efficiency is designed for the rectenna. A peak efficiency of 76%, 71%, 61%, and 62% is obtained at 950, 1850, 2100, and 2450 MHz, respectively. Measurement results show that a conversion efficiency of 68% has been achieved over an optimal 4.7 kΩ resistor when the simultaneous four-band input power level is −10 dBm. Moreover, an output DC voltage of around 243 mV with voltage varying within 160–250 mV can be achieved by gathering the low ambient wireless power inside laboratory. This study proves that the proposed rectenna can be applied to a range of many low-power electronic applications. PubDate: Thu, 25 Jun 2020 07:20:06 +000

Abstract: This paper proposes a trifrequency reconfigurable antenna (FRA), which can work in the X-band, Ku-band, and Ka-band, by controlling only two RF MEMS switches. The antenna element has a frequency ratio beyond 3 : 1 and provides a good candidate for the frequency reconfigurable antenna array, since the size of the antenna is reduced by loading multiple metal shorting holes between the antenna radiating surface and the ground plate, and the overall size is only 0.14λX × 0.35λX (λX is the free-space wavelength at 8.6 GHz). Based on the proposed FRA element, a 1 × 16 linear irregular frequency reconfigurable antenna array (FRAA) with beam deflection ability is designed, which effectively addresses the element spacing problem in the optimization of the array. In addition, the close-coupling in X-band and the grating lobe caused by the long distance of array element spacing in Ka-band are comprehensively considered. With uniform amplitude feeding network, the sidelobe level is below −15 dB under beam deflection. Moreover, both FRA elements and FRAA prototypes have been fabricated and measured to verify their superiority. Good agreements are obtained between simulated and measured results, which indicates that the antenna has potential application in the future multifrequency wireless communication and intelligent radar anti-interference fields. PubDate: Wed, 24 Jun 2020 06:35:06 +000

Abstract: Polarized smart antenna array has attracted considerable interest due to its capacity of matched reception or interference suppression for active sensing systems. Existing literature does not take full advantage of the combination of polarization isolation and smart antennas and only focuses on uniform linear array (ULA). In this paper, an innovative synthesis two-dimensional beampattern method with a null that has cross-polarization for polarized planar arrays is proposed in the first stage. This method aims to further enhance the capability of interference suppression whose optimization problem can be solved by second-order conic programming. In the second stage, a new sparse array-optimized method for the polarized antenna array is proposed to reduce the high cost caused by the planar array that is composed of polarized dipole antennas. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed approach over state-of-the-art methods. PubDate: Sat, 13 Jun 2020 13:20:02 +000

Abstract: A wideband circularly polarized (CP) antenna is presented to achieve enhanced impedance, axial ratio (AR), and gain bandwidths. The antenna consists of two circular patches, a split-ring microstrip line with six probes, and a circular ground plane. By using these six probes which are placed in sequence on the split-ring microstrip line, the operating bandwidth of the proposed antenna is increased. The characteristic mode method is used to analyze different modes of the antenna and reveal the mechanism of extending the 3-dB AR bandwidth. Measured results show that the proposed antenna obtains an impedance bandwidth of 1.486–2.236 GHz (40.3%) for S11 ≤ −18 dB, a 3-dB AR bandwidth of 1.6–2.2 GHz (31.6%), and a boresight gain of 8.89 ± 0.87 dBic. PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 06:35:01 +000

Abstract: A triband patch antenna with monopole-like and patch-like radiation patterns for multifunctional wireless systems is proposed. The antenna consists of a single square radiation patch with an annular slot, a ground plane, and a top-loaded metal sheet. The top-loaded metal sheet is shorted to the ground plane for producing a zeroth-order resonant (ZOR) mode, which has an omnidirectional radiation pattern at the lowest operation band, and its performance is robust to the location of the probe feed. With the annular slot and the off-center probe feed, a dual-resonant TM01 mode is excited, yielding unidirectional radiation patterns for the two upper operation bands. The ZOR and the dual-resonant TM01 modes can be independently controlled, and a triband antenna prototype with a square patch of 24 mm is fabricated and tested. The first bandwidth is 2.5–2.7 GHz with omnidirectional radiation pattern, the second and the third bandwidths with unidirectional radiation are 3.3–3.9 GHz and 4.8–6.1 GHz, and the realized gains over the three bands are about 2.6, 6.5, and 7.5 dBi, respectively. PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2020 06:05:02 +000

Abstract: The rheology and evolution of the polar ice sheet are deeply influenced by the anisotropy of ice crystals. Studying the anisotropy of ice crystals can help to well understand and predict the behavior of the polar ice sheet and then the sea level rising and global climate change. In this paper, firstly, we deduce the expression of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of anisotropic media, which are determined by permittivity tensor and geometry of media. Then, the analytic formulas of reflection and transmission coefficients are derived directly by matrix transformation. Some models with real ice parameters are tested, and they present some special features at the anisotropic interface. We also discuss the physical meanings of eigenvalues and eigenvectors and the geometry analyzing to polarimetric radar. This analytic solution reveals the functional relationship between the macroradar reflection and the microphysical properties of ice crystals, which provides a feasibility of ice fabric identification by polarimetric radar detection. PubDate: Fri, 05 Jun 2020 07:35:06 +000

Abstract: This study proposes a method for designing and calibrating a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna module. Herein, we adopt a design example involving a 64-element MIMO antenna array arranged in a triangular lattice (instead of the commonly used rectangular lattice) to achieve a 3°dB enhancement in effective isotropic radiated power. Analyzing a grating lobe diagram indicates a scan volume of ±60°/±45° in the azimuth/elevation direction. To calibrate the massive mm-wave MIMO antenna module, we propose a modified genetic algorithm to align the amplitude/phase of the transmitting/receiving signal of the module to reduce the time required for the calibration process. Finally, we conducted a simple experiment to validate the proposed method. PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2020 04:50:01 +000

Abstract: In order to realize the miniaturization of quasi-Yagi antenna array, an antenna array with split-ring resonators (SRRs) based on two 7 units quasi-Yagi elements is designed in this paper. The radiation performance of the quasi-Yagi antenna array degrades significantly when array element spacing is reduced. After embedding SRRs on both sides of the miniaturized dielectric substrate surface, the S parameters and gain of array are significantly better than the array without SRRs, and the adjustable wave beam energy is also enhanced effectively. It indicates that the proposed antenna array with SRRs has good directional radiation performance under the miniaturize process at the operation frequency of 2.45 GHz, which could be widely applied in the fields of smart rail transportation and wireless power transfer. PubDate: Fri, 22 May 2020 14:35:04 +000

Abstract: A method for designing a dual-polarized wideband absorber with low profile by using dual-resistor-loaded metallic strips is proposed in this paper. Each unit cell consists of a resistive sheet with dual-resistor-loaded metallic strips and an underlying conducting plate. Two-dimensional arrays of two unequal metallic strips are printed on the dielectric substrate, and two resistors are embedded in the metallic strips. By properly designing the resonant frequencies of these metallic strips, a wide absorption band with three resonances is obtained. An equivalent circuit model is introduced, and the current distributions are examined to understand the physical mechanism of the proposed absorber. An example of the absorber is fabricated and measured to verify our designed concept. The measured results show that the wideband absorption performance with a fractional bandwidth of 129% under the normal incidence and the stable angular response are achieved. In addition, the proposed absorber has a low profile with 0.08, where is the wavelength at the lowest operating frequency. PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 06:05:02 +000

Abstract: This paper presents a quad-band, 3D mountable rectenna module for ambient energy harvesting. With the aim of powering up Internet of Things (IoT) nodes in practical ambient environments, a hybrid approach of combining power, both at RF and DC, is adopted using 98 MHz FM band, GSM900 (Global System for Mobile Communications), GSM1800, and Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz band. A dual polarized cross-dipole antenna featuring asymmetric slots as well as central ring structure enables multiband response and improved matching at the higher three frequency bands, whereas a loaded monopole wire antenna is used at the lower FM band. Four identical multiband antennas are placed in a 3D cubic arrangement that houses a 4-to-1 power combiner and matching circuits on the inside and the FM antenna on the top. In order to maintain stable rectenna output at varying input power levels and load resistances, a novel transmission line based matching network using closed form equations is proposed. Integrated in form of a 10 × 10 × 10 cube using standard FR4 substrate, the rectenna generates a peak output voltage of 2.38 V at −10 dBm input power. The RF to DC conversion efficiency is 70.28%, 41.7%, 33.37%, and 27.69% at 98 MHz, 0.9 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 2.4 GHz, respectively, at −6 dBm. The rectenna also exhibits a measured conversion efficiency of 31.3% at −15 dBm for multitone inputs in ambient environment. The promising results in both indoor and outdoor settings are suitable to power low power IoT devices. PubDate: Fri, 15 May 2020 06:50:02 +000

Abstract: In order to counter active jamming, an adaptive polarization filtering method based on dual polarization radar is put forward. First, the signal flow principle of the dual polarization radar and its signal model are introduced. Then, the weighted coefficient matrices of the polarization filter are calculated adaptively according to the actual work situation of the current radar. Finally, the specific polarization filtering algorithm and the output criterion of the optimal filtering results are given. Experimental results show that this method does not need to know the type, quantity, combination mode, polarization characteristics, and other prior knowledge of active jamming but has well effect on both active deception jamming and active blanket jamming, so it has strong engineering application value. PubDate: Thu, 14 May 2020 06:20:02 +000

Abstract: The existing sparse imaging observation error estimation methods are to usually estimate the error of each observation position by substituting the error parameters into the iterative reconstruction process, which has a huge calculation cost. In this paper, by analysing the relationship between imaging results of single-observation sampling data and error parameters, a SAR observation error estimation method based on maximum relative projection matching is proposed. First, the method estimates the precise position parameters of the reference position by the sparse reconstruction method of joint error parameters. Second, a relative error estimation model is constructed based on the maximum correlation of base-space projection. Finally, the accurate error parameters are estimated by the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno method. Simulation and measured data of microwave anechoic chambers show that, compared to the existing methods, the proposed method has higher estimation accuracy, lower noise sensitivity, and higher computational efficiency. PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 08:20:03 +000

Abstract: In some frequency-sharing studies between fixed service and space radiocommunication services, including fixed-satellite, broadcasting-satellite, and space science services, it is necessary to estimate the apparent elevation angle of a space station, taking into account the atmospheric refraction. Recommendations ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union—Radiocommunication) P.834-9 and F.1333-1 detail similar methods regarding calculating the refraction correction for the elevation angle of the mean annual global reference atmosphere. Herein, both methods are approximated using the bending angle from the ground to the infinity height; this approach is most suitable for geosynchronous orbit satellites. In this paper, new methods for calculating the refraction correction for the elevation angle are proposed regarding the mean annual global reference atmosphere given in Recommendation ITU-R P.835-6. Specifically, the results of the ray-tracing method are fitted. The height of the new formulae is 100 km above sea level. For higher altitudes, correction methods are given based on free-space propagation. The proposed methods can be applied to the calculation of the refraction correction for the elevation of the mean annual global reference atmosphere for satellites at different orbital heights. Furthermore, these new methods compare favourably to the two ITU-R Recommendations. PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 08:05:07 +000

Abstract: In this paper, a flexible microstrip patch antenna sensor is proposed for monitoring of the moisture content of lubricating oil. The sensor identifies liquids having different effective dielectric constants by detecting changes in the resonance frequency. The proposed antenna comprises a radiation patch, a metal ground plane, and a PDMS substrate with microchannels. The microchannels are etched on the PDMS substrate. When the relative permittivity of the microfluidic channel is 1.8∼12.5, the operating frequency of the proposed antenna changes from 2.230 to 2.116 GHz, and the amplitude of the reflection coefficient is greater than −26.3 dB. The simulation and measurement results show that the proposed sensor can monitor the lubricating oil with different moisture contents, which can cause frequency separation of at least 20 MHz and achieve a good linear response. Therefore, the proposed sensor has the feasibility of monitoring the quality of lubricating oil. PubDate: Sat, 02 May 2020 13:35:01 +000

Abstract: In this paper, an improved propagator method (PM) is proposed by using a two-parallel array consisting of two uniform large-spacing linear arrays. Because of the increase of element spacing, the mutual coupling between two sensors can be reduced. Firstly, two matrices containing elevation angle information are obtained by PM. Then, by performing EVD of the product of the two matrices, the elevation angles of incident signals can be estimated without direction ambiguity. At last, the matrix product is used again to obtain the estimations of azimuth angles. Compared with the existed PM algorithms based on conventional uniform two-parallel linear array, the proposed PM algorithm based on the large-spacing linear arrays has higher estimation precision. Many simulation experiments are presented to verify the effect of proposed scheme in reducing the mutual coupling and improving estimation precision. PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 15:35:04 +000

Abstract: The paper proposes a simple four-element microstrip patch array antenna fed with corporate-series technique. The paper compares the proposed design with four-element antennas fed with only series-fed and corporate-fed microstrip antennas. All three antenna designs use rectangular microstrip patch elements with two insets and slots on both sides of the patch. The patch elements are accompanied by Yagi elements: three director elements and two reflector elements. Through comparison of simulation results, the paper shows that four-element array antenna with combined corporate-series feeding technique performs better compared to antennas with only either series or corporate feeding network. The proposed corporate-series fed antenna achieves better performance with wide frequency bandwidth of 25.04–30.87 GHz and gain of 9.5 dB. The antenna has an end-fire radiation pattern. Overall performance shows that the proposed corporate-series-fed microstrip patch antenna with Yagi elements is suitable for next generation 5G communication. PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 06:20:09 +000

Abstract: This study aimed to explore a metallic striped grid array planar antenna, analyze it numerically in terms of its parameters, and optimize it for best performance. It may be an appropriate candidate for long-range point-to-point connectivity in wireless sensor networks. Antenna gain and frequency impedance bandwidth are two important performance parameters. For an efficient antenna, its gain should be high while maintaining operating bandwidth wide enough to accommodate the entire frequency range for which it has been designed. Concurrently, antenna size should also be small. In this study, antenna dimensions were kept as small as possible without compromising its performance. Its dimensions were 300 mm × 210 mm × 9.9 mm, which made it compact and miniature. It had a maximum gain of 16.72 dB at 2.45 GHz and maximum frequency impedance bandwidth of 7.68% relative to 50 Ω. It operated across a frequency band ranging from 2.38 GHz to 2.57 GHz, encapsulating the entire ISM 2.4 GHz band. Its radiation efficiency remained above 93% in this band with a maximum of 98.5% at 2.45 GHz. Moreover, it also had narrow HPBWs in horizontal and vertical planes having values of 18.52° and 31.25°, respectively. PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 12:50:11 +000

Abstract: This research proposes an integrated high-frequency (HF) and ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tag antenna for near-field (13.56 MHz) and far-field (920–925 MHz) communication. This tag antenna is advantageous for the applications with lossy material in the near-field communication and mitigates polarization loss in the far-field communications. The HF-RFID tag antenna is of square spiral structure, and the circularly polarized UHF-RFID structure consists of a square loop radiator with cascading loop feeding and shorted stub. The structure of HF-RFID tag antenna situated inside the circularly polarized UHF-RFID tag can avoid the significant effect of the near-field magnetic coupling from the square loop. The UHF-RFID tag antenna is realized by using characteristic mode analysis for wideband circular polarization. The HF-RFID structure is conjugate-matched with NXP NT3H2111 chip, and the UHF-RFID structure is conjugate-matched with NXP G2X chip. Simulations were carried out, and an antenna prototype was fabricated. The experimental results reveal that the radiation pattern of UHF-RFID tag antenna is bidirectional with a gain of 0.31 dBic. The impedance bandwidth covers the frequency range of 903–944 MHz, and the axial ratio in boresight direction at 922.5 MHz is 1.67 dB, with the axial ratio bandwidth over 863–938 MHz. The maximum near-field and far-field reading ranges are 4.9 cm and 8.7 m. The proposed integrated dual-band passive tag antenna is operationally ideal for HF-RFID and UHF-RFID applications. PubDate: Fri, 24 Apr 2020 07:35:03 +000