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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 223)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.233
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5869 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5877
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Flexible Phase Difference of 4 × 4 Butler Matrix without
           Phase-Shifters and Crossovers

    • Abstract: This paper proposes a new Butler matrix topology. The proposed Butler matrix consists of only four couplers without phase shifters and crossovers. The output phase difference is relatively flexible. Compared with the phase differences (±45° and ±135°) generated by the conventional Butler matrix, the proposed design can generate different sets of phase differences, which can be realized from −180° to 180°. The proposed new Butler matrix replaces the traditional 90° coupler with arbitrary phase-difference couplers. In this paper, closed-form design equations are derived and presented. A 4 × 4 Butler matrix with output phase differences of −30°, +150°, −120°, and +60° is designed according to equations. The 4 × 4 Butler is meant to operate at 2 GHz. The simulation results show that the amplitude unbalance is less than 0.1 dB, the phase mismatch is within 1°, the return loss is higher than 29 dB, and the isolation is higher than 32 dB.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Dec 2019 04:20:05 +000
  • Joint Position and Velocity Estimation of a Moving Target in Multistatic
           Radar by Bistatic Range, TDOA, and Doppler Shifts

    • Abstract: In this paper, an estimation algorithm for the position and velocity of a moving target in a multistatic radar system is investigated. Estimation accuracy is improved by using bistatic range (BR), time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA), and Doppler shifts. Multistatic radar system includes several independent receivers and transmitters of time synchronization. Different transmitters radiate signals of different frequencies, and receivers detect the Doppler shifts of the received signals. These estimation parameters, BR, TDOA, and Doppler shifts, are readily available. The proposed algorithm combines different estimated parameters and optimizes estimation accuracy by two-step weighted least squares minimisations (WLS). This estimation algorithm is analysed and verified by simulations, which can reach the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB) performance under mild Gaussian noise when the measurement error is small. Numerical simulations also demonstrate the superior performance of this method.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 06:05:08 +000
  • The Precompression Processing of LMS Algorithm in Noise Elimination

    • Abstract: In this study, the authors propose a novel precompression processing (PCP) of the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm based on a regulator factor. The novelty of the PCP algorithm is that the compressed input signals vary from each other on different components at each iteration. The input signal of the improved LMS algorithm is precompressed based on the regulator factor. The precompressed input signal is not only related to the regulator factor α and the current value of the input signal at each iteration but also related to the amplitude of the input signal before this iteration. The improved algorithm can eliminate the influence of input signal mutation on the filter performance. In the numerical simulations, we compare the improved LMS algorithm and NLMS algorithm in the cases of normal input signal and input signal with mutation and the influence of different regulator factors on the noise elimination. Results show that the PCP algorithm has good noise elimination effect when the input signal changes abruptly and the regulator factor α = 0.01 can meet the requirements.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 04:05:05 +000
  • Wideband and High-Efficiency SIW Cavity-Backed Magneto-Electric Dipole
           Antenna Array

    • Abstract: In this paper, a compact, wideband, and high-efficiency substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding cavity-backed aperture-coupled magneto-electric (ME) dipole antenna element and its array are proposed. Firstly, an SIW cavity-backed and a modified bowtie dipole are designed for the antenna element which makes it possess a high gain and wide impedance bandwidth. The antenna element covers an impedance bandwidth of 66.3% from 10.7 to 21.3 GHz with a peak gain of 10.3 dBi. Secondly, a 4 × 4 array is designed using the proposed antenna element. And a full-corporate substrate integrated waveguide feeding network is introduced to excite the array elements for the antenna application with wide bandwidth and high efficiency. For validation, a prototype of 4 × 4 array is fabricated by standard printed circuit board (PCB) facilities and further measured. The measured −10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed 4 × 4 antenna array is 30% (12.75–17.25 GHz) with its gain being 18.2–20.9 dBi within the entire band. The measured maximum aperture efficiency of the antenna array is 94% at 14.92 GHz. Notably, the measured results agree well with simulations, and it shows great advantages over other similar antennas on efficiency and bandwidth.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 12:05:10 +000
  • Efficient Variable Thickness Radome Design with Insertion Phase Delay

    • Abstract: Variable thickness design is capable of yielding excellent electromagnetic (EM) performance for streamlined airborne radomes. The traditional optimization method using evolutionary computation (EC) techniques can yield variable thickness radome (VTR) design with optimal EM performance but uncontrollable thickness profile, leading to manufacturing difficulties. Thickness profile design based on average incident angle is an efficient way for VTR design with smooth thickness profile, whereas the boresight error (BSE) is relatively large. In this work, insertion phase delay (IPD) correction is introduced in the efficient thickness profile design process to realize a better balance between EM performance and thickness profile smoothness of airborne radomes. The thickness profile obtained from average incident angle is adjusted for IPD distribution symmetry with respect to the antenna axis under scan angles with large BSE. Results indicate that the proposed method can effectively improve the BSE characteristics at the expense of slight deterioration of computational efficiency and thickness profile smoothness.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 11:05:02 +000
  • A Novel Space Large Deployable Paraboloid Structure with Power and
           Communication Integration

    • Abstract: The combination of a solar array and a communication antenna can reduce the entire mass, physical size, and cost in space applications. Currently, related studies mainly focus on the combination of the two structures on the one flat plate structure (FPS). Compared with the FPS, a paraboloid structure has a lower surface density and higher conversion efficiency. Therefore, a novel space large deployable paraboloid structure with power and communication integration (SSPCI) is proposed and designed in detail, for spacecraft on a sun synchronous earth orbit; it consists of a cable mesh membrane reflector (CMMR), an energy conversion device (ECD), and a three-extensible-rod (TER) pointing mechanism. To achieve the goal of integrating power and communication, the TER pointing mechanism drives the CMMR/ECD to track the sun in the sunshine region or to turn to face the ground station/other target in the Earth’s shadow region. Then, through simulation analyses of the deploying process, static force at a limit orientation, and sun tracking process of the SSPCI, it is proved that the SSPCI is feasible and has satisfactory performance. Finally, deploying experiments of the folded hoop of the CMMR and sun tracking experiments of the TER pointing mechanism on the ground were carried out successfully, which proves that the folded hoop can be deployed successfully with fairly high deploying dependability, and the TER pointing mechanism is feasible for the SSPCI from the mechanism principle and the control mode in space applications indirectly. Moreover, the tracking accuracy of the TER pointing mechanism is estimated to be within ±0.4° although the machining precision of its components is not high.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Nov 2019 15:05:01 +000
  • OTA Testing for Massive MIMO Devices Using Cascaded APM Networks and
           Channel Emulators

    • Abstract: This paper proposes an over-the-air (OTA) testing setup for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equipment using cascaded amplitude and phase modulation (APM) network and channel emulator. Compared with the existing test setup with mechanical switch, the proposed testing setup enables more accurate reconstruction of the radio channel environment under the multiprobe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup without increasing the number of channel emulators (CEs) to control the system cost. The constructed MPAC testing setup for mmWave and massive MIMO equipment is composed of an anechoic chamber, a sectored probe wall containing a number of probes, an APM network, a fading channel emulator, and a user emulator (UE). In this paper, the structural model and the performance advantages of the proposed radiated testing setup are described, and a fully connected APM network for radiated testing is more prominent than the existing switch. Moreover, the angular spectrum is selected as the performance metric for the reconstructed channel. The ability of the proposed system to reconstruct the power angular spectrum (PAS) of the target channel is studied under both static and dynamic channel models, which can reflect the performance of beamforming procedures of the massive MIMO antenna arrays, e.g., beam acquisition, tracking, and refinement. The simulation results for angular spectrum support the superiority of the proposed OTA testing setup. Furthermore, the simulations for average channel capacity also show that radiated testing setup using cascaded APM network and channel emulator is valid.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 15:05:01 +000
  • Mutual Impedance Properties in a Lossy Array Antenna

    • Abstract: The impedance matrix of an arbitrary multiport array antenna with Ohmic losses was studied. It was assumed that the partial current distributions in the array, corresponding to the alternate exciting one of its terminals while the other ones are open-circuited, are known. Consideration of the power balance in the lossy array antenna has allowed ascertaining that its impedance matrix is a sum of the radiation resistance matrix and loss resistance matrix, which are in general case complex Hermitian matrices and only in some particular cases can be real. The theoretical statements obtained are confirmed by two numerical examples, where analysis of two lossy dipole arrays was performed. In the first example, the dipoles were located above the imperfect ground, which served as a source of losses, and in the second example, the same dipoles were located in free space, and the embedded parasitic element was the source of losses. The results of the analysis showed that the asymmetric placement of energy absorbers in the array antennas leads to the appearance of imaginary parts in the matrices of radiation and loss resistances, which allow one to correctly predict the behavior of the array radiation efficiency during beam scanning.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 16:05:00 +000
  • The New C-Shaped Parasitic Strip for the Single-Feed Circularly Polarized
           (CP) Microstrip Antenna Design

    • Abstract: A new single-feed circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna with the C-shaped parasitic strip is proposed in this paper. The proposed CP antenna is designed for the transmitting terminal in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The square patch is surrounded by a C-shaped parasitic strip. By adjusting the parasitic strip dimension, the antenna CP operation is achieved. The main advantage of this method is that those two resonant modes for achieving the CP operation are independent from each other, which is liable to design and debug the proposed CP microstrip antenna. The designed CP microstrip antenna has the good impedance matching, the good CP radiation pattern, and the stable CP gain across the 3 dB AR (axial ratio) bandwidth.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:07:39 +000
  • Beamwidth-Enhanced Low-Profile Dual-Band Circular Polarized Patch Antenna
           for CNSS Applications

    • Abstract: A low-profile dual-band circular polarized (CP) patch antenna with wide half-power beamwidths (HPBWs) is presented for CNSS applications. Simple stacked circular patches are used to achieve dual-band radiation. To enhance the HPBW for the two operation bands, a dual annular parasitic metal strip (D-APMS) combined with reduced ground plane (R-GP) is presented. A single-input feed network based on the coupled line transdirectional (CL-TRD) coupler is also proposed to provide two orthogonal modes at the two frequency bands simultaneously. Experimental results show that the 10 dB impedance bandwidth is 32.7%. The 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidths for the lower and upper bands are 4.1% and 6.5%, respectively. At 1.207 GHz, the antenna has the HPBW of 123° and 103° in the xoz and yoz planes, separately. And the values are 127° and 113° at 1.561 GHz.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Nov 2019 06:05:03 +000
  • Dual-Sense Circular Polarization Antenna Based on Reconfigurable
           Orthogonal Network

    • Abstract: A novel circular polarization (CP) reconfigurable microstrip antenna is presented. The CP reconfigurable antenna is divided into three layers, composed of an annular radiating patch, ring slot, and reconfigurable orthogonal network (RON). The designed antenna is fed by dual vertical branches at the output port of the RON. By adjusting the bias voltage of the PIN switch loaded on the reconfigurable orthogonal network, the output phase can be changed, which means that the polarization direction of CP antenna is switchable. Simulation results show that the proposed feeding network provides constant phase difference and lower insertion loss for both states in the operating frequency band, thereby achieving good match and axial ratio characteristics either LHCP or RHCP state. Measured results show that the proposed antenna exhibits operational bandwidth of 1.2% with axial ratio below 3 dB and return loss above 10 dB in both polarized states. Good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Nov 2019 04:05:06 +000
  • 3D Antenna Structures Using Uniform Triangular Arrays for Efficient
           Full-Directional Multiuser Transmission

    • Abstract: In order to increase the system capacity of the 5G mobile communication system, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission techniques using a large-scale array over the millimeter-wave band have attracted a great amount of attention. To cope with various types of receivers expected in 5G communications such as user equipment (UE) in small cells, indoor Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices at diverse locations, and drones performing aerial navigation, newer types of antenna arrays require all-directional transmission capability. Existing antenna structures with typical panel arrays, however, have restrictions on their transmission angles in both horizontal and vertical directions. In this paper, we propose to employ three-dimensional (3D) array structures composed of multiple triangular panels for efficient massive MIMO transmission of the next-generation wireless systems. We analyze beamforming characteristics of a uniform triangular array (UTA) suitable for such 3D array configurations and present a basic codebook applicable to UTAs. Using antenna structures with multiple UTA panels, multiuser transmission performance is evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposal.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2019 06:05:09 +000
  • Performance Evaluation of FSO Communications under Sand-Dust Conditions

    • Abstract: Sand-dust weather conditions are considered the primary challenge to free-space optical (FSO) communications. It may cause severe attenuation that is malignant to FSO link performance. This study investigates the impact of sand-dust particles on a laser signal using the radiation propagation method and the small-angle approximation method. Numerical simulation shows that in sand-dust weather conditions, the multiple scattering effect is dominant and results in signal pulse delay and pulse broadening. Furthermore, the signal attenuation follows a negative exponential distribution to the laser wavelength. Superior performance can be achieved by employing a longer wavelength laser to reduce pulse delay and mutual interference.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 16:05:03 +000
  • A Compact CPW-Fed Low-Profile Wideband Circularly Polarized Slot Antenna
           with a Planar Ring Reflector for GNSS Applications

    • Abstract: A compact low-profile wideband circularly polarized slot antenna for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is presented. The antenna comprises a planar slot radiator with a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feed and a modified ring-shaped reflector to achieve unidirectional radiation. The modified reflector is an inner square patch with four slantly cut corners, a center ring, and an outer ring with a notch; they significantly reduce the separation between the antenna radiator and reflector and therefore the overall antenna height. The overall dimensions are λ0/3 × λ0/3 × λ0/30 (λ0 denotes the free space wavelength at lower frequency). The measured −10 dB bandwidth of |S11|, 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth, and maximum gain are of 1.53–2.28 GHz, 1.558–1.672 GHz, and 5.87 dBi, respectively. The proposed antenna is simple without any additional feeding networks or shorting probes.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 12:05:08 +000
  • Helical Slot Antenna for the Microwave Ablation

    • Abstract: In this study, a thin coaxial antenna for microwave ablation (MWA) is proposed. A helical slot is added between two slots in order to overcome the disadvantage of the radiation range extending to the unwanted part in the conventional single-slot and double-slot applicators. By adding a helical slot, the specific absorption rate (SAR) pattern is more concentrated near the slot as compared with the conventional slot. Experiments were conducted using the simulation, and a liver phantom was made and heated up using microwaves. Based on the results on the liver phantom, experiments were conducted using swine liver which is similar to human liver. Applied frequency and microwave average input power were assumed as 2.45 GHz and 50 W (47 dBm), respectively. As a result of the experiment, return loss was −23.09 dB, and the temperature reached 60°C after 90 seconds of exposition. Based on the phantom experiments of the swine liver, necrotic lesions of the tissue at a distance of 3.5–4 cm from the microwave antenna were observed.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Oct 2019 13:05:08 +000
  • Study on the Composite EM Scattering from Sea Surface with Ship Based on
           Kd-Tree Accelerated Hybrid Model

    • Abstract: A hybrid model based on the geometrical optics and physical optics (GO-PO) method and facet-based asymptotical model (FBAM) for the composite EM scattering from sea surface with ship has been previously developed. But, the GO-PO method faces a difficult problem that the lower efficiency in testing the visibility of patches to the incident and reflected waves. Hence, to improve the computation efficiency of the GO-PO method, a kd-tree accelerated hybrid model is presented in this paper. The kd-tree method firstly carries out the intersection test between the ray and the bounding box where the patch is located before the operation between the ray and the patch. If the distance parameters of the bounding box do not meet the requirement, the ray is not necessary to enter the bounding box, which can reduce the needless intersection tests. Numerical results show that the proposed kd-tree accelerated hybrid model could improve the efficiency about three times and could be applied to the study of composite EM scattering characteristics of electrically large sea surface with a ship target.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Oct 2019 09:05:05 +000
  • A Lumped-Element Decoupling and Matching Network for a Four-Element Mobile
           Handset MIMO Antenna

    • Abstract: This paper presents the first realization of a lumped-element decoupling and matching network (DMN) for more than two-element mobile MIMO arrays. The realization of the DMN is based on an existing method, which is improved in terms of bandwidth and the number of network elements. The array is designed to operate in the 2.6–2.7 GHz LTE band. The DMN is applied to a four-element MIMO antenna array located on one side of the mobile phone chassis. The array initially has a strong coupling of −3 dB, which is improved to −7 dB with the DMN. In other words, this denotes a reduction of 30 percentage points in coupled power. The DMN also improves the total efficiency by 21 percentage points at best.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 08:05:03 +000
  • Evaluation of the Trapped Surface Wave of a Vertical Electric Dipole Based
           on Undetermined Coefficient Method in the Presence of N-Layered Region: A
           Graphical Approach

    • Abstract: In previous studies, the trapped surface wave, which is defined by the residue sums, has been addressed in the evaluation of the Sommerfeld integrals describing electromagnetic field of a vertical dipole in the presence of three-layered or four-layered region. But unfortunately, the existing computational scheme cannot provide analytical solution of the field in the presence of the N-layered region when N > 4. The scope of this paper is to overcome the limitations in root finding algorithm implied by the previous approach and provide solution of poles in stratified media. A set of pole equations following with explicit expressions are derived based on the undetermined coefficient method, which enable a graphical approach to obtain initial values of real roots. Accordingly, the generated trapped surface wave components are computed when both the observation point and the electric dipole source are on or near the surface of a dielectric-coated conductor. Validity, efficiency, and accuracy of the proposed method are illustrated by numerical examples.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 00:06:25 +000
  • A General 3D Nonstationary Vehicle-to-Vehicle Channel Model Allowing 3D
           Arbitrary Trajectory and 3D-Shaped Antenna Array

    • Abstract: Most of the existing channel model for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications only considered that the terminals were equipped with linear antenna arrays and moved with fixed velocities. Nevertheless, under the realistic environment, those models are not practical since the velocities and trajectories of mobile transmitter (MT) and mobile receiver (MR) could be time-variant and unpredictable due to the complex traffic conditions. This paper develops a general 3D nonstationary V2V channel model, which is based on the traditional geometry-based stochastic models (GBSMs) and the twin-cluster approach. In contrast to the traditional models, this new model is characterized by 3D scattering environments, 3D antenna arrays, and 3D arbitrary trajectories of both terminals and scatterers. The calculating methods of channel parameters are also provided. In addition, the statistical properties, i.e., spatial-temporal correlation function (STCF) and Doppler power spectrum density (DPSD), are derived in detail. Simulation results have demonstrated that the output statistical properties of the proposed model agree well with the theoretical and measured results, which verifies the effectiveness of theoretical derivations and channel model as well.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 00:06:23 +000
  • Triband Operation Enhancement Based on Multimode Analytics of Modified
           Rhombic Ring Structure with Fractal Ring Parasitic

    • Abstract: This paper presents a triband operation enhancement based on multimode analytics of a monopole antenna designed by combining a rhombic ring radiator with a strip on a top layer and a fractal ring resonator placed at the bottom layer. The proposed antenna can achieve triband operation to support the modern wireless communication systems. The antenna size is approximately 36 × 52 mm2, which is quite compacted compared with the revised antenna. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement. The antenna covers the operating bands at 22.22%, 9.8%, and 31.27% at the resonant frequencies of 1.8 GHz, 2.45 GHz, and 3.71 GHz, respectively, to support the application bands of LTE 1800, WLAN IEEE802.11b/g, WiMAX, and IMT Advanced Systems (5G). The average gain of the antenna is about 2 dBi. Also, the radiation patterns are omnidirectional for all operating frequencies.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 13:05:02 +000
  • Reflector-Backed Antenna for UWB Medical Applications with On-Body

    • Abstract: A recent reflector-backed antenna model is proposed in this paper for wireless capsule endoscopy localization. The antenna is designed to operate at the lowest 802.15.6 mandatory UWB (ultrawideband) channel, i.e., 4 GHz center frequency with 500 MHz bandwidth. The antenna achieves a good directivity and radiates well over the frequency band of interest. The proposed antenna was constructed within three successive steps. Initially, a planar omnidirectional antenna was designed of 3.15 dBi gain at 4 GHz. Since the antenna aims to operate as a receiving antenna, good directivity is preferred. Thus, an air-filled cavity was included backing the planar antenna to bolster the directivity toward the radiating element. The cavity-backed antenna has a measured gain of 6.4 dBi. The antenna was evaluated next to the homogenous and multilayer models. Then, the antenna design was optimized, by reducing its size, to a reflector-backed antenna structure reaching a maximum gain of 5.3 dBi, which is still promising for the regarded application. The body effect on the antenna matching was evaluated by means of multilayer and voxel models simulating the human body. This was followed by on-body measurements involving real subject. The depth of in-body propagation, from skin to small intestine, was studied using the multilayer and voxel models. Simulations were run using the CST Microwave Studio tool. While prototyping, free-space and on-body measurements took place at University of Oulu, Finland.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:07:10 +000
  • Compact Wideband Circularly Polarized Antenna with Symmetric Parasitic
           Rectangular Patches for Ka-Band Applications

    • Abstract: In this paper, a novel wideband circularly polarized (CP) millimeter wave (mmWave) microstrip antenna is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a central patch and a microstrip line radiator. The CP radiation is achieved by loading a rectangular slot on the ground plane. To improve the 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW), two symmetric parasitic rectangular patches paralleled to a central patch and a slit positioned to the right of the central patch are loaded. To verify this design, the proposed antenna is fabricated with a small antenna of 2.88  3.32  0.508 . The measured impedance bandwidth (IMBW) for of the proposed antenna is 35.97% (22.8 to 33.8 GHz). Meanwhile, the simulation result shows that the 3-dB ARBW is 15.19% (28.77 to 33.5 GHz) within impedance bandwidth, and the peak gain is from 5.08 to 5.22 dBic within 3-dB ARBW. The proposed antenna is suitable for CP applications in the Ka-band.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:07:08 +000
  • DOA Estimation for Highly Correlated and Coherent Multipath Signals with
           Ultralow SNRs

    • Abstract: In a typical multipath propagation environment, there exists a strong direct path signal accompanying with several weak multipath signals. Due to the strong direct path interference and other masking effects, the Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) of a weak multipath signal is hard to be estimated. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to estimate the DOA of multipath signals with ultralow signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The main idea is to increase the SNR and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of the desired multipath signal in time-delay domain before DOA estimation processing. Firstly, the cross-correlation functions of the direct path signal and the received array signal are calculated. Then, they are combined and constructed to an enhanced array signal. Under certain conditions, the SNR and SIR of the desired signal can be significantly increased. Finally, the DOAs of multipath signals can be estimated by conventional technologies, and the associated time delays can be measured on the DOA-time-shift map. The SNR and SIR gains of the desired signal are analyzed theoretically, and theoretical analysis also indicates that the Cramer–Rao bound can be reduced. Simulation examples are presented to verify the advantages of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:07:07 +000
  • A Sparse Representation Method for Coherent Sources Angle Estimation with
           Uniform Circular Array

    • Abstract: Coherent source localization is a common problem in signal processing. In this paper, a sparse representation method is considered to deal with two-dimensional (2D) direction of arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent sources with a uniform circular array (UCA). Considering that objective function requires sparsity in the spatial dimension but does not require sparsity in time, singular value decomposition (SVD) is employed to reduce computational complexity and norm is utilized to renew objective function. After the new objective function is constructed to evaluate residual and sparsity, a second-order cone (SOC) programming is employed to solve convex optimization problem and obtain 2D spatial spectrum. Simulations show that the proposed method can deal with the case of coherent source localization, which has higher resolution than 2D MUSIC method and does not need to estimate the number of coherent sources in advance.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:07:05 +000
  • Wideband Omnidirectional Slotted-Waveguide Antenna Array Based on
           Trapezoidal Slots

    • Abstract: This manuscript presents a novel approach for designing wideband omnidirectional slotted-waveguide antenna arrays, which is based on trapezoidal-shaped slots with two different electrical lengths, as well as a twisted distribution of slot groups along the array longitudinal axis. The trapezoidal section is formed by gradually increasing the slot length between the waveguide interior and exterior surfaces. In this way, a smoother impedance transition between waveguide and air is provided in order to enhance the array operating bandwidth. In addition, we propose a twisting technique, responsible to improve the omnidirectional pattern, by means of reducing the gain ripple in the azimuth plane. Experimental results demonstrate 1.09 GHz bandwidth centered at 24 GHz (4.54% fractional bandwidth), gain up to 14.71 dBi over the operating bandwidth, and only 2.7 dB gain variation in the azimuth plane. The proposed antenna array and its enabling techniques present themselves as promising solutions for mm-wave application, including 5G enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) communications.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:07:03 +000
  • DOA Estimation of Two-Dimensional Coherently Distributed Sources Based on
           Spatial Smoothing of Uniform Rectangular Arrays

    • Abstract: Aiming at the direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of two-dimensional (2D) coherently distributed (CD) sources which are coherent with each other, we explore the propagator method based on spatial smoothing of a uniform rectangular array (URA). The rotational invariance relationships with respect to the nominal azimuth and nominal elevation are obtained under the small angular spreads assumption. A propagator operator is constructed through spatial smoothing of sample covariance matrices firstly. Then, combination of propagator and identical matrix is divided according to rotational operators, and the nominal angles can be obtained through eigendecomposition lastly. Realizing angle matching automatically, the proposed method can estimate multiple DOAs of 2D coherent CD sources without spectral peak searching and prior knowledge of deterministic angular signal distribution function. Simulations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Oct 2019 03:05:00 +000
  • RFID Double-Loop Tags with Novel Meandering Lines Design for Health
           Monitoring Application

    • Abstract: In this paper, we propose a design of two compact and miniaturized RFID epidermal tags in the UHF band for health monitoring applications. The two conceptions of meandered double-loop antennas with T-match configuration, namely, a double-loop antenna with meandered line in the horizontal direction and a double-loop antenna with meandered lines in two directions, are placed at very close distance from the human body. The proposed tags are composed of bio-silicone substrate, to protect the human skin from the electromagnetic waves, and a copper conductor loaded by T-match configuration, to suit the complex impedance of the antenna to that of the chip. We have performed numerical simulations of these conceptions of two tags using the HFSS and CST solvers. Our results show two optimal sizes with a high communication performance, good matching features, and a large read range. We placed afterwards these two optimized tags in an elliptical environment to test their flexibility and examine their performance on different parts of the human body.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Oct 2019 13:05:01 +000
  • Low-Cost Air Gap Metasurface Structure for High Absorption Efficiency
           Energy Harvesting

    • Abstract: This manuscript deals with the design of a metamaterial-based surface structure for high efficiency wireless power harvesting or collection. Differently from the previously presented structures which require the use of thicker and low-loss (and for this reason high cost) dielectric substrates, the presented work employs a dual-layer structure with a thin low-loss material and an air gap; they allow for the design of very high absorption efficiency metamaterial-based surfaces, with noticeably reduced costs. Furthermore, the air gap thickness can be used as a new degree-of-freedom (more easily adjustable than the thickness of a single-layer structure) for the optimization of other design requirements such as bandwidth or structure sizes. In comparison with other existing designs, the proposed metasurface shows a comparable absorption efficiency of 84.4% but with a larger power collection surface and lower costs.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Sep 2019 11:05:00 +000
  • An Efficient Laguerre-Based FDTD Iterative Algorithm in 3D Cylindrical
           Coordinate System

    • Abstract: Here an efficient Laguerre-based finite-difference time-domain iterative algorithm is proposed. Different from the previously developed iterative procedure used in the efficient FDTD algorithm, a new perturbation term combined with the Gauss–Seidel iterative procedure is introduced to form the new Laguerre-based FDTD algorithm in the 3D cylindrical coordinate system. Such a treatment scheme can reduce the splitting error to a low level and obtain a good convergence; in other words, it can improve the efficiency and accuracy than other algorithms. To verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, two scattering numerical examples are given. The computation results show that the proposed algorithm can be better than the ADI-FDTD algorithm in terms of efficiency and accuracy. Meanwhile, the proposed algorithm is extremely useful for the problems with fine structures in the 3D cylindrical coordinate system.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Sep 2019 07:05:09 +000
  • A Central Symmetrical and Low-Profile Omnidirectional Circularly Polarized

    • Abstract: In this paper, a compact circularly polarized (CP) antenna with omnidirectional radiation is presented, which has a central symmetric configuration (CSC) and planar structure. It consists of three identical end-fire CP antenna units. Based on the combination of two parallel complementary current sources, each unit cell can be realized by a scalloped cavity and a couple of curved strip lines. Due to a single-layer circular structure with low profile, this configuration can be excited by a coaxial probe in the centre of the whole frame simultaneously. In addition, this prototype was miniaturized with a diameter of 32 mm (0.266, the wavelength of the centre frequency in free space is represented by) and a height of 1.5 mm (0.012). Centre resonance frequency 2.492 GHz is selected, resulting in an omnidirectional radiation and impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤ 2) of 25 MHz (2481–2506 MHz).
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Sep 2019 04:05:02 +000
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