Abstract: The aim of the research is to propose a new optimization method for the multiconstrained optimization of sparse linear arrays (including the constraints of the number of elements, the aperture of arrays, and the minimum distance between adjacent elements). The new method is a modified wolf pack optimization algorithm based on the quantum theory. In the new method, wolves are coded by Bloch spherical coordinates of quantum bits, updated by quantum revolving gates, and selectively adaptively mutated when performing poorly. Because of the three-coordinate characteristics of the sphere, the number of global optimum solutions is greatly expanded and ultimately can be searched with a higher probability. Selective mutation enhances the robustness of the algorithm and improves the search speed. Furthermore, because the size of each dimension of Bloch spherical coordinates is always [−1, 1], the variables transformed by solution space must satisfy the constraints of the aperture of arrays and the minimum distance between adjacent elements, which effectively avoids infallible solutions in the process of updating and mutating the position of the wolf group, reduces the judgment steps, and improves the efficiency of optimization. The validity and robustness of the proposed method are verified by the simulation of two typical examples, and the optimization efficiency of the proposed method is higher than the existing methods. PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 07:35:05 +000

Abstract: The material parameters of a metamaterial (MTM) are determined by the transformation function used in the optical transformation. Some previously reported MTMs, such as the invisibility cloak, the field rotator, and the field concentrator, were designed by a linear transformation. Their impedance was matched to the background so that no reflection was found; however, the material parameters were mismatched to the background due to the linear transformation function. In the present work, the parameters were matched by using high-order polynomial functions as the transformation function. Since similar materials are filled in boundary cells of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm, the stair-casing error was reduced and the tolerance against boundary abrasion was increased. The frequency response of the proposed method was analyzed. The proposed method is applicable to MTM structures that have complex boundary shapes. In this work, circular and elliptic boundary shapes were considered as examples. PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 07:35:04 +000

Abstract: Electric fields radiated by cloud flashes that occurred over the rugged terrain of mountainous country Nepal were recorded, analysed, and compared with those from different geographical regions. The total duration of the flash varies from 80 to 469.5 ms. The majority of the cloud flashes were of two stages: the first stage of the majority of the flashes was found to consist of large microsecond scale bipolar pulses having negative initial polarity and the late stage consists of submicrosecond scale pulses having both positive and negative initial polarities. The average durations of the first and second stages are 11.23 and 66.79 ms, respectively, and the time gap between them is 53.57 ms. The cloud pulses led by the negative initial polarity pulses are more compactly distributed and are higher in mountainous countries as compared to those of flashes lead by positive initial polarity pulses, with the average values of interpulse interval being 211.42 and 309.79 μs, respectively. PubDate: Fri, 10 Jan 2020 13:35:03 +000

Abstract: A novel two-iteration binary tree fractal bionic structure antenna is proposed for the third generation (3G), fourth generation (4G), WLAN, and Bluetooth wireless applications in the paper, which is based on the principles of conventional microstrip monopole antenna and resonant coupling technique, combined with the advantages of fractal geometry. A new fractal structure was presented for antenna radiator, similar to the tree in nature. The proposed antenna adapted two iterations on a fractal structure radiator, which covers mobile applications in two broad frequency bands with a bandwidth of 44.2% (1.85–2.9 GHz) for TD-SCDMA, WCDMA, CDMA2000, LTE33-41, and Bluetooth frequency bands, and 11.5% (4.9–5.5 GHz) for WLAN frequency band. The proposed antenna was fabricated on a G10/FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4 and a size of 50 × 40 mm2. The good agreement between the measurement results and the simulation results validate that the proposed design approach meet the requirements for various wireless applications. PubDate: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 14:35:04 +000

Abstract: A novel low-profile dual-polarization frequency-selective rasorber (FSR) with a transmissive window in the absorption band is proposed in this paper. Based on the equivalent circuit model (ECM), the principles of the impedance design are theoretically derived. Then, a two-layer structure model is constructed. The top layer is composed of a lossy three-legged loaded element (TLLE), and the bottom layer is composed of a square ring bandpass frequency-selective surface (FSS). Furthermore, the strips are folded to reduce the unit cell size to stabilize the angular response. The maximum stable response angle increases from 20 to 40° due to the miniaturized design under both TE and TM polarization. The experimental results of the prototype are in good agreement with the simulation results, which validates the rationality of our design. PubDate: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 12:35:04 +000

Abstract: Directional modulation (DM) has become a new research hotspot of physical layer security (PLS) communication at the transmitter side. In this paper, we propose a robust synthesis algorithm for DM signal under the condition of the array manifold vectors perturbation. This algorithm optimizes the constraints of sidelobe level and Euclidean distance of constellation points by considering the worst case performance of array manifold vectors. Furthermore, we also design an active constellation extension (ACE) method to relax the equality constraint of desired modulation symbols into a robust inequality constraint at the desired direction. These constraints can be reformulated in a convex form with and regularization, which are computationally tractable. Simulation results show better performance of the proposed robust algorithm compared with the benchmark synthesis algorithms in the presence of array manifold vectors uncertainty. PubDate: Wed, 08 Jan 2020 14:05:01 +000

Abstract: In this paper, global position system high-resolution sounding data from 1998 to 2008 were used to statistically analyze the spatiotemporal distribution and determine the probability, thickness, and intensity of atmospheric ducts at 12 stations in Alaska. In addition, the singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to examine the relationship between the Arctic vortex and atmospheric ducts. The annual average probability of atmospheric ducts, primarily surface and elevation ducts, was approximately 30% in Alaska. The probability of elevation ducts was greater than that of surface ducts. The Arctic vortex area and intensity index of each subarea were significantly negatively correlated with the occurrence of atmospheric ducts. Thus, when the area of the Arctic vortex increased and the intensity index of each subarea strengthened, the probability of atmospheric ducts decreased and their characteristics weakened. PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 08:50:05 +000

Abstract: The Direction-of-Arrival (DoA) and bandwidth (BW) estimation strategy impinging on a linear array using multiple snapshots data is addressed within the multitask Bayesian Compressive Sensing (MT-BCS). The DoA estimation is used as the reconstruction of sparse signal constrained by the Laplace prior through multitask Bayesian Compressive Sensing. Receiving wideband signal data through linear array, the space is divided into I parts according to the equal interval. The data of interest are assumed to be represented as I-dimensional vector, and the wideband signal can be reconstructed accurately using only a small number M. The receiving antenna operates in the frequency range . Starting from the voltages measured at the output of the array elements at a multiple time instants at , the retrieval of the DoAs is addressed by means of a customized strategy based on MT-BCS in order to correlate the solutions obtained over different frequency samples. The bandwidth of the signals is obtained as a byproduct by identifying at which frequencies the MT-BCS estimations include a signal along the ith (i = 1,…, I) sampling direction. From the outputs of different frequencies, we can know the DoA and BW of signals. A preliminary numerical result is reported to show the behavior of the proposed approach in multiple snapshots data. PubDate: Mon, 06 Jan 2020 15:05:02 +000

Abstract: A 2 × 2 MIMO antenna for metal-housing mobile handset application is proposed in this article. The polarization diversity is used to arrange the two antennas’ setup. The asymmetric U-shaped nonuniform slot antenna provides two different resonant bands are designed to be operated in long term evolution (LTE) covers lower band (698 MHz to 960 MHz) and upper band (1710 MHz to 2700 MHz). The modified type III balun is used for upper-operating band, and the open stub is used for lower-operating band, good impedance bandwidth, and radiated pattern and efficiency are shown. The isolation (S21) between the antennas is more than 20 dB, and the envelope correlation coefficient (ECC) is less than 0.02. A prototype of the proposed antenna chiselling in the metal-housing mobile handset (with 160 mm in length, 10 mm in height, and 70 mm in width) is fabricated and experimentally studied. PubDate: Sat, 28 Dec 2019 12:20:00 +000

Abstract: This paper addresses the issues of low bandwidth, gain, and efficiency of miniaturized microwave antennas by proposing a novel wideband dual-frequency coplanar waveguide antenna design based on a simplified composite right/left-handed (SCRLH) transmission line structure with Hilbert curve loading. The multifrequency characteristics of the SCRLH transmission line structure are evaluated theoretically, and the antenna parameters promoting bandwidth broadening under zeroth-order resonance (ZOR) and first-order resonance (FOR) mode operation are evaluated. The bandwidth broadening in the ZOR and FOR modes is accordingly revealed to be independent of the antenna length, and the structure therefore facilitates wideband operation under miniaturization. Finally, the dual-frequency ZOR and FOR mode antenna design with center frequencies of f0 = 1.865 GHz and f1 = 2.835 GHz is validated via simulation, and the performance of a compact prototype antenna is evaluated experimentally. The −10 dB return loss bandwidths at f0 and f1 are 187 MHz (from 1.773 GHz to 1.96 GHz) and 368 MHz (from 3.002 GHz to 3.37 GHz), and the corresponding relative bandwidths are 10.1% and 11.5%, respectively. The experimentally measured peak gains and radiation efficiencies at f0 are 1.54 dB and 81.3%, respectively, and those at f1 are 1.71 dB and 74.2%, respectively. PubDate: Fri, 27 Dec 2019 15:35:06 +000

Abstract: In this paper, the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is introduced to the channel multipath clustering. In the GMM field, the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is usually utilized to estimate the model parameters. However, the EM widely converges into local optimization. To address this issue, a hybrid differential evolution (DE) and EM (DE-EM) algorithms are proposed in this paper. To be specific, the DE is employed to initialize the GMM parameters. Then, the parameters are estimated with the EM algorithm. Thanks to the global searching ability of DE, the proposed hybrid DE-EM algorithm is more likely to obtain the global optimization. Simulations demonstrate that our proposed DE-EM clustering algorithm can significantly improve the clustering performance. PubDate: Fri, 27 Dec 2019 15:35:05 +000

Abstract: Due to the difficulties in actual measurement of sea clutter and uncertainties of experimental data, the electromagnetic (EM) scattering model becomes a better alternative means to acquire the sea clutter. However, the EM scattering model still faces the problems of huge memory consumption and low-computational efficiency when dealing with the large size of sea surface or the long time case. Thus, this paper presents a statistical model to simulate the temporal-spatial correlated three-dimensional (3D) sea clutter, which is based on the statistical properties obtained from the EM scattering model, such as probability density function and correlation function. The comparisons show that the texture feature, autocorrelation function, and PDF of the sea clutter simulated by the statistical model have a good agreement with the results given by the EM model. Furthermore, the statistical model is with high efficiency and can be used to simulate the large scene or long time temporal-spatial correlated 3D sea clutter. PubDate: Tue, 24 Dec 2019 13:50:00 +000

Abstract: We address the two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (2-D DOA) estimation problem for L-shaped uniform linear array (ULA) using two kinds of approaches represented by the subspace-like method and the sparse reconstruction method. Particular interest emphasizes on exploiting the generalized conjugate symmetry property of L-shaped ULA to maximize the virtual array aperture for two kinds of approaches. The subspace-like method develops the rotational invariance property of the full virtual received data model by introducing two azimuths and two elevation selection matrices. As a consequence, the problem to estimate azimuths represented by an eigenvalue matrix can be first solved by applying the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) to a known nonsingular matrix, and the angles pairing is automatically implemented via the associate eigenvector. For the sparse reconstruction method, first, we give a lemma to verify that the received data model is equivalent to its dictionary-based sparse representation under certain mild conditions, and the uniqueness of solutions is guaranteed by assuming azimuth and elevation indices to lie on different rows and columns of sparse signal cross-correlation matrix; we then derive two kinds of data models to reconstruct sparse 2-D DOA via M-FOCUSS with and without compressive sensing (CS) involvements; finally, the numerical simulations validate the proposed approaches outperform the existing methods at a low or moderate complexity cost. PubDate: Tue, 24 Dec 2019 13:05:00 +000

Abstract: This paper presents the design of nose-cone conformal substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) slot array antenna for modern radar applications. Firstly, the wave propagation characteristics have been investigated in doubly curved SIW, and it has been observed that they are non-uniform along the longitudinal direction of nose-cone conformal SIW. To ensure the constant wave propagation along the length of conformal SIW, the conventional design of SIW is reformulated for nose-cone conformal SIW and circuit model modification has been demonstrated. Secondly, the procedure for designing a SIW-based array on curved surfaces has been developed. In the proposed design, rectangular waveguide (RWG) to SIW feeding structure has been used to avoid spurious radiations. Finally, 1 × 6 element-based nose-cone conformal slotted array has been designed and compared with planar and cylindrical conformal arrays. It has been observed from the results that the nose-cone conformal slot array offers low sidelobe levels (SLLs) and high gain. For the validation of the proposed design, the conformal slotted array has been fabricated and measured, which exhibited a reasonable agreement between the measured and the simulated data. PubDate: Mon, 23 Dec 2019 12:05:00 +000

Abstract: In this paper, fitness-associated differential evolution (FITDE) algorithm is proposed and applied to the synthesis of sparse concentric ring arrays under constraint conditions, whose goal is to reduce peak sidelobe level. In unmodified differential evolution (DE) algorithm, crossover probability is constant and remains unchanged during the whole optimization process, resulting in the negative effect on the population diversity and convergence speed. Therefore, FITDE is proposed where crossover probability can change according to certain information. Firstly, the population fitness variance is introduced to the traditional differential evolution algorithm to adjust the constant crossover probability dynamically. The fitness variance in the earlier iterations is relatively large. Under this circumstance, the corresponding crossover probability shall be small to speed up the exploration process. As the iteration progresses, the fitness variance becomes small on the whole and the crossover probability should be set large to enrich population diversity. Thereby, we construct three variation strategies of crossover probability according to the above changing trend. Secondly, FITDE is tested on benchmark functions, and the best one of the three strategies is determined according to the test results. Finally, sparse concentric ring arrays are optimized using FITDE, of which the results are compared with reference algorithms. The optimization results manifest the advantageous effectiveness of FITDE. PubDate: Sat, 21 Dec 2019 03:05:02 +000

Abstract: In this paper, a novel design of compact microstrip antenna (MA) using an embedded λ/4 resonator is presented. By utilizing the strong coupling between the λ/4 resonator and the radiation patch of MA, the resonant frequency of MA can be decreased. Besides, the λ/4 resonator is embedded in the patch, which does not enlarge the whole size of MA. Therefore, a compact antenna can be realized. In this paper, after the principle is stated, a sample antenna has been manufactured and measured to prove the predicted characteristics of our proposed antenna. The measurement agrees well with the simulation. Hence, the proposed method in this paper is quite suitable for the design of a compact antenna. PubDate: Sat, 21 Dec 2019 03:05:01 +000

Abstract: This paper presents a novel dual-band circularly polarized patch antenna for precise satellite navigation. The radiation elements are composed of the inner cross-shaped patch and the outer annular patch which are printed on the same surface of one substrate. Two patches work in different bands, respectively, and emit dual-band circularly polarized radiation. In order to obtain a more compact antenna to meet the application of precise satellite navigation, we vertically place four metal cylinders under the ends of the cross-shaped patch to form four capacitive loadings to lower the resonant frequency of the inner cross-shaped patch. A capacitive coupling feed structure is used to match the input impedance of a patch antenna and make the antenna compact enough. The simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna can produce appropriate dual-band circularly polarized radiation patterns for precise satellite navigation. The measured results of the antenna illustrate that maximum RHCP gain of the antenna is 4.72 dBi in the low band and 3.98 dBi in the high band, the 3 dB gain bandwidth is 70 MHz in the low band and 65 MHz in the high band. PubDate: Fri, 20 Dec 2019 02:50:02 +000

Abstract: A design of 38 GHz planar phased patch array with sidelobe suppression for data-rate enhancement is proposed in the paper. The proposed array is formed of three 24-element subarrays of patches. Each patch has its own transmit/receive modules (TRM) consisting of a digitally controlled attenuator and phase shifter. In order to achieve high data-rate communications, the noise, especially due to the undesired signals received from the sidelobes, should be reduced with high sidelobe suppression of subarray. The sidelobe suppression of the proposed subarray is first improved to 17.92 dB with a diamond-shaped aperture and then better than 35 dB with a tapered radiation power distribution. The excellent sidelobe suppression of the antenna array is essential for the beam-division multiplexing applications when the signal sources are close to each other. The proposed design is validated experimentally, including the data-rate measurements showing that the 7 Gbps data transmission can be achieved with sufficient sidelobe suppression of the proposed design. PubDate: Fri, 20 Dec 2019 02:50:01 +000

Abstract: This paper designs a vertically polarized, horizontal, omnidirectional vehicle antenna for the mobile communication band, covering the available frequency bands of the wireless sensor network and 5G. The antenna is composed of semi-T monopole and semicone monopole, which are placed vertically on the metal plate, especially suitable for being mounted on top of a car. T-branch mainly works at low frequency, and cone branch mainly works at high frequency. The cone branch adopts tapered structure in order to improve the impedance matching of antenna and increase the bandwidth of antenna. The antenna can be miniaturized by cutting the antenna in half. The operating frequencies of the antenna are 770 MHz–1000 MHz and 1.7 GHz–3.78 GHz which can cover multiple wireless system bands, including GSM, LTE, and 5G. PubDate: Mon, 16 Dec 2019 05:50:02 +000

Abstract: The horizontal electric field from the lightning return-stroke channel is evaluated by the electromagnetic field equations of moving charges in this paper. When a lightning flash strikes the ground, the charges move upward the lightning channel at the return-stroke speed, thereby producing the electromagnetic fields. According to the electromagnetic field equations of moving charges, the detained charges, uniformly moving charges, and decelerating (or accelerating) charges in each segment of the channel generate electrostatic fields, velocity fields, and radiation fields, respectively. The horizontal component of the sum is the horizontal electric field over the perfectly conducting ground. For the real soil with finite conductivity, the Wait formula is used here for the evaluation of the horizontal electric field over the realistic soil. The proposed method can avoid the oscillation of the fields in the long distance by the FDTD method and the singularity problem of the integral equation by the Sommerfeld integral method. The influences of the return-stroke speed, distance, and soil conductivity on the horizontal electric field are also analyzed by the proposed method. The conclusions can be drawn that the horizontal electric field decreases with the increasing of the return-stroke speed; the negative offset increases with the increasing of horizontal distance and with the decreasing of the soil conductivity, thereby forming the bipolar waveform. These conclusions will be practically valuable for the protection of lightning-induced overvoltage on the transmission lines. PubDate: Sat, 14 Dec 2019 02:50:00 +000

Abstract: The growing demand for new products that rely on the accurate identification of a target’s location indoors, while remaining mindful of cost, continues to drive research in this important and challenging area. Researchers are actively pursuing algorithmic improvements to eliminate errors introduced from complex interference factors present in indoor, wireless communication environments. In this work, we adopt a differential signal strength method in the design of our new indoor localization algorithm. The proposed algorithm reduces errors in the time domain by smoothing out the wireless signal fluctuations, thus stabilizing the signal; a single exponential algorithm is applied to the signal strength parameters collected to accomplish this. The target’s position is then computed by utilizing both the plane geometric method and difference localization theory. This combination of techniques is reasonable for the environment under consideration (small scale, wireless), as the multipath effects for the signal are approximately equal under these conditions. In addition, the proposed approach is compatible with a wide variety of technologies (e.g., RFID and Bluetooth); it can be cost-effectively deployed by leveraging an existing hardware infrastructure. The proposed approach has been implemented and experimentally validated. The test results are very promising: they indicate that our algorithm improves the positioning accuracy by 70%–80% in comparison with the trilateration and LANDMARC positioning algorithms. PubDate: Fri, 13 Dec 2019 15:05:02 +000

Abstract: Heuristic algorithms are considered to be effective approaches for super-resolution DOA estimations such as Deterministic Maximum Likelihood (DML), Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML), and Weighted Subspace Fitting (WSF) which are involved in nonlinear multi-dimensional optimization. Traditional heuristic algorithms usually need a large number of particles and iteration times. As a result, the computational complexity is still a bit high, which prevents the application of these super-resolution techniques in real systems. To reduce the computational complexity of heuristic algorithms for these super-resolution techniques of DOA, this paper proposes three general improvements of heuristic algorithms, i.e., the optimization of the initialization space, the optimization of evolutionary strategies, and the usage of parallel computing techniques. Simulation results show that the computational complexity can be greatly reduced while these improvements are used. PubDate: Wed, 11 Dec 2019 12:35:00 +000

Abstract: A band-selective power divider is demonstrated for the first time. By replacing lumped element right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) transmission lines (TL) in a conventional Wilkinson power divider, it is possible to achieve both power division and filtering simultaneously. By utilizing the positive phase propagation property of an RHTL, which works as a low-pass filter, and the negative phase propagation property of an LHTL, which works as a high-pass filter, the band-selective quarter-wave sections required to construct a Wilkinson power divider are implemented. The fabricated circuit shows an insertion loss in the range 1.7 dB–2.5 dB in the passband, with the circuit dimensions of merely 12 mm by 10 mm. PubDate: Fri, 06 Dec 2019 03:50:15 +000

Abstract: This paper considers the long-time coherent detection problem for maneuvering targets with jerk motion. A novel method based on product-scaled integrated cubic phase function (PSICPF) is proposed. The main strategy of PSICPF is to estimate target’s motion parameters along the slow time for each range frequency cell. In order to eliminate the coupling terms between range frequency and slow time, the scaled nonuniform fast Fourier transform (SNUFFT) is newly defined in the integrated cubic phase function (ICPF). Then, the product operation is employed to coherently synthesize the estimation results, improve the antinoise performance, and suppress the cross terms. Finally, coherent integration is achieved via keystone transform (KT) and fold factor searching. Analysis demonstrates that the SNUFFT has the same computational complexity with nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT), and thus the PSICPF could be efficiently implemented via complex multiplications, the fast Fourier transform (FFT), and NUFFT. Detailed comparisons with other representative methods in computational cost, motion parameter estimation performance, and detection ability indicate that the PSICPF could achieve a good balance between the computational cost and detection ability. Simulations and real data processing results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. PubDate: Thu, 05 Dec 2019 05:05:00 +000

Abstract: This paper proposes a new Butler matrix topology. The proposed Butler matrix consists of only four couplers without phase shifters and crossovers. The output phase difference is relatively flexible. Compared with the phase differences (±45° and ±135°) generated by the conventional Butler matrix, the proposed design can generate different sets of phase differences, which can be realized from −180° to 180°. The proposed new Butler matrix replaces the traditional 90° coupler with arbitrary phase-difference couplers. In this paper, closed-form design equations are derived and presented. A 4 × 4 Butler matrix with output phase differences of −30°, +150°, −120°, and +60° is designed according to equations. The 4 × 4 Butler is meant to operate at 2 GHz. The simulation results show that the amplitude unbalance is less than 0.1 dB, the phase mismatch is within 1°, the return loss is higher than 29 dB, and the isolation is higher than 32 dB. PubDate: Wed, 04 Dec 2019 04:20:05 +000

Abstract: In this paper, an estimation algorithm for the position and velocity of a moving target in a multistatic radar system is investigated. Estimation accuracy is improved by using bistatic range (BR), time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA), and Doppler shifts. Multistatic radar system includes several independent receivers and transmitters of time synchronization. Different transmitters radiate signals of different frequencies, and receivers detect the Doppler shifts of the received signals. These estimation parameters, BR, TDOA, and Doppler shifts, are readily available. The proposed algorithm combines different estimated parameters and optimizes estimation accuracy by two-step weighted least squares minimisations (WLS). This estimation algorithm is analysed and verified by simulations, which can reach the Cramer–Rao lower bound (CRLB) performance under mild Gaussian noise when the measurement error is small. Numerical simulations also demonstrate the superior performance of this method. PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 06:05:08 +000

Abstract: In this study, the authors propose a novel precompression processing (PCP) of the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm based on a regulator factor. The novelty of the PCP algorithm is that the compressed input signals vary from each other on different components at each iteration. The input signal of the improved LMS algorithm is precompressed based on the regulator factor. The precompressed input signal is not only related to the regulator factor α and the current value of the input signal at each iteration but also related to the amplitude of the input signal before this iteration. The improved algorithm can eliminate the influence of input signal mutation on the filter performance. In the numerical simulations, we compare the improved LMS algorithm and NLMS algorithm in the cases of normal input signal and input signal with mutation and the influence of different regulator factors on the noise elimination. Results show that the PCP algorithm has good noise elimination effect when the input signal changes abruptly and the regulator factor α = 0.01 can meet the requirements. PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 04:05:05 +000

Abstract: In this paper, a compact, wideband, and high-efficiency substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding cavity-backed aperture-coupled magneto-electric (ME) dipole antenna element and its array are proposed. Firstly, an SIW cavity-backed and a modified bowtie dipole are designed for the antenna element which makes it possess a high gain and wide impedance bandwidth. The antenna element covers an impedance bandwidth of 66.3% from 10.7 to 21.3 GHz with a peak gain of 10.3 dBi. Secondly, a 4 × 4 array is designed using the proposed antenna element. And a full-corporate substrate integrated waveguide feeding network is introduced to excite the array elements for the antenna application with wide bandwidth and high efficiency. For validation, a prototype of 4 × 4 array is fabricated by standard printed circuit board (PCB) facilities and further measured. The measured −10 dB impedance bandwidth of the proposed 4 × 4 antenna array is 30% (12.75–17.25 GHz) with its gain being 18.2–20.9 dBi within the entire band. The measured maximum aperture efficiency of the antenna array is 94% at 14.92 GHz. Notably, the measured results agree well with simulations, and it shows great advantages over other similar antennas on efficiency and bandwidth. PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 12:05:10 +000

Abstract: Variable thickness design is capable of yielding excellent electromagnetic (EM) performance for streamlined airborne radomes. The traditional optimization method using evolutionary computation (EC) techniques can yield variable thickness radome (VTR) design with optimal EM performance but uncontrollable thickness profile, leading to manufacturing difficulties. Thickness profile design based on average incident angle is an efficient way for VTR design with smooth thickness profile, whereas the boresight error (BSE) is relatively large. In this work, insertion phase delay (IPD) correction is introduced in the efficient thickness profile design process to realize a better balance between EM performance and thickness profile smoothness of airborne radomes. The thickness profile obtained from average incident angle is adjusted for IPD distribution symmetry with respect to the antenna axis under scan angles with large BSE. Results indicate that the proposed method can effectively improve the BSE characteristics at the expense of slight deterioration of computational efficiency and thickness profile smoothness. PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 11:05:02 +000

Abstract: The combination of a solar array and a communication antenna can reduce the entire mass, physical size, and cost in space applications. Currently, related studies mainly focus on the combination of the two structures on the one flat plate structure (FPS). Compared with the FPS, a paraboloid structure has a lower surface density and higher conversion efficiency. Therefore, a novel space large deployable paraboloid structure with power and communication integration (SSPCI) is proposed and designed in detail, for spacecraft on a sun synchronous earth orbit; it consists of a cable mesh membrane reflector (CMMR), an energy conversion device (ECD), and a three-extensible-rod (TER) pointing mechanism. To achieve the goal of integrating power and communication, the TER pointing mechanism drives the CMMR/ECD to track the sun in the sunshine region or to turn to face the ground station/other target in the Earth’s shadow region. Then, through simulation analyses of the deploying process, static force at a limit orientation, and sun tracking process of the SSPCI, it is proved that the SSPCI is feasible and has satisfactory performance. Finally, deploying experiments of the folded hoop of the CMMR and sun tracking experiments of the TER pointing mechanism on the ground were carried out successfully, which proves that the folded hoop can be deployed successfully with fairly high deploying dependability, and the TER pointing mechanism is feasible for the SSPCI from the mechanism principle and the control mode in space applications indirectly. Moreover, the tracking accuracy of the TER pointing mechanism is estimated to be within ±0.4° although the machining precision of its components is not high. PubDate: Wed, 13 Nov 2019 15:05:01 +000