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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.27
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1064-7449 - ISSN (Online) 1098-0997
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among Married Women in Rural
           Nepal

    • Abstract: Introduction. We have previously determined the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in rural Nepal. In the current study, we also wanted to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the same population. Methods. Population-based study of nonpregnant women ≥ 15 years who were married or had a history of marriage in the past, residing in five rural villages in Nepal. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, reproductive history, and genitourinary symptoms were collected, and a gynecological examination was conducted. Cervical samples were analyzed by real-time PCR for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis and HPV, and a serum sample was analyzed for syphilis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV infection by serology. Results. Of 2416 eligible women, 62% participated. Trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, HPV and HBV infection, and syphilis were detected in 5.4%, 0.8%, 14.3%, 0.3%, and 0.2% of the women. None had gonorrhea or HIV infection. Of those with genitourinary symptoms, 6.3% had a curable STI. Vaginal discharge classified as abnormal by gynecological examination, but not self-reported discharge, was significantly associated with laboratory diagnosis of a curable STI. Risk factors for trichomoniasis were reproductive age and high cast/ethnicity. Due to low prevalence, risk factors for other STIs could not be disclosed. Conclusion. We observed high prevalence of HPV infection followed by trichomoniasis, while other STIs were rare among women in rural Nepal. There was no association between genitourinary symptoms and laboratory-confirmed STIs.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Cytokines, and PGE2 in Pregnant Patients
           at Risk of Preterm Delivery: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Periodontal disease is an infection that, in pregnant women, can act as a risk factor for preterm delivery by increasing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Objective. To analyze the presence of periodontal disease, proinflammatory cytokines, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in pregnant patients at high risk for preterm delivery. Materials and Methods. Pilot study for a case-control study. We included 46 pregnant patients (23 patients at risk of preterm delivery as cases and 23 patients without risk of preterm delivery as controls). We excluded patients who received periodontal treatment, antibiotics, or antimicrobials over the last 3 months as well as those with infections or diseases such as diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. The patients underwent a periodontal assessment, and their levels of cytokines (interleukin- [IL-] 2, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor- [TNF-] α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were quantified. Results. Patients with periodontal disease showed higher levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) and PGE2. Patients at high risk for preterm birth showed higher IL levels compared with patients at low risk for preterm delivery. PGE2 increased with the severity of periodontal disease. PGE2 was higher in patients at low risk for preterm delivery, although this difference was not significant. Conclusion. Periodontal disease can increase the systemic inflammatory response as well as the levels of PGE2 and inflammatory cytokines in pregnant patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Counts from Urethra, Cervix, and
           Vaginal Wet Mount in Diagnosis of Nongonococcal Lower Genital Tract
           Infection

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) inflammatory response in women with nongonococcal lower genital tract infection (LGTI) can be used to optimize criteria for syndromic treatment. Methods. A cross-sectional study of 375 women attending the STI clinic in Oslo. Urethral, cervical, and vaginal specimens underwent microscopy for PMNLs. Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and other STIs were detected in the cervical/vaginal swabs and urine, using nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). After excluding vulvovaginal candidiasis, genital herpes, and trichomoniasis, we correlated clinical and microscopic signs of inflammation with positive NAAT for Ct, mycoplasma genitalium (Mg), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) in a subgroup of 293 women. Results. To predict a positive Ct, the combination of high cut-off urethritis (≥10 PMNLs/HPF) and microscopic cervicitis had a high specificity of 0.93, a PPV of 0.37, and a sensitivity of 0.35. LGTI criteria had low predicting values for Mg and Uu. Conclusion. Including microscopic criteria for the diagnosis of LGTI gives better indication for presumptive antibiotic treatment than anamnestic and clinical diagnosis alone.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Low Prevalence of Active Tuberculosis among High-Risk Pregnant and
           Postpartum Women in Sweden: A Retrospective Epidemiological Cohort Study
           Using and Evaluating TST as Screening Method

    • Abstract: Objective. Studies on the prevalence of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among high-risk pregnant and postpartum women are few and prevalence is not well known. The methods used for diagnosing and treating TB and LTBI also differ both within and between countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of TB and LTBI among high-risk pregnant and postpartum women in a Western Region of Sweden using tuberculin skin test (TST) as screening method. Secondary aims were to evaluate the effectiveness of the screening method and possible negative labour and neonatal outcomes among TST-positive women. Methods. Pregnant women attending an antenatal care unit (ACU) allocated for TST screening were investigated and followed up for two years postpartum. Results. Only one woman out of 902 screened women in the study group was diagnosed with active TB because of TB symptoms and not because of positive TST. 36% of the skin-tested women fulfilled criteria for LTBI. No difference in perinatal outcome was found between women with and without positive TST. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that TST screening of high-risk women may not be an effective strategy, since the prevalence of active TB is low. Investigating pregnant and postpartum women with TB symptoms instead of TST for screening could be an option in low TB prevalence areas. The criteria for diagnosing and treating LTBI should be clearly stated.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Benzoyl Peroxide Inhibits Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation by
           Gardnerella vaginalis 14018

    • Abstract: Infection recurrence and antibiotic resistance of bacterial vaginosis-associated pathogenic biofilms underline the need for novel and effective treatment strategies. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and quorum sensing inhibitory effects of benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid against Gardnerella vaginalis ATCC 14018, the predominant pathogen of bacterial vaginosis. While the highest tested concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL for both compounds were not sufficient in completely inhibiting the growth of G. vaginalis ATCC 14018, they did prevent biofilm formation by inhibiting the bacterial quorum sensing system in the pathogen. To our knowledge, this report is the first evidence that benzoyl peroxide can have a quorum sensing-mediated biofilm controlling effect, as demonstrated using subinhibitory concentrations of this compound in order to reduce the cost, dosage, and negative side effects associated with current antimicrobial treatments.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Streptococcus dysgalactiae
           subspecies equisimilis (Groups C or G Streptococci) Colonization in
           Pregnant Women: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. Little is known about the significance of Streptococcus G or C colonization in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to assess whether vaginal Streptococcus group G or C colonization detected in late pregnancy increases the infectious morbidity of the mother or newborn. Methods. A total of 15,114 rectovaginal cultures taken at 35–37 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed at Tampere University Hospital, Finland, between 2012 and 2014. From this laboratory data, all Streptococcus G or C-positive cultures were included to study maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity after delivery. This study population was compared to women with a positive Streptococcus B culture and to women with a negative culture. Results. The prevalence of Streptococcus G or C colonization was 2.9%. Significantly more postpartum endometritis was found in this study group. No association was found between colonization and neonatal bacteremia. Conclusions. Streptococcus G or C colonization is associated with postpartum endometritis. More research is needed to clarify if antibiotic prophylaxis is reasonable for this group during delivery.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Acceptability and Feasibility of Integrating Point-of-Care Diagnostic
           Testing of Sexually Transmitted Infections into a South African Antenatal
           Care Program for HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    • Abstract: Background. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections may increase the risk of vertical transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In resource-limited settings, symptomatic screening, and syndromic management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) during pregnancy continue to be the standard of care. In the absence of diagnostic testing, asymptomatic infections in pregnant women go untreated. Objective. To describe the acceptability and feasibility of integrating diagnostic STI screening into first antenatal care visits for HIV-infected pregnant women. Methods. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited during their first antenatal care visit from three antenatal care clinics in Tshwane District, South Africa, between June 2016 and October 2017. Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to screen for CT, NG, and TV with a diagnostic point-of-care (POC) nucleic acid amplification test. Those with STIs were provided treatment per South African national guidelines. Results. Of 442 eligible women, 430 (97.3%) agreed to participate and were tested. Of those with a positive STI test result ( = 173; 40.2%), 159 (91.9%) received same-day results and treatment; 100% of STI-infected women were treated within seven days. Conclusions. Integration of POC diagnostic STI screening into first-visit antenatal care services was feasible and highly acceptable for HIV-infected pregnant women.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 09:29:00 +000
       
  • Hepatitis B Virus Testing and Care among Pregnant Women Using Commercial
           Claims Data, United States, 2011–2014

    • Abstract: Introduction. Pregnant women should receive hepatitis B virus (HBV) testing with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), but it is unclear whether HBV-infected pregnant women are linked to care. Methods. We analyzed MarketScan™ commercial insurance claims. We included pregnant women, aged 10–50 years, with 42 weeks of continuous enrollment before (predelivery) and 6 months after (postdelivery) the first delivery claim for each unique pregnancy between 1/1/2011 and 6/30/2014. We identified claims for HBsAg testing by CPT code and described the care continuum among pregnancies with an associated ICD-9 HBV diagnosis code by demographic and clinical characteristics, including HBV-directed care ([HBV DNA or hepatitis B e antigen] and ALT test codes) and antiviral treatment (claims for tenofovir, entecavir, lamivudine, adefovir, or telbivudine) pre- and postdelivery. Results. There were 870,888 unique pregnancies (819,752 women) included. Before delivery, 714,830 (82%) pregnancies had HBsAg test claims, but this proportion decreased with subsequent pregnancies : second (80%), third (71%), and fourth (61%). We identified 1,190 (0.14%) pregnancies with an associated HBV diagnosis code: most were among women aged ≥ 30 years (76%) residing in the Pacific (34%) or Middle Atlantic (18%) regions. Forty-two percent of pregnancies with an HBV diagnosis received HBV-directed care (42% predelivery and 39% postdelivery). Antiviral treatment was initiated before delivery in 128 (13%) of 975 pregnancies and postdelivery in 16 (1.6%) pregnancies. Conclusions. While most of these commercially insured pregnant women received predelivery HBV screening, we identified gaps in HBV testing and the HBV care continuum which highlight potential targets for public health interventions.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Universal Rapid Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening at Delivery: A
           Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal maternal HIV screening at time of delivery to decrease mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), by comparing the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of universal rapid HIV screening at time of delivery to two current standards of care for prenatal HIV screening in the United States. Study Design. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the cost and QALY of universal intrapartum rapid HIV screening with two current standards of care: (I) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without previous third-trimester screening and (II) opt-out rapid HIV testing limited to patients without any prenatal screening. We developed a decision-tree model and performed sensitivity analyses to estimate the impact of variances in QALY, estimated lifetime medical costs, HIV prevalence, and cumulative incidence. Results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for universal screening was $7,973.45/QALY. The results remained robust to sensitivity analysis, except for annual cumulative incidence. In areas with an annual cumulative incidence rate of
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 07:17:02 +000
       
  • Time-Kill Kinetics of Rezafungin (CD101) in Vagina-Simulative Medium for
           Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans and
           Non-albicans Candida Species

    • Abstract: Background. While echinocandins demonstrate excellent efficacy against Candida species in disseminated infections and demonstrate potent minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values under standard susceptibility testing conditions, investigation under conditions relevant to the vaginal environment was needed. We assessed the antifungal activity and time-kill kinetics of the novel echinocandin rezafungin (formerly CD101) under such conditions, against Candida species relevant to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods. Susceptibility testing of fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. krusei was performed in RPMI at pH 7.0 and in vagina-simulative medium (VSM) at pH 4.2 for topical rezafungin, terconazole, fluconazole, and amphotericin B. Time-kill kinetics were evaluated for rezafungin and terconazole at 2, 8, 32, and 128 μg/ml over 72 hours. Results. Rezafungin MIC values were the same or 2-fold higher in VSM/pH 4.2 versus RPMI/pH 7.0. Some C. albicans terconazole MIC values were lower, but most were significantly higher in VSM than in RPMI. Rezafungin was fungicidal against 11/14 strains and near-fungicidal against the others. Terconazole (128 μg/ml) was fungicidal against C. krusei and near-fungicidal against susceptible C. parapsilosis but fungistatic versus all other strains evaluated. Conclusion. Rezafungin retained anti-Candida activity and fungicidal activity under in vitro conditions relevant to VVC.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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