Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 231)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.27
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1064-7449 - ISSN (Online) 1098-0997
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease after Ectopic Removal

    • Abstract: Although ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are separately commonly seen in practice, development of PID after surgical removal is rare. Here, we present the case of a 41-year-old female who was admitted for pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed after laparoscopic salpingectomy for a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Treatment required drainage of TOAs with interventional radiology and antibiotic treatment. This case report demonstrates how treatment of PID following ectopic pregnancy is complex and may require surgical- or radiology-guided drainage of infection in addition to common antibiotic treatment. Follow-up and duration of treatment are highlighted.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jan 2021 13:50:01 +000
  • Efficacy of Nucleotide/Nucleoside Analogues and Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin
           Therapy in Blocking Mother-to-Child Transmission of Hepatitis B in an
           Eastern Chinese Group

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy and potential side-effects of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues and hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection of newborns in blocking mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus in the middle and late pregnancy period. 238 cases of enrolled pregnant women were divided into the Telbivudine group, the Tenofovir group, the Lamivudine group, and the hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) group. Enrolled patients received corresponding therapies. Clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results showed that the levels of HBV DNA of the enrolled pregnant women in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, and Lamivudine groups decreased rapidly after 12 weeks of drug intervention compared with those in the control. HBsAg positive rate in newborns and in children 24 weeks after birth was 0/60, 0/60, 0/60, 3/30, and 11/28 in the Telbivudine, Tenofovir, Lamivudine, HBIG, and control groups, respectively. No significant side-effects were identified after following up to 12 months after birth. Our results show that routine HBV vaccine plus HBIG injections is insufficient in blocking mother-to-child HBV transmission. Administration of nucleotide/nucleoside analogues or HBIG at pregnancy is suggested to maximize the blocking of vertical HBV transmission.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Dec 2020 13:20:00 +000
  • Vertical Transmission of COVID-19 to the Neonate

    • Abstract: Objective. To estimate the incidence rate of vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to the neonate during the third trimester. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective observational study of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 during the third trimester, who delivered at Flushing Hospital Medical Centre (FHMC) or Jamaica Hospital Medical Centre (JHMC) between March 20, 2020, and April 30, 2020. The study participants were symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 via positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR) test. Evidence of vertical transmission was assessed in the neonate via a SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test, with nasopharyngeal swab samples collected on the neonates after 24 hours of birth. The exclusion criteria for this study were maternal or neonate records without SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test results, neonates not delivered at FHMC or JHMC, and foetuses with suspected foetal anomalies or incomplete medical records. Results. We identified 19 symptomatic pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19, including two women with twin pregnancies. Seven patients (36.8%) were delivered via cesarean. 12 patients (63.1%) presented in spontaneous labour, and 8 (38.1%) had preterm delivery. No maternal intensive care unit admission, maternal sepsis, or maternal mortality was observed. Twenty-one neonates were evaluated for COVID-19 after birth. SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR test results were negative in 100% of the neonates. Thirteen neonates (61.9%) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Prematurity was the most common cause of NICU admission 6 (46.1%), with a length of stay of days. No invasive mechanical ventilation, neonatal sepsis, or neonatal mortality was observed. Conclusion. In our cohort, symptomatic COVID-19 during the third trimester of pregnancy was not associated with vertical transmission to the neonate.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Nov 2020 08:35:00 +000
  • Improving Obstetric Provider Congenital Cytomegalovirus Knowledge and

    • Abstract: Background. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection. Antenatal education is proven to reduce cCMV risk. Little is known about obstetric provider knowledge and practice patterns around cCMV. Objectives. To evaluate obstetric provider knowledge and practice patterns regarding cCMV at baseline and again after a brief educational intervention. Methods. Obstetric providers () at a US academic community hospital were invited to complete a survey regarding their knowledge and practice patterns around cCMV. Providers attended a brief presentation about cCMV and later were invited to repeat the same survey. Univariate statistics were calculated for baseline data, and prepost intervention comparison analyses were conducted. Results. Baseline cCMV knowledge was low at 49% ( out of a possible 36, SD 6.4), with most providers (51%) reporting never counseling pregnant patients about cCMV. Post intervention, overall cCMV knowledge increased to 80% (, SD 4.1, ); provider intention to counsel about cCMV prevention increased to 100%. Conclusions. Obstetric provider knowledge about cCMV is low, which likely impacts their antenatal counseling. Educational initiatives to increase awareness about cCMV may increase antenatal education and thereby decrease the risk of cCMV.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Nov 2020 13:50:01 +000
  • Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, when Treated during Pregnancy, Is Not
           Associated with Preterm Birth in an Urban Safety-Net Hospital

    • Abstract: Preterm birth is a major public health problem, occurring in more than half a million births per year in the United States. A number of maternal conditions have been recognized as risk factors for preterm birth, but for the majority of cases, the etiology is not completely understood. Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections in the world. However, its role in adverse pregnancy outcome in women is still debated. In order to determine if genitourinary tract infection with C. trachomatis during pregnancy was associated with preterm birth, we conducted a case-control study on women who delivered at Boston Medical Center, an urban “safety-net” hospital that serves a socioeconomically disadvantaged and racially diverse population. Women with known risk factors for preterm birth or immune suppression were excluded. Variables collected on enrolled subjects included demographics; diagnosis of C. trachomatis during or prior to pregnancy; tobacco, alcohol, and illicit substance use; gestational age; and birthweight and gender of the newborn. We also collected urine for chlamydia testing at the time of delivery and placental biopsies for nucleic acid amplification and histological studies. A total of 305 subjects were enrolled: 100 who delivered preterm and 205 who delivered full term. Among those subjects, we identified 19 cases of pregnancy-associated C. trachomatis infection: 6/100 preterm and 13/205 full term, a difference which was not statistically significant. Only two cases of untreated chlamydia infection were identified postpartum, and both occurred in women who delivered at term. We conclude that genitourinary tract infection with C. trachomatis during pregnancy, when appropriately treated, is not associated with preterm birth.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Oct 2020 17:20:00 +000
  • Malaria in Pregnancy in Endemic Regions of Colombia: High Frequency of
           Asymptomatic and Peri-Urban Infections in Pregnant Women with Malaria

    • Abstract: Background. Malaria in pregnancy (MiP) has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is limited information on MiP in low transmission regions as Colombia. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of MiP through active surveillance of infections by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between May 2016 and January 2017 in five municipalities (Apartadó, Turbo, El Bagre, Quibdó, and Tumaco) in Colombia. Pregnant women self-presenting at health centers for antenatal care visits, seeking medical care for suspected malaria, or delivery, were enrolled. Diagnosis of Plasmodium spp was made in peripheral and placental blood samples by microscopy and PCR. Results. A total of 787 pregnant women were enrolled; plasmodial infection was diagnosed by microscopy in 4.2% (95% CI 2.8-5.6; 33/787) or by nPCR in 5.3% (95% CI 3.8-6.9; 42/787) in peripheral blood. Most of the infections were caused by P. falciparum (78.5%), and 46% were afebrile (asymptomatic). Women in the first and second trimester of pregnancy were more likely to be infected (,). To live in the urban/peri-urban area (,), to have a history of malaria during last year (,), and the infrequent bed net usage (,) were associated with the infection. Pregnant infected women had a higher risk of anaemia (,) and fever (,).Conclusion. The screening for malaria during antenatal care in endemic areas of Colombia is highly recommended due to the potential adverse effects of Plasmodium spp. infection in pregnancy and as an important activity for the surveillance of asymptomatic infections in the control of malaria.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Aug 2020 16:20:01 +000
  • Genotypic Variation in Trichomonas vaginalis Detected in South African
           Pregnant Women

    • Abstract: Background. Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The genetic characterisation of T. vaginalis isolates reveals significant genetic diversity in this organism. Data on the prevalence of different genotypes of T. vaginalis in South African populations is lacking. This study investigated the diversity of T. vaginalis in a pregnant population in South Africa. Methods. In this study, 362 pregnant women from the King Edward VIII Hospital in Durban, South Africa, provided vaginal swabs to be tested for the presence of T. vaginalis. T. vaginalis was detected using the TaqMan assay using commercially available primers and probes specific for this protozoan (Pr04646256_s1). The actin gene from T. vaginalis was amplified with gene-specific primers. The actin amplicons were digested with HindII, MseI, and RsaI, and the banding patterns were compared across the three digests for assignment of genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using MEGA. Results. The prevalence of T. vaginalis in the study population was 12.9% (47/362). Genotype G was the most frequent genotype in our study population. Genotypes H and I were detected in one sample each. According to the multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis, a level of diversity was observed across and within genotypes. Four different single-nucleotide changes in the actin gene were detected. Sample TV358 (H genotype) contained a single amino acid substitution from glutamine to lysine. Sample TV184 (G genotype) contained a single amino acid substitution from glutamic acid to arginine. Sample TV357 (G genotype) contained two amino acid substitutions, arginine to leucine and glycine to aspartic acid. Conclusion. Three different genotypes were observed in the pregnant population. Diversity was observed across and within genotypes. The observed diversity can be challenging for future vaccine design and development of antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests for trichomoniasis.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Aug 2020 14:50:02 +000
  • Azithromycin in the Treatment of Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes
           Demonstrates a Lower Risk of Chorioamnionitis and Postpartum Endometritis
           with an Equivalent Latency Period Compared with Erythromycin Antibiotic

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine if antibiotic regimens including azithromycin versus erythromycin has an impact on pregnancy latency and development of clinical chorioamnionitis in the context of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Study Design. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study and followed all women receiving antibiotic regimens including either azithromycin or erythromycin in the context of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Primary outcomes were the duration of pregnancy latency period and development of chorioamnionitis. Secondary outcomes included neonatal sepsis with positive blood culture, cesarean delivery, postpartum endometritis, and meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Results. This study included 310 patients, with 142 receiving the azithromycin regimen and 168 receiving the erythromycin regimen. Patients receiving the azithromycin regimen had a statistically significant advantage in overall rates of clinical chorioamnionitis (13.4% versus 25%, ), neonatal sepsis (4.9% versus 14.9%, ), and postpartum endometritis (14.8% versus 31%, ). In crude and adjusted models, when comparing the azithromycin group with the erythromycin group, a decreased risk was noted for the development of clinical chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis, and postpartum endometritis. Pregnancy latency by regimen was not significantly different in crude and adjusted models. Conclusion. Our study suggests that latency antibiotic regimens substituting azithromycin for erythromycin have lower rates and decreased risk of clinical chorioamnionitis, neonatal sepsis, and postpartum endometritis with no difference in pregnancy latency.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 03:35:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Genotypes and Subtypes of Gardnerella vaginalis in South
           African Pregnant Women

    • Abstract: Background. Gardnerella vaginalis, a microorganism highly linked to bacterial vaginosis (BV), is understudied in terms of genotypic heterogeneity in South African populations. This study investigated the prevalence of G. vaginalis genotypes in BV-positive, BV-intermediate, and BV-negative South African pregnant women. Methods. The study population included pregnant women recruited from a public hospital in Durban, South Africa. The women provided self-collected vaginal swabs for BV diagnosis by Nugent scoring. For the genotyping assays, the 16S rRNA and sialidase A genes from BV-negative, BV-intermediate, and BV-positive samples were amplified with G. vaginalis-specific primers. The16S rRNA amplicon was digested with TaqI to generate genotyping profiles, and subtypes were determined by correlating BamHI and HindIII digestion profiles. Phylogenetic analysis was performed on the 16S rRNA and sialidase A sequences. The data analysis was performed with R Statistical Computing software, version 3.6.2. Results. Two different genotypes, GT1 and GT2, were detected. The most prevalent genotype was GT1. Four subtypes (1, 2B, 2AB, and 2C) were shown to be present. The most prevalent subtype was 2B, followed by subtypes 1, 2C, and 2AB. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA showed the presence of 5 clusters. The tree displayed clusters which contained sequences from the same BV group with different genotypes and subtypes. Clusters with sequences from across the BV groups carrying the same genotype and subtype were present. Diversity of the sialidase A across BV groups and genotypes was observed. Finally, the study did not find a significant association () between reported symptoms of abnormal vaginal discharge and genotype harboured. Conclusion. This study provided the first report on the diversity of G. vaginalis in South African pregnant women. Diversity assessments of G. vaginalis with respect to genotypes and virulence factors may aid in a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of this microorganism.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 04:05:02 +000
  • Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Its Determinants among Pregnant Women in
           Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an infectious and a global public health problem. The prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women is between 2.3% and 7.9%. HBV infection during pregnancy is associated with prenatal transmission to the fetus. HBV has an effective vaccine which reduces up to 96% of the transmission. Although different studies were conducted in Ethiopia, none of them showed the national prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the pooled prevalence of HBV and its associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for articles. All observational published studies were retrieved using relevant search terms in Google Scholar, African Online Journal, CINAHL, and PubMed databases. Newcastle-Ottawa assessment checklist for observational studies was used for critical appraisal of the included articles. The meta-analysis was done with STATA version 14 software. The statistics were used to test heterogeneity whereas Begg’s and Egger’s tests were used to assess publication bias. Odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was presented using the forest plot. Results. A total of twenty-three studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of HBV in Ethiopia was 4.75% (95% CI: 4.06, 5.44). The subgroup analysis showed a higher prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women in Gambella (7.9%) and the lowest in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region (SNNPR) (2.3%). Associated factors with HBV infection include history of multiple sexual partner ( (, 9.36)), blood transfusion history ( (, 10.04)), abortion history ( (, 6.09)), and history of body tattoo ( (, 5.17)). Conclusions. HBV infection among pregnant women is a common public health problem in Ethiopia. Multiple sexual partners, abortion history, blood transfusion history, and body tattoo were significantly associated with HBV infection. Policies and strategies should focus on factors identified in this study to improve the prevention of HBV among pregnant women.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2020 15:35:01 +000
  • Detection of Ureaplasma Biovars and Subtyping of Ureaplasma parvum among
           Women Referring to a University Hospital in Morocco

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Ureaplasma biovars and Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum) serovars, their associated risk factors, and genital STI-related symptoms. Methods. DNA obtained from cervical samples of 1053 women attending the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the laboratory of pathological anatomy of Hassan II university hospital of Fez, Morocco, was used to detect Ureaplasma biovars (U. urealyticum and U. parvum) and to subtype U. parvum by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results. Of the 1053 women examined, 25.4% (268/1053) were Ureaplasma positives. The rates of U. urealyticum and U. parvum were 12.1% (128/1053) and 7% (74/1053), respectively, and the copresence of these biovars was noted in 6.3% (66/1053) cases. The U. parvum subtyping revealed a predominance of the serovar 3/14 (61.4%). The association of demographics variables with Ureaplasma biovars was studied and shows that the age (“
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jun 2020 01:20:01 +000
  • The Role of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on Interleukin
           17A (IL-17A) in Normotensive and Preeclamptic Black South African Women

    • Abstract: Introduction. Interleukin 17A has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both human immune deficiency virus and preeclampsia. This study evaluated serum levels of IL-17A based on pregnancy type, gestational age, HIV status, and duration of HAART. Material and Methods. A sample size of 250 was analysed: normotensives (; N) and preeclamptics (; PE). Normotensives were further stratified into HIV negative (), HAART-acute (), and HAART-chronic (). The PE group was divided into early onset (; EOPE) and late onset (; LOPE). The EOPE and LOPE groups were subdivided into HIV negative (), HAART-acute (), and HAART-chronic (). Analysis of IL-17A was performed using a multiple Bio-Plex immunoassay method. Results. Pregnancy type: the levels of IL-17A were increased in PE compared to N (). Gestational age: the levels of IL-17A were increased in EOPE compared to N group (). A significant increase in the levels of IL-17A in LOPE compared to N was observed (). HIV status: the levels of IL-17A were increased in PE compared to N () and in EOPE compared to N groups (). HAART duration: the concentration of IL-17A was increased in HAART-chronic PE compared to N groups (). There was also an increase in the levels of IL-17A in EOPE compared to N ().Conclusion. The study demonstrates that IL-17A is involved in the pathophysiology of PE and that in the presence of HIV infection, chronic HAART administration predisposes women to the development of EOPE.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 May 2020 11:20:01 +000
  • A Need for Standardization of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Pelvic
           Inflammatory Disease: Pilot Study in an Outpatient Clinic in Quito,

    • Abstract: Background. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosis is often challenging as well as its treatment. This study sought to characterize the diagnostic and therapeutic trend among physicians at the outpatient level, in Quito, Ecuador, where currently no nationwide screening or specific clinical guideline has been implemented on PID or its main microbiological agents. Methods. A retrospective analysis of medical records with pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis in an outpatient clinic was performed. Electronic medical records from 2013 to 2018 with any pelvic inflammatory disease-related diagnoses were retrieved. Information with regard to age, sexually related risk factors, symptoms and physical exam findings, ancillary tests, method of diagnosis, and antibiotic regimens was extracted. Results. A total of 186 records were included. The most frequent clinical manifestations were vaginal discharge (47%) and pelvic pain (39%). In the physical examination, leucorrhea was the most frequent finding (47%), followed by lower abdominal tenderness (35%) and cervical motion tenderness in 51 patients (27%). A clinical diagnosis was established in 60% of patients, while 37% had a transvaginal sonography-guided diagnosis. Antibiotic treatment was prescribed with standard regimens in 3% of cases, while other regimens were used in 93% of patients. Additionally, an average of 1.9 drugs were prescribed per patient, with a range from 1 to 5, all in different combinations and dosages. Conclusions. No standardized methods of diagnosis or treatment were identifiable. These findings highlight the need for standardization of the diagnosis and treatment of PID attributed to chlamydial and gonococcal infections.
      PubDate: Sat, 09 May 2020 16:50:01 +000
  • HIV Screening During Pregnancy in a U.S. HIV Epicenter

    • Abstract: Background. The CDC and ACOG have issued guidelines for HIV screening in pregnancy for patients living in areas with high prevalence of HIV in order to minimize perinatal vertical transmission. There is a lack of data examining providers’ compliance with these guidelines in at-risk patient populations in the United States. Objective. To evaluate if HIV screening in pregnant women was performed according to guidelines at a large, urban, tertiary care medical center in South Florida. Study Design. A retrospective review was performed on 1270 prenatal and intrapartum records from women who delivered a live infant in 2015 at a single institution. Demographic and outcome data were chart abstracted and analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviations. Results. Of the 1270 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1090 patients initiated prenatal care in the first or second trimester and delivered in the third trimester. 1000 (91.7%) patients were screened in the first or second trimester; however, only 822 (82.2%) of these were retested in the third trimester during prenatal care. Among the 178 patients lacking a third trimester test, 159 (89.3%) received rapid HIV testing upon admission for delivery. Of the 1090 patients who initiated prenatal care in the first or second trimester and delivered in the third trimester, 982 (90.1%) were screened in accordance with recommended guidelines. Of the 1270 patients initiating care in any trimester, 24 (1.9%) had no documented prenatal HIV test during prenatal care, however 22 (91.7%) had a rapid HIV test on admission for delivery. Two (0.16%) patients were not tested prenatally or prior to delivery. Conclusion. Despite 99.8% of women having at least one HIV screening test during pregnancy, there is room for improvement in routine prenatal screening in both early pregnancy and third trimester prior to onset of labor in this high-risk population.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 17:05:00 +000
  • Phase I Study in Healthy Women of a Novel Antimycotic Vaginal Ovule
           Combining Econazole and Benzydamine

    • Abstract: Purpose. A novel fixed-dose combination of 150 mg of econazole with 6 mg of benzydamine formulated in vaginal ovules was investigated in a randomised, double-blind, four-parallel group, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic Phase I study in healthy women. Methods. The fixed-dose combination was compared to econazole and benzydamine single-drug formulations and with placebo after daily applications for 3 consecutive days. Safety and tolerability were evaluated recording the adverse drug reactions, local and general tolerability scores, clinical laboratory assays, and vital signs. Econazole, benzydamine, and its metabolite benzydamine N-oxide pharmacokinetics were investigated after single and multiple applications. Results. Local reactions were generally absent. Pruritus and pain at the application site were infrequently reported. According to the subjects’ evaluations, the overall tolerability of the ovules was rated as excellent or good. No significant effect of any treatment on laboratory parameters, vital signs, body weight, vaginal pH, or ECG was observed. Very low econazole, benzydamine, and benzydamine-N-oxide concentrations were measured in plasma, though quantifiable in almost all samples. Conclusion. The tested fixed-dose combination showed a good safety profile consistently with the known tolerability of both active substances. In addition, the confirmed low bioavailability of the drugs excludes the possibility of any accumulation effects and limits the risk of undesired systemic effects. This trial is registered at with the identifier NCT02720783 last updated on 07 February 2017.
      PubDate: Sat, 02 May 2020 06:05:00 +000
  • Urinary Tract Infections among Indonesian Pregnant Women and Its
           Susceptibility Pattern

    • Abstract: Pregnant women are usually at risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) such as asymptomatic bacteriuria. In the current multidrug-resistance era, appropriate diagnosis and treatment should be provided to avoid complications in pregnant women in developing countries, which have limited facilities, such as Indonesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro susceptibility tests. Urinary isolates were collected from 715 pregnant women who visited eight Community Health Centers in Jakarta, Indonesia, between 2015 and 2017. We identified bacterial uropathogens from samples that were positive for nitrite/leukocyte esterase (LE), using two types of VITEK cards. Since noncompliance among patients is a major problem, fosfomycin-trometamol 3 g single-dose sachets were given to the patients, and the side effects of the medication and neonatal outcomes were reported. Asymptomatic bacteriuria was found in 10.5% of the 715 pregnant women. Escherichia coli was the most common etiological factor (26.7%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%), Streptococcus agalactiae (9.3%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.3%), Enterococcus faecalis (5.3%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4%), Acinetobacter baumannii (4%), and others. Out of 76 pregnant women who took fosfomycin-trometamol, two complained of diarrhea that subsided without medication and fever that responded to paracetamol. Neonatal outcomes showed 100% full-term and normal-weight babies. E. coli, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing E. coli, was 100% susceptible to fosfomycin. Nitrite/LE test results are often used as evidence for empiric antibiotic administration for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy, but the diagnosis should be confirmed using culture tests. Based on in vitro susceptibility patterns and medication outcomes, fosfomycin-trometamol single dose could be administered to noncompliant UTI patients, including pregnant women.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Apr 2020 16:35:00 +000
  • Influence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Pregnant Adolescents on
           Preterm Birth and Chorioamnionitis

    • Abstract: Background. Adolescents have an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We examined the prevalence and impact of STIs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas) on PTB and chorioamnionitis in pregnant adolescents. Methods. This retrospective cohort study utilized the first pregnancy delivered at an urban hospital among old over a 5-year period. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the association between STIs and PTB (
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Factors Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake: Implications for
           the Health of Women in Jordan

    • Abstract: Purpose. The existing factors that influence cervical cancer screening uptake worldwide do not necessarily reflect the situation in Jordan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with cervical cancer screening uptake among Jordanian women. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 500 married Jordanian women aged 21 to 65 years were recruited from eight nongovernmental organisations and community settings in Amman. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire regarding sociodemographic and reproductive data, a health utilisation data form, and scales on the perceived benefits of screening, perceived barriers to screening, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, and perceptions regarding the severity of cervical cancer. Descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic regressions, and independent -tests were used in the data analysis. Results. Among the 500 age-eligible women, only 156 (31.2%) had been screened for cervical cancer. Healthcare provider encouragement, years of marriage (,,), and use of the private healthcare sector (,,) were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening. Conclusion. Cervical cancer screening uptake among Jordanian women is significantly low; determining factors for the decision to undergo screening include encouragement from the healthcare provider, the number of years of marriage, and use of the private healthcare sector. To improve uptake, structured screening programmes need to be implemented in collaboration with national partners and institutions to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer in Jordan.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 06:35:02 +000
  • Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Kisangani, A Stable Malaria
           Transmission Area in Democratic Republic of the Congo

    • Abstract: Background. Gestational malaria is a major public health problem. It produces fetal complications such as low birth weight, perinatal mortality, and congenital malaria. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of congenital malaria and its neonatal complications in the city of Kisangani. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Kisangani from 1 January to 30 September 2018. Our study population was composed of 1248 newborns born in our study sites, during the period of our study. Just after their birth, we performed the thick drop smear in the placental print and in umbilical blood smear. Results. The prevalence of congenital malaria was 13.98%; 69.23% of newborns who contracted congenital malaria were from 18- to 34-year-old mothers, 53.85% from primiparous mothers, 92.31% from mothers who took intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine, all (100%) from mothers using the insecticide-treated mosquito nets and 7.69% from HIV-positive mothers. Low birth weight and perinatal mortality were recorded in 76.92% and 7.69% of congenital malaria cases, respectively. Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine had no effect on congenital malaria (; OR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1651-3.8769) and on low birth weight (; OR: 1.2308, 95% CI: 0.0037-0.1464); however, it seemed to have protective effect against perinatal mortality (; OR: 0.0233, 95% CI: 0.0037-0.1464). Conclusion. Congenital malaria remains a major problem in stable malaria transmission area like Kisangani, and it is grafted by major perinatal complications, particularly low birth weight and perinatal mortality. We recommend an extended study to clarify the relationship between the outcome of pregnancy and the intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 15:50:01 +000
  • Factors Associated with Antenatal Influenza Vaccination in a Medically
           Underserved Population

    • Abstract: Influenza infection in pregnant women is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Despite recommendations for all women to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine during pregnancy, vaccination rates among pregnant women in the U.S. have remained around 50%. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and demographic factors associated with antenatal influenza vaccination in a medically underserved population of women. We conducted a retrospective cohort study at Grady Memorial Hospital, a large safety-net hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2018. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted from the electronic medical record. The Kotelchuck index was used to assess prenatal care adequacy. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for associations between receipt of influenza vaccine and prenatal care adequacy, demographic characteristics, and clinical characteristics were calculated using multivariable log-binominal models. Among 3723 pregnant women with deliveries, women were primarily non-Hispanic black (68.4%) and had Medicaid as their primary insurance type (87.9%). The overall vaccination rate was 49.8% (1853/3723). Inadequate prenatal care adequacy was associated with a lower antenatal influenza vaccination rate (43.5%), while intermediate and higher levels of prenatal care adequacy were associated with higher vaccination rates (66.9–68.3%). Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic other race/ethnicity, interpreter use for a language other than Spanish, and preexisting diabetes mellitus were associated with higher vaccination coverage in multivariable analyses. Among medically underserved pregnant women, inadequate prenatal care utilization was associated with a lower rate of antenatal influenza vaccination. Socially disadvantaged women may face individual and structural barriers when accessing prenatal care, suggesting that evidenced-based, tailored approaches may be needed to improve prenatal care utilization and antenatal influenza vaccination rates.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jan 2020 11:20:00 +000
  • Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Extended-Spectrum
           Beta-Lactamases Produced by Escherichia coli Colonizing Pregnant Women

    • Abstract: Introduction. Infections caused by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria continue to be a challenge for choosing the appropriate therapy since they may exhibit coresistance to many other classes of antibiotics. The aim of the study was to screen pregnant women for ESBL producing bacteria in Beirut, Lebanon, to examine their phenotypic and genotypic characterization and to study the association between ESBL colonization with adverse neonatal outcomes. Method. In this cross-sectional study, vaginal samples from 308 pregnant women at 35–37 weeks of gestation were studied during a one-year period. The samples were plated on MacConkey agar and selective MacConkey agar supplemented with ceftazidime. Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production was performed by double-disc synergy test and all isolates were screened by PCR for the resistance genes blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M. Clonal relatedness of Escherichia coli isolates was investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Results. In total, 59 women out of 308 (19.1%) were colonized by ESBL producing gram negative bacteria. Two babies born to mothers colonized with ESBL were diagnosed with sepsis. The susceptibility rates of isolates to other antibiotics were 39% to co-trimoxazole, 49.2% to ciprofloxacin, 91.5% to gentamicin, 18.6% to aztreonam and 35.6% to cefepime. Most of isolates were highly sensitive to meropenem and imipenem, with a susceptibility of 93.2%. PCR was performed on all E. coli isolates to detect the most common ESBL producing genes; blaCTX-M was the predominant gene (90.7%), followed by blaTEM (88.4%) and finally blaSHV (44.2%). PFGE analysis of 34 E. coli isolates revealed 22 distinct clusters showing more than 85% similarity. Conclusion. In conclusion, this study showed that Lebanon has a high prevalence of ESBL carriage in pregnant women. Further studies that include a continuous screening of pregnant women and follow up of their newborn clinical status should be conducted to foresee the risk of transmission.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Jan 2020 08:05:01 +000
  • Does Aerobic Vaginitis Have Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes' Prospective
           Observational Study

    • Abstract: Background. Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an aberration within the balanced vaginal microbiota. Only few reports have documented the adverse pregnancy outcomes related to AV. Nonetheless, the exact role of AV in pregnancy and the potential benefit of its screening need further study. Our goal was to evaluate the association between aerobic vaginitis (AV) in late pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. In this prospective observational study, a total of 600 singleton pregnant women with intact fetal membranes at a gestational age of 34-36 weeks were recruited (one hundred women with AV and 500 pregnant women without AV). The study protocol excluded patients with other forms of vaginal infection. Pregnancy outcomes were traced and documented. The primary outcome was the association between AV and preterm labor. The current study compared the maternal and neonatal outcomes among pregnant women with and without AV in unadjusted and adjusted analyses with the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) reported. Results. There was an association between AV and with preterm birth (adjusted OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.58-5.95) and prelabor rupture of membranes (adjusted OR 6.17, 95% CI 3.24-11.7). For neonatal outcomes, AV was associated with a higher incidence of neonatal ICU admission (adjusted OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.1-4.34). Severe forms of AV significantly increased the incidence of PTB () and PROM () when compared to less severe forms of AV. Conclusion. AV is common in late pregnancy and is linked to a diversity of adversative pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, PROM, and neonatal ICU admission. Moreover, the incidence of PTB and PROM might further increase with the severity of AV. Clinicians should pay more consideration to vaginal microbiota assessment during pregnancy.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jan 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • A Retrospective Review of Neonatal Sepsis among GBS-Colonized Women
           Undergoing Planned Cesarean Section after Labor Onset or Rupture of

    • Abstract: Background. Sepsis is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates, with group B streptococcus (GBS) remaining the most frequent pathogen isolated from term infants. Surveillance data showed that the majority of cases of early-onset GBS disease were neonates born to women who either received no or suboptimal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with a notable portion of those women having a missed opportunity to receive ≥4 hours of chemoprophylaxis. Women planning delivery by cesarean section who present in labor or rupture of membranes prior to their scheduled surgery are unlikely to receive optimal GBS chemoprophylaxis and thus their neonates are at risk of having sepsis. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study of women-infant dyads was extracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor dataset. Women who had an unlabored cesarean section at week gestation were selected and divided into four groups based on GBS status and timing of cesarean section with respect to onset of labor or rupture of membranes. The rate of neonatal sepsis and the patterns of intrapartum antibiotic chemoprophylaxis were determined. Results. The sepsis rate (4.5%) among neonates of GBS-colonized women having their unlabored cesarean section after onset of labor or rupture of membranes was significantly higher than that in any other group in this study. In this group, 9.4% of women received chemoprophylaxis for ≥4 hours, while 31% had a missed opportunity to receive ≥4 hours of chemoprophylaxis. Conclusion. This study suggests that neonates of GBS-colonized women having a planned cesarean section after onset of labor or rupture of membranes are at increased risk of having a sepsis diagnosis. This finding suggest the need for additional studies to assess the risk of sepsis among neonates of women in this group.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Jan 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Bacteriuria in Pregnancy in a Danish Contemporary Cohort of Women

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this study is to describe bacteriuria with regard to the uropathogens found in relation to the frequency of urine culture tests in a contemporary cohort of pregnant Danish women. Methods. A historical cohort study of 24,817 pregnant women registered in the Danish Fetal Medicine Database at Aarhus University Hospital, from 2010 to 2014. Social security numbers were linked to the microbiological database with the registration of 17,233 urine cultures in 8,807 women. Bacteriuria was defined as  CFU/ml, with a maximum of two urinary pathogens. Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) was included with  CFU/ml. Data are presented as numbers and proportions in percent. Logistic regression on predictors are presented as crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORc/ORa) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. 42% had a urine sample culture test at the hospital—the majority only once during pregnancy. 96% of all urine culture tests were negative. The bacteriuria incidence was 5.6%. The most frequent uropathogenic bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (49%), GBS (29%), and Enterococci (10%). We identified subgroups of women with increased likelihood of bacteriuria during pregnancy: years, ORa 1.60 (CI 1.26 to 2.02, ); years, ORa 1.28 (CI 1.01 to 1.61, ); Afro-Caribbean origin, ORa 1.872 (CI 1.13 to 3.07, ); Asian origin, ORa 2.07 (CI 1.29 to 3.32, ); and mixed ethnicity ORa 2.34 (CI 1.23 to 4.46, ). Women delivering preterm were more likely to have an episode of bacteriuria during pregnancy OR 2.05 (CI 1.36 to 3.09, ).Conclusions. 96% of urine culture tests in pregnant women are negative. Optimized urine sampling may change this. Escherichia coli and GBS are predominant uropathogens. Younger and elder women, certain ethnical groups, and women delivering preterm seem more likely to have bacteriuria during pregnancy.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Jan 2020 08:05:00 +000
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