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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover Geofluids
  [SJR: 0.693]   [H-I: 38]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1468-8115 - ISSN (Online) 1468-8123
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Stability Analysis of Partially Submerged Landslide with the Consideration
           of the Relationship between Porewater Pressure and Seepage Force

    • Abstract: For partially submerged landslides, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressures, related to water level fluctuation and rainfall, are usually expressed in the form of porewater pressure, seepage force, and buoyancy. There are some connections among them, but it is very easy to confuse one force with another. This paper presents a modified mathematical expression for stability analysis of partially submerged landslide and builds the relationship between porewater pressures and buoyancy acting on the underwater zone of partially submerged landslide and the relationship among porewater pressures, seepage force, and buoyancy acting on partially submerged zone. The porewater pressures acting on the underwater slice are calculated using hydrostatic forces, and the porewater pressures acting on the partially submerged slice are estimated by an approximation of equipotential lines and flow lines under the steady state seepage condition. The resultant of the porewater pressures acting on the underwater slice equals the buoyancy, and that acting on the partially submerged slice is equivalent to the vector sum of seepage force and the buoyancy. The result shows there are two equivalent approaches for considering the effect of water on landslide stability in the limit equilibrium method. One is based on total unit weight and porewater pressures, and the other is in terms of the buoyant weight and the seepage force. The study provides a modified model for simplifying the complex boundary porewater pressures in limit equilibrium analysis for the stability of the partially submerged landslide.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • CO2 Leakage-Induced Contamination in Shallow Potable Aquifer and
           Associated Health Risk Assessment

    • Abstract: Leakage of stored CO2 from a designated deep reservoir could contaminate overlying shallow potable aquifers by dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. To elucidate CO2 leakage-induced arsenic contamination, 2D multispecies reactive transport models were developed and CO2 leakage processes were simulated in the shallow groundwater aquifer. Throughout a series of numerical simulations, it was revealed that the movement of leaked CO2 was primarily governed by local flow fields within the shallow potable aquifer. The induced low-pH plume caused dissolution of aquifer minerals and sequentially increased permeabilities of the aquifer; in particular, the most drastic increase in permeability appeared at the rear margin of CO2 plume where two different types of groundwater mixed. The distribution of total arsenic (As) plume was similar to the one for the arsenopyrite dissolution. The breakthrough curve of As monitored at the municipal well was utilized to quantify the human health risk. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted with different sorption rates of arsenic species, CO2 leakage rates, and horizontal permeability in the aquifer. In conclusion, the human health risk was influenced by the shape of As plume, which was, in turn, affected by the characteristics of CO2 plume behavior such as horizontal permeability and CO2 leakage rate.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Understanding the Compositional Variability of the Major Components of
           Hydrothermal Plumes in the Okinawa Trough

    • Abstract: Studies of the major components of hydrothermal plumes in seafloor hydrothermal fields are critical for an improved understanding of biogeochemical cycles and the large-scale distribution of elements in the submarine environment. The composition of major components in hydrothermal plume water column samples from 25 stations has been investigated in the middle and southern Okinawa Trough. The physical and chemical properties of hydrothermal plume water in the Okinawa Trough have been affected by input of the Kuroshio current, and its influence on hydrothermal plume water from the southern Okinawa Trough to the middle Okinawa Trough is reduced. The anomalous layers of seawater in the hydrothermal plume water columns have higher K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, B3+, Ca2+/, and Mn2+/Mg2+ ratios and higher optical anomalies than other layers. The Mg2+, , Mg2+/Ca2+, and /Mn2+ ratios of the anomalous layers are lower than other layers in the hydrothermal plume water columns and are consistent with concentrations in hydrothermal vent fluids in the Okinawa Trough. This suggests that the chemical variations of hydrothermal plumes in the Tangyin hydrothermal field, like other hydrothermal fields, result in the discharge of high K+, Ca2+, and B3+ and low Mg2+ and fluid. Furthermore, element ratios (e.g., Sr2+/Ca2+, Ca2+/Cl−) in hydrothermal plume water columns were found to be similar to those in average seawater, indicating that Sr2+/Ca2+ and Ca2+/Cl− ratios of hydrothermal plumes might be useful proxies for chemical properties of seawater. The hydrothermal K+, Ca2+, Mn2+, and B3+ flux to seawater in the Okinawa Trough is about 2.62–873, 1.04–326, 1.30–76.4, and 0.293–34.7 × 106 kg per year, respectively. The heat flux is about 0.159–1,973 × 105 W, which means that roughly 0.0006% of ocean heat is supplied by seafloor hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS Analysis of CO2-Rich Fluid Inclusions in a Frozen State:
           Example from the Dahu Au-Mo Deposit, Xiaoqinling Region, Central China

    • Abstract: The recently developed technique of ultraviolet femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS) combined with a freezing cell is expected to improve the analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions by decreasing their internal pressure and avoiding the common problem of uncontrolled explosive fluid release on ablation. Here, we report the application of this technique through the case study of CO2-rich fluid inclusions from the quartz vein-style Au-Mo deposit of Dahu in the Xiaoqinling region of central China. The concentrations of Li, B, Na, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Te, Cs, Ba, Au, Pb, and Bi were analyzed in 124 (not all for Al and Ca) fluid inclusions, which have low to moderate salinity and multiphase composition (liquid H2O + liquid CO2  ± vapor CO2  ± solids). The Dahu fluids are dominated by Na and K. The concentrations of Mo are always below the detection limit from 0.005 to 2 ppm (excluding values obtained from fluid inclusions with accidentally trapped solids). The Dahu ore fluids differ from metamorphic fluids in compositions and most likely represent two separate pulses of spent fluids evolved from an unexposed and oxidized magmatic system. The UV-fs-LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions in a frozen state improves the overpressure problem of CO2-rich fluid inclusions during laser ablation. The transformation of gaseous and liquid CO2 into the solid state leads to a significant decline in the internal pressure of the fluid inclusions, while femtosecond laser pulses generate a minimal heat input in the sample and thus maintain the frozen state during ablation. Transient signals of CO2-rich fluid inclusions obtained in this study typically had one or multiple peaks lasting for more than 15 seconds, without an initial short signal spike as obtained by ns-LA-ICP-MS analysis of CO2-rich fluid inclusions at room temperature.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • High-Resolution Wellbore Temperature Logging Combined with a
           Borehole-Scale Heat Budget: Conceptual and Analytical Approaches to
           Characterize Hydraulically Active Fractures and Groundwater Origin

    • Abstract: This work aims to provide an overview of the thermal processes that shape wellbore temperature profiles under static and dynamic conditions. Understanding of the respective influences of advection and conduction heat fluxes is improved through the use of a new heat budget at the borehole scale. Keeping in mind the thermal processes involved, a qualitative interpretation of the temperature profiles allows the occurrence, the position, and the origin of groundwater flowing into wellbores from hydraulically active fractures to be constrained. With the use of a heat budget developed at the borehole scale, temperature logging efficiency has been quantitatively enhanced and allows inflow temperatures to be calculated through the simultaneous use of a flowmeter. Under certain hydraulic or pumping conditions, both inflow intensities and associated temperatures can also be directly modelled from temperature data and the use of the heat budget. Theoretical and applied examples of the heat budget application are provided. Applied examples are shown using high-resolution temperature logging, spinner flow metering, and televiewing for three wells installed in fractured bedrock aquifers in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, Canada. Through relatively rapid manipulations, thermal measurements in such cases can be used to detect the intervals or discrete positions of hydraulically active fractures in wellbores, as well as the existence of ambient flows with a high degree of sensitivity, even at very low flows. Heat budget calculations at the borehole scale during pumping indicate that heat advection fluxes rapidly dominate over heat conduction fluxes with the borehole wall. The full characterization of inflow intensities provides information about the distribution of hydraulic properties with depth. The full knowledge of inflow temperatures indicates horizons that are drained from within the aquifer, providing advantageous information on the depth from which groundwater originates during pumping.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 06:08:45 +000
  • Fluids, Metals, and Mineral/Ore Deposits

    • PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Visualized Experimental Investigation on the Gas-Water Distribution
           Characteristics in Intersecting Fractures

    • Abstract: In coal-bed methane recovery, water is generally drained out along with gas. In order to address the influence of different gas-water ratios, fracture intersecting angles, and gas desorption positions on gas and water distributions along fractures and hence understand the two-phase flow behavior in fracture network, an experimental study was conducted on three artificial models with intersecting fractures. The results show that (1) with gas and water injected at different rates, the flow of water and gas is divided into three stages. In the first stage, gas flowed as small bubbles. The transport of gas was stable, which was similar to single-phase laminar flow. The difference in gas injection positions led to totally contrary flow results of water and gas. (2) In the second stage, larger gas bubbles were formed and the interactions between water and gas became serious. The gas-water distribution was dominated by different inertias between water and gas. The difference in gas injection positions did not take much effect on the gas-water distribution. (3) In the third stage, the influence of the inertia difference was still important, but some other factors also influenced the gas-water distribution. The difference in gas injection positions led to different distribution results. (4) The water injection rate has impact on the distribution of the water flow rate in each outlet. In the second stage, when water was injected at small rates, the difference between the cases in which gas was injected from different positions can be neglected. When water injection rates became larger, this difference became obvious. (5) The intersecting angle of the fractures influences the distribution of water and gas. The larger the intersecting angle is, the larger the inertial effect will be. Consequently, the intersecting angle influences the length of the second stage, which is dominated by the inertial effect.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 07:26:32 +000
  • Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Geothermal Fluids in the
           Chabu High-Temperature Geothermal System, Southern Tibet

    • Abstract: This study defines reasonable reservoir temperatures and cooling processes of subsurface geothermal fluids in the Chabu high-temperature geothermal system. This system lies in the south-central part of the Shenzha-Xietongmen hydrothermal active belt and develops an extensive sinter platform with various and intense hydrothermal manifestations. All the geothermal spring samples collected systematically from the sinter platform are divided into three groups by cluster analysis of major elements. Samples of group 1 and group 3 are distributed in the central part and northern periphery of the sinter platform, respectively, while samples of group 2 are scattered in the transitional zone between groups 1 and 3. The hydrochemical characteristics show that the geothermal waters of the research area have generally mixed with shallow cooler waters in reservoirs. The reasonable reservoir temperatures and the mixing processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids could be speculated by combining the hydrochemical characteristics of geothermal springs, calculated results of the chemical geothermometers, and silica-enthalpy mixing models. Contour maps are applied to measured emerging temperatures, mass flow rates, total dissolved solids of spring samples, and reasonable subsurface temperatures. They indicate that the major cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids gradually transform from adiabatic boiling to conduction from the central part to the peripheral belt. The geothermal reservoir temperatures also show an increasing trend. The point with the highest reservoir temperature (256°C) appears in the east-central part of the research area, which might be the main up-flow zone. The cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids in the research area can be shown on an enthalpy-chloride plot. The deep parent fluid for the Chabu geothermal field has a Cl− concentration of 290 mg/L and an enthalpy of 1550 J/g (with a water temperature of 369°C).
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 08:23:59 +000
  • Hydraulic-Hydrology Analysis of the Turbulent Seepage Flow within Karst
           Aquifer of the Golubinka Spring Catchment

    • Abstract: This paper shows the results of the hydraulic-hydrologic calculations of karst spring discharges and the groundwater level in the aquifer of spring catchment. The calculations were performed for the Golubinka spring in Zadar area for the 4-year period. The chosen approach was a model using relatively scarce data set, including limnigraphic data on the difference between the sea water level and the freshwater level on the spring itself and the precipitation data from the meteorological station Zadar. The determination of discharge hydrographs, based on inherent assumptions and available data, yields the proportionality coefficients between the discharge and the limnigraphic data on the Golubinka spring itself. Further, based on the discharge hydrograph, groundwater level oscillation was determined. The resulting spring discharge hydrograph and groundwater levels, along with the assumption of Golubinka spring as the only spring on the catchment, were used in creating turbulent seepage model of the fractured system within the aquifer, which evidently extends along the axis of the Golubinka spring catchment. The model yielded suitable turbulent seepage coefficients of the fracture system. By using the numerical model KarstMod it was estimated that, on average, concentrated fracture flow drains around 85% of infiltrated volumes and the remaining 15% accounts for diffuse matrix flow. Finally, the Modflow model was used in order to get insight into the flow field and the distribution of equipotentials in the aquifer of the Golubinka catchment.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Numerical Analysis Method considering Coupled Effects of THMC Multifields
           on Unsaturated Expansive Soil Subgrade Treated with Lime

    • Abstract: The response model subjected to coupled effect of thermo-hydro-mechano-chemical (THMC) was built in the context of basic theories in the polyporous polyphasic medium mechanics, the mixture theory in the continuum mechanics, and the thermodynamic theories. The finite element discretization of the response model was implemented based on the Galerkin method. The processes of salt leaching and accumulating were analyzed in the numerical results. The results among the numerical results and measured results were compared and discussed. Finally, the solutes migration rule of the soil subjected to the atmosphere eluviations was revealed, and the reasonableness of the coupling model and the finite element method was proved. The agreement between the numerical and the measured results was good, which indicates that the THMC model and finite element program were useful in solving the coupling problems of unsaturated soil. Moreover, the salt dissolution process has a larger effect on the salt movement compared to that of the salt accumulation process. Comparing with the salt leaching effect caused by rainfall, the salt accumulation effect caused by evaporation was smaller.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Fe-Zn Isotopic Characteristics and Fractionation Models: Implications
           for the Genesis of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag Deposit in Southern Tibet

    • Abstract: The genesis of the Zhaxikang Sb-Pb-Zn-Ag deposit remains controversial. Three different geological environments have been proposed to model mineralization: a hot spring, a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, and a sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) overprinted by a hot spring. Here, we present the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and Fe-Zn isotopic data (microsampled) of four samples from the first pulse of mineralization that show annular textures to constrain ore genesis. The Zn/Cd ratios from the EPMA data of sphalerite range from 296 to 399 and overlap the range of exhalative systems. The δ56Fe values of Mn-Fe carbonate and δ66Zn values of sphalerite gradually decrease from early to late stages in three samples. A combination of the EPMA and isotopic data shows the Fe-Zn contents also have different correlations with δ66Zn values in sphalerite from these samples. Rayleigh distillation models this isotope and concentration data with the cause of fractionation related to vapour-liquid partitioning and mineral precipitation. In order to verify this Rayleigh distillation model, we combine our Fe-Zn isotopic data with those from previous studies to establish 12 Fe-Zn isotopic fractionation models. These fractionation models indicate the δ56Fei and δ66Zni values (initial Fe-Zn isotopic compositions) of the ore-forming system are in the range of − and , respectively. To conclude, the EPMA data, Fe-Zn isotopic characteristics, and fractionation models support the SEDEX model for the first pulse of mineralization.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 07:02:17 +000
  • Trace Elements and Minerals in Fumarolic Sulfur: The Case of Ebeko
           Volcano, Kuriles

    • Abstract: Native sulfur deposits on fumarolic fields at Ebeko volcano (Northern Kuriles, Russia) are enriched in chalcophile elements (As-Sb-Se-Te-Hg-Cu) and contain rare heavy metal sulfides (Ag2S, HgS, and CuS), native metal alloys (Au2Pd), and some other low-solubility minerals (CaWO4, BaSO4). Sulfur incrustations are impregnated with numerous particles of fresh and altered andesite groundmass and phenocrysts (pyroxene, magnetite) as well as secondary minerals, such as opal, alunite, and abundant octahedral pyrite crystals. The comparison of elemental abundances in sulfur and unaltered rocks (andesite) demonstrated that rock-forming elements (Ca, K, Fe, Mn, and Ti) and other lithophile and chalcophile elements are mainly transported by fumarolic gas as aerosol particles, whereas semimetals (As, Sb, Se, and Te), halogens (Br and I), and Hg are likely transported as volatile species, even at temperatures slightly above 100°C. The presence of rare sulfides (Ag2S, CuS, and HgS) together with abundant FeS2 in low-temperature fumarolic environments can be explained by the hydrochloric leaching of rock particles followed by the precipitation of low-solubility sulfides induced by the reaction of acid solutions with H2S at ambient temperatures. The elemental composition of native sulfur can be used to qualitatively estimate elemental abundances in low-temperature fumarolic gases.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Groundwater Level Distribution in Vacuum Dewatering Method in Phreatic

    • Abstract: Vacuum dewatering method has been widely used in geotechnical engineering. However, there is little research on the groundwater level distribution under the effect of vacuum pressure which is generated by vacuum wells. In view of this, the groundwater level distribution in phreatic aquifer is analyzed. First, the vacuum pressure distribution in soil is analyzed through Darcy’s law and steady-state seepage control equation based on established particles and pores model. Second, the boundary conditions are modified by the vacuum pressure distribution law and then the water level distribution equations in flow boundary and waterhead boundary conditions are derived. Finally, dewatering experiment is carried out to analyze the water levels in vacuum and nonvacuum dewatering and verify the theoretical model of water level distribution in vacuum dewatering. The results show that, in both boundary conditions, the water levels in vacuum dewatering are lower than those in nonvacuum dewatering. The theoretical values agree with the experimental values well, which proves the rationality of theoretical equations and predicting the water levels in vacuum dewatering method.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study on Pulse Characteristic of Produced Crude Composition in CO2
           Flooding Pilot Test

    • Abstract: It has been observed in many laboratory tests that the carbon number of the maximum concentration components (CNMCC) of produced oil varies monotonically with CO2 injection volume at the core scale. However, in CO2 flooding pilot test at the field scale, we find that the CNMCC is usually nonmonotonic function of CO2 injection volume, which is called “pulse characteristic” of CNMCC. To investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon, we analyze the physical process of CO2 flooding in heterogeneous reservoir and explain the reason of the pulse characteristic of CNMCC. Moreover, two 3D reservoir models with 35 nonaqueous components are proposed for numerical simulation to validate the conjecture. The simulation results show that pulse characteristic of CNMCC only occurs in the heterogeneous model, confirming that the pulse characteristic results from the channeling path between wells, which yields nonmonotonic variation of oil-CO2 mixing degree. Based on it, a new method can be developed to identify and quantify the reservoir heterogeneity.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Impact of Redox Condition on Fractionation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic
           in Arsenic-Contaminated Soils Remediated by Iron Amendments: A Long-Term

    • Abstract: Iron-bearing amendments, such as iron grit, are proved to be effective amendments for the remediation of arsenic- (As-) contaminated soils. In present study, the effect of redox condition on As fractions in As-contaminated soils remediated by iron grit was investigated, and the bioaccessibility of As in soils under anoxic condition was evaluated. Results showed that the labile fractions of As in soils decreased significantly after the addition of iron grit, while the unlabile fractions of As increased rapidly, and the bioaccessibility of As was negligible after 180 d incubation. More labile fractions of As in iron-amended soils were transformed into less mobilizable or unlabile fractions with the contact time. Correspondingly, the bioaccessibility of As in iron-amended soils under the aerobic condition was lower than that under the anoxic condition after 180 d incubation. The redistribution of loosely adsorbed fraction of As in soils occurred under the anoxic condition, which is likely ascribed to the reduction of As(V) to As(III) and the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydr)oxides. The stabilization processes of As in iron-amended soils under the anoxic and aerobic conditions were characterized by two stages. The increase of crystallization of Fe oxides, decomposition of organic matter, molecular diffusion, and the occlusion within Fe-(hydr)oxides cocontrolled the transformation of As fractions and the stabilization process of As in iron-amended soils under different redox conditions. In terms of As bioaccessibility, the stabilization process of As in iron-amended soils was shortened under the aerobic condition in comparison with the anoxic condition.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Migration of Gas in Water Saturated Clays by Coupled Hydraulic-Mechanical

    • Abstract: Understanding the gas migration in highly water saturated sedimentary rock formations is of great importance for safety of radioactive waste repositories which may use these host rocks as barrier. Recent experiments on drainage in argillite samples have demonstrated that they cannot be represented in terms of standard two-phase flow Darcy model. It has been suggested that gas flows along highly localized dilatant pathways. Due to very small pore size and the opacity of the material, it is not possible to observe this two-phase flow directly. In order to better understand the gas transport, a numerical coupled hydraulic-mechanical model at the pore scale is proposed. The model is formulated in terms of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and is applied to simulate drainage within a sample reconstructed from the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) images of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. A damage model is incorporated to take into account the degradation of elastic solid properties due to local conditions, which may lead to formation of new pathways and thus to modifications of fluid transport. The influence of the damage model as well as the possible importance of rigid inclusions is demonstrated and discussed.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Organic, Gas, and Element Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Fluids of the Newly
           Discovered Extensive Hydrothermal Area in the Wallis and Futuna Region (SW

    • Abstract: Two newly discovered hydrothermal vent fields of the Wallis and Futuna region, Kulo Lasi and Fatu Kapa, were sampled for fluid geochemistry. A great geochemical diversity was observed and assigned to the diversity of lithologies as well as the occurrence of various processes. Kulo Lasi fluids likely formed by interaction with fresh volcanic rocks, phase separation, and mixing with magmatic fluid. Conversely, the geochemistry of the Fatu Kapa fluids would be mostly due to water/felsic lavas reactions. In terms of organic geochemistry, fluids from both fields were found to be enriched in formate, acetate, and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs): n-alkanes, n-fatty acids, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Concentrations of SVOCs reached a few ppb at most. The distribution patterns of SVOCs indicated that several processes and sources, at once of biogenic, thermogenic, and abiogenic types, likely controlled organic geochemistry. Although the contribution of each process remains unknown, the mere presence of organics at the μM level has strong implications for metal dispersion (cycles), deposition (ore-forming), and bioavailability (ecosystems), especially as our fluxes estimations suggest that back-arc hosted vent fields could contribute as much as MOR to the global ocean heat and mass budget.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Dissolved Organic Matter on Sorption of Oxytetracycline to

    • Abstract: The effects of two representative dissolved organic matters (DOMs) (derived from corrupt plants (PDOM) and chicken manure (MDOM)) on sorption characteristic of oxytetracycline to three typical sediments (first terrace (FT), river floodplain (RF), and riverbed (RB) sediments collected from the Weihe River) were investigated. Results showed that both DOMs can make the adsorption equilibrium time advance about 6 hours. The presence of DOMs changed the sorption kinetics model and the spontaneous degree of the reaction but did not change the sorption isotherm models. The adsorption of oxytetracycline (OTC) could be promoted by adding PDOM, and its maximum adsorption amount increased by 23.8% for FT, 38.0% for RB, and 28.3% for RF, respectively, whereas MDOM could inhibit the adsorption and maximum adsorption amount decreased by 23.3% for FT, 11.6% for RB, and 16.1% for RF, respectively. In addition, the DOM concentration also affected the adsorption. Overall, this study suggests that the humus-like DOM can promote the adsorption of OTC while the protein-like DOM can inhibit the adsorption of OTC to sediments, which is determined by the aromaticity, hydrophilicity, and polarity of the DOMs.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigating Multiphase Flow Phenomena in Fine-Grained Reservoir Rocks:
           Insights from Using Ethane Permeability Measurements over a Range of Pore

    • Abstract: The ability to quantify effective permeability at the various fluid saturations and stress states experienced during production from shale oil and shale gas reservoirs is required for efficient exploitation of the resources, but to date experimental challenges prevent measurement of the effective permeability of these materials over a range of fluid saturations. To work towards overcoming these challenges, we measured effective permeability of a suite of gas shales to gaseous ethane over a range of pore pressures up to the saturated vapour pressure. Liquid/semiliquid ethane saturation increases due to adsorption and capillary condensation with increasing pore pressure resulting in decreasing effective permeability to ethane gas. By how much effective permeability to ethane gas decreases with adsorption and capillary condensation depends on the pore size distribution of each sample and the stress state that effective permeability is measured at. Effective permeability decreases more at higher stress states because the pores are smaller at higher stress states. The largest effective permeability drops occur in samples with dominant pore sizes in the mesopore range. These pores are completely blocked due to capillary condensation at pore pressures near the saturated vapour pressure of ethane. Blockage of these pores cuts off the main fluid flow pathways in the rock, thereby drastically decreasing effective permeability to ethane gas.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Hydraulic Gradient, Intersecting Angle, Aperture, and Fracture
           Length on the Nonlinearity of Fluid Flow in Smooth Intersecting Fractures:
           An Experimental Investigation

    • Abstract: This study experimentally investigated the nonlinearity of fluid flow in smooth intersecting fractures with a high Reynolds number and high hydraulic gradient. A series of fluid flow tests were conducted on one-inlet-two-outlet fracture patterns with a single intersection. During the experimental tests, the syringe pressure gradient was controlled and varied within the range of 0.20–1.80 MPa/m. Since the syringe pump used in the tests provided a stable flow rate for each hydraulic gradient, the effects of hydraulic gradient, intersecting angle, aperture, and fracture length on the nonlinearities of fluid flow have been analysed for both effluent fractures. The results showed that as the hydraulic gradient or aperture increases, the nonlinearities of fluid flow in both the effluent fractures and the influent fracture increase. However, the nonlinearity of fluid flow in one effluent fracture decreased with increasing intersecting angle or increasing fracture length, as the nonlinearity of fluid flow in the other effluent fracture simultaneously increased. In addition, the nonlinearities of fluid flow in each of the effluent fractures exceed that of the influent fracture.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Submerged Groundwater Discharges as Source of Fecal Material in Protected
           Karstic Coastal Areas

    • Abstract: Coastal zones are vital for their ecosystem services and socioeconomic value. Accordingly, several zones have been protected to limit anthropogenic development and to avoid environmental degradation. Nevertheless, some of these protected areas keep deteriorating probably related with anthropogenic contributions not considered in legislation. Specifically, submerged groundwater discharges (springs) could be releasing anthropogenic materials carried from remote inland areas to the coast. Here we evaluate the role and temporal variation of submerged groundwater discharges as sources of anthropogenic materials using the 5-stanol C27 markers in the natural protected area of Dzilam de Bravo, Yucatán, Mexico. Results demonstrate that (1) submerged groundwater discharge flux velocity and direction vary between hydrological season, exhibiting higher flow rates in Nortes season contrary to dry season and (2) the presence of coprostanol and epicoprostanol (anthropogenic fecal matter markers) in sediments surrounding the submerged groundwater discharges provides proof of allochthonous anthropogenic fecal material in a protected area, probably from remote inland sites. Thus, it is vitally important that inland anthropogenic materials transported in groundwater and released in the coastal environment by submerged groundwater discharges be considered in protection plans, like protection perimeters, for coastal zones.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Advances in Multiphase Flow and Transport in the Subsurface Environment

    • PubDate: Sun, 04 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Methane Extraction from Abandoned Mines by Surface Vertical Wells: A Case
           Study in China

    • Abstract: Considerable methane resources exist in abandoned coal mines. However, methane extraction from abandoned mines in China is still in the exploratory stage. This study presents technologies and engineering practices suitable for the extraction of gob methane from abandoned mines using surface vertical wells, including methane drainage systems, well bottom locations, and an intermittent drainage method. Seven surface wells in the Yongan abandoned mine in China were selected for gob methane extraction. Field results showed that the methane volumetric flow rate of a well whose bottom was close to the gob bottom was 2.5 times greater than that of a well with a bottom located in the gob fractured zone. Moreover, intermittent extraction can enable a well to extract methane cyclically at a high volumetric flow rate. A well drilled mistakenly into a coal pillar can be reused through hydraulic fracturing. The overall maximum methane volumetric flow rate, average concentration, and extraction span were 210 m3/h, 83%, and 1100 days, respectively.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Microscale Research on Effective Geosequestration of CO2 in Coal
           Reservoir: A Natural Analogue Study in Haishiwan Coalfield, China

    • Abstract: A natural analogue study in CO2-rich coalfield (Haishiwan, China) provides a strong support for safe, reliable, and long-term storage by analyzing the mechanism of CO2 migration, entrapment, and storage in coal reservoir. Thus, effects of geological tectonism on reservoir properties were investigated. Simultaneously, coal and oil shale samples before and after supercritical CO2 (SCCO2) treatment via geochemical reactor were collected to analyze changes in pore structure, functional group distributions, and SCCO2 extraction. Observations from in situ properties of coal seam indicate that there is a positive relationship with CH4 contents and F19 fault whereas CO2 and carbonate contents decrease as the distance from F19 increases. Analysis of pore properties reveals that SCCO2 enlarges the development of coal pore and facilitates the diffusion and seepage channel of coal reservoir, while no changes in larger pores are found in oil shale, which may restrain fluids from passing through. Then, oxygen-containing functional groups are mobilized by SCCO2 from oil shale, associated with a decrease in sorption sites. The sealing capacity of cap rock (oil shale) and geological tectonism (F19 fault), as the major contributors to CO2 enrichment and accumulation, provides insights into the suitable selection of CCGS site for long geological time.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Diagenetic Self-Organization and Stochastic Resonance in a Model of
           Limestone-Marl Sequences

    • Abstract: Banded patterns in limestone-marl sequences (“rhythmites”) form widespread sediments typical of shallow marine environments. They are characterized by alternations of limestone-rich layers and softer calcareous-clayey material (marl) extending over hundreds of meters with a thickness of a few tens of meters. The banded sequences are usually thought to result from systematic variations in the external environment, but the pattern may be distorted by diagenetic nonlinear processes. Here, we present a reactive-transport model for the formation of banded patterns in such a system. The model exhibits interesting features typical of nonlinear dynamical systems: (i) the existence of self-organized oscillating patterns between a calcite-rich mode (“limestone”) and a calcite-poor one (“marl”) for fixed environmental conditions and (ii) bistability between these two modes. We then illustrate the phenomena of stochastic resonance, whereby the multistable system is driven by a small external periodic signal (the 100,000 years’ Milankovitch cycle comes to mind) that is too weak to generate oscillations between the states on its own. In the presence of random fluctuations, however, the system generates transitions between the calcite-rich and calcite-poor states in statistical synchrony with the external forcing. The signal-to-noise ratio exhibits many maxima as the noise strength is varied. Hence, this amplification effect is maximized for specific values of the noise strength.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Physiochemical Restrictions of Mineral Zoning of Sediment-Hosted
           Stratiform Copper Deposit in SW China

    • Abstract: The Chuxiong basin, located in southwest China, is well known as a mineralization area of red-bed type copper deposits in China. These deposits are characterized by mineral zoning, which is especially true for the Dayao deposits. The mineral zoning is consistent for both horizontal and vertical zoning; from the base (center) of the ore body to the top (outermost), the mineral zones are from hematite, chalcocite, chalcocite + bornite, and bornite + chalcopyrite to pyrite. We studied the mineral zoning in detail using a thermodynamic phase diagram method, such as -, pH-, and pH-Eh, and discussed the constraints on the order of the minerals precipitation under different physiochemical conditions. It is indicated that changes in temperature have little effect on pH and Eh in the formation of minerals. S2− is stable only below 473 K, and the forming temperature of chalcocite must be below 473 K. In this paper, we also explain the mineral zoning formation mechanism and propose that the main controlling factor of mineral zoning is pH. Because this mineral zoning is widespread in sediment-hosted deposits, studies on this mechanism can considerably promote better understanding of the genesis of ore deposits in order to guide the exploration.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Simulating the Evolution of Fluid Underpressures in the Great Plains, by
           Incorporation of Tectonic Uplift and Tilting, with a Groundwater Flow

    • Abstract: Underpressures (subhydrostatic heads) in the Paleozoic units underlying the Great Plains of North America are a consequence of Cenozoic uplift of the area. Based on tectonostratigraphic data, we have developed a cumulative uplift history with superimposed periods of deposition and erosion for the Great Plains for the period from 40 Ma to the present. Uplift, deposition, and erosion on an 800 km geologic cross-section extending from northeast Colorado to eastern Kansas is represented in nine time-stepped geohydrologic models. Sequential solution of the two-dimensional diffusion equation reveals the evolution of hydraulic head and underpressure in a changing structural environment after 40 Ma, culminating in an approximate match with the measured present-day values. The modeled and measured hydraulic head values indicate that underpressures increase to the west. The 2 to 0 Ma model indicates that the present-day hydraulic head values of the Paleozoic units have not reached steady state. This result is significant because it indicates that present-day hydraulic heads are not at equilibrium, and underpressures will increase in the future. The pattern uncovered by the series of nine MODFLOW models is of increased underpressures with time. Overall, the models indicate that tectonic uplift explains the development of underpressures in the Great Plains.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Piper-PCA-Fisher Recognition Model of Water Inrush Source: A Case Study of
           the Jiaozuo Mining Area

    • Abstract: Source discrimination of mine water plays an important role in guiding mine water prevention in mine water management. To accurately determine water inrush source from a mine in the Jiaozuo mining area, a Piper trilinear diagram based on hydrochemical experimental data of stratified underground water in the area was utilized to determine typical water samples. Additionally, principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of conventional hydrochemical variables, after which mutually independent variables were extracted. The Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source recognition model was established by combining the Piper trilinear diagram and Fisher discrimination theory. Screened typical samples were used to conduct back-discriminate verification of the model. Results showed that 28 typical water samples in different aquifers were determined through the Piper trilinear diagram as a water sample set for training. Before PCA was carried out, the first five factors covered 98.92% of the information quantity of the original data and could effectively represent the data information of the original samples. During the one-by-one rediscrimination process of 28 groups of training samples using the Piper-PCA-Fisher water inrush source model, 100% correct discrimination rate was achieved. During the prediction and discrimination process of 13 samples, one water sample was misdiscriminated; hence, the correct prediscrimination rate was 92.3%. Compared with the traditional Fisher water source recognition model, the Piper-PCA-Fisher water source recognition model established in this study had higher accuracy in both rediscrimination and prediscrimination processes. Thus it had a strong ability to discriminate water inrush sources.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Modelling Seismically Induced Mesothermal Goldfields along the Deep-Rooted
           Cadillac-Larder Lake Fault, Abitibi, Canada

    • Abstract: Gold deposits are not uniformly distributed along major faults due to complex (and long-debated) interactions between seismicity, hydrothermalism, and structural heterogeneities. Here, we use static stress modelling (SSM) to quantitatively investigate these interactions, by exploring the role of Cadillac-Larder Lake Fault (CLLF) Archean seismicity in the genesis of the regional goldfields. Various rheological factors are evaluated for optimizing the models’ ability to reproduce known gold occurrences, regarded as the fossil primary markers of synkinematic hydrothermal systems. We propose that the marked structural heterogeneities of the CLLF induced persistent seismic segmentation and recurrent ruptures of the same fault windows that arrested on robust node points. These ruptures favour repeated occurrences of seismically triggered hydrothermalism along long-existing fluid pathways having an enhanced permeability and iterative ore formation into supracrustal discharge zones by means of episodic drops and build-ups of pressure. Two-dimensional SSM permits the predictive mapping of these high-potential zones. These modelled zones correlate positively with the actual observed gold distribution. We demonstrate that the ruptures along the Joannes Segment arresting on the Davidson Fault and Lapa’s bend can explain the occurrence and location of the Rouyn and Malartic goldfields; the models’ validity is improved by implementing regional geological constraints; and the distant gold occurrences from the CLLF, including the Bourlamaque field, can be explained by doublet seismic events along the Rivière-Héva and Lapause subsidiary faults. Our results provide new perspectives from a fundamental standpoint and for exploration purposes.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Regional Scale Investigation on Groundwater Arsenic in Different Types
           of Aquifers in the Pearl River Delta, China

    • Abstract: Nearly 400 groundwater samples were collected from different types of aquifers in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), and the concentrations of groundwater arsenic (As) and other 22 hydrochemical parameters in different types of aquifers were then investigated. Results showed that groundwater As concentration was up to hundreds g/L in granular aquifers, while those in fissured aquifers and karst aquifers were only up to dozens and several g/L, respectively. Correspondingly, about 9.4% and 2.3% samples with high concentrations (>0.01 mg/L) of As were in granular and fissured aquifers, respectively, but no samples with high concentration of As were in karst aquifers. The source and mobilization of groundwater As in granular aquifers are likely controlled by the following mechanism: organic matter in marine strata was mineralized and provided electrons for electron acceptors, resulting in the release of and and the reduction of Fe/Mn and , and was accompanied with the mobilization of As from sediments into groundwater. By contrast, both natural processes including the competitive adsorption between As anions and // and anthropogenic processes including industrialization were responsible for high concentrations of groundwater As in fissured aquifers.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
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