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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 202)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Geofluids
  [SJR: 0.693]   [H-I: 38]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1468-8115 - ISSN (Online) 1468-8123
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • The Distribution and Origin of Carbonate Cements in Deep-Buried Sandstones
           in the Central Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    • Abstract: Extremely high porosities and permeabilities are commonly discovered in the sandstones of the Xishanyao Formation in the central Junggar Basin with the burial depth greater than 5500 m, from which hydrocarbons are currently being produced. High content of carbonate cements (up to 20%) is also observed in a similar depth range. Our study aimed to improve our understanding on the origin of carbonate cements in the Xishanyao Formation, in order to provide insights into the existence of high porosity sandstones at greater depths. Integrated analyses including petrographic analysis, isotopic analysis, fluid-inclusion, and core analysis were applied to investigate the distribution and origin of carbonate cements and the influence of high fluid pressure on reservoir quality. Textural evidences demonstrate that there are two generations of carbonate cements, precipitated at the temperature of 90°C and 120°C, respectively. The carbonate cements with low ranging from −19.07 to dominantly occurred near the overpressure surface and especially accumulated at approximately 100 m below the surface. Our interpretation is that high content of carbonate cements is significantly influenced by early carbonate cements dissolution and migration under overpressure. Dissolution of plagioclase resulted in the development of internal pores and porosities of as much as 10% at 6500 m depth presumably.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 08:15:54 +000
  • Seismic Characterization of Hypogenic Karst Systems Associated with Deep
           Hydrothermal Fluids in the Middle-Lower Ordovician Yingshan Formation of
           the Shunnan Area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    • Abstract: Two fundamental forms of hypogenic karst systems (lateral stratiform hypogenic and cross-formational fault-vein hypogenic karst system) are distinguished mainly by differential effects of preexisting faults. In seismic cross sections, hypogenic karst systems are expressed as complex string-beads-like seismic reflections associated with faults. In this study, a new seismic characterization workflow was developed including seismic amplitude thresholding, fault interpretation, pickup, and merge display to enhance the description of the spatial distribution and coupling of hypogenic karst system and faults. The results suggest that the lateral stratiform hypogenic karst systems are predominantly developed at the top of the secondary faults, presenting an overall of “layered distribution and finger-like interaction” features. The cross-formational fault-vein hypogenic karst systems are developed around faults and characterized by dendritic distribution. Furthermore, we infer that the development pattern of hypogenic karst systems has been produced by the interplay of the faults, preexisting epigenic karst systems, and lateral carrier-beds, which together combine the complex hydrothermal migration pathways of fluids with the characteristics of vertical and horizontal combined pathways. In addition, some possible controlling factors (e.g., sequence stratigraphic boundaries, paleogeomorphology, and sedimentary facies) that can influence the development of these hypogenic karst systems have been discussed in detail.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 09:46:09 +000
  • The Coupling Effect of Rainfall and Reservoir Water Level Decline on the
           Baijiabao Landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    • Abstract: Rainfall and reservoir level fluctuation are two of the main factors contributing to reservoir landslides. However, in China’s Three Gorges Reservoir Area, when the reservoir water level fluctuates significantly, it comes at a time of abundant rainfall, which makes it difficult to distinguish which factor dominates the deformation of the landslide. This study focuses on how rainfall and reservoir water level decline affect the seepage and displacement field of Baijiabao landslide spatially and temporally during drawdown of reservoir water level in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, thus exploring its movement mechanism. The monitoring data of the landslide in the past 10 years were analyzed, and the correlation between rainfall, reservoir water level decline, and landslide displacement was clarified. By the numerical simulation method, the deformation evolution mechanism of this landslide during drawdown of reservoir water level was revealed, respectively, under three conditions, namely, rainfall, reservoir water level decline, and coupling of the above two conditions. The results showed that the deformation of the Baijiabao landslide was the coupling effect of rainfall and reservoir water level decline, while the latter effect is more pronounced.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigating the Permeability of Marble under Moderate Pressure and

    • Abstract: The permeability of intact marble samples collected from the depth of 1.6 km in southwestern China is investigated under moderate confining pressures and temperatures. No microcracks initiate or propagate during the tests, and the variation of permeability is due to the change of aperture of microcracks. Test results show a considerable decrease of permeability along with confining pressure increase from 10 to 30 MPa and temperature increase from 15 to 40°C. The thermal effect on the permeability is notable in comparison with the influence of the stress. A simple permeability evolution law is developed to correlate the permeability and the porosity in the compressive regime based on the microphysical geometric linkage model. Using this law, the permeability in the compressive regime for crystalline rock can be predicted from the volumetric strain curve of mechanical tests.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 09:36:55 +000
  • Experiment of Carbonate Dissolution: Implication for High Quality
           Carbonate Reservoir Formation in Deep and Ultradeep Basins

    • Abstract: As the most frontiers in petroleum geology, the study of dissolution-based rock formation in deep carbonate reservoirs provides insight into pore development mechanism of petroleum reservoir space, while predicting reservoir distribution in deep-ultradeep layers. In this study, we conducted dissolution-precipitation experiments simulating surface to deep burial environments (open and semiopen systems). The effects of temperature, pressure, and dissolved ions on carbonate dissolution-precipitation were investigated under high temperature and pressure (~200°C; ~70 Mpa) with a series of petrographic and geochemical analytical methods. The results showed that the window-shape dissolution curve appeared in 75~150°C in the open system and 120~175°C in the semiopen system. Furthermore, the dissolution weight loss of carbonate rocks in the open system was higher than that of semiopen system, making it more favorable for gaining porosity. The type of fluid and rock largely determines the reservoir quality. In the open system, the dissolution weight loss of calcite was higher than that of dolomite with 0.3% CO2 as the reaction fluid. In the semiopen system, the weight loss from dolomitic limestone prevailed with 0.3% CO2 as the reaction fluid. Our study could provide theoretical basis for the prediction of high quality carbonate reservoirs in deep and ultradeep layers.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Experimental Study on the Effects of Stress Variations on the Permeability
           of Feldspar-Quartz Sandstone

    • Abstract: The multistage and discontinuous nature of the injection process used in the geological storage of CO2 causes reservoirs to experience repeated loading and unloading. The reservoir permeability changes caused by this phenomenon directly impact the CO2 injection process and the process of CO2 migration in the reservoirs. Through laboratory experiments, variations in the permeability of sandstone in the Liujiagou formation of the Ordos CO2 capture and storage (CCS) demonstration project were analyzed using cyclic variations in injection pressure and confining pressure and multistage loading and unloading. The variation in the micropore structure and its influence on the permeability were analyzed based on micropore structure tests. In addition, the effects of multiple stress changes on the permeability of the same type of rock with different clay minerals content were also analyzed. More attention should be devoted to the influence of pressure variations on permeability in evaluations of storage potential and studies of CO2 migration in reservoirs in CCS engineering.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • New Insight into the Kinetics of Deep Liquid Hydrocarbon Cracking and Its

    • Abstract: The deep marine natural gas accumulations in China are mainly derived from the cracking of liquid hydrocarbons with different occurrence states. Besides accumulated oil in reservoir, the dispersed liquid hydrocarbon in and outside source also is important source for cracking gas generation or relayed gas generation in deep formations. In this study, nonisothermal gold tube pyrolysis and numerical calculations as well as geochemical analysis were conducted to ascertain the expulsion efficiency of source rocks and the kinetics for oil cracking. By determination of light liquid hydrocarbons and numerical calculations, it is concluded that the residual bitumen or hydrocarbons within source rocks can occupy about 50 wt.% of total oil generated at oil generation peak. This implies that considerable amounts of natural gas can be derived from residual hydrocarbon cracking and contribute significantly to the accumulation of shale gas. Based on pyrolysis experiments and kinetic calculations, we established a model for the cracking of oil and its different components. In addition, a quantitative gas generation model was also established to address the contribution of the cracking of residual oil and expulsed oil for natural gas accumulations in deep formations. These models may provide us with guidance for gas resource evaluation and future gas exploration in deep formations.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 07:03:30 +000
  • Modeling and Analysis of Magnetic Nanoparticles Injection in Water-Oil
           Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media under Magnetic Field Effect

    • Abstract: In this paper, the magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a water-oil, two-phase system under the influence of an external permanent magnetic field. We lay down the mathematical model and provide a set of numerical exercises of hypothetical cases to show how an external magnetic field can influence the transport of nanoparticles in the proposed two-phase system in porous media. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture, whereas it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetization properties, the density, and the viscosity of the ferrofluids are obtained based on mixture theory relationships. In the mathematical model, the phase pressure contains additional term to account for the extra pressures due to fluid magnetization effect and the magnetostrictive effect. As a proof of concept, the proposed model is applied on a countercurrent imbibition flow system in which both the displacing and the displaced fluids move in opposite directions. Physical variables, including water-nanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat concentrations of deposited nanoparticles, are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field. Two different locations of the magnet are studied numerically, and variations in permeability and porosity are considered.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Worldwide Status of CCUS Technologies and Their Development and Challenges
           in China

    • Abstract: Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) is a gas injection technology that enables the storage of CO2 underground. The aims are twofold, on one hand to reduce the emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere and on the other hand to increase oil/gas/heat recovery. Different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects have a long history of research and operation in the USA. However, in China they have a short development period ca. 10 years. Unlike CO2 capture and CO2-EOR technologies that are already operating on a commercial scale in China, research into other CCUS technologies is still in its infancy or at the pilot-scale. This paper first reviews the status and development of the different types of CCUS technologies and related engineering projects worldwide. Then it focuses on their developments in China in the last decade. The main research projects, international cooperation, and pilot-scale engineering projects in China are summarized and compared. Finally, the paper examines the challenges and prospects to be experienced through the industrialization of CCUS engineering projects in China. It can be concluded that the CCUS technologies have still large potential in China. It can only be unlocked by overcoming the technical and social challenges.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Identification of Two Types of Metallogenic Fluids in the Ultra-Large
           Huize Pb–Zn Deposit, SW China

    • Abstract: This work investigates the ultra-large Huize Pb–Zn deposit, based on the results of preceding studies and detailed field geological surveys. The existing findings were reorganized and reinterpreted and supplemented with C–H–O isotopic measurements, which resulted in the identification of two different metallogenic fluids: a high temperature, low salinity, and acidic Fluid A, which originates from deep-seated fluids and is enriched in lighter C and O isotopes (−3 < δ13C < −4; 10 < δ18O < 17; −92 < δD < −50), and a low temperature, high salinity Fluid B, which is a subsurface brine formed by atmospheric precipitation. Fluid B is characterized by heavier C–O–H isotopic compositions (−2 < δ13C < 1; 2 < δ18O < 24; −66 < δD < −43) than Fluid A and cycles continuously within the strata. We hypothesize that the Huize Pb–Zn deposit is the result of large-scale fluid migration from deep regions of the crust. These upward-moving fluids extracted metallic elements from carbonate strata of various ages, forming a metal-rich metallogenic fluid (Fluid A). After higher-grade ores were precipitated from the fluid following decompression boiling, it then mixed with Fluid B and continued to precipitate sulfides.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Approximate Solution for Predicting the Heat Extraction and Preventing
           Heat Loss from a Closed-Loop Geothermal Reservoir

    • Abstract: Approximate solutions are found for a mathematical model developed to predict the heat extraction from a closed-loop geothermal system which consists of two vertical wells (one for injection and the other for production) and one horizontal well which connects the two vertical wells. Based on the feature of slow heat conduction in rock formation, the fluid flow in the well is divided into three stages, that is, in the injection, horizontal, and production wells. The output temperature of each stage is regarded as the input of the next stage. The results from the present model are compared with those obtained from numerical simulator TOUGH2 and show first-order agreement with a temperature difference less than 4°C for the case where the fluid circulated for 2.74 years. In the end, a parametric study shows that () the injection rate plays dominant role in affecting the output performance, () higher injection temperature produces larger output temperature but decreases the total heat extracted given a specific time, () the output performance of geothermal reservoir is insensitive to fluid viscosity, and () there exists a critical point that indicates if the fluid releases heat into or absorbs heat from the surrounding formation.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 07:45:40 +000
  • The Early Cambrian Mianyang-Changning Intracratonic Sag and Its Control on
           Petroleum Accumulation in the Sichuan Basin, China

    • Abstract: The older and deeper hydrocarbon accumulations receive increasing attention across the world, providing more technical and commercial challenges to hydrocarbon exploration. We present a study of an asymmetrical, N-S striking intracratonic sag which developed across the Sichuan basin, south China, from Late Ediacaran to Early Cambrian times. The Mianyang-Changning intracratonic sag is ~50 km wide, with its steepest part in the basin center. In particular the eastern margin shows its greatest steepness. Five episodes in the evolutions of the sag can be recognized. It begins in the Late Ediacaran with an uplift and erosion correlated to Tongwan movement. Initial extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Maidiping period, when more strata of the Maidiping Formation were deposited across the sag. Subsequently, maximum extension occurred during the Early Cambrian Qiongzhusi period that resulted in 450–1700 m thick Maidiping-Canglangpu Formations being deposited in the sag. Then, the sag disappeared at the Longwangmiao period, as it was infilled by the sediments. The intracratonic sag has significant influence on the development of high-quality reservoirs in the Dengying and Longwangmiao Formations and source-rock of the Niutitang Formation. It thus indicates that a high probability for oil/gas accumulation exists along the intracratonic sag, across the central Sichuan basin.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Implementation of a Time-Domain Random-Walk Method into a Discrete Element
           Method to Simulate Nuclide Transport in Fractured Rock Masses

    • Abstract: It is essential to study nuclide transport with underground water in fractured rock masses in order to evaluate potential radionuclide leakage in nuclear waste disposal. A time-domain random-walk (TDRW) method was firstly implemented into a discrete element method (DEM), that is, UDEC, in this paper to address the pressing challenges of modelling the nuclide transport in fractured rock masses such as massive fractures and coupled hydromechanical effect. The implementation was then validated against analytical solutions for nuclide transport in a single fracture and a simple fracture network. After that, the proposed implementation was applied to model the nuclide transport in a complex fracture network investigated in the DECOVALEX 2011 project to analyze the effect of matrix diffusion and stress on the nuclide transport in the fractured rock masses. It was concluded that the implementation of the TDRW method into UDEC provided a valuable tool to study the nuclide transport in the fractured rock masses. Moreover, it was found that the total travel time of the nuclide particles in the fractured rock masses with the matrix diffusion and external stress modelled was much longer than that without the matrix diffusion and external stress modelled.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 06:24:46 +000
  • Processes Governing Alkaline Groundwater Chemistry within a Fractured Rock
           (Ophiolitic Mélange) Aquifer Underlying a Seasonally Inhabited Headwater
           Area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey)

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate natural and anthropogenic processes governing the chemical composition of alkaline groundwater within a fractured rock (ophiolitic mélange) aquifer underlying a seasonally inhabited headwater area in the Aladağlar Range (Adana, Turkey). In this aquifer, spatiotemporal patterns of groundwater flow and chemistry were investigated during dry (October 2011) and wet (May 2012) seasons utilizing 25 shallow hand-dug wells. In addition, representative samples of snow, rock, and soil were collected and analyzed to constrain the PHREEQC inverse geochemical models used for simulating water-rock interaction (WRI) processes. Hydrochemistry of the aquifer shows a strong interseasonal variability where Mg–HCO3 and Mg–Ca–HCO3 water types are prevalent, reflecting the influence of ophiolitic and carbonate rocks on local groundwater chemistry. R-mode factor analysis of hydrochemical data hints at geochemical processes taking place in the groundwater system, that is, WRI involving Ca- and Si-bearing phases; WRI involving amorphous oxyhydroxides and clay minerals; WRI involving Mg-bearing phases; and atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs. Results from the PHREEQC modeling suggested that hydrogeochemical evolution is governed by weathering of primary minerals (calcite, chrysotile, forsterite, and chromite), precipitation of secondary minerals (dolomite, quartz, clinochlore, and Fe/Cr oxides), atmospheric/anthropogenic inputs (halite), and seasonal dilution from recharge.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid
           Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    • Abstract: The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (%) and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1). The results of Vb (%), LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Biomarkers and C and S Isotopes of the Permian to Triassic Solid Bitumen
           and Its Potential Source Rocks in NE Sichuan Basin

    • Abstract: The potential parent source rocks except from Upper Permian Dalong Formation (P3d) for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic solid bitumen show high maturity to overmaturity with equivalent vitrinite reflectance () from 1.7% to 3.1% but have extractable organic matter likely not contaminated by younger source rocks. P3d source rocks were deposited under euxinic environments as indicated by the pyrite 34S values as light as and distribution of aryl isoprenoids, which were also detected from the Lower Silurian (S1l) source rock and the solid bitumen in the gas fields in the west not in the east. All the solid bitumen not altered by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) has 13C and 34S values similar to part of the P3l kerogens and within the S1l kerogens. Thus, the eastern solid bitumen may have been derived from the P3l kerogens, and the western solid bitumen was likely to have precracking oils from P3l kerogens mixed with the S1l or P3d kerogens. This case-study tentatively shows that 13C and 34S values along with biomarkers have the potential to be used for the purpose of solid bitumen and source rock correlation in a rapidly buried basin, although further work should be done to confirm it.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Study on Fluid-Induced Vibration Power Harvesting of Square Columns under
           Different Attack Angles

    • Abstract: A model of the flow-vibration-electrical circuit multiphysical coupling system for solving square column vortex-induced vibration piezoelectric energy harvesting (VIVPEH) is proposed in this paper. The quasi steady state theory is adopted to describe the fluid solid coupling process of vortex-induced vibration based on the finite volume method coupled Gauss equation. The vibrational response and the quasi steady state form of the output voltage are solved by means of the matrix coefficient method and interactive computing. The results show that attack angles play an important role in the performance of square column VIVPEH, of which ° is a relatively ideal attack angle of square column VIVPEH.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Origin and Evolution of the Ore-Forming Fluids in the Liyuan Gold Deposit,
           Central North China Craton: Constraints from Fluid Inclusions and H-O-C
           Isotopic Compositions

    • Abstract: The Liyuan gold deposit is hosted within Archean basement metamorphic rocks and controlled by the NNE-trending faults in the central North China Craton. The ore-forming processes can be divided into three stages (early, middle, and late). Three types of primary fluid inclusions (FIs) are identified in the Liyuan, including pure carbonic, carbonic-aqueous, and aqueous inclusions. The primary FIs of three stages are mainly homogenized at temperatures of 318–408°C, 201–329°C, and 136–229°C, with salinities of 2.1–8.9, 0.5–12.4, and 0.4–6.3 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The main Au mineralization is related to the middle stage, and water-rock interaction caused rapid precipitation of gold in this stage. The initial ore-forming fluids were likely magmatic water or metamorphic fluid and mixed with meteoric water at later stages. Due to the lack of granite body at the present mining levels, we speculate that it was magmatic water that might have been exsolved from a concealed granite body at greater depth or it was metamorphic fluid that was directly transported from depth via deep faults. Based on all the available geological and geochemical evidence, we suggest that the Liyuan deposit belongs to orogenic gold deposit that located in the interior North China Craton.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Aug 2017 08:57:02 +000
  • Numerical Investigation into the Impact of CO2-Water-Rock Interactions on
           CO2 Injectivity at the Shenhua CCS Demonstration Project, China

    • Abstract: A 100,000 t/year demonstration project for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage in the deep saline formations of the Ordos Basin, China, has been successfully completed. Field observations suggested that the injectivity increased nearly tenfold after CO2 injection commenced without substantial pressure build-up. In order to evaluate whether this unique phenomenon could be attributed to geochemical changes, reactive transport modeling was conducted to investigate CO2-water-rock interactions and changes in porosity and permeability induced by CO2 injection. The results indicated that using porosity-permeability relationships that include tortuosity, grain size, and percolation porosity, other than typical Kozeny-Carman porosity-permeability relationship, it is possible to explain the considerable injectivity increase as a consequence of mineral dissolution. These models might be justified in terms of selective dissolution along flow paths and by dissolution or migration of plugging fines. In terms of geochemical changes, dolomite dissolution is the largest source of porosity increase. Formation physical properties such as temperature, pressure, and brine salinity were found to have modest effects on mineral dissolution and precipitation. Results from this study could have practical implications for a successful CO2 injection and enhanced oil/gas/geothermal production in low-permeability formations, potentially providing a new basis for screening of storage sites and reservoirs.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 10:23:50 +000
  • Fault-Related Controls on Upward Hydrothermal Flow: An Integrated
           Geological Study of the Têt Fault System, Eastern Pyrénées (France)

    • Abstract: The way faults control upward fluid flow in nonmagmatic hydrothermal systems in extensional context is still unclear. In the Eastern Pyrénées, an alignment of twenty-nine hot springs (29°C to 73°C), along the normal Têt fault, offers the opportunity to study this process. Using an integrated multiscale geological approach including mapping, remote sensing, and macro- and microscopic analyses of fault zones, we show that emergence is always located in crystalline rocks at gneiss-metasediments contacts, mostly in the Têt fault footwall. The hot springs distribution is related to high topographic reliefs, which are associated with fault throw and segmentation. In more detail, emergence localizes either (1) in brittle fault damage zones at the intersection between the Têt fault and subsidiary faults or (2) in ductile faults where dissolution cavities are observed along foliations, allowing juxtaposition of metasediments. Using these observations and 2D simple numerical simulation, we propose a hydrogeological model of upward hydrothermal flow. Meteoric fluids, infiltrated at high elevation in the fault footwall relief, get warmer at depth because of the geothermal gradient. Topography-related hydraulic gradient and buoyancy forces cause hot fluid rise along permeability anisotropies associated with lithological juxtapositions, fracture, and fault zone compositions.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Multiphase Calcite Cementation and Fluids Evolution of a Deeply Buried
           Carbonate Reservoir in the Upper Ordovician Lianglitag Formation, Tahe
           Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    • Abstract: Oil and gas have been found in the Upper Ordovician Lianglitag Formation carbonates in the Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China. This study documents the origin of diagenetic fluids by using a combination of petrology, SIMS, fluid inclusion, and radiogenic isotope analysis. Six stages of calcite cements were revealed. C1-C2 formed in marine to early burial environments. C3 has relatively low δ18 values (−8.45 to −6.50) and likely has a meteoric origin. Meteoric water probably fluxed into aquifers during the Early Paleozoic and Late Paleozoic uplift. C4 has δ18 values typically 3 higher than those of C3, and probably formed during shallow burial. C5 displays relatively negative δ18 values (−8.26 to −5.12), and the moderate-to-high fluid-inclusion temperatures imply that it precipitated in burial environments. C6 shows homogenization temperatures (up to 200°C) higher than the maximum burial and much lower salinities (
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2017 07:23:04 +000
  • Origin and Distribution of Carbonate Cement in Tight Sandstones: The Upper
           Triassic Yanchang Formation Chang 8 Oil Layer in West Ordos Basin, China

    • Abstract: Two generations of carbonate cement as Type I (microcrystalline calcite and dolomite) and Type II (mainly Fe-calcite and Fe-dolomite) are recognized in Chang 8 sandstones, Ordos basin. Carbonate cement in Chang 8 sandstones is closely related to the dissolved carbon from thermal maturation of organic matters. Carbonate cement in the loosely packed framework grains precipitated shortly after deposition, and late-stage ferroan calcite and ferroan dolomite formed with progressive burial. The early diagenetic carbonate cement is partially to completely replaced by late-stage ferroan calcite and ferroan dolomite. Carbonate cement is much more commonly observed in sand bodies adjacent to Chang 7 source rocks. With increasing distance from the Chang 7 oil layers, the carbonate cement content gradually decreases. However, some tight carbonate cemented zones also occur at the sandstone-mudstone interfaces. Dissolution of Ca-feldspars by organic acids-rich fluids, together with clay mineral transformations such as illitization of smectite, would provide Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions for carbonate cementation. Organic acids and CO2 rich fluids would charge into the reservoirs with the hydrocarbons, and when the CO2 and acids were buffered by the framework grain dissolution, carbonate cement would precipitate with a decrease in CO2 concentration.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 09:16:44 +000
  • On Heat and Mass Transfer within Thermally Shocked Region of Enhanced
           Geothermal System

    • Abstract: An Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) is an artificially created geothermal reservoir formed by hydrofracturing hot dry rock. Thermal shock occurs when the cold water contacts the hot rock near the injection borehole, creating a network of small, disorganized, closely spaced micro cracks. As the cold-water injection continues, the hot rock cools down and the micro cracks coalesce, becoming a better-defined network of thermal fractures. Thermal fractures in an EGS reservoir are believed to improve reservoir performance by increasing the surface area for heat exchange and lowering flow impedance; however, it is difficult to precisely predict how they grow and affect the permeability of the reservoir. The goal of this paper is to provide an insight into the transport mechanisms within the thin, permeable, thermally shocked region of an EGS reservoir. COMSOL Multiphysics® is used to set up an indealized porous region with identical geometrical features at different domain scales to show the scale dependence of heat and mass transport in the initial microscale crack network and in the later coalesced thermal fractures. This research shows the importance of EGS maturity in determining how heat and mass are transferred and how to select appropriate analytical tools for different stages of development.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Flow Direction on Relative Permeability Curves in Water/Gas
           Reservoir System: Implications in Geological CO2 Sequestration

    • Abstract: The effect of gravity on vertical flow and fluids saturation, especially when flow is against gravity, is not often a subject of interest to researchers. This is because of the notion that flow in subsurface formations is usually in horizontal direction and that vertical flow is impossible or marginal because of the impermeable shales or silts overlying them. The density difference between two fluids (usually oil and water) flowing in the porous media is also normally negligible; hence gravity influence is neglected. Capillarity is also often avoided in relative permeability measurements in order to satisfy some flow equations. These notions have guided most laboratory core flooding experiments to be conducted in horizontal flow orientation, and the data obtained are as good as what the experiments tend to mimic. However, gravity effect plays a major role in gas liquid systems such as CO2 sequestration and some types of enhanced oil recovery techniques, particularly those involving gases, where large density difference exists between the fluid pair. In such cases, laboratory experiments conducted to derive relative permeability curves should take into consideration gravity effects and capillarity. Previous studies attribute directional dependence of relative permeability and residual saturations to rock anisotropy. It is shown in this study that rock permeability, residual saturation, and relative permeability depend on the interplay between gravity, capillarity, and viscous forces and also the direction of fluid flow even when the rock is isotropic. Rock samples representing different lithology and wide range of permeabilities were investigated through unsteady-state experiments covering drainage and imbibition in both vertical and horizontal flow directions. The experiments were performed at very low flow rates to capture capillarity. The results obtained showed that, for each homogeneous rock and for the same flow path along the core length, the relative permeability and residual saturation are dependent on flow direction. The results were reproducible in all experiments conducted on the samples. This directional dependence, when accounted for in numerical simulation, can significantly improve simulation accuracy in the flow processes described.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Gas Seepage along the Edge of the Aquitaine Shelf (France): Origin and
           Local Fluxes

    • Abstract: During the scientific expedition GAZCOGNE2 at the Bay of Biscay nine gas seeps were sampled for the first time and their flux was measured using an in situ pressure-preservation sampler (PEGAZ, ©IFREMER). Overall, three sites were investigated to determine the nature and the origin of the gases bubbling at the seafloor and forming acoustic plumes into the water column, as this was the question raised from the first geologic study of the area. This has guided our study and accordingly corresponds to the main purpose of the present article. Thus, the molecular and isotopic (δD and δ13C) analyses revealed that the gas seeps were primarily composed of methane. Both methane and ethane are of microbial origin, and the former has been generated by microbial reduction of carbon dioxide. Heavier hydrocarbons accounted for less than 0.06% mol of the total amount. Despite the microbial origin of methane, the samples exhibit subtle differences with respect to the values, which varied between −72.7 and −66.1. It has been suggested that such a discrepancy was predominantly governed by the occurrence of anaerobic methane oxidation. The PEGAZ sampler also enabled us to estimate the local gas fluxes from the sampled streams. The resulting values are extremely heterogeneous between seeps, ranging from 35 to 368 mLn·min−1. Assuming a steady discharge, the mean calculated methane emission for the nine seeps is of 38 kmol·yr−1. Considering the extent of the seep area, this very local estimate suggests that the Aquitaine Shelf is a very appropriate place to study methane discharge and its fate on continental shelves.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Jul 2017 06:31:49 +000
  • Influences of Hydraulic Fracturing on Fluid Flow and Mineralization at the
           Vein-Type Tungsten Deposits in Southern China

    • Abstract: Wolframite is the main ore mineral at the vein-type tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range, which is a world-class tungsten province. It is disputed how wolframite is precipitated at these deposits and no one has yet studied the links of the mechanical processes to fluid flow and mineralization. Finite element-based numerical experiments are used to investigate the influences of a hydraulic fracturing process on fluid flow and solubility of CO2 and quartz. The fluids are aqueous NaCl solutions and fluid pressure is the only variable controlling solubility of CO2 and quartz in the numerical experiments. Significant fluctuations of fluid pressure and high-velocity hydrothermal pulse are found once rock is fractured by high-pressure fluids. The fluid pressure drop induced by hydraulic fracturing could cause a 9% decrease of quartz solubility. This amount of quartz deposition may not cause a significant decrease in rock permeability. The fluid pressure decrease after hydraulic fracturing also reduces solubility of CO2 by 36% and increases pH. Because an increase in pH would cause a major decrease in solubility of tungsten, the fluid pressure drop accompanying a hydraulic fracturing process facilitates wolframite precipitation. Our numerical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating wolframite at the tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range as well as other metals whose solubility is strongly dependent on pH.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Geochemical Model of Fluids and Mineral Interactions for Deep
           Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    • Abstract: A mutual solubility model for CO2-CH4-brine systems is constructed in this work as a fundamental research for applications of deep hydrocarbon exploration and production. The model is validated to be accurate for wide ranges of temperature (0–250°C), pressure (1–1500 bar), and salinity (NaCl molality from 0 to more than 6 mole/KgW). Combining this model with PHREEQC functionalities, CO2-CH4-brine-carbonate-sulfate equilibrium is calculated. From the calculations, we conclude that, for CO2-CH4-brine-carbonate systems, at deeper positions, magnesium is more likely to be dissolved in aqueous phase and calcite can be more stable than dolomite and, for CO2-CH4-brine-sulfate systems, with a presence of CH4, sulfate ions are likely to be reduced to S2− and H2S in gas phase could be released after S2− saturated in the solution. The hydrocarbon “souring” process could be reproduced from geochemical calculations in this work.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 09:18:14 +000
  • Genesis of the Bairendaba Ag-Zn-Pb Deposit, Southern Great Xing’an
           Range, NE China: A Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Study

    • Abstract: The Bairendaba deposit is the largest Ag-Zn-Pb deposit in Inner Mongolia. Vein and disseminated ores occur in biotite-plagioclase gneiss and quartz diorite along regional EW trending faults. Microthermometric data for H2O-NaCl ± CH4  ± CO2 fluid inclusions record a decrease in homogenization temperature and salinity of ore-forming fluids with time. Early and main-stage mineralization have homogenization temperatures of 242°–395°C and 173°–334°C, respectively, compared with 138°–213°C for late-stage mineralization. Fluid salinities for early mineralization have a bimodal distribution, dominantly 4.2–11.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent, with 35.2–37.8 wt.% NaCl equivalent for a small population of halite-bearing inclusions. Main- and late-stage fluids have salinities of 2.1–10.2 wt.% NaCl equivalent and 0.7–8.4 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data indicate the interaction of a magmatic fluid with wall rocks in early mineralization, followed by the introduction of meteoric water during late-stage mineralization. Values of –15.9 to –12 (δ13) for hydrothermal quartz indicate that organic-rich strata were the source of carbon. Sulfur had a magmatic source, based on values of –0.1 to 1.5 (δ34) for sulfide minerals. The Bairendaba deposit is a typical mesothermal system with mineralization controlled by structure.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Pore Fluid Evolution Influenced by Volcanic Activities and Related
           Diagenetic Processes in a Rift Basin: Evidence from the Paleogene
           Medium-Deep Reservoirs of Huanghekou Sag, Bohai Bay Basin, China

    • Abstract: Volcanic activities exert a significant influence on pore fluid property and related diagenetic processes that substantially controlled reservoirs quality. Analysis of Paleogene medium-deep sandstones on the Huanghekou Sag provides insight into relating the diagenetic processes to pore fluid property evolution influenced by volcanic activities. Three distinct types of pore fluids were identified on the basis of an integrated and systematic analysis including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, and trace element. Alkaline aqueous medium environment occurred in E2s1+2 where volcanic activities have insignificant influence on pore fluids, evidenced by typical alkaline diagenetic events such as K-feldspar albitization, quartz dissolution, feldspar dissolution, and carbonate cementation. During the deposition of E3d3, influx of terrestrial freshwater and alteration of ferromagnesian-rich pore water result in the formation of mixing aqueous medium environment through volcanic eruption dormancy causing zeolite dissolution, clay mineral transformation, and K-feldspar albitization. Ferromagnesian-rich aqueous medium environment developed resulting from the intensive hydrolysis of the unstable ferromagnesian minerals formed due to intense volcanic activities during E3d1+2 and corresponding predominant diagenetic processes were characterized by the precipitation and dissolution of low-silica zeolites. Therefore, the differential properties of pore fluids caused various diagenetic processes controlling reservoir quality.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Retention of Nanoparticles: From Laboratory Cores to Outcrop Scale

    • Abstract: Laboratory experiments on small scale core plugs have shown controlled nanoparticles (NPs) retention. The length scale of subsurface media where NPs must be transported is an important factor that should be accounted for in a comprehensive manner when translating laboratory results to field scale. This study investigates the fraction of NPs retained inside porous media as a function of length scale of the media. A two-dimensional numerical model was used to simulate the retention of NPs at multiple scales of porous media, starting from laboratory scale cores to heterogeneous outcrop scales. Retention of NPs is modeled based on the concept of reversible and irreversible retention, by using the laboratory scale determined parameters. Our results show that the fraction of retained NPs increases nonlinearly with the length scale of the homogeneous media. The results also show that if the heterogeneity of the medium is consistent across scales, the fraction of retained NPs would behave just like homogeneous medium. In this study, small change in heterogeneity at two outcrop scales affects the retention of NPs, suggesting that heterogeneity may significantly impact the retention behavior of NPs that may not necessarily follow the behavior predicted from homogeneous cores (or periodically heterogeneous medium).
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 06:30:40 +000
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