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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
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J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Experimental Diabetes Research
  [SJR: 1.591]   [H-I: 30]   [13 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Integration of Routine Parameters of Glycemic Variability in a Simple
           Screening Method for Partial Remission in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Although different criteria were used to define partial remission in type 1 diabetes, the IDAA1C formula has prevailed as it correlates with stimulated C-peptide levels. Our retrospective study evaluated clinical variables associated with the occurrence of IDAA1C-defined partial remission in a series of 239 pediatric patients. Diabetic ketoacidosis and age at diagnosis, but no other clinical feature, influenced the occurrence of remission. We then evaluated whether parameters of glycemic variability used in clinical routine may reliably define partial remission, as these would alleviate confounding factors related to insulin treatment. Using multiple linear regression, we observed that HbA1C levels and percentage of normoglycemia were efficient and sufficient to predict partial remission. These parameters were entered into a formula, called glycemic target-adjusted HbA1C (GTAA1C), that corresponded to HbA1C(%) − (3 × % of normoglycemic values(70–180 mg/dL)). With a threshold of 4.5, this alternative formula predicted partial remission with a sensitivity and a specificity of 72.3% and 92%, respectively, and yielded strong correlation with IDAA1C levels and BETA-2 score, which is a correlate of β-cell function after islet transplantation. We propose GTAA1C, based on routine and objective markers of glycemic variability, as a valid alternative for definition of partial remission in type 1 diabetes.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Pycnogenol® Induces Browning of White Adipose Tissue through the PKA
           Signaling Pathway in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    • Abstract: Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) have received considerable recognition because of their potential protective effect against obesity. Pycnogenol (PYC), extracted from French maritime pine bark, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can improve lipid profiles. However, the effect of PYC on obesity has never been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of PYC on obesity and WAT browning in apolipoprotein E- (ApoE-) deficient mice. The results showed that PYC treatment clearly reversed body weight and the mass of eWAT gain resulting from a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCD), but no difference in food intake. The morphology results showed that the size of the adipocytes in the PYC-treated mice was obviously smaller than that in the HCD-fed mice. Next, we found that PYC upregulated the expression of genes related to lipolysis (ATGL and HSL), while it decreased the mRNA level of PLIN1. PYC significantly increased the expression of UCP1 and other genes related to beige adipogenesis. Additionally, PYC increased the expression of proteins related to the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. The findings suggested that PYC decreased obesity by promoting lipolysis and WAT browning. Thus, PYC may be a novel therapeutic target for obesity.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Low Birth Weight, Cumulative Obesity Dose, and the Risk of Incident Type 2

    • Abstract: Background. Obesity history may provide a better understanding of the contribution of obesity to T2DM risk. Methods. 17,634 participants from the 1958 National Child Development Study were followed from birth to 50 years. Cumulative obesity dose, a measure of obesity history, was calculated by subtracting the upper cut-off of the normal BMI from the actual BMI at each follow-up and summing the areas under the obesity dose curve. Hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Three separate models compared the predictive ability of cumulative obesity dose on diabetes risk with the time-varying BMI and last BMI. Results. In final models, 341 of 15,043 (2.27%) participants developed diabetes; male sex and low birth weight were significant confounding variables. Adjusted HRs were 1.080 (95% CI: 1.071, 1.088) per 10-unit cumulative obesity dose, 1.098 (95% CI: 1.080, 1.117) per unit of the time-varying BMI, and 1.146 (95% CI: 1.084, 1.212) per unit of the last BMI. Cumulative obesity dose provided the best predictive ability for diabetes. Conclusions. Cumulative obesity dose is an improved method for evaluating the impact of obesity history on diabetes risk. The link between low birth weight and T2DM is strengthened by adjusting for cumulative obesity dose.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 07:14:10 +000
  • DPP-4 Inhibitors as Treatments for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. Several clinical studies have reported the application of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors as treatments for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aims to review the outcomes of these existing studies and to discuss the therapeutic effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on T1DM. Methods. We thoroughly searched the Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases and for studies concerning the use of DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with T1DM. Results. In preclinical trials, DPP-4 inhibitors improved the pathogenesis of T1DM. However, only a portion of the studies showed potential efficacy regarding clinical glycemic control and other clinical parameters. From this meta-analysis, pooled data from 5 randomized controlled trials revealed that the additional use of DPP-4 inhibitors resulted in a greater decrease in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels (0.07%, 95% CI (−0.37%–0.23%)) than insulin monotherapy, although the decrease was not significant. A small decrease in postprandial glucose or insulin consumption was confirmed. Conclusion. Although DPP-4 inhibitors may be beneficial for T1DM, existing studies do not strongly support these positive effects in clinical practice. Further optimized clinical trials are needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 06:32:45 +000
  • Effect of Tofogliflozin on Body Composition and Glycemic Control in
           Japanese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor tofogliflozin is a new type of antidiabetic drug for individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to examine in which type of individuals and/or under which conditions tofogliflozin could exert more beneficial effects on body composition and/or glycemic control in Japanese individuals with T2DM. We retrospectively evaluated the effects of tofogliflozin on body composition and/or glycemic control in individuals with T2DM who newly started taking tofogliflozin. After tofogliflozin treatment, body weight was significantly reduced and HbA1c levels were significantly decreased. Body fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and skeletal muscle index, a marker for sarcopenia, were also reduced after the treatment. In univariate analyses, there was a statistically significant association between the decrease of HbA1c level after tofogliflozin treatment (Δ HbA1c) and the following parameters such as HbA1c levels at baseline, visceral fat area (VFA) at baseline, and reduction of VFA after the treatment (Δ VFA). Furthermore, in multivariate analyses, HbA1c levels at baseline and duration of diabetes were independently associated with Δ HbA1c. These results suggest that tofogliflozin would be more suitable for relatively obese individuals whose duration of diabetes is relatively short.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Gut Microbiome and Inflammation: A Study of Diabetic Inflammasome-Knockout

    • Abstract: Aims. Diabetes is a proinflammatory state, evidenced by increased pattern recognition receptors and the inflammasome (NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain (NLRP)) complex. Recent reports have elucidated the role of the gut microbiome in diabetes, but there is limited data on the gut microbiome in NLRP-KO mice and its effect on diabetes-induced inflammation. Methods. Gut microbiome composition and biomarkers of inflammation (IL-18, serum amyloid A) were assessed in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice on a NLRP3-knockout (KO) background versus wild-type diabetic mice. Results. SAA and IL-18 levels were significantly elevated in diabetic mice (STZ) compared to control (WT) mice, and there was a significant attenuation of inflammation in diabetic NLRP3-KO mice (NLRP3-KO STZ) compared to control mice (). Principal coordinate analysis clearly separated controls, STZ, and NLRP3-KO STZ mice. Among the different phyla, there was a significant increase in the Firmicutes : Bacteroidetes ratio in the diabetic group compared to controls. When compared to the WT STZ group, the NLRP3-KO STZ group showed a significant decrease in the Firmicutes : Bacteroidetes ratio. Together, these findings indicate that interaction of the intestinal microbes with the innate immune system is a crucial factor that could modify diabetes and complications.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Diabetic Retinopathy in the Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rat: Pathogenetic
           Mechanisms and Preventive Efficacy of Inhibiting the Urokinase-Type
           Plasminogen Activator Receptor System

    • Abstract: The spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rat is of increasing preclinical interest because of its similarities to human type 2 diabetic retinopathy (DR). The system formed by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) is a player in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown in DR. Here, we investigated whether in SDT rats, preventive administration of UPARANT, an inhibitor of the uPAR pathway, counteracts the retinal impairment in response to chronic hyperglycemia. Electroretinogram (ERG) monitoring was followed over time. Fluorescein-dextran microscopy, CD31 immunohistochemistry, quantitative PCR, ELISA, Evans blue perfusion, and Western blot were also used. UPARANT prevented ERG dysfunction, upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2, BRB leakage, gliosis, and retinal cell death. The mechanisms underlying UPARANT benefits were studied comparing them with the acute streptozotocin (STZ) model in which UPARANT is known to inhibit DR signs. In SDT rats, but not in the STZ model, UPARANT downregulated the expression of uPAR and its membrane partners. In both models, UPARANT reduced the levels of transcription factors coupled to inflammation or inflammatory factors themselves. These findings may help to establish the uPAR system as putative target for the development of novel drugs that may prevent type 2 DR.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Pirfenidone Accelerates Wound Healing in Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers: A
           Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Background. Diabetic foot ulcers are one disabling complication of diabetes mellitus. Pirfenidone (PFD) is a potent modulator of extracellular matrix. Modified diallyl disulfide oxide (M-DDO) is an antimicrobial and antiseptic agent. Aim. To evaluate efficacy of topical PFD + M-DDO in a randomized, double-blind trial versus ketanserin in the treatment of noninfected chronic DFU. Methods. Patients received PFD + M-DDO or ketanserin for 6 months. Relative ulcer volume (RUV) was measured every month; biopsies were taken at baseline and months 1 and 2 for histopathology and gene expression analysis for COL-1α, COL-4, KGF, VEGF, ACTA2 (α-SMA), elastin, fibronectin, TGF-β1, TGF-β3, HIF-1α, and HIF-1β. Results. Reduction of median RUV in the PFD + M-DDO group was 62%, 89.8%, and 99.7% at months 1–3 and 100% from months 4 to 6. Ketanserin reduced RUV in 38.4%, 56%, 60.8%, 94%, 94.8%, and 100% from the first to the sixth month, respectively. Healing score improved 4.5 points with PFD + M-DDO and 1.5 points with ketanserin compared to basal value. Histology analysis revealed few inflammatory cells and organized/ordered collagen fiber bundles in PFD + M-DDO. Expression of most genes was increased with PFD + M-DDO; 43.8% of ulcers were resolved using PFD + M-DDO and 23.5% with ketanserin. Conclusion. PFD + M-DDO was more effective than ketanserin in RUV reduction.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Association between Knowledge-Attitude-Practices and Control of Blood
           Glucose, Blood Pressure, and Blood Lipids in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
           in Shanghai, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Knowledge-attitude-practices (KAP) significantly impact the outcome of self-management in patients with diabetes, yet the association between KAP and the combined control of the levels of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids in these patients remains uncertain. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2014 to December 2016 on 3977 patients with type 2 diabetes in Shanghai. KAP were evaluated using the modified Chinese version of the Diabetes, Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia (DHL) Knowledge Instrument, Diabetes Empowerment Scale–Short Form (DES-SF), and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA). Clinical and biochemical measurements were performed at each sampling site. The association between KAP scores and achieving the combined target goal was assessed by multiple logistic regression. Patients having a higher score of knowledge were more likely to achieve the combined target goal. Furthermore, a turning point of knowledge score was found that the possibility of achieving the combined target goal presented a sharp increase when the knowledge score was more than 70. However, the scores of attitude and practices had no significant relations with achieving the combined target goal. Health intervention strategies, especially increasing integrated diabetes knowledge, should be targeted to patients with type 2 diabetes in communities.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Involvement of Notch1-RBP-Jk/Msx2 Signaling Pathway in Aortic
           Calcification of Diabetic Nephropathy Rats

    • Abstract: Background. This study explored the changes in expression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) markers and osteogenic markers, as well as the involvement of Notch1-RBP-Jk/Msx2 pathway in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy (DN) with vascular calcification. Methods. A rat model of DN with concomitant vascular calcification was created by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin followed by administration of vitamin D3 and nicotine. Biochemical analysis and histological examination of aortic tissue were performed. VSMC markers and osteogenic markers as well as target molecules in Notch1-RBP-Jk/Msx2 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. Results. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were significantly increased in model rats as compared to that in normal controls. Diabetic rats with vascular calcification exhibited mineral deposits in aortic intima-media accompanied by decreased expression of VSMC markers and increased expression of osteogenic markers. Notch1, RBP-Jk, Msx2, Jagged1, and N1-ICD were barely expressed in the aortic wall of normal rats. In contrast, these were significantly increased in the model group at all time points (8, 12, and 16 weeks), as compared to that in the normal rats. Conclusion. Activation of the Notch1-RBP-Jk/Msx2 signaling pathway may be involved in the development and progression of vascular calcification in DN.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Lysosomal Exoglycosidase Profile and Secretory Function in the Salivary
           Glands of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    • Abstract: Before this study, there had been no research evaluating the relationship between a lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and secretory function in the salivary glands of rats with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes. In our work, rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: control groups (C2, C4) and diabetic groups (STZ2, STZ4). The secretory function of salivary glands—nonstimulated and stimulated salivary flow, α-amylase, total protein—and salivary exoglycosidase activities—N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase (HEX, HEX A, and HEX B), β-glucuronidase, α-fucosidase, β-galactosidase, and α-mannosidase—was estimated both in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic and control rats. The study has demonstrated that the activity of most salivary exoglycosidases is significantly higher in the parotid and submandibular glands of STZ-diabetic rats as compared to the healthy controls and that it increases as the disease progresses. Reduced secretory function of diabetic salivary glands was also observed. A significant inverse correlation between HEX B, α-amylase activity, and stimulated salivary flow in diabetic parotid gland has also been shown. Summarizing, STZ-induced diabetes leads to a change in the lysosomal exoglycosidase profile and reduced function of the salivary glands.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Improvement in Neuropathy Specific Quality of Life in Patients with
           Diabetes after Vitamin D Supplementation

    • Abstract: Objective. To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on neuropathy specific quality of life (NeuroQoL) in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Methods. This prospective, open label study was conducted between June 2012 and April 2013. Patients with symptomatic diabetic neuropathy were given a single dose of 600,000 IU intramuscular vitamin D, and NeuroQol was assessed at baseline and at five follow-up visits every 4 weeks. Results. Of 143 participants, 41.3% were vitamin D deficient (vitamin D 
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 07:06:41 +000
  • The Association between Monocyte Surface CD163 and Insulin Resistance in
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aim. To investigate the association between monocyte CD163 and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. One hundred sixty-six patients with type 2 diabetes without inflammatory or chronic kidney disease were recruited. The monocyte CD163 levels were measured by flow cytometry and soluble CD163 (sCD163) by ELISA. Insulin resistance was evaluated by the index of the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R). Results. The median sCD163 and monocyte CD163 expression levels were 582.9 (472.4–720.0) ng/ml and 6061 (4486–7876) mean fluorescent intensity (MFI), respectively. In a simple regression analysis, monocyte CD163 was inversely correlated with log [HOMA-R] (, ), and sCD163 was positively correlated with log [HOMA-R] (, ). In multiple regression analyses, monocyte CD163 was an independent contributor to log [HOMA-R] (, ) even after adjustment of various clinical factors for HOMA-R (, ), whereas sCD163 was not. Conclusions. Monocyte surface CD163 expression levels were more significantly associated with insulin resistance than sCD163 in patients with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a novel pathophysiological role of CD163.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 04:27:39 +000
  • Circulating Nesfatin-1 Levels and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and

    • Abstract: The role of nesfatin-1 in glucose homeostasis has been investigated previously. However, although numerous studies have examined the relationships between circulating nesfatin-1 levels and type 2 diabetes, the conclusions are contradictory. We aimed to probe the relationship between circulating nesfatin-1 levels and type 2 diabetes by meta-analysis. Seven studies including 328 type 2 diabetes patients and 294 control subjects were included. Although there was no obvious difference in circulating nesfatin-1 levels between patients with type 2 diabetes and the control group (MD = −0.04; 95% CI = −0.32 to −0.23), subgroup analysis showed higher nesfatin-1 levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients (MD = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.74) and significantly lower nesfatin-1 levels in type 2 diabetes patients receiving antidiabetic treatment (MD = −0.26; 95% CI = −0.33 to −0.20). In conclusion, the analysis supports a relationship between circulating nesfatin-1 levels and type 2 diabetes, where newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes was associated with an elevated Nesfatin-1 level, and type 2 diabetes patients receiving antidiabetic treatment showed lower circulating nesfatin-1 levels.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 04:21:59 +000
  • Measures of Adherence and Challenges in Using Glucometer Data in Youth
           with Type 1 Diabetes: Rethinking the Value of Self-Report

    • Abstract: Purpose. The current study compares the relative strength of associations of different adherence measures with glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, while highlighting the challenges in using more objective measures (i.e., glucometer data). Methods. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes () and their caregivers completed a questionnaire measure assessing adolescents’ adherence (Self-Care Inventory (SCI)) to the diabetes regimen. Adolescents’ glucometers were downloaded to determine average blood glucose checks per day, as an objective measure of adherence. A measure of glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)) was obtained as part of adolescents’ regular clinic visits. Results. Adolescents’ self-reported adherence to the treatment regimen was more strongly correlated with HbA1c than caregivers’ reports of adherence. In multivariate analyses, both adolescents’ self-report of adherence and average blood glucose checks per day (obtained via a glucometer) were significant predictors of HbA1c. Challenges to obtaining glucometer data were identified. Conclusions. The findings highlight adolescents’ self-report of adherence using the SCI as a brief and meaningful measure to understand and improve adolescents’ glycemic control, particularly when glucometer data is difficult to obtain.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Protective Effects of the Mushroom Lactarius deterrimus
           Extract on Systemic Oxidative Stress and Pancreatic Islets in
           Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats”

    • PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Assessing the Performance of a Noninvasive Glucose Monitor in People with
           Type 2 Diabetes with Different Demographic Profiles

    • Abstract: Background. Noninvasive glucose-monitoring devices represent an exciting frontier in diabetes research. GlucoTrack® is a noninvasive device that indirectly measures glucose fluctuation in the earlobe tissue. However, GlucoTrack measurements may be susceptible to effects of quasi-stable factors that may be affected by demographic profiles. The current study, thus, examined device performances in people with type 2 diabetes with different demographic profiles, focusing on age, gender, body mass, and whether the earlobe is pierced. Materials and Methods. Clinical trials were conducted on 172 type 2 adult diabetic subjects. Device performance was clinically evaluated using the Clarke error grid (CEG) analysis and statistically assessed using absolute relative difference (ARD). Results. CEG analysis revealed that 97.6% of glucose readings were within the clinically acceptable CEG A + B zones. Mean and median ARD were 22.3% and 18.8%, respectively. Likelihood ratio and parametric bootstrap tests revealed that there were no significant differences in ARD values across age, gender, body mass, and whether the earlobe was pierced, indicating that the accuracy of GlucoTrack remains consistent across the tested demographic profiles. Conclusions. Our results suggest that GlucoTrack performance does not depend on demographic profiles of its users and it is thus suitable for various people with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus following Gestational Diabetes Pregnancy
           in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    • Abstract: Background. This study examines gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) following GDM pregnancy. Methods. A cohort of 988 pregnant women with PCOS who delivered during 2002–2005 was examined to determine the prevalence and predictors of GDM, with follow-up through 2010 among those with GDM to estimate the risk of DM. Results. Of the 988 pregnant women with PCOS, 192 (19%) developed GDM. Multivariable predictors of GDM included older age, Asian race, prepregnancy obesity, family history of DM, preconception metformin use, and multiple gestation. Among women with PCOS and GDM pregnancy, the incidence of DM was 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9–4.2) per 100 person-years and substantially higher for those who received pharmacologic treatment for GDM (6.6 versus 1.5 per 100 person-years, ). The multivariable adjusted risk of DM was fourfold higher in women who received pharmacologic treatment for GDM (adjusted hazard ratio 4.1, 95% CI 1.8–9.6). The five-year incidence of DM was 13.1% overall and also higher in the pharmacologic treatment subgroup (27.0% versus 7.1%, ). Conclusions. The strongest predictors of GDM among women with PCOS included Asian race and prepregnancy obesity. Pharmacologic treatment of GDM is associated with fourfold higher risk of subsequent DM.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Hepatic Tissue of T2DM Rhesus Macaque

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that severely affects human health, but the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. The high-fat/high-sucrose diets combined with streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced nonhuman primate animal model of diabetes are a valuable research source of T2DM. Here, we present a study of a STZ rhesus macaque model of T2DM that utilizes quantitative iTRAQ-based proteomic method. We compared the protein profiles in the liver of STZ-treated macaques as well as age-matched healthy controls. We identified 171 proteins differentially expressed in the STZ-treated groups, about 70 of which were documented as diabetes-related gene in previous studies. Pathway analyses indicated that the biological functions of differentially expressed proteins were related to glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, complements, and coagulation cascades. Expression change in tryptophan metabolism pathway was also found in this study which may be associations with diabetes. This study is the first to explore genome-wide protein expression in hepatic tissue of diabetes macaque model using HPLC-Q-TOF/MS technology. In addition to providing potential T2DM biomarkers, this quantitative proteomic study may also shed insights regarding the molecular pathogenesis of T2DM.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Cardiovascular Screening for the Asymptomatic Patient with Diabetes: More
           Cons Than Pros

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality. Although it frequently coexists with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, it confers an increased risk for CVD events on its own. Coronary atherosclerosis is generally more aggressive and widespread in people with diabetes (PWD) and is frequently asymptomatic. Screening for silent myocardial ischaemia can be applied in a wide variety of ways. In nearly all asymptomatic PWD, however, the results of screening will generally not change medical therapy, since aggressive preventive measures, such as control of blood pressure and lipids, would have been already indicated, and above all, invasive revascularization procedures (either with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) have not been shown in randomized clinical trials to confer any benefit on morbidity and mortality. Still, unresolved issues remain regarding the extent of the underlying ischaemia that might affect the risk and the benefit of revascularization (on top of optimal medical therapy) in ameliorating this risk in patients with moderate to severe ischaemia. The issues related to the detection of coronary atherosclerosis and ischaemia, as well as the studies related to management of CHD in asymptomatic PWD, will be reviewed here.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Clinical Phenotype of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy and Relation to
           Symptom Patterns: Cluster and Factor Analysis in Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes in Korea

    • Abstract: Objectives. Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication. However, patients are usually suffering from not only diverse sensory deficit but also neuropathy-related discomforts. The aim of this study is to identify distinct groups of patients with DPN with respect to its clinical impacts on symptom patterns and comorbidities. Methods. A hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis were performed to identify relevant subgroups of patients with DPN () and symptom patterns. Results. Patients with DPN were divided into three clusters: asymptomatic (cluster 1, , 33.5%), moderate symptoms with disturbed sleep (cluster 2, , 42.0%), and severe symptoms with decreased quality of life (cluster 3, , 24.5%). Patients in cluster 3, compared with clusters 1 and 2, were characterized by higher levels of HbA1c and more severe pain and physical impairments. Patients in cluster 2 had moderate pain levels but disturbed sleep patterns comparable to those in cluster 3. The frequency of symptoms on each item of MNSI by “painful” symptom pattern showed a similar distribution pattern with increasing intensities along the three clusters. Conclusions. Cluster and factor analysis endorsed the use of comprehensive and symptomatic subgrouping to individualize the evaluation of patients with DPN.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 05:16:46 +000
  • Enhancing Exercise Responsiveness across Prediabetes Phenotypes by
           Targeting Insulin Sensitivity with Nutrition

    • Abstract: Exercise is a cornerstone therapy for chronic diseases related to multiorgan insulin resistance. However, not all individuals show the anticipated improvement in insulin sensitivity following exercise and these individuals are considered exercise resistant. Caloric restriction is an approach to enhance the effect of exercise on increasing peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, as replenishing expended calories blunts these benefits. Alternatively, restricting carbohydrate intake, independent of energy balance, following exercise provides an additive effect on peripheral insulin sensitivity when compared to refeeding carbohydrate. Although carbohydrate composition modulates insulin sensitivity, few have studied effects of low glycemic index or whole-grain diets following exercise across prediabetes phenotypes on insulin sensitivity. Herein, we propose the novel hypothesis that the combination of individualized nutrition therapy and exercise should be based on the clinical pathology of prediabetes to overcome exercise resistance and improve responsiveness in people at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Quercetin Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism of Diabetic Rats:
           Involvement of Akt Signaling and SIRT1

    • Abstract: Glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in diabetes mellitus often causes damage to multiple tissues and organs. Diabetes mellitus is beneficially affected by quercetin. However, its concrete mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated. In our study, diabetes was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by STZ injection. The rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic model, low-dose quercetin treatment, high-dose quercetin treatment, and pioglitazone treatment groups. Fasting blood glucose was collected to evaluate diabetes. Immunohistochemistry and fluorometric assay were performed to explore SIRT1. Akt levels were measured through immunoprecipitation and Western blot. After 12 weeks of quercetin treatment, the biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism improved to varying degrees. Hepatic histomorphological injury was alleviated, and hepatic glycogen content was increased. The expression and activity of hepatic SIRT1 were enhanced, and Akt was activated by phosphorylation and deacetylation. These results suggested that the beneficial effects of quercetin on glucose and lipid metabolism disorder are probably associated with the upregulated activity and protein level of SIRT1 and its influence on Akt signaling pathway. Hence, quercetin shows potential for the treatment of glucose and lipid metabolism disorder in diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Parental Diabetes Behaviors and Distress Are Related to Glycemic Control
           in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: Longitudinal Data from the DINO Study

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate (1) the longitudinal relationship between parental well-being and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes and (2) if youth’s problem behavior, diabetes parenting behavior, and parental diabetes-distress influence this relationship. Research Design and Methods. Parents of youth 8–15 yrs (at baseline) () participating in the DINO study completed questionnaires at three time waves (1 yr interval). Using generalized estimating equations, the relationship between parental well-being (WHO-5) and youth’s HbA1c was examined. Second, relationships between WHO-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Diabetes Family Behavior Checklist (DFBC), Problem Areas In Diabetes-Parent Revised (PAID-Pr) scores, and HbA1c were analyzed. Results. Low well-being was reported by 32% of parents. No relationship was found between parents’ WHO-5 scores and youth’s HbA1c (, ). WHO-5 related to SDQ (, ), DFBC unsupportive scale (, ), and PAID-Pr (, ). Both DFBC scales (supportive , ; unsupportive , ), PAID-Pr (, ), and SDQ (, ) related to HbA1c. Conclusions. Over time, reduced parental well-being relates to increased problem behavior in youth, unsupportive parenting, and parental distress, which negatively associate with HbA1c. More unsupportive diabetes parenting and distress relate to youth’s problem behavior.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Risk: A Case-Control

    • Abstract: Background. Maternal dietary patterns play an important role in the progress of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of the present study was to explore this association. Method. A total of 388 pregnant women (122 case and 266 control) were included. Dietary intake were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). GDM was diagnosed using a 100-gram, 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary pattern was identified by factor analysis. To investigate the relation between each of the independent variables with gestational diabetes, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Results. Western dietary pattern was high in sweets, jams, mayonnaise, soft drinks, salty snacks, solid fat, high-fat dairy products, potatoes, organ meat, eggs, red meat, processed foods, tea, and coffee. The prudent dietary pattern was characterized by higher intake of liquid oils, legumes, nuts and seeds, fruits and dried fruits, fish and poultry whole, and refined grains. Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus before and after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.27–3.04, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.04–2.27). However, no significant association was found for a prudent pattern. Conclusion. These findings suggest that the Western dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Diabetes Prevention, Early Intervention, and Nondrug Therapy

    • PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf
           Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study”

    • PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Pattern among Spanish Adults Attending a
           Medical Centre: Nondiabetic Subjects and Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. To identify adherence to Mediterranean diet among two groups of Spanish adults: diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Methods. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was measured by a 14-item screener (scale: 0–14; ≤5: low, 6–9: moderate, and ≥10: high) in 351 volunteers. Results. Mean age was 50.97 ± 12.58 in nondiabetics () and 59.50 ± 13.34 in diabetics (). The whole sample scored 8.77 ± 1.82. Score was 9.19 ± 1.84 in nondiabetic females () and 8.15 ± 1.79 in diabetic females () (), due to lower consumption of olive oil () and nuts (). Type 2 diabetic males (; 8.76 ± 1.88) consumed less olive oil than healthy males (; 9.36 ± 1.59) (). Up to 30-year-old nondiabetics scored lower than more than 60-year-old nondiabetics (8.40 ± 1.5 versus 9.74 ± 2.03; ). The youngest ate less olive oil () and more pastries (). Conclusions. The sample presented moderate adherence to Mediterranean diet in all subgroups. Scientific evidence about the benefits of Mediterranean diet, olive oil, and nuts supports the recommendation to increase consumption of olive oil and nuts in diabetic women and of daily olive oil in type 2 diabetic men, reducing consumption of red meat, butter, and pastries, and to promote Mediterranean diet among the youngest of the sample studied.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Clinical Mentorship and Quality Improvement Program to Support Health
           Center Nurses Manage Type 2 Diabetes in Rural Rwanda

    • Abstract: Introduction. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly rising in SSA. Interventions are needed to support the decentralization of services to improve and expand access to care. We describe a clinical mentorship and quality improvement program that connected nurse mentors with nurse mentees to support the decentralization of type 2 diabetes care in rural Rwanda. Methods. This is a descriptive study. Routinely collected data from patients with type 2 diabetes cared for at rural health center NCD clinics between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015, were extracted from EMR system. Data collected as part of the clinical mentorship program were extracted from an electronic database. Summary statistics are reported. Results. The patient population reflects the rural settings, with low rates of traditional NCD risk factors: 5.6% of patients were current smokers, 11.0% were current consumers of alcohol, and 11.9% were obese. Of 263 observed nurse mentee-patient encounters, mentor and mentee agreed on diagnosis 94.4% of the time. Similarly, agreement levels were high for medication, laboratory exam, and follow-up plans, at 86.3%, 87.1%, and 92.4%, respectively. Conclusion. Nurses that receive mentorship can adhere to a type 2 diabetes treatment protocol in rural Rwanda primary health care settings.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Assessment of Insulin Injection Practice among Diabetes Patients in a
           Tertiary Healthcare Centre in Nepal: A Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Proper insulin injection practice is essential for better diabetic control. This study aims to assess the insulin injection practice of patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal, from February 2017 to May 2017. Patients injecting insulin through insulin pens () for a minimum of 4 weeks were consecutively recruited. Patients’ baseline characteristics, current insulin injection technique, insulin transportation practice, complications of insulin injection, disposal practice of used needle, and acceptability of insulin were recorded. Descriptive statistics were performed using IBM-SPSS 20.0. Results. The insulin injection technique of patients and their relatives was inadequate. The majority of patients and their relatives (25, 58.1%) mentioned that they transport their insulin cartridge without maintaining cold chain. Thirteen patients (30.2%, ) reported complications of insulin injection and the most common complication among those patients was bruising (10, 76.9%, ). Almost all patients disposed the used needle improperly, and the common method was disposing the needle in a dustbin and then transferring to municipal waste disposal vehicle. Insulin was accepted by just 16 (37.2%) patients. Conclusion. There was a significant gap between the insulin delivery recommendation through insulin pen and current insulin injection practice.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
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