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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Diabetes Research
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Adipocyte DIO2 Expression Increases in Human Obesity but Is Not Related to
           Systemic Insulin Sensitivity

    • Abstract: Deiodinase type II (D2), encoded by DIO2, catalyzes the conversion of T4 to bioactive T3. T3 not only stimulates adaptive thermogenesis but also affects adipose tissue (AT) lipid accumulation, mitochondrial function, inflammation, and potentially systemic metabolism. Although better defined in brown AT, the precise role of DIO2 expression in white AT remains largely unknown, with data derived only from whole fat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipocyte-specific gene expression of DIO2 differs between obese and lean patients and whether these differences relate to alterations in mitochondrial function, fatty acid flux, inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, and ultimately insulin sensitivity. Accordingly, adipocytes of 73 obese and 21 lean subjects were isolated and subjected to gene expression analyses. Our results demonstrate that obese compared to lean human individuals have increased adipocyte-specific DIO2 expression in both SAT and VAT. Although higher DIO2 was strongly related to reduced fatty acid synthesis/oxidation and mitochondrial function, we found no relationship to proinflammatory cytokines or insulin resistance and no difference based on diabetic status. Our results suggest that adipocyte-derived DIO2 may play a role in weight maintenance but is likely not a major contributor to obesity-related insulin resistance.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Insulin Adherence in Type 2 Diabetes in Mexico: Behaviors and Barriers

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate factors associated with insulin adherence in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) attending a tertiary care centre in Mexico City. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study, including 200 patients. Adherence to insulin therapy was measured with a medication adherence questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and factors related to insulin omission were collected and compared between the nonadherent and adherent groups. Results. We categorized 117 (58.5%) patients as nonadherent and 83 (41.5%) as adherent. Among the adherent, only 22 patients (11%) had excellent adherence to insulin therapy. The following factors were associated with nonadherence: lack of planning of daily activities (46.1%), fear of hypoglycemia (41%), economic factors (15.4%), and number of insulin applications (2.31 versus 1.76 applications per day). Conclusions. In this study, patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care referral centre showed inadequate adherence to insulin therapy. The principal factors associated with insulin omission were low socioeconomic status, fear of hypoglycemia, and a greater number of insulin applications per day.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Association of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease with Anti-GAD Antibody ELISA
           Test Positivity and Risk for Insulin Deficiency in Slowly Progressive Type
           1 Diabetes

    • Abstract: The presence of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA) is required for the diagnosis of slowly progressive type 1 diabetes (SPT1D). We examined the factors influencing GADA determination by radioimmunoassay (GADA-RIA) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (GADA-ELISA). Sixty patients with SPT1D and 154 patients with type 2 diabetes were examined by both GADA-RIA and GADA-ELISA and for the presence of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). We compared the clinical characteristics of these patients based on the positivity or negativity of GADA-RIA and GADA-ELISA, and the existence or nonexistence of AITD. Thirty of 60 (50.0%) GADA-RIA-positive patients were GADA-ELISA negative, whereas none of the 154 GADA-RIA-negative patients were GADA-ELISA positive. Concomitant AITD was significantly less in patients with GADA-RIA and without GADA-ELISA and was significantly more in patients with GADA-RIA and GADA-ELISA. In GADA-RIA-positive patients, there was no significant difference in the GADA-RIA titer among the GADA-ELISA-negative patients with and without AITD, and the GADA-ELISA-positive patients without AITD; whereas the frequency of insulin deficiency was significantly higher in the patients with AITD and/or GADA-ELISA than in those without AITD and GADA-ELISA. Examination of GADA-ELISA and AITD in GADA-RIA-positive patients might be useful in predicting insulin deficiency in these patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 07:53:32 +000
       
  • The All-Cause Mortality and a Screening Tool to Determine High-Risk
           Patients among Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    • Abstract: Aims. This study aims to determine the all-cause mortality and the associated risk factors for all-cause mortality among the prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients within five years’ period and to develop a screening tool to determine high-risk patients. Methods. This is a cohort study of T2DM patients in the national diabetes registry, Malaysia. Patients’ particulars were derived from the database between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Their records were matched with the national death record at the end of year 2013 to determine the status after five years. The factors associated with mortality were investigated, and a prognostic model was developed based on logistic regression model. Results. There were 69,555 records analyzed. The mortality rate was 1.4 persons per 100 person-years. The major cause of death were diseases of the circulatory system (28.4%), infectious and parasitic diseases (19.7%), and respiratory system (16.0%). The risk factors of mortality within five years were age group (), body mass index category (), duration of diabetes (), retinopathy (), ischaemic heart disease (), cerebrovascular (), nephropathy (), and foot problem (). The sensitivity and specificity of the proposed model was fairly strong with 70.2% and 61.3%, respectively. Conclusions. The elderly and underweight T2DM patients with complications have higher risk for mortality within five years. The model has moderate accuracy; the prognostic model can be used as a screening tool to classify T2DM patients who are at higher risk for mortality within five years.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Impact of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Long-Term Prognosis in Patients
           of Different Ages with Myocardial Infarction

    • Abstract: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of DM2 at baseline on long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction (MI) among different age groups. The data were taken from: “Register of Acute Myocardial Infarction.” A total of 862 patients were followed for five years after acute myocardial infarction. The primary endpoint was death from any cause. The patients were categorized into 2 groups based on their ages: group 1—comprised patients older than working age () and group 2—comprised employable patients (). A total of 208 patients were diagnosed with both cardiovascular disease and DM2. Elderly patients with DM2 had worse prognosis and increased five-year mortality compared with patients of the same age group without DM2. Statistically significant differences in long-term outcomes were found in adult patients () only in group with longer duration of diabetes, unlike the group with DM2 onset. In conclusion, Type 2 DM increased 5-year mortality rate of elderly patients with myocardial infarction. However, younger patients with both myocardial infarction and DM2 had more complications in the early post-MI period compared with patients of the same age group without DM2 but did not show any statistically significant differences in the long-term outcome.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 07:57:43 +000
       
  • Association between Glycemic Control and Clinic Attendance in Emerging
           Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: A Tertiary Center Experience

    • Abstract: Aims. The transition of emerging adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from pediatric diabetes clinics to adult clinics between 18 and 21 years of age could result in decreased clinic attendance and thus worsen glycemic control. Our institutional policy offering surveillance till age 30 enabled us to evaluate clinic attendance without the confounding effect of transition. Our aim was to determine the association between glycemic control (HbA1c) and attendance rate. Methods. The medical records of 261 (54% males) young adult T1D patients (median age 22.9 years) were reviewed. Patients were stratified according to the attainment/nonattainment of glycemic targets (HbA1c ≤ 7% versus HbA1c > 7% (53 mmol/mol)). The attendance rate was calculated as the number of clinic visits/number of scheduled appointments. Results. Median annual number of scheduled visits was 3 (3, 4); attendance rate was 75% (53.6%, 100%). Seventy-four (28.4%) patients attained glycemic targets (median HbA1c 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) (6.3%, 6.8% (45.51 mmol/mol)); 187 (71.6%) patients had a median HbA1c of 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) (7.4%, 8.4% (57.68 mmol/mol)). The attainment of the treatment target was more prevalent in older patients (), in male patients (), and in patients with higher education (). Higher attendance rate (β (2.483), ) and male gender (β (0.746), ) were associated with better metabolic control. Conclusions. In emerging adults with T1D during the ongoing stable phase of diabetes management, higher attendance rate, rather than absolute number of clinic visits, was associated with the attainment of glycemic targets.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 05:49:16 +000
       
  • Neurophysiological Evidence for a Compensatory Activity during a Simple
           Oddball Task in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Objective. The poor metabolic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) has a negative impact on the developing brain. Hyperglycemia and glycemic fluctuations disrupt mainly executive functions. To assess a hypothesized deficit of the executive functions, we evaluated visual processing and reaction time in an oddball task. Methods. Oddball visual event-related potentials (ERPs), reaction time, and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were examined in a cohort of twenty-two 12- to 18-year-old T1D patients without diabetic retinopathy at normal glycemia and in nineteen 10- to 21-year-old healthy controls. Results. The P100 peak time of the VEPs was significantly prolonged in T1D patients compared with the control group (). In contrast to the deteriorated sensory response, the area under the curve of the P3b component of the ERPs was significantly larger () in patients, while reaction time in the same task did not differ between groups (). Conclusions. The deterioration on a sensory level, enhanced activity during cognitive processing, and balanced behavioral response support the view that neuroplasticity counterbalances the neural impairment by enhanced cognitive processing to achieve normal behavioral performance in T1D adolescents.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 07:52:03 +000
       
  • Predicting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Occurrence Using Three-Dimensional
           Anthropometric Body Surface Scanning Measurements: A Prospective Cohort
           Study

    • Abstract: Background. An accurate and comprehensive anthropometric measure for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has not yet been depicted. Methods. A total of 8450 nondiabetic participants were recruited during 2000–2010 in Taiwan. The cohort was followed up to the end of 2013, over an average of 8.87 years. At recruitment, participants completed a questionnaire related to basic demographics, lifestyle variables, personal disease history, and family disease history. 3D body surface scanning was used to obtain 35 anatomical measurements. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to conduct multivariable analyses. Results. A total of 2068 T2DM cases at an incidence rate of 27.59 × 10−3 (year−1) were identified during the follow-up period. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) demonstrated that neck circumference (NC) (HR = 1.048; 95% CI = 1.033–1.064), waist width (WW) (HR = 1.061; 95% CI = 1.040–1.081), and left thigh circumference (TC) (HR = 0.984; 95% CI = 0.972–0.995) were significant predictors of the occurrence of T2DM. While dividing body measurement into median high/low groups, an increased risk of T2DM was observed among participants with a larger NC and smaller TC (HR = 1.375; 95% CI = 1.180–1.601) and a larger WW and smaller TC (HR = 1.278; 95% CI = 1.085–1.505) relative to other participants. Conclusions. This study suggests that as well as using traditional waist and TC measurements, NC can be used as an indicator to provide an early prediction of developing T2DM, while providing clues for future mechanistic investigations of T2DM.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Erratum to “Readiness of Sub-Saharan Africa Healthcare Systems for the
           New Pandemic, Diabetes: A Systematic Review”

    • PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effect of a Nurse-Led Diabetes Self-Management Education Program on
           Glycosylated Hemoglobin among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: In recent years, great emphasis has been placed on the role of nonpharmacological self-management in the care of patients with diabetes. Studies have reported that nurses, compared to other healthcare professionals, are more likely to promote preventive healthcare seeking behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a nurse-led diabetes self-management education on glycosylated hemoglobin. A two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial with the blinded outcome assessors was designed. One hundred forty-two adults with type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive either usual diabetes care (control group) or usual care plus a nurse-led diabetes self-management education (intervention group). Duration of the intervention was 12 weeks. The primary outcome was glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c values). Secondary outcomes were changes in blood pressure, body weight, lipid profiles, self-efficacy (efficacy expectation and outcome expectation), self-management behaviors, quality of life, social support, and depression. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and at 12-week and 24-week postrandomizations. Patients in the intervention group showed significant improvement in HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, efficacy expectation, outcome expectation, and diabetes self-management behaviors. The beneficial effect of a nurse-led intervention continued to accrue beyond the end of the trial resulting in sustained improvements in clinical, lifestyle, and psychosocial outcomes. This trial is registered with IRCT2016062528627N1.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effects of Tai Chi on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the effects of Tai chi in type 2 diabetes mellitus (type-2 DM) patients using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. Seven electronic resource databases were searched, and randomized controlled trials on the role of Tai chi in type-2 DM patients were retrieved. The meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3, and research quality evaluation was conducted with the modified Jadad scale. Results. Fourteen studies, with 798 individuals related to the intervention of Tai chi on diabetes, were included. The results showed that, compared with nonexercise, Tai chi had the effect of lowering fasting blood glucose [MD = −1.39, 95% CI (−1.95, −0.84), ] and the subgroup effect size decreased with the increase of total exercise amount, there is no significant difference between Tai chi and other aerobic exercises [MD = −0.50, 95% CI (−1.02, 0.02), ]; compared with nonexercise, Tai chi could reduce HbA1c [MD = −0.21, 95% CI (−0.61, 0.19), ], and the group effect size decreased with the increase of total exercise amount. The reducing HbA1c effect of Tai chi was better than that of other aerobic exercises, but the difference was at the margin of statistical significance [MD = −0.19, 95% CI (−0.37, 0.00), ]; compared with nonexercise, Tai chi had the effect of reducing 2 h postprandial blood glucose [MD = −2.07, 95% CI (−2.89, −1.26), ], there is no significant difference between Tai chi and other aerobic exercises in reducing 2 h postprandial blood glucose [MD = −0.44, 95% CI (−1.42, 0.54), ]. Conclusion. Tai chi can effectively affect the management of blood glucose and HbA1c in type-2 DM patients. Long-term adherence to Tai chi has a better role in reducing blood glucose and HbA1c levels in type 2 DM patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 10:02:39 +000
       
  • Exercise Training Induced Cardioprotection with Moderate Hyperglycemia
           versus Sedentary Intensive Glycemic Control in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Intensive insulin therapy (IIT; 4–7 mmol/L) is the preferred treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, this treatment strategy has been questioned as it is accompanied with a sedentary lifestyle leading to weight gain and insulin resistance. T1DM patients who partake in high-intensity aerobic training () to reduce CVD often utilize conventional insulin therapy (CIT; 9–15 mmol/L) to offset the risk of hypoglycemia. Moreover, exercise modalities incorporating resistance training (RT) have been shown to further reduce this risk. The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to determine if CIT paired with results in larger cardioprotection from an ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury than IIT and (2) to establish if the integration of RT with (ART) results in similar cardioprotection as . Diabetic (D) male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into D-IIT (), D-CIT (), D-AThigh (), D-RT (), and D-ART (). T1DM was induced with streptozotocin, and blood glucose was adjusted with insulin. D-AThigh occurred on a treadmill (27 m/min; 1 hr), D-RT performed weighted ladder climbs, and D-ART alternated daily between and RT. Exercise occurred 5 days/wk for 12 wks. This investigation demonstrates that cardioprotection following an I-R injury was similar between D-AThigh and D-IIT. This cardioprotection is not exercise-specific, and each provides unique advantages. D-AThigh leads to improved glycemia while insulin sensitivity was enhanced following resistance exercises. Thus, exercise is an effective means to elicit cardioprotection in T1DM. However, in addition to glycemia, other factors should be considered when tailoring an exercise program for T1DM patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 10:01:05 +000
       
  • Erratum to “Meprin Metalloprotease Deficiency Associated with Higher
           Mortality Rates and More Severe Diabetic Kidney Injury in Mice with
           STZ-Induced Type 1 Diabetes”

    • PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Insulin-Induced Lipodystrophy on Glycemic Control among Children
           and Adolescents with Diabetes in Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis
           Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Lipodystrophy is one of the clinical complications of insulin injection that affects insulin absorption and leads to poor glycemic control. Objective. To assess insulin-induced lipodystrophy and glycemic control. Methods. A cross sectional study was done on 176 diabetic children and adolescents who inject insulin for a minimum of one year. First, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded in questionnaire, and then observation and palpation techniques were used in assessing lipodystrophy. Result. Out of the total 176 participants, 103 (58.5%) had insulin-induced lipodystrophy, of them 100 (97.1%) had lipohypertrophy and 3 (2.9%) had lipoatrophy. Being younger, failure to rotate the injection site every week and multiple reuse of insulin syringe had significant influence in development of insulin-induced lipohypertrophy. Lipohypertrophy in turn was associated with the use of higher dose of insulin and nonoptimal glycemic control. Conclusion. Findings of this study revealed that in spite of using recombinant human insulin, the magnitude of the lipohypertrophy still remained high. Therefore, a routine workup of insulin-injecting patients for such complication is necessary, especially in the individuals who have a nonoptimal glycemic control.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 06:59:41 +000
       
  • Factors Affecting the Absorption of Subcutaneously Administered Insulin:
           Effect on Variability

    • Abstract: Variability in the effect of subcutaneously administered insulin represents a major challenge in insulin therapy where precise dosing is required in order to achieve targeted glucose levels. Since this variability is largely influenced by the absorption of insulin, a deeper understanding of the factors affecting the absorption of insulin from the subcutaneous tissue is necessary in order to improve glycaemic control and the long-term prognosis in people with diabetes. These factors can be related to either the insulin preparation, the injection site/patient, or the injection technique. This review highlights the factors affecting insulin absorption with special attention on the physiological factors at the injection site. In addition, it also provides a detailed description of the insulin absorption process and the various modifications to this process that have been utilized by the different insulin preparations available.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 06:13:41 +000
       
  • Impact of Metabolic Syndrome Factors on Testosterone and SHBG in Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome

    • Abstract: Objective. Several studies have often reported low testosterone and SHBG to be associated with type 2 DM and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Our objective was to determine the impact of metabolic syndrome and diabetic parameters on testosterone and SHBG in both MetS subjects and type 2 DM patients. Methods. In this study, 120 Yemeni male aged 30–70 years old were enrolled, 30 of whom were healthy subjects with BMI 
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 04:21:06 +000
       
  • Effect of Dietary Content of Menhaden Oil with or without Salsalate on
           Neuropathic Endpoints in High-Fat-Fed/Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Treated
           Sprague Dawley Rats

    • Abstract: In this study, we wanted to extend our investigation of the efficacy of fish oil with or without salsalate on vascular and neural complications using a type 2 diabetic rat model. Four weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia, diabetic rats were treated via the diet with 3 different amounts of menhaden oil with or without salsalate for 12 weeks. Afterwards, vascular reactivity of epineurial arterioles and neuropathy-related endpoints were examined. The addition of salsalate to high-fat diets enriched with 10% or 25% kcal of menhaden oil protected vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and calcium gene-related peptide, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal nociception, intraepidermal nerve fiber density, and cornea sensitivity to a greater extent than 10% or 25% menhaden oil alone. Vascular and neural function was maximally protected with diet containing 45% kcal as menhaden oil, and adding salsalate did not provide any additional benefit. Salsalate alone in the high-fat diet of diabetic rats provided minimal protection/improvement of vascular and neural dysfunction. These studies imply that dietary salsalate in combination with lower amounts of menhaden oil can provide greater benefit toward diabetes-induced vascular and neural impairment than menhaden oil alone.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Risk Factors for Microvascular Complications of Diabetes in a High-Risk
           Middle East Population

    • Abstract: Aims. Much of the diabetes burden is caused by its complications. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for diabetic microvascular complications (retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) in a high-risk population. Methods. We collected information via a structured questionnaire and directly from the patient’s record on 1034 adult type 2 diabetic patients who were attending outpatient clinics in Qatar. Results. The mean age of the patients was 55 ± 10 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.4 ± 8.9 years. Forty-five percent had one or more microvascular complications. Shared risk factors for multiplicity and for individual complications included family history, severity and duration of diabetes, and hypertension, but some risk factors were specific for individual microvascular complications. Early age at onset of diabetes was strongly associated with multiplicity of complications (). Conclusions. About half the diabetics in this high-risk population had one or more microvascular complications. Several well-established risk factors were associated with multiplicity and individual microvascular complications, but each separate microvascular complication was linked to a somewhat different constellation of risk factors.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Joint Effect of Maternal Tobacco Smoking and Pregestational Diabetes on
           Preterm Births and Congenital Anomalies: A Population-Based Study in
           Northern Italy

    • Abstract: Smoking and pregestational diabetes (PGD) are recognized risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, but to date, no population-based study has investigated their joint effects. Using hospital discharges, we identified all women with PGD delivering in Emilia-Romagna region during 2007–2010 matched 1 : 5 with parturients without diabetes. Our study endpoints were preterm births and congenital anomalies. We measured interaction between PGD and maternal smoking, by calculating excess prevalence and prevalence ratio due to interaction, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion (AP), and the synergy index (S). Analyses were performed in the overall study population and in the subgroup whose PGD was validated through diabetes registers. The study included 992 women with PGD (10.5% smokers) and 4788 comparison women (11.9% smokers). The effects of PGD and maternal tobacco smoking were greater than additive for both preterm birth (excess prevalence due to interaction = 11.7%, excess ratio due to interaction = 1.5, RERI = 2.39, AP = 0.51, S = 2.82) and congenital anomalies (excess prevalence due to interaction = 2.2%, excess ratio due to interaction = 1.3, RERI = 1.33, AP = 0.49, S = 5.03). Joint effect on both endpoints was confirmed in the subgroup whose PGD status was validated. In conclusion, we found that maternal tobacco smoking and PGD intensify each other’s effect on preterm birth and congenital anomalies.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Insoles Treated with Bacteria-Killing Nanotechnology Bio-Kil Reduce
           Bacterial Burden in Diabetic Patients and Healthy Controls

    • Abstract: Our study investigated the effectiveness of bacteria-killing nanotechnology Bio-Kil socks on bacterial burden reduction in diabetic patients and healthy individuals. Four strains of S. aureus and four strains of E. coli were cultured and dropped on Bio-Kil socks and control socks for 0 h, 8 h, and 48 h of incubation. Diluted samples were inoculated and bacterial counts were recorded. Additionally, 31 patients with type 2 diabetes and 31 healthy controls were assigned to wear one Bio-Kil sock on one foot and a control sock on the other for four hours, and then they were told to exchange socks from one foot to the other for four hours. The socks were sampled and diluted and then inoculated to record bacterial counts. Bacterial counts were reduced in Bio-Kil socks compared with control socks in all S. aureus strains after 0 h, 8 h, and 48 h of incubation. In E. coli strains, bacterial counts declined in Bio-Kil socks comparing with control socks in most of the experiments with ESBL-negative E. coli and ATCC35218 at 0 h and 48 h of incubation. In all participants, the mean bacterial counts significantly decreased in Bio-Kil socks in comparison with control socks both at 0 h and at 40 h of incubation ( at 0 h and at 40 h). Bio-Kil socks from diabetic patients showed significantly lessened bacterial count at 40 h of incubation (). In healthy individuals, Bio-Kil socks reflected a significantly smaller mean bacterial count than control socks (). Socks using Bio-Kil nanotechnology efficiently reduce bacterial counts in both diabetic patients and healthy individuals and might exert stronger efficacy in Gram-positive bacteria.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Metformin Improves Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by TGF-β1
           in Renal Tubular Epithelial NRK-52E Cells via Inhibiting Egr-1

    • Abstract: The early growth response- (Egr-) 1 has been found to play a key role in organ fibrosis. Metformin has been shown to be effective in attenuating renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is involved in renal fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether metformin improves EMT via inhibiting Egr-1. In this study, rat renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52 E) cells, treated by transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 of 10 ng/ml with or without metformin of 1 mmol/l, were transfected by siEgr-1 or M61-Egr-1 plasmids to knock down or overexpress Egr-1, respectively. The gene and protein expressions of E-cadherin, α-SMA, fibronectin (FN), and Egr-1 were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. We observed that TGF-β1 significantly reduced E-cadherin expression and upregulated the expressions of FN, α-SMA, and Egr-1, which can be reversed by metformin. M61-Egr-1 transfection could exacerbate EMT, which can be reversed by metformin. Taken together, our data show that Egr-1 plays an important role in TGF-β1-induced EMT of renal tubular epithelial cells and metformin improves EMT while inhibiting Egr-1, which provides a potential novel target to combat renal fibrosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 06:08:59 +000
       
  • Association between the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist Phenotype and
           Prediabetes in Chinese Adults Aged 40 Years and Older

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the association between the hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTGW) phenotype and prediabetes in Chinese adults aged 40 years and older. Methods. 12757 adults (4101 men and 8656 women) without diabetes or cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, free of using lipid-modified agents, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The HTGW phenotype was defined as elevated serum triglyceride concentrations and enlarged waist circumference. A two-hour post 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all participants. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship of the HTGW phenotype with prediabetes. Results. Individuals with the HTGW phenotype had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.48–1.95) of prediabetes than those without the phenotype. There existed a strong relationship of the HTGW phenotype with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.57–2.13), but not with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.65–1.17). Only women with the HTGW phenotype are significantly associated with the combined IFG and IGT (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.28–2.62). Conclusions. The HTGW phenotype was a useful risk indicator and a practical screening tool to benefit in the early diagnosis and intervention for prediabetes, particularly for IGT and the combined IFG and IGT.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Addressing Stem Cell Therapeutic Approaches in Pathobiology of Diabetes
           and Its Complications

    • Abstract: High morbidity and mortality of diabetes mellitus (DM) throughout the human population is a serious threat which needs to be addressed cautiously. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are most prevalent forms. Disruption in insulin regulation and resistance leads to increased formation and accumulation of advanced end products (AGEs), which further enhance oxidative and nitrosative stress leading to microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular complications. These complications affect the normal function of organ and tissues and may cause life-threatening disorders, if hyperglycemia persists and improperly controlled. Current and traditional treatment procedures are only focused on to regulate the insulin level and do not cure the diabetic complications. Pancreatic transplantation seemed a viable alternative; however, it is limited due to lack of donors. Cell-based therapy such as stem cells is considered as a promising therapeutic agent against DM and diabetic complications owing to their multilineage differentiation and regeneration potential. Previous studies have demonstrated the various impacts of both pluripotent and multipotent stem cells on DM and its micro- and macrovascular complications. Therefore, this review summarizes the potential of stem cells to treat DM and its related complications.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Improvement of Corneal Nerve
           Parameters following Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aim. This study aimed to investigate whether in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can detect the improvement of corneal nerve parameters following glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in natural history. Methods. Thirty-two patients with diabetes complicated by DPN and 12 age-matched control subjects underwent detailed clinical examination and were assessed per the Toronto Clinical Scoring Scale for DPN, nerve conduction studies, and IVCCM at baseline and after approximately one year from the first visit. Results. At follow-up, 16 diabetic patients had improved glycemic control (group A, HbA1c 
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Jun 2018 08:07:00 +000
       
  • Long-Term Provision of Acidified Drinking Water Fails to Influence
           Autoimmune Diabetes and Encephalomyelitis

    • Abstract: Induction of autoimmune diseases is predisposed by background genetics and influenced by environmental factors including diet and infections. Since consumption of acidified drinking water leads to eradication of gastrointestinal pathogens in animals, we tested whether it may also influence the development of autoimmune diseases. The frequency of spontaneously occurring type 1 diabetes in female NOD mice that were maintained on acidified drinking water by the vendor did not alter after switching to neutral water in our facility. In addition, experimentally induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis was also unaffected by the pH of the drinking water. Interestingly, administration of complete Freund’s adjuvant alone or emulsified with a neuronal peptide to induce neurodegenerative disease during the prediabetic stage completely prevented the onset of diabetes regardless of the pH of the drinking water. However, exposure to microbial products later in life had only a partial blocking effect on diabetes induction, which was also not influenced by the ionic content of the drinking water. Taken together, these data indicate that the onset of autoimmune diseases is not influenced by the gastrointestinal pathogen-depleting treatment, acidified drinking water. Thus, administration of acidic drinking water does not appear to be an option for treating autoimmune diseases.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jun 2018 06:26:34 +000
       
  • Sagittal Abdominal Diameter, Waist Circumference, and BMI as Predictors of
           Multiple Measures of Glucose Metabolism: An NHANES Investigation of US
           Adults

    • Abstract: The objective was to compare associations between sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference, and BMI to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), along with fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR, in a nationally representative sample of 3582 US adults. The study also analyzed the effect of multiple covariates on the anthropometric and glucose metabolism associations. A cross-sectional design was used. SAD was assessed using an abdominal caliper. All other data were collected following strict NHANES protocols. The OGTT was the primary variable used to index glucose metabolism. Fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR were also evaluated. Results showed that mean ± SE values were as follows: SAD: 22.3 ± 0.1 cm, waist circumference: 98.0 ± 0.4 cm, BMI: 28.6 ± 0.2 kg/m2, OGTT: 113.9 ± 1.0 mg/dL, fasting glucose: 99.6 ± 0.3 mg/dL, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.01%, and HOMA-IR: 3.2 ± 0.1. Compared to waist circumference and BMI, SAD consistently emerged as the best predictor of glucose metabolism, before and after adjusting for the covariates, and with the sample stratified by gender, race, or age. SAD was not a better predictor of OGTT among normal-weight adults or non-Hispanic Black adults. Due to the ease of taking SAD measurements, we recommend that healthcare providers use this simple method to more precisely predict diabetes risk, especially among overweight and obese adults.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Extracellular Vesicles: A Novel Target for Exercise-Mediated Reductions in
           Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    • Abstract: Regular exercise is important for reducing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, only about 40–50% of this CVD risk reduction is accounted for by adiposity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Herein, we present the novel hypothesis that extracellular vesicles (EVs) are candidate biomarkers that may relate to impaired endothelial function and insulin resistance independent of obesity risk factors. EVs are small membrane-bound particles that are generated by cells following stimulation, stress, or activation. They carry markers of their parent cell and are thought to be potent bioactivators and communicators. We discuss the underlying physiology of specific cell type EVs, as well as examine how acute and chronic exercise interventions impact EV count and phenotype. We also propose that current gaps in the field are in part related to use of different detection techniques and the lack of standardized measurements of EV affecting the pre- and postanalytical phase. Ultimately, improving the understanding of how EVs impact cardiometabolic health and their function will lead to improved approaches for enhancing diagnostic options as well as designing exercise interventions that treat and/or prevent T2D and CVD.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Targeting Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Complications: New Insights

    • PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Orphan Nuclear Receptor 4A1: A Potential New Therapeutic Target for
           Metabolic Diseases

    • Abstract: Orphan nuclear receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) is a transcriptional factor of the nuclear orphan receptor (NR4A) superfamily that has sparked interest across different research fields in recent years. Several studies have demonstrated that ligand-independent NR4A1 is an immediate-early response gene and the protein product is rapidly induced by a variety of stimuli. Hyperfunction or dysfunction of NR4A1 is implicated in various metabolic processes, including carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance, in major metabolic tissues, such as liver, skeletal muscle, pancreatic tissues, and adipose tissues. No endogenous ligands for NR4A1 have been identified, but numerous compounds that bind and activate or inactivate nuclear NR4A1 or induce cytoplasmic localization of NR4A1 have been identified. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the molecular biology and physiological functions of NR4A1. And we focus on the physiological functions of NR4A1 receptor to the development of the metabolic diseases, with a special focus on the impact on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue, and islet.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effects of Momordica balsamina Methanolic Extract on Kidney Function
           in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats: Effects on Selected Metabolic Markers

    • Abstract: Background. Studies suggest that Momordica balsamina (intshungu) possesses hypoglycaemic effects. The effects of Momordica balsamina on diabetic complications such as DN, however, have not been established. Accordingly, this study seeks to investigate the effects of M. balsamina on kidney function in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods. Methanolic extracts (ME) of M. balsamina’s leaves were used in this study. Short-term effects of M. balsamina methanolic extract on kidney function and MAP were studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats treated twice daily with M. balsamina methanolic extract (250 mg/kg), insulin (175 μg/kg, s.c.), and metformin (500 mg/kg) for 5 weeks. Results. M. balsamina methanolic extract significantly increased Na+ excretion outputs in STZ-induced diabetic rats by comparison to STZ-diabetic control rats. M. balsamina methanolic extract significantly increased GFR in STZ-diabetic rats with a concomitant decrease in creatinine concentration and also reduced kidney-to-body ratio, albumin excretion rate (AER), and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). M. balsamina methanolic extract significantly reduced MAP in STZ-diabetic animals by comparison with STZ-diabetic control animals. These results suggest that M. balsamina methanolic extract not only lowers blood glucose but also has beneficial effects on kidney function and blood pressure. Conclusion. These findings suggest that M. balsamina may have beneficial effects on some processes that are associated with renal derangement in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 10:30:55 +000
       
 
 
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