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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 282 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 275 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Experimental Diabetes Research
  [SJR: 1.591]   [H-I: 30]   [11 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [282 journals]
  • Insulin Resistance, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes, and Related Complications
           2017

    • PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Perceptions of Dietary Habits and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes among Congolese
           Immigrants

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the perceptions of dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk among Congolese immigrants living in the US. Methods. Data were collected from 20 in-depth interviews and photo-elicitation techniques conducted with Congolese immigrants. The PEN-3 cultural model was used as a guide to analyze the data collected. Results. Participants identified positive, existential, and negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers associated with dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk. Participants also acknowledged intrinsic cultural ways of understanding and interpreting the interaction between dietary habits and type 2 diabetes risk among the Congolese people which may influence their health-seeking practices. Conclusions. The findings underscore the importance of culture and how sociocultural factors may play a role with designing culturally appropriate interventions aimed at addressing the risk for type 2 diabetes among Congolese immigrants in the US.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Comparison of Screening Tools for the Early Detection of Peripheral
           Neuropathy in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Objective. Examine the effectiveness of the 128 Hz tuning fork, two monofilaments, and Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN) questionnaire as tools for the early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in overweight, obese, and inactive (OOI) adults or those who have prediabetes (PD) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Research Design and Methods. Thirty-four adults (mean age 58.4 years ± 12.1) were divided by glycemia (10 OOI normoglycemic, 13 PD, and 11 T2D). Sural nerves were tested bilaterally with the NC-stat DPNCheck to determine sural nerve amplitude potential (SNAP) and sural nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). All other testing results were compared to SNAP and SNCV. Results. Total 1 g monofilament scores significantly correlated with SNAP values and yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity combinations of tested measures. Total QOL-DN scores negatively correlated with SNAP values, as did QOL-DN symptoms. QOL-DN activities of daily living correlated with the right SNAP, and the QOL-DN small fiber subscore correlated with SNCV. Conclusions. The 1 g monofilament and total QOL-DN are effective, low-cost tools for the early detection of DPN in OOI, PD, and T2D adults. The 128 Hz tuning fork and 10 g monofilament may assist DPN screening as a tandem, but not primary, early DPN detection screening tools.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • New Insights into Diabetic Kidney Disease: The Potential Pathogenesis and
           Therapeutic Targets

    • PubDate: Wed, 08 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Interaction of Pubertal Development and Metabolic Control in Adolescents
           with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Background. In T1DM, delayed pubertal development and reduced final height are associated with inadequate metabolic control. Objective. To assess whether T1DM affects pubertal growth spurt and whether metabolic control during puberty is gender-related. Methods. Using a large multicentre database, longitudinal data from 1294 patients were analysed. Inclusion criteria: complete records of height and HbA1c from the age of seven to 16 years. Exclusion criteria: other significant chronic diseases and medications, T1DM duration less than three months, and initial BMI 97th percentile. Results. Growth velocity (GV) was impaired with a significant reduction of peak GV by 1.2 cm in boys. HbA1c increase during male puberty was lower except for a period of 1.5 years. The highest HbA1c increase in boys coincided with maximum growth spurt. In girls, the highest HbA1c increase was observed during late puberty. Even though there is impaired GV, both sexes reach a height at 16 years of age which corresponds to the background population height. Conclusion. Worsening of metabolic control is sex-discordant and associated with gender-specific alterations of GV. However, the vast majority of boys and girls with T1DM seems to reach normal height at the age of 16 years.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 10:57:35 +000
       
  • The Underlying Mechanisms of Diabetic Myopathy

    • PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Glycyrrhizic Acid Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy by Activating
           AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α Signaling in db/db Mice

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is an effective inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We investigated the role of GA in the progression of renal injury in DN. Albumin (Alb)/creatinine (crea) levels were significantly lower, and renal histopathology was attenuated in the diabetic db/db mice that were treated with GA (15 mg/kg via intraperitoneal injection) once per day for eight weeks. These changes were associated with significantly lower levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression. Additionally, diabetic db/db mice displayed more terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling- (TUNEL-) positive nuclei and diabetes-induced ROS production in the kidneys, and these effects were attenuated by the treatment with GA, which activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) signaling in the kidneys. In summary, in diabetic db/db mice, the effect of GA on DN involved, in part, the inhibition of ROS and the activation of AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling in the kidneys. GA, therefore, shows therapeutic potential for preventing and treating DN.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Retinal Photoreceptors and Microvascular Changes in Prediabetes Measured
           with Adaptive Optics (rtx1™): A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Patients with prediabetes are at risk for diabetes, cardiovascular events, and microvascular complications. The rtx1 (Imagine Eyes, France) permits early detection of changes in the retinal photoreceptors and vessels. Objective. Cone parameters and retinal microvasculature were analyzed with the rtx1 in 12 prediabetic patients and 22 healthy subjects. The analysis was based on cone density (DM), interphotoreceptor distance (SM), cone packing regularity, and retinal vessel parameters: wall thickness, lumen diameter (LD), wall-to-lumen ratio (WLR), and cross-sectional area of the vascular wall. Results. DM in the prediabetic group was not significantly lower than that in the control group (18,935 ± 1713 cells/mm2 and 19,900 ± 2375 cells/mm2, respectively; ). The LD and WLR means differed significantly between the prediabetic and the control groups (LD 94.3 ± 10.9 versus 101.2 ± 15, ; WLR 0.29 ± 0.05 versus 0.22 ± 0.03, ). A multivariate regression analysis showed that the WLR was significantly correlated with BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions. Abnormalities found in rtx1 examinations indicated early signs of arteriolar dysfunction, prior to impaired glucose tolerance progressing to diabetes. The rtx1 retinal image analysis offers noninvasive measurement of early changes in the vasculature that routine clinical examination cannot detect.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Changes in the Diaphragm Lipid Content after Administration of
           Streptozotocin and High-Fat Diet Regime

    • Abstract: The diaphragm is a dome-shaped skeletal muscle indispensable for breathing. Its activity contributes up to 70% of the total ventilatory function at rest. In comparison to other skeletal muscles, it is distinguished by an oxidative phenotype and uninterrupted cyclic contraction pattern. Surprisingly, the research regarding diaphragm diabetic phenotype particularly in the light of lipid-induced insulin resistance is virtually nonexistent. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control, streptozotocin-induced (STZ) type-1 diabetes, and rodents fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Additionally, half of the animals from each group were administered with myriocin, a robust, selective inhibitor of ceramide synthesis and, therefore, a potent agent ameliorating insulin resistance. Diaphragm lipid contents were evaluated using chromatography. Fatty acid transporter expression was determined by Western blot. The STZ and HFD rats had increased concentration of lipids, namely, ceramides (CER) and diacylglycerols (DAG). Interestingly, this coincided with an increased concentration of long-chain (C ≥ 16) saturated fatty acid species present in both the aforementioned lipid fractions. The CER/DAG accumulation was accompanied by an elevated fatty acid transporter expression (FATP-1 in HFD and FATP-4 in STZ). Surprisingly, we observed a significantly decreased triacylglycerol content in the diaphragms of STZ-treated rats.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Glycaemic Control after Metformin Discontinuation in Diabetic Patients
           with a Declining Renal Function

    • Abstract: Metformin is contraindicated in diabetic patients with declining renal function. This study examined the glycaemic control in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease when metformin was discontinued. This was a retrospective study. We screened 2032 diabetic patients who attended the Diabetes Clinic at a tertiary hospital between 1 September 2014 and 30 September 2015. We analyzed the data on 69 patients whom metformin was discontinued due to declining renal function and had a complete 6-month follow-up. There was no significant difference in the HbA1c and body weight at 6-month follow-up compared to baseline after metformin discontinuation. The eGFR was significantly lower at 6-month follow-up compared to baseline. Upon metformin discontinuation, the majority of patients had their diabetes medication uptitrated (in particular insulin or sulphonylurea). Patients with an improved glycaemia at 6-month follow-up had further declined in eGFR compared to patients with worsened glycaemia. 17% of the study patients experienced hypoglycaemia. Upon metformin discontinuation, glycaemic control could be optimised with uptitration but should be balanced against the risk of hypoglycaemia. Further improvement in the glycaemic control might indicate further deterioration in the renal function.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Novel Semiquantitative Bone Marrow Oedema Score and Fracture Score for the
           Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of the Active Charcot Foot in
           Diabetes

    • Abstract: There are no accepted methods to grade bone marrow oedema (BMO) and fracture on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in Charcot osteoarthropathy. The aim was to devise semiquantitative BMO and fracture scores on foot and ankle MRI scans in diabetic patients with active osteoarthropathy and to assess the agreement in using these scores. Three radiologists assessed 45 scans (Siemens Avanto 1.5T, dedicated foot and ankle coil) and scored independently twenty-two bones (proximal phalanges, medial and lateral sesamoids, metatarsals, tarsals, distal tibial plafond, and medial and lateral malleoli) for BMO (0—no oedema, 1—oedema  50% of bone volume) and fracture (0—no fracture, 1—fracture, and 2—collapse/fragmentation). Interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement were measured using multilevel modelling and intraclass correlation (ICC). The interobserver agreement for the total BMO and fracture scores was very good (ICC = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.76, 0.91) and good (ICC = 0.62; 95% CI 0.48, 0.76), respectively. The intraobserver agreement for the total BMO and fracture scores was good (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.6, 0.95) and fair to moderate (ICC = 0.44; 95% CI 0.14, 0.74), respectively. The proposed BMO and fracture scores are reliable and can be used to grade the extent of bone damage in the active Charcot foot.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Association of Vitamin D Deficiency and Degree of Coronary Artery Disease
           in Cardiac Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Several modifiable factors may influence cardiac function in diabetic patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin D level on the stage of coronary atherosclerosis in cardiac patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The study was performed in 337 consecutive patients undergoing coronarography. The stage of atherosclerosis was evaluated using Coronary Artery Surgery Study Score. The plasma 25(OH)D concentration was determined by an electrochemiluminescence method. Patients without significant lesions in coronary arteries presented the highest 25(OH)D level, significantly higher than patients with one-, two-, and three-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) (). Significantly lower level of the 25(OH)D was observed in patients hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in comparison to patients hospitalized due to stable CAD (). Lower 25(OH)D levels were observed in patients with the history of myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison to patients without previous MI (). In cardiac patients with diabetes, the higher number of stenotic coronary arteries is associated with lower values of the 25(OH)D. A group of male cardiac patients with diabetes with significant stenosis in three coronary arteries, hospitalized due to acute coronary syndrome, with a history of previous MI and hyperlipidemia presented the lowest vitamin D level.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 06:02:39 +000
       
  • Views and Experiences of New Zealand Women with Gestational Diabetes in
           Achieving Glycaemic Control Targets: The Views Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Optimal glycaemic control in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) reduces maternal and infant morbidity. Method. A survey was administered to women diagnosed with GDM to explore their views and experiences in achieving optimal glycaemic control. Results. Sixty women participated. Enablers included being taught to test capillary blood glucose in group settings where the health professional demonstrated this on themselves first (60, 100%); health professionals listening (41, 68%); being reminded to perform blood glucose testing (33, 55%); and being provided healthy meals by friends and family (28, 47%). Barriers included not having information in a woman’s first language (33, 55%); being offered unhealthy food (19, 31%); not being believed by health professionals (13, 21%); receiving inconsistent information by health professionals (10, 16%); never being seen twice by the same health professional (8, 13%); and long waiting hours at clinics (7, 11%). Two-thirds of women (37, 62%) reported that food costs were not a barrier, but that they were always or frequently hungry. Conclusion. Optimising experiences for women with GDM for achieving glycaemic control and overcoming barriers, regardless of glycaemic targets, requires further focus on providing meaningful health literacy and support from health professionals, family, friends, and work colleagues.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Thyroid Dysfunction among Greek Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
           Mellitus as a Disregarded Comorbidity

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in Greek patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus as well as its possible relations to glycaemic control and to diabetic complications. Methods. A total of 1015 patients, consecutively followed in the Outpatient Diabetes Center, were studied. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements, occurrence of diabetes complications, and classical comorbidities were assessed. Average HbA1c of the previous year was calculated. Wellbeing was determined, using a 10-point optimal scale. All the above parameters were compared between subjects with or without thyroid disease. Results. All patients were euthyroid at the time of the study, either on thyroid medications or not. Hypothyroidism occurrence did not differ between T2DM and T1DM patients (37.1% versus 43.5%, ). Nodular goiter was observed more frequently in T2DM patients (34.1% versus 18.8%, ). T2DM patients with hypothyroidism compared to those without hypothyroidism had higher HbA1c (7.27% versus 6.98%, ), TChol (184.97 mg/dl versus 168.17 mg/dl, ), and higher HDL-Chol (51.28 mg/dl versus 46.77 mg/dl, ). T2DM patients without hypothyroidism had a better wellness feeling (7.5 versus 5.3 points, ). Conclusions. Screening for thyroid disease among T2DM patients should be routinely considered, as it is found to be an additional commorbidity. If it remains undiagnosed, it could aggravate the clinical course of the disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Direct and Indirect Effects of Serum Uric Acid on Blood Sugar Levels in
           Patients with Prediabetes: A Mediation Analysis

    • Abstract: Purpose. To estimate both direct and indirect effects (through obesity) of serum uric acid (SUA) on blood sugar in prediabetes patients. Methods. Prediabetes patients who came to the outpatient clinic of the Department of Family Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, were included in this cross-sectional study. Mediation analysis was applied to determine direct and indirect effects of SUA on glycemic parameters (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c) through waist circumference (WC). A mediation effect was estimated using the product-of-coefficient method with a bootstrap analysis of 1000 replications. Results. 1043 patients were eligible for this study. Every 1 mg/dl increase in SUA was associated with an increase in WC and then was significantly associated with an increase in FPG by 0.082 mg/dl (95% CI: 0.010, 0.154). SUA was directly associated with FPG with a coefficient of 0.413 (95% CI: 0.049, 0.776). For HbA1c, every one mg/dl increase in SUA was associated with an increase in HbA1c level through WC by 0.006 (95% CI: 0.003, 0.010). However, SUA was not directly associated with HbA1c. Conclusions. We found that an increase in SUA was directly and indirectly associated with increased FPG but the effect of SUA on HbA1c was shown when it was mediated through WC.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy: Why Should Cardiologists Care about
           That'

    • Abstract: Background. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a frequent but underdiagnosed complication of diabetes mellitus. It has a strong influence on various cardiac disorders including myocardial ischemia and infarction, hypertension, orthostatic hypotonia, heart failure, and arrhythmias. CAN can lead to severe morbidity and mortality and increase the risk of sudden cardiac death. Methods. This review article summarizes the latest evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathogenesis, influence on the cardiovascular system, and diagnostic methods for CAN. The methodology of this review involved analyzing available data from recent papers relevant to the topic of diabetic autonomic neuropathy and cardiac disorders. Conclusions. The early diagnosis of CAN can improve the prognosis and reduce adverse cardiac events. Methods based on heart rate variability enable the diagnosis of CAN even at a preclinical stage. These methods are simple and widely available for use in everyday clinical practice. According to the recently published Toronto Consensus Panel on Diabetic Neuropathy, all diabetic patients should be screened for CAN. Because diabetes mellitus often coexists with heart diseases and the most common methods used for diagnosis of CAN are based on ECG, not only diabetologists but also cardiologists should be responsible for diagnosis of CAN.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Silymarin Ameliorates Diabetes-Induced Proangiogenic Response in Brain
           Endothelial Cells through a GSK-3β Inhibition-Induced Reduction of VEGF
           Release

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Additionally, it was found to induce a dysfunctional angiogenic response in the brain that was attributed to oxidative stress. Milk thistle seed extract (silymarin) has potent antioxidant properties, though its potential use in ameliorating diabetes-induced aberrant brain angiogenesis is unknown. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is a regulator of angiogenesis that is upregulated by diabetes. Its involvement in diabetes-induced angiogenesis is unknown. To evaluate the potential of silymarin to ameliorate diabetes-induced aberrant angiogenesis, human brain endothelial cells (HBEC-5i) were treated with 50 μg/mL advanced glycation end (AGE) products in the presence or absence of silymarin (50, 100 μM). The angiogenic potential of HBEC-5i was evaluated in terms of migration and in vitro tube formation capacities. The involvement of GSK-3β was also evaluated. AGE significantly increased the migration and tube formation rates of HBEC-5i by about onefold (). Silymarin reduced AGE-induced migration in a dose-dependent manner where 50 μM reduced migration by about 50%, whereas the 100 μM completely inhibited AGE-induced migration. Similarly, silymarin 50 μg/mL blunted AGE-induced tube formation (). This effect was mediated through a GSK-3β-dependent inhibition of VEGF release. In conclusion, silymarin inhibits AGE-induced aberrant angiogenesis in a GSK-3β-mediated inhibition of VEGF release.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 04:02:20 +000
       
  • Protein Intake, Especially Vegetable Protein Intake, Is Associated with
           Higher Skeletal Muscle Mass in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background/Aims. Protein intake is important for maintaining muscle mass in general population. However, it remains to be elucidated the association between dietary protein intake and skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this cross-sectional study of 168 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the relationship between skeletal muscle index (SMI) and protein intake. Bioimpedance analysis was used for measurement for skeletal muscle mass (kg) and SMI (%), which was defined as skeletal muscle mass (kg)/total body weight (kg) × 100. Habitual food and nutrient intake were estimated by a questionnaire. Results. Protein intake was independently correlated with SMI after adjusting for age, hemoglobin A1c, C-peptide index, exercise, smoking, insulin treatment, total energy intake, and C-reactive protein (standardized regression coefficient = 0.664, in men and standardized regression coefficient = 0.516, in women). Additionally, the animal protein to vegetable protein ratio was negatively correlated with SMI after adjusting for covariates in men (standardized regression coefficient = −0.339, ). Conclusions. We found that total protein intake, especially vegetable protein intake, was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Function, and Autophagy in
           Diabetic Polyneuropathy

    • Abstract: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) is the most frequent and prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). The state of persistent hyperglycemia leads to an increase in the production of cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and favors deregulation of the antioxidant defenses that are capable of activating diverse metabolic pathways which trigger the presence of nitro-oxidative stress (NOS) and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hyperglycemia provokes the appearance of micro- and macrovascular complications and favors oxidative damage to the macromolecules (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins) with an increase in products that damage the DNA. Hyperglycemia produces mitochondrial dysfunction with deregulation between mitochondrial fission/fusion and regulatory factors. Mitochondrial fission appears early in diabetic neuropathy with the ability to facilitate mitochondrial fragmentation. Autophagy is a catabolic process induced by oxidative stress that involves the formation of vesicles by the lysosomes. Autophagy protects cells from diverse stress factors and routine deterioration. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in the appearance of complications in DM will facilitate the selection of specific therapeutic options based on the mechanisms involved in the metabolic pathways affected. Nowadays, the antioxidant agents consumed exogenously form an adjuvant therapeutic alternative in chronic degenerative metabolic diseases, such as DM.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 08:16:29 +000
       
  • Diabetic Nephropathy: From Pathophysiology to Treatment

    • PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Selective Screening Strategies for Gestational Diabetes: A Prospective
           Cohort Observational Study

    • Abstract: Aim. We aimed to develop a prediction model for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes and to evaluate the performance of published prediction tools on our population. Methods. We conducted a cohort study on nondiabetic women  10%, 25.6% of cases were detected without the HbA1c, and 25.8% of cases would have been detected with the HbA1c). The 9 published scoring systems performed poorly. Conclusion. We propose a nomogram-based score that can be used at first antenatal visit to identify women at high risk of GDM.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of Insulin Receptor Isoforms in Diabetes and Its Metabolic and
           Vascular Complications

    • Abstract: The insulin receptor (IR) presents by alternative splicing two isoforms: IRA and IRB. The differential physiological and pathological role of both isoforms is not completely known, and it is determinant the different binding affinity for insulin-like growth factor. IRB is more abundant in adult tissues and it exerts mainly the metabolic actions of insulin, whereas IRA is mainly expressed in fetal and prenatal period and exerts mitogenic actions. However, the change in the expression profile of both IR isoforms and its dysregulation are associated with the development of different pathologies, such as cancer, insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. In some of them, there is a significant increase of IRA/IRB ratio conferring a proliferative and migratory advantage to different cell types and favouring IGF-II actions with a sustained detriment in the metabolic effects of insulin. This review discussed specifically the role of IR isoforms as well as IGF-IR in diabetes and its associated complications as obesity and atherosclerosis. Future research with new IR modulators might be considered as possible targets to improve the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dynamics of Insulin Secretion from EndoC-βH1 β-Cell Pseudoislets in
           Response to Glucose and Other Nutrient and Nonnutrient Secretagogues

    • Abstract: The dynamics of insulin secretion were characterized in response to a variety of physiological and pharmacological stimulators and other compounds in perifused pseudoislets generated from cells of the EndoC-βH1 β-cell line. Perifusion of EndoC-βH1 pseudoislets with the physiological stimulus glucose (16.7 mM) induced sustained insulin secretion, which was inhibited by mannoheptulose. The adenylate cyclase activators IBMX and forskolin strongly potentiated this secretion. Glibenclamide, a Kir 6.2 potassium channel blocker, and Bay K 8644, an opener of the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel, also potentiated glucose-induced insulin secretion. The dynamics of insulin secretion from EndoC-βH1 pseudoislets were characterized by an insulin secretory response to glucose starting within 1-2 min and passing over without interruption into a sustained phase of insulin release for the whole stimulation period. This lack of a transient decline between the first and the second phases of insulin release is an indication for a quick supply of insulin secretory granules from the reserve pool to the docking sites below the plasma membrane. Thereby, new secretory granules are directly made available for sustained exocytosis of insulin in EndoC-βH1 β-cells. The study shows that EndoC-βH1 β-cell pseudoislets are well suited for kinetic analyses of insulin secretion.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Antioxidative Effects of Natural Products on Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    • Abstract: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common and severe complication of diabetes and results in high mortality. It is therefore imperative to develop novel therapeutics for the prevention or inhibition of the progression of DCM. Oxidative stress is a key mechanism by which diabetes induces DCM. Hence, targeting of oxidative stress-related processes in DCM could be a promising therapeutic strategy. To date, a number of studies have shown beneficial effects of several natural products on the attenuation of DCM via an antioxidative mechanism of action. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive and concise overview of the previously reported antioxidant natural products in the inhibition of DCM progression. Clinical trials of the antioxidative natural products in the management of DCM are included. In addition, discussion and perspectives are further provided in the present review.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Fasting Plasma Glucose during Early Pregnancy: A Review about Early
           Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is nowadays routinely measured during early pregnancy to detect preexisting diabetes (FPG ≥ 7 mmol/L). This screening has concomitantly led to identify early intermediate hyperglycemia, defined as FPG in the 5.1 to 6.9 mmol/L range, also early gestational diabetes mellitus (eGDM). Early FPG has been associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, but the recommendation by the IADPSG to refer women with eGDM for immediate management is more pragmatic than evidence based. Although eGDM is characterized by insulin resistance and associated with classical risk factors for type 2 diabetes and incident diabetes after delivery, it is not necessarily associated with preexisting prediabetes. FPG ≥ 5.1 mmol/L in early pregnancy is actually poorly predictive of gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed after 24 weeks of gestation. An alternative threshold should be determined but may vary according to ethnicity, gestational age, and body mass index. Finally, observational data suggest that early management of intermediate hyperglycemia may improve prognosis, through reduced gestational weight gain and potential early introduction of hypoglycemic agents. Considering all these issues, we suggest an algorithm for the management of eGDM based on early FPG levels that would be measured in case of risk factors. Nevertheless, interventional randomized trials are still missing.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comment on “Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Lower Limb
           Amputation: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study”

    • PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    • Abstract: We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes). We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), peripheral neuropathy (PN), and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (). Previous amputation (4.1%) was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (). Previous foot ulceration (9.8%) was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (). PAD (21.0%) was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (). PN (22.0%) was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (). Foot deformity (22.4%) was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (). Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • SIRT1 Regulates Cognitive Performance and Ability of Learning and Memory
           in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Models

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models. In addition, future research directions in this field are discussed, including therapeutic potential of its activator, resveratrol, and application of other compounds in cognitive improvement. Our findings suggest that SIRT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Diabetic Foot

    • PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Treatment Gaps Found in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes at a Community
           Health Centre in Johannesburg, South Africa

    • Abstract: Aims. The management of cardiometabolic goals or “ABCs” (HbA1c, blood pressure (BP), and cholesterol) ultimately determines the morbidity and mortality outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We sought to determine if patients with T2DM attending an urbanized public sector community health centre (CHC) were having their ABCs measured, were treated with appropriate cardioprotective agents and finally, were achieving guideline-based targets. Methods and Results. A cross-sectional record review of 519 patients was conducted between May and August 2015. The mean age was 54 years (SD: ±11.5) and 54% () were females. Testing of ABCs occurred in 68.8% () for HbA1c, 95.4% () for BP, and 58.6% () for LDL-C. Achievement of ABC targets was as follows: 19.3% (HbA1c 
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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