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Showing 1 - 200 of 334 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epidemiology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)

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Journal Cover Experimental Diabetes Research
  [SJR: 1.591]   [H-I: 30]   [11 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [334 journals]
  • Increased Serum Uric Acid Level Is a Risk Factor for Left Ventricular
           Hypertrophy but Not Independent of eGFR in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic
           Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Although the relation between serum uric acid (SUA) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been studied for decades, however, their association remains debatable. Methods. This is a retrospective study in which a total of 435 hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 DKD were enrolled. The subjects were stratified into quartiles according to SUA level. LVH was assessed by two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiography. Results. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of LVH in patients with type 2 DKD across SUA quartiles (28.9, 26.5, 36.1, and 49.5%; ). The Spearman analysis indicated that SUA was positively correlated to LVMI and negatively correlated to eGFR. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odd ratio for LVH in the highest SUA quartile was 2.439 (95% CI 1.265–4.699; ; model 1) or 2.576 (95% CI 1.150–5.768; ; model 2) compared with that in the lowest SUA quartile. However, there was no significant increased risk of LVH in the subjects with the highest SUA quartile after adjusting the eGFR (OR = 1.750; 95% CI 0.685–4.470; ; model 3). Conclusions. In selected population, such as type 2 DKD, the elevated SUA level is positively linked with the increased risk of LVH, but this relationship is not independent of eGFR.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 08:23:00 +000
  • Association between the Time of Length since Smoking Cessation and Insulin
           Resistance in Asymptomatic Korean Male Ex-Smokers

    • Abstract: Aim. Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus, mainly due to decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. However, there has been little research on the effects of smoking cessation period on changes in insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the length of time since smoking cessation period and insulin resistance in asymptomatic Korean male ex-smokers. Methods. A total of 851 male adults were included in this study. We considered several factors that can affect insulin resistance, and through multiple linear regression analysis, we assessed the effect the length of time since smoking cessation on insulin resistance in ex-smokers. Insulin resistance was represented as the insulin resistance index estimated by homeostasis model assessment. Results. HOMA-IR values showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the length of time since smoking cessation () in ex-smokers. After performing multiple linear regression analysis using factors that could potentially influence insulin resistance, we found that waist circumference () and the length of time since smoking cessation () were independent predictors of HOMA-IR in asymptomatic male ex-smokers. Conclusion. The longer the smoking cessation period, the more the insulin resistance tended to decrease in asymptomatic Korean male ex-smokers.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:24:13 +000
  • Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional
           Responses in Healthy Individuals

    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (, ).
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 06:37:17 +000
  • All-Cause Mortality Risk in Australian Women with Impaired Fasting Glucose
           and Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aims. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes are increasing in prevalence worldwide and lead to serious health problems. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between impaired fasting glucose or diabetes and mortality over a 10-year period in Australian women. Methods. This study included 1167 women (ages 20–94 yr) enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in diabetes, IFG, and normoglycaemia were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Women with diabetes were older and had higher measures of adiposity, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides compared to the IFG and normoglycaemia groups (all ). Mortality rate was greater in women with diabetes compared to both the IFG and normoglycaemia groups (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.7). Mortality was not different in women with IFG compared to those with normoglycaemia (HR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.4). Conclusions. This study reports an association between diabetes and all-cause mortality. However, no association was detected between IFG and all-cause mortality. We also showed that mortality in Australian women with diabetes continues to be elevated and women with IFG are a valuable target for prevention of premature mortality associated with diabetes.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in the Development of Early Diabetic

    • Abstract: The pathological mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness in adults with diabetes mellitus, remain incompletely understood. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) represent effective DR therapeutic targets, we identified aberrantly expressed miRNAs associated with cellular dysfunction in early DR and detected their potential targets. We exposed human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and a cell line of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to high glucose (25 mmol/L, 1–7 days) to mimic DR progression and used streptozotocin-injected rats (4–8 weeks) for an in vivo diabetes model. HREC/RPE viability decreased after 24 h incubation and diminished further over 6 days, and Hoechst staining revealed hyperglycemia-induced HREC/RPE apoptosis. Although miR-124/-125b expression decreased with DR progression in vitro and in vivo, miR-135b/-199a levels decreased in retinal cells under hyperglycemia exposure, but increased in diabetic retinas. Moreover, miR-145/-146a expression decreased gradually in high-glucose-treated HRECs, but increased in hyperglycemia-exposed RPE cells and in diabetic rats. Our findings suggested that aberrant miRNA expression could be involved in hyperglycemia-induced retinal-cell dysfunction, and the identified miRNAs might vary in different retinal layers, with expression changes associated with DR development. Therefore, miRNA modulation and the targeting of miRNA effects on transcription factors could represent novel and effective DR-treatment strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2017 03:31:51 +000
  • PNPLA3 rs1010023 Predisposes Chronic Hepatitis B to Hepatic Steatosis but
           Improves Insulin Resistance and Glucose Metabolism

    • Abstract: PNPLA3 polymorphisms serve as the genetic basis of hepatic steatosis in normal population and lead to dysregulated glucose metabolism. Whether it underlies the hepatic steatosis and glucose homeostasis in chronic hepatitis B patients remains uncertain. Here, we investigated the PNPLA3 polymorphisms in biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis B patients with (CHB+HS group, ) or without hepatic steatosis (CHB group, ) and non-CHB subjects with (HS group, ) or without hepatic steatosis (normal group, ). When compared to the TT genotype, C-allele at PNPLA3 rs1010023 (CC and TC genotypes) conferred higher risk to hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B patients (odds ratio (OR) = 1.768, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.027–3.105; ) independent of age, gender, and body mass index. In contrast to their role in hepatic steatosis, CC and TC genotypes of PNPLA3 rs1010023 were correlated to significant improvement of homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) as compared to TT genotype in the CHB+HS group. Downregulated fasting blood glucose also characterized the CHB+HS patients with C-allele at PNPLA3 rs1010023 (CC/TC versus TT: 4.81 ± 0.92 mmol/L versus 5.86 ± 2.11 mmol/L, ). These findings suggest that PNPLA3 rs1010023 may predispose chronic hepatitis B patients to hepatic steatosis but protects them from glucose dysregulation by attenuating insulin resistance.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 06:26:01 +000
  • Role of Epigenetic Histone Modifications in Diabetic Kidney Disease
           Involving Renal Fibrosis

    • Abstract: One of the commonest causes of end-stage renal disease is diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Renal fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in glomerular basement membranes and the tubulointerstitium, is the final manifestation of DKD. The TGF-β pathway triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays a key role in the accumulation of ECM proteins in DKD. DCCT/EDIC studies have shown that DKD often persists and progresses despite glycemic control in diabetes once DKD sets in due to prior exposure to hyperglycemia called “metabolic memory.” These imply that epigenetic factors modulate kidney gene expression. There is evidence to suggest that in diabetes and hyperglycemia, epigenetic histone modifications have a significant effect in modulating renal fibrotic and ECM gene expression induced by TGF-β1, as well as its downstream profibrotic genes. Histone modifications are also implicated in renal fibrosis through its ability to regulate the EMT process triggered by TGF-β signaling. In view of this, efforts are being made to develop HAT, HDAC, and HMT inhibitors to delay, stop, or even reverse DKD. In this review, we outline the latest advances that are being made to regulate histone modifications involved in DKD.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 04:37:17 +000
  • High Serum Advanced Glycation End Products Are Associated with Decreased
           Insulin Secretion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Brief Report

    • Abstract: Objective. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They directly cause insulin secretory defects in animal and cell culture models and may promote insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects. We have developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring AGEs in human serum. Here, we use this method to investigate the relationship between AGEs and insulin secretion and resistance in patients with T2DM. Methods. Our study involved 15 participants with T2DM not on medication and 20 nondiabetic healthy participants. We measured the AGE carboxyethyllysine (CEL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and methyl-glyoxal-hydro-imidazolone (MG-H1). Plasma glucose and insulin were measured in these participants during a meal tolerance test, and the glucose disposal rate was measured during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results. CML and CEL levels were significantly higher in T2DM than non-DM participants. CML showed a significant negative correlation with insulin secretion, HOMA-%B, and a significant positive correlation with the insulin sensitivity index in T2DM participants. There was no correlation between any of the AGEs measured and glucose disposal rate. Conclusions. These results suggest that AGE might play a role in the development or prediction of insulin secretory defects in type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Relationships between Bone Turnover and Energy Metabolism

    • Abstract: It is well established that diabetes can be detrimental to bone health, and its chronic complications have been associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, there is growing evidence that the skeleton plays a key role in a whole-organism approach to physiology. The hypothesis that bone may be involved in the regulation of physiological functions, such as insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism, has been suggested. Given the roles of insulin, adipokines, and osteocalcin in these pathways, the need for a more integrative conceptual approach to physiology is emphasized. Recent findings suggest that bone plays an important role in regulating intermediary metabolism, being possibly both a target of diabetic complications and a potential pathophysiologic factor in the disease itself. Understanding the relationships between bone turnover and glucose metabolism is important in order to develop treatments that might reestablish energy metabolism and bone health. This review describes new insights relating bone turnover and energy metabolism that have been reported in the literature.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Depressive Symptoms in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The
           LINDA-Brazil Study

    • Abstract: This study aimed to assess the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms and their relationship with sociodemographic characteristics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who participated in the LINDA-Brazil study. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 820 women with GDM who were receiving prenatal care in the public health system. We conducted structured interviews to obtain clinical and sociodemographic information and applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to assess depressive symptoms. We classified the presence and severity of depressive symptoms using scores of ≥12 and ≥18, respectively. We used Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). Most of the women lived with a partner (88%), 50% were between 30 and 39 years old, 39% had finished high school, 39% had a family income of 1-2 minimum wages, and 47% were obese before their pregnancies. The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 31% of the women, and severe depressive symptoms were observed in 10%; 8.3% reported self-harm intent. Lower parity and higher educational levels were associated with lower EPDS score. Depressive symptoms were common and frequently severe among women with GDM, indicating the need to consider this situation when treating such women, especially those who are more socially vulnerable. This trial is registered with NCT02327286, registered on 23 December 2014.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 03:07:09 +000
  • Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    • Abstract: Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA) availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR). In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN) family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 02:33:19 +000
  • Liver-Specific Overexpression of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Ameliorates
           Insulin Sensitivity of Male C57BL/6 Mice

    • Abstract: In the current study, we developed a liver-specific GGT-overexpressing mice model by rapid injection pLIVE-GGT vector through tail vein and investigated the effects of GGT elevation on glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The serum GGT activity was significantly increased after 7 days of pLIVE-GGT1 vector delivery and lasted for about 3 weeks. GGT overexpression reduced the levels of GSSG and GSH in the liver and serum and had no effects on total antioxidative capacity in the liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle except for the pancreas. Increased GGT activity had no effect on the glucose tolerance but could facilitate blood glucose lowering after intraperitoneal insulin administration. The results of Western blotting showed that increased GGT activity enhanced insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation at Ser473. Furthermore, GGT inhibitor could attenuate the changes of insulin-induced blood glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation in the liver. In summary, the present study developed a liver-specific GGT-overexpressing mice model and found that GGT elevation in short term had no effects on glucose metabolism but could increase insulin sensitivity through enhancing the activity of insulin signaling pathway.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effects of Lycopene and Insulin on Histological Changes and the
           Expression Level of Bcl-2 Family Genes in the Hippocampus of
           Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antioxidants lycopene and insulin on histological changes and expression of Bcl-2 family genes in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into six groups of control (C), control treated with lycopene (CL), diabetic (D), diabetic treated with insulin (DI), diabetic treated with lycopene (DL), and diabetic treated with insulin and lycopene (DIL). Diabetes was induced by an injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, IP), lycopene (4 mg/kg/day) was given to the lycopene treated groups as gavages, and insulin (Sc, 1-2 U/kg/day) was injected to the groups treated with insulin. The number of hippocampus neurons undergoing cell death in group D had significant differences with groups C and DIL (). Furthermore, insulin and lycopene alone or together reduced the expression of Bax, but increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL levels in DI, DL, and DIL rats, especially when compared to group D (). The ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 and Bax/Bcl-xL in DI, DL, and DIL rats were also reduced (). Our results indicate that treatment with insulin and/or lycopene contribute to the prevention of cell death by reducing the expression of proapoptotic genes and increasing the expression of antiapoptotic genes in the hippocampus.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Relationship between Cardiovascular Autonomic Dysfunction and Ocular
           Abnormality in Chinese T2DM

    • Abstract: Objective. This study aims to explore the relationship between autonomic nerve dysfunction—assessed by cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy risk score (CAN-RS)—and ocular abnormality in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Method. This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 335 subjects with T2DM were enrolled. The state of visual acuity, the lens, the vitreous, and the fundus were tested by professional ophthalmic instruments. The electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) of the hands and feet was measured by SUDOSCAN, from which a cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy risk score (CAN-RS) was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of CAN-RS in diabetic oculopathy screening. Results. Abnormalities of the lens, vitreous, and fundus accounted for 7.8%, 5.1%, and 9.9%, respectively, in this study. The means of hands and feet ESC were higher than 60 μS, and CAN-RS was 33.1 ± 14.8%. In logistic regression analysis, CAN-RS was positively associated with lens (OR = 1.055, ) and vitreous (OR = 1.044, ) abnormality. The area under ROC to detect lens and vitreous abnormality was 0.713 and 0.725, respectively. Conclusion. CAN-RS, a cardiac autonomic nerve dysfunction index calculated by SUDOSCAN, may be a promising index for lens and vitreous abnormality screening in T2DM patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the conclusion.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Antidiabetic Drugs in Alzheimer’s Disease: Mechanisms of Action and
           Future Perspectives

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are two highly prevalent conditions in the elderly population and major public health burden. In the past decades, a pathophysiological link between DM and AD has emerged and central nervous system insulin resistance might play a significant role as a common mechanism; however, other factors such as inflammation and oxidative stress seem to contribute to the shared pathophysiological link. Both preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated the possible neuroprotective mechanisms of different classes of antidiabetic medications in AD, with some promising results. Here, we review the evidence on the mechanisms of action of antidiabetic drugs and their potential use in AD.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Referral System between Primary and Secondary Health Care in Saudi
           Arabia for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. In Saudi Arabia, the mortality of diabetes is currently reported at 6%. A well-administered referral system is crucial in aiding the management of this disease. Method. A single reviewer employed a systematic approach to searching the literature databases with regard to the question: what are the attributes of referral systems in Saudi Arabia for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)' The results were analysed in order to provide recommendations to improve the Saudi health system. Results. Twelve primary studies were identified from a systematic search. Overall, the 12 studies did not clearly mention any of the factors of a good referral system. The referral problems identified by this study included patients’ unnecessary requests for referral, unstructured referral letters, and unclear dissemination guidelines for referral. Conclusions. This research attempted to identify the efficiency of the referral processes that were implemented for patients with T2D. The majority of the included studies were completely silent on the main referral factors for patients. If this review is representative of the referral system in Saudi Arabia, then, in the context of T2D, current referrals are unsafe. Further research on the quality of the referral system, taking into account at least some of the WHO referral guidelines, is required.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2017 10:07:29 +000
  • Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following
           the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia

    • Abstract: This study investigated how acute restoration of normoglycaemia affected energy metabolism during exercise in nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes. Six subjects (mean ± SEM) aged 56.2 ± 2.7 years, with a BMI of 24.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2 and a VO2 peak of 28.7 ml/kg/min, attended the lab on two randomised occasions for a four-hour resting infusion of insulin or saline, followed by 30 minutes cycling at 50% VO2 peak. During the 4 h resting infusion, there was a greater () reduction in blood glucose in insulin treatment (INS) (from 11.2 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l) than in saline treatment/control (CON) (from 11.5 ± 0.7 to 8.5 ± 0.6 mmol/l). This was associated with a lower () resting metabolic rate in INS (3.87 ± 0.17) than in CON (4.39 ± 0.30 kJ/min). During subsequent exercise, blood glucose increased significantly in INS from 5.6 ± 0.1 at 0 min to 6.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l at 30 min (), which was accompanied by a lower blood lactate response (). Oxygen uptake, rates of substrate utilization, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials. Insulin-induced normoglycaemia increased blood glucose during subsequent exercise without altering overall substrate utilization.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac
           Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal
           Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes
           in North India

    • Abstract: We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (; BMI 
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Leptin/Adiponectin Ratios Using Either Total Or High-Molecular-Weight
           Adiponectin as Biomarkers of Systemic Insulin Sensitivity in Normoglycemic

    • Abstract: Plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (LAR) is negatively associated with insulin sensitivity indexes. High-molecular-weight adiponectin (HMWA) was proposed as the most biologically active form of this insulin-sensitizing adipokine. There are no studies assessing the relative merits of leptin/HMWA ratio over LAR as a biomarker of systemic insulin sensitivity. A standard 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 75 g of glucose) and a short minimal-model intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT; 0.3 g/kg body weight) were performed in 58 Chilean normoglycemic women (age: 27 ± 6.3 years, BMI 23.6 ± 3.2 kg/m2). LAR was negatively associated with HOMA-S (; ), Matsuda-ISICOMP (; ), and the calculated sensitivity index (CSi) derived from IVGTT (; ). In comparison to LAR, leptin/HMWA ratio did not increase neither the linear fit () nor the magnitude of association with insulin sensitivity indexes (slope of multiple linear regression). The discriminatory capacity of both ratios to classify insulin-resistant versus insulin-sensitive subjects was similar for HOMA-S (), Matsuda-ISICOMP (), or CSi (). In conclusion, LAR showed consistent negative associations with different systemic insulin sensitivity indexes. The use of HMWA to generate leptin/HMWA ratio did not show any advantage over LAR as a biomarker of systemic insulin sensitivity in normoglycemic women.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 09:00:37 +000
  • The Effect of Social Support on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus: The Mediating Roles of Self-Efficacy and Adherence

    • Abstract: Ample evidence suggests that social support, self-efficacy, and adherence significantly, independently, and together affect glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the pathway from social support to glycemic control remains unclear. This study hypothesized that the effect of social support on glycemic control was mediated sequentially by self-efficacy and adherence. Patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China, from January 1 to July 31, 2014, and their sociodemographic clinical data and their assessments on social support, self-efficacy, and adherence were obtained from medical records and self-completed questionnaires. Of the 532 patients who participated, 35% achieved glycemic control (i.e., HbA1c < 7%). Social support, self-efficacy, and adherence had significant correlations with each other and with glycemic control (). Regression analyses and structural equation modeling showed that better social support was associated to better patient self-efficacy, which, in turn, was associated with better medical adherence, which was associated with improved glycemic control, and the relationship between social support and glycemic control was sequentially and completely mediated by self-efficacy and adherence. The five goodness-of-fit indices confirmed that our data fitted the hypothesized pathway model strongly.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Inadequate Triglyceride Management Worsens the Durability of Dipeptidyl
           Peptidase-4 Inhibitor in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are often used all over the world and exert various beneficial effects including glucose-lowering effect in many subjects with type 2 diabetes. It is poorly understood, however, which factors are closely related with the durability of glucose-lowering effect by DPP-4 inhibitor. In this study, we examined retrospectively which factors could mainly influence the durability of DPP-4 inhibitor. We enrolled 212 participants with type 2 diabetes to whom DPP-4 inhibitor was administered for over 1 year without an addition or increase of other hypoglycemic agents. Age and baseline HbA1c level were significantly higher in the effective group than those in the ineffective group. The effective group had a tendency of smaller amounts of weight change, average total cholesterol, and average triglyceride compared with the ineffective group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that average triglyceride and baseline HbA1c were independent predictors associated with the durability of DPP-4 inhibitor. Moreover, an average triglyceride level contributed to the durability of DPP-4 inhibitor in the obese group (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) but not in the nonobese group (BMI 
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Upregulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Protein 8-Like 2 mRNA Is
           Negatively Correlated with Serum Concentrations of Tumor Necrosis
           Factor-α and Interleukin 6 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Background. Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2 or TNFAIP8L2) is a negative regulator of natural and adaptive immunity. The role of TIPE2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains unknown, although TIPE2 plays key roles in preserving inflammatory homeostasis. Methods. TIPE2 expression was measured by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from T2DM patients and healthy controls, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and other related biometabolic parameters were detected using a nephelometer or by ELISA. Differentiated THP-1 cells were exposed to siTIPE2 and TIPE2 adenovirus. Results. TIPE2 was significantly increased in PBMCs from T2DM patients compared with those from healthy controls and was negatively correlated with serum TNF-α, IL-6, and hsCRP concentrations but positively correlated with HbA1c and LDL-C in T2DM patients. High glucose treatment (50 mmol/L) can upregulate the expression of TIPE2 and cytokine secretion in differentiated THP-1 cells. siTIPE2 infection exacerbated the increased TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations in differentiated THP-1 cells under high glucose conditions (50 mmol/L), while infection with TIPE2 adenovirus reversed the increased TNF-α concentration. Conclusions. The present study indicates that TIPE2 may participate in T2DM by regulating TNF-α production.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 May 2017 04:07:40 +000
  • NGAL as an Early Predictive Marker of Diabetic Nephropathy in Children and
           Young Adults with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Aims. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often associated with early microvascular complications. Previous studies demonstrated that increased systolic (SAP) and diastolic arterial blood pressures (DAP) are linked to microvascular morbidity in T1D. The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive role of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in unravelling early cardio-renal dysfunction in T1D. Methods. Two T1D patient groups participating in two-centre prospective cohorts were studied. Group A consisted of 57 participants aged 13.9 years (SD: 3.1) and group B consisted of 59 patients aged 28.0 years (SD: 4.4). Forty-nine healthy children [age: 10.5 years (SD: 6.6)] and 18 healthy adults [age 27.7 years (SD: 4.2)] served as controls. Serum concentrations of NGAL (ELISA) were determined, and SAP and DAP were examined (SAP and DAP also expressed as z-scores in the younger group). Results. NGAL correlated positively with SAP in both patient groups ( and , resp.) and SAP z-score () (group A) and negatively with eGFR in both groups ( and , resp.). Conclusions. NGAL may be proposed as a biomarker of early renal dysfunction even in nonalbuminuric T1D patients, since it was strongly associated with renal function decline and increasing systolic arterial pressure even at prehypertensive range in people with T1D, in a broad age range.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Young Females Results in Increased Serum Amyloid A and
           Changes to Features of High Density Lipoproteins in Both HDL2 and HDL3

    • Abstract: Persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an elevated risk of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) normally protect against cardiovascular disease (CVD), but this may be attenuated by serum amyloid A (SAA). In a case-control study of young females, blood samples were compared between subjects with T2DM () and individuals without T2DM (). SAA and apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) concentrations, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were measured in the serum and/or HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions. SAA concentrations were higher in T2DM compared to controls: serum (30 mg/L (17, 68) versus 15 mg/L (7, 36); ), HDL2 (1.0 mg/L (0.6, 2.2) versus 0.4 mg/L (0.2, 0.7); ), and HDL3 (13 mg/L (8, 29) versus 6 mg/L (3, 13); ). Serum-PON-1 activity was lower in T2DM compared to that in controls (38,245 U/L (7025) versus 41,109 U/L (5690); ). CETP activity was higher in T2DM versus controls in HDL2 (232.6 μmol/L (14.1) versus 217.1 μmol/L (25.1); ) and HDL3 (279.5 μmol/L (17.7) versus 245.2 μmol/L (41.2); ). These results suggest that individuals with T2DM have increased SAA-related inflammation and dysfunctional HDL features. SAA may prove to be a useful biomarker in T2DM given its association with elevated CVD risk.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 May 2017 06:40:21 +000
  • Soluble Urokinase Receptor and the Kidney Response in Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. DN typically manifests by glomerular hyperfiltration and microalbuminuria; then, the disease progresses to impaired glomerular filtration rate, which leads to ESRD. Treatment options for DN include the strict control of blood glucose levels and pressure (e.g., intraglomerular hypertension). However, the search for novel therapeutic strategies is ongoing. These include seeking specific molecules that contribute to the development and progression of DN to potentially interfere with these “molecular targets” as well as with the cellular targets within the kidney such as podocytes, which play a major role in the pathogenesis of DN. Recently, podocyte membrane protein urokinase receptor (uPAR) and its circulating form (suPAR) are found to be significantly induced in glomeruli and sera of DN patients, respectively, and elevated suPAR levels predicted diabetic kidney disease years before the occurrence of microalbuminuria. The intent of this review is to summarize the emerging evidence of uPAR and suPAR in the clinical manifestations of DN. The identification of specific pathways that govern DN will help us build a more comprehensive molecular model for the pathogenesis of the disease that can inform new opportunities for treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1: At the Crossroads of Lipoprotein
           Metabolism and Insulin Signaling

    • Abstract: The metabolic syndrome is an escalating worldwide public health concern. Defined by a combination of physiological, metabolic, and biochemical factors, the metabolic syndrome is used as a clinical guideline to identify individuals with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have been known for decades, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases and their interrelationship remain unclear. The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling receptor that is widely expressed in several tissues. As a member of the LDL receptor family, LRP1 is involved in the clearance of chylomicron remnants from the circulation and has been demonstrated to be atheroprotective. Recently, studies have shown that LRP1 is involved in insulin receptor trafficking and regulation and glucose metabolism. This review summarizes the role of tissue-specific LRP1 in insulin signaling and its potential role as a link between lipoprotein and glucose metabolism in diabetes.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Positive Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies among Type 2
           Diabetes and Related Metabolic and Inflammatory Differences in a Sample of
           the Bulgarian Population

    • Abstract: Background. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of unrecognized cases with positive autoantibodies among type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a sample of the Bulgarian population and to compare some metabolic and inflammatory markers to those of patients having negative autoantibodies and subjects with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA). Methods. Patients with T2D, patients with LADA, and control participants were enrolled. Antiglutamic acid decarboxylase, anti-insulinoma-associated 2, and antizinc transporter 8 autoantibodies were assayed through ELISA. C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha were assessed. Results. Ten percent of patients with T2D had positive autoantibodies. They had lower body mass index (), worse glycemic control (HbA1c, ), and better HDL cholesterol () than those in negative autoantibodies cases. Compared to LADA, glycemia and anthropometric data did not differ significantly but metabolic syndrome was more prevalent among newly found cases with positive autoantibodies (). Their level of inflammatory markers was similar to that of patients having negative autoantibodies (), but IL-6 was higher when compared to LADA (). Conclusion. Prevalence of patients having positive autoantibodies within T2D in the analyzed sample of the Bulgarian population was 10%. They shared common metabolic features with subjects with LADA, but inflammatory phenotype was closer to that of T2D.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index and Indices of Diabetic Polyneuropathy in
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is used to test vascular function and is an arterial stiffness marker and potential predictor of cardiovascular events. This study aimed to analyze the relation between objective indices of diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and the CAVI. One hundred sixty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in this study. We used nerve conduction studies (NCSs) and the coefficient of variation of the R-R interval to evaluate DPN. We estimated arteriosclerosis by the CAVI. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed between neuropathy indices and the CAVI. In univariate analysis, the CAVI showed significant associations with sural sensory nerve conduction velocity and median F-wave conduction velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis for the CAVI showed that sural nerve conduction velocity and median F-wave conduction velocity were significant explanatory variables second only to age. In multiple linear regression analysis for sural nerve conduction velocity among neuropathy indices, the CAVI remained the most significant explanatory variable. In multiple linear regression analysis for median nerve F-wave conduction velocity among neuropathy indices, the CAVI remained the second most significant explanatory variable following HbA1c. These results suggest a close relationship between macroangiopathy and DPN.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Not Only Glycaemic But Also Other Metabolic Factors Affect T Regulatory
           Cell Counts and Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels in Women with Type 1

    • Abstract: Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients suffer from insulinopenia and hyperglycaemia. Studies have shown that if a patient’s hyperglycaemic environment is not compensated, it leads to complex immune dysfunctions. Similarly, T1D mothers with poor glycaemic control exert a negative impact on the immune responses of their newborns. However, questions concerning the impact of other metabolic disturbances on the immune system of T1D mothers (and their newborns) have been raised. To address these questions, we examined 28 T1D women in reproductive age for the relationship between various metabolic, clinical, and immune parameters. Our study revealed several unexpected correlations which are indicative of a much more complex relationship between glucose and lipid factors (namely, glycosylated haemoglobin Hb1Ac, the presence of one but not multiple chronic diabetic complications, and atherogenic indexes) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha). Regulatory T cell counts correlated with HbA1c, diabetic neuropathy, lipid spectra parameters, and IL-6 levels. Total T-helper cell count was interconnected with BMI and glycaemia variability correlated with lipid spectra parameters, insulin dose, and vitamin D levels. These and other correlations revealed in this study provide broader insight into the association of various metabolic abnormalities with immune parameters that may impact T1D mothers or their developing child.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2017 09:35:38 +000
  • The CNDP1 (CTG)5 Polymorphism Is Associated with Biopsy-Proven Diabetic
           Nephropathy, Time on Hemodialysis, and Diabetes Duration

    • Abstract: Considering that the homozygous CNDP1 (CTG)5 genotype affords protection against diabetic nephropathy (DN) in female patients with type 2 diabetes, this study assessed if this association remains gender-specific when applying clinical inclusion criteria (CIC-DN) or biopsy proof (BP-DN). Additionally, it assessed if the prevalence of the protective genotype changes with diabetes duration and time on hemodialysis and if this occurs in association with serum carnosinase (CN-1) activity. Whereas the distribution of the (CTG)5 homozygous genotype in the no-DN and CIC-DN patients was comparable, a lower frequency was found in the BP-DN patients, particularly in females. We observed a significant trend towards high frequencies of the (CTG)5 homozygous genotype with increased time on dialysis. This was also observed for diabetes duration but only reached significance when both (CTG)5 homo- and heterozygous patients were included. CN-1 activity negatively correlated with time on hemodialysis and was lower in (CTG)5 homozygous patients. The latter remained significant in female subjects after gender stratification. We confirm the association between the CNDP1 genotype and DN to be likely gender-specific. Although our data also suggest that (CTG)5 homozygous patients may have a survival advantage on dialysis and in diabetes, this hypothesis needs to be confirmed in a prospective cohort study.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2017 03:55:45 +000
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