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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 218)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Diabetes Research
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Lack of Associations between Elevated Serum Uric Acid and Components of
           Metabolic Syndrome Such as Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and T2DM in
           Overweight and Obese Chinese Adults

    • Abstract: The overweight and obese population experiences a higher occurrence of both hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome. The present study was to explore the relationship between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome-related risk factors among 409 obese Chinese adults (254 women and 155 men) with>24 kg/m2 BMI. Based on sex-specific reference ranges, 233 (57%) patients showed elevated serum uric acid. A total of 15 attributes were selected to assess the associations between elevated serum uric acid and components of metabolic syndrome, including serum uric acid, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urine microalbumin, muscle mass amount, BMI, and age. Among the participants stratified into three groups of grade I, grade II, and grade III obesity, as well as among the participants stratified into male and female groups, univariate correlation analysis identified a negative association () for age, positive associations () for BMI, muscle mass, alanine aminotransferase, and creatinine. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression proved similar associations for age, BMI, creatinine, and alanine aminotransferase. No significant associations were testified between serum uric acid levels and cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR, and urine microalbumin. Factor analysis illustrated that 15 attributes could be grouped into two common factors and five individual factors. A common underlying factor was identified among uric acid, muscle mass, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, and BMI. The results indicate that serum uric acid has no apparent association with metabolic syndromes that are commonly characterized by hypertension, dyslipidemia, and T2DM.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Dec 2019 15:35:05 +000
  • Evaluating Traditional Chinese Medicine and Herbal Products for the
           Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder during pregnancy with health consequences for both lives during and after pregnancy. Studies found that many pregnant women turn to complementary and alternative medicine for health maintenance or symptom relief, such as herbal medicine and acupuncture from traditional Chinese medicine. With the growing popularity of traditional Chinese medicine, we conducted a systemic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases on research studies that investigated traditional Chinese medicine during pregnancy. The resultant hits were further searched in relation to all diabetes mellitus. In total, we found three major herbal medicine/herbal products that were associated with glycemic control in gestational diabetes, including Zuo Gui Wan, red raspberry leaves, and Orthosiphon stamineus. We further reviewed them and their relatives in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus and found more evidence of metabolic benefits. None of the herbal medicine and products examined reported toxicity in the experimental models. Overall, treatments of gestational diabetes by western or alternative interventions are grossly understudied. It is critical to have a standardized protocol when evaluating efficacy of herbal medicine and produce quality results for women and their health-care providers to make informed treatment decisions.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Dec 2019 15:35:00 +000
  • Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in
           Diabetes Mellitus by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    • Abstract: Objective. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) combined with myocardial ischemia, how to reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in DM patients has become a major problem faced by clinicians. We investigated the therapeutic effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in DM rats and its effect on endoplasmic reticulum stress. Methods. SD rats with SPF grade were randomly divided into 6 groups: non-DM rats were divided into the sham operation group (NDM-S group), ischemia-reperfusion group (NDM-IR group), and dexmedetomidine group (NDM-DEX group); DM rats were divided into the diabetic sham operation group (DM-S group), diabetes-reperfusion group (DM-IR group), and diabetes-dexmedetomidine (DM-DEX) group, with 10 rats in each group. Then the effects of DEX on the changes of CK-MB and cTnT levels were examined. The effects of myocardial pathological damage and myocardial infarct size were detected. The apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was detected. The apoptosis of heart tissue cells was also tested through the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax proteins. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins GRP78, CHOP, ERO1α, ERO1β, and PDI was examined. The hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury cell model was established, the effects of DEX, DEX+ ERS agonist on cell apoptosis was also detected. Results. The myocardial damage of DM-IR was more severe than that of NDM-IR rats. DEX could reduce the expression of CK-MB and cTnT, reduce pathological damage, and reduce scar formation and improve fibrosis. DEX can reduce the expression of GRP78, CHOP, ERO1α, ERO1β, and PDI proteins in vivo and in vitro. And the effect of DEX on cell apoptosis could be blocked by ERS agonist. Conclusion. DEX attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in DM rats and H/R injury cell, which is associated with the reduction of ERS-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Nov 2019 05:05:03 +000
  • Static Magnetic Field Accelerates Diabetic Wound Healing by Facilitating
           Resolution of Inflammation

    • Abstract: Impaired wound healing is commonly encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus, which may lead to severe outcomes such as amputation, if untreated timely. Macrophage plays a critical role in the healing process including the resolution phase. Although magnetic therapy is known to improve microcirculation, its effect on wound healing remains uncertain. In the present study, we found that 0.6 T static magnetic field (SMF) significantly accelerated wound closure and elevated reepithelialization and revascularization in diabetic mice. Notably, SMF promoted the wound healing by skewing the macrophage polarization towards M2 phenotype, thus facilitating the resolution of inflammation. In addition, SMF upregulated anti-inflammatory gene expression via activating STAT6 and suppressing STAT1 in macrophage. Taken together, our results indicate that SMF may be a promising adjuvant therapeutic tool for treating diabetic wounds.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Nov 2019 04:05:05 +000
  • Weekend-Based Parent-Group Intervention to Reduce Stress in Parents of
           Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a child is often associated with anger, denial, fear, and depression from the parents. The aim of the study was to improve parents’ adaptation to the diagnosis of diabetes of their child. Sixty-two parents (29 mothers, 33 fathers) of 36 children with type 1 diabetes (;;) participated in a three-day educational working group pilot intervention study. Intervention was based on the reexamination of the traumatic event of diagnosis of T1D through spatial and time-line anchorage, retracing of the future, emotional awareness, and interactive discussion. Relaxing technique, diaphragmatic breathing, and guided visualization were used by 2 psychologists and 1 pediatric endocrinologist. The study was approved by EC and participants filled a consent form. At baseline and after intervention, parents filled in a questionnaire including Diabetes-Related Distress (DRD), Parent Health Locus of Control Scale (PHLOC), Parent Stress Index Short Form (PSI-SF), Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-Parents (HFS-P) and Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-Parents of Young Children (HFS-P-YC), and Health Survey Short Form-36 (SF-36). Three months after the intervention, both parents reported a reduction in the “difficult child” subscale of the PSI-SF () and increased scores of social functioning of the SF-36 (). DRD score was significantly reduced in mothers (), while the “parental distress” subscale of the PSI-SF was significantly improved in fathers (). This weekend-based parent group intervention seems to reduce stress and improve social functioning of parents of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 05:05:02 +000
  • Correlation Analysis between Serum Vitamin D Levels and Lower Extremity
           Macrovascular Complications in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: The correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower extremity atherosclerotic disease and the predictive value of 25(OH)D for early-stage lower extremity atherosclerotic disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were explored. In total, 620 subjects (590 T2DM patients and 30 healthy subjects) completed a questionnaire. All subjects were divided into four groups according to serum 25(OH)D concentration quartile: Q1 (31.97 ng/ml). Participants were also divided into four groups based on the degree of lower extremity arteriostenosis: A1 (T2DM), A2 (T2DM with mild lower extremity vascular lesions (LEVL)), A3 (T2DM with moderate LEVL), and A4 (T2DM with severe LEVL). The incidence of lower extremity artery plaque was significantly higher in groups Q1 and Q2 than in group Q4 (both ). The concentration of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in group A4 than in groups A1 and A2. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the degree of lower extremity vascular stenosis was positively correlated with age, smoking, and HbA1c, CRP, and LDL-C levels and negatively correlated with 25(OH)D concentrations. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that 25(OH)D concentrations exerted a protective effect against LEVL in T2DM patients. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations may be correlated with the incidence of macrovascular disease in T2DM patients. A low serum 25(OH)D concentration is an independent risk factor for lower extremity vascular pathological changes and acts as a prognostic index for lower extremity atherosclerotic disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2019 03:05:05 +000
  • The Degree of Hyperglycemia Excursion in Patients of Kidney
           Transplantation (KT) or Liver Transplantation (LT) Assessed by Continuous
           Glucose Monitoring (CGM): Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Objective. This study used a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) to investigate the glucose profiles and assess the degree of hyperglycemic excursion after kidney or liver transplantation during the early period after operation. Methods. Patients to whom a CGMS was attached during a postoperative period of approximately one month after transplantation were included. The CGM data of 31 patients including 24 with kidney transplantation (KT) and seven with liver transplantation (LT) were analyzed. Results. Hyperglycemia over 126 mg/dL (fasting) or 200 g/dL (postprandial) occurred in 42.1% (8/19) and 16.7% (1/6) of KT and LT patients, respectively, during this early period after transplantation, except for patients with preexisting diabetes (5 KT, 1 LT). The average mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and mean absolute glucose (MAG) levels were vs. () and vs. () in KT vs. LT patients, respectively, in patients without preexisting DM or PTDM patients who showed normal glucose levels. Average increase from the lowest level to the peak glucose value was higher in KT patients than LT patients (). Conclusions. The transplanted organ also needs to be considered as an important factor affecting glucose control and the occurrence of more severe glucose excursions in patients who receive transplantation although immunosuppression agents are well-known important factors; however, our study was limited to the early posttransplantation period. Further studies involving CGM follow-up at regular intervals based on the time since transplantation are needed.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 07:05:06 +000
  • Association Study between BGLAP Gene HindIII Polymorphism and Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus Development in Ukrainian Population

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) belongs to the diseases with hereditary predisposition, so both environmental and genetic factors contribute to its development. Recent studies have demonstrated that the skeleton realizes systemic regulation of energy metabolism through the secretion of osteocalcin (OCN). Thus, the association analysis between HindIII single nucleotide polymorphism of OCN gene (BGLAP) promoter region and T2DM development in Ukrainian population was carried out. 153 individuals diagnosed with T2DM and 311 control individuals were enrolled in the study. The genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The lack of association between BGLAP HindIII single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and T2DM development among Ukrainians was found. Further studies with extended groups of comparison are needed to confirm the obtained results.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 03:05:00 +000
  • FOXO1 Mediates Advanced Glycation End Products Induced Mouse
           Osteocyte-Like MLO-Y4 Cell Apoptosis and Dysfunctions

    • Abstract: Osteocyte plays an essential role in bone metabolism by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Dysfunction or apoptosis of osteocyte will severely endanger the bone homeostasis and result in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis has been considered as one of the diabetes complications; however, the mechanism is still to be discovered. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), as the main pathogenic factor of diabetes mellitus, have the capacity to induce osteocyte apoptosis thus sabotaging bone homeostasis. Here, we examined the role of AGE during osteocyte apoptosis and how this effect would affect osteocyte’s regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast. Mouse osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were used to study the properties of osteocyte and to examine its biological and pathological function. MTT assay and Annexin V assay showed that AGE significantly induce MLO-Y4 cell apoptosis. qPCR and Western blot results have shown that AGE upregulates proapoptotic gene p53 and its downstream target gene Bax, which leads to enhanced activation of caspase-3, thus inducing apoptosis in MLO-Y4 cells. Increased expression of sclerostin and RANKL in osteocytes has shown that AGE induces osteocyte dysfunction thus severely damaging the bone homeostasis by decreasing osteoblast and increasing osteoclast activities. Furthermore, the role of the transcription factor FOXO1, which is intensely associated with apoptosis, has been determined. Western blot has shown that AGE significantly decreases Akt activities. Immunofluorescence has shown that AGE promotes FOXO1 nuclei localization and enhances FOXO1 expression. Silencing of FOXO1 suppressed AGE-enhanced apoptosis; mRNA and protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3, sclerostin, and RANKL were downregulated as well. Moreover, exogenous FOXO1 increased caspase-3 mRNA levels and caspase-3 transcriptional activity. Lastly, ChIP assay has established the capacity of FOXO1 binding directly on the caspase-3, sclerostin, and RANKL promoter region in AGE environment, providing the mechanism of the AGE-induced osteocyte apoptosis and dysfunction. Our results have shown that FOXO1 plays a crucial role in AGE-induced osteocyte dysfunction and apoptosis through its regulation of caspase-3, sclerostin, and RANKL. This study provides new insight into diabetes-enhanced risk of osteoporosis given the critical role of AGE in the pathogenesis of diabetes and the essential part of osteocyte in bone metabolism.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Nov 2019 08:05:02 +000
  • Therapeutic Benefit of Dillenia indica in Diabetes and Its Associated

    • Abstract: Diabetes, a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated fasting blood glucose levels, affects nearly 8% of the world population and was predicted that it would be the top seven leading cause of death in the next ten years. The incidence of diabetes and its morbidity are increasing rapidly in developing countries due to lifestyle change and intake of high-calorie diet occurring with urbanization. Medicinal plants and their products have been proven to be effective, less expensive, and safe for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. Although several medicinal plants known for the antidiabetic property are reported in the ancient medical textbook, there is always a scope to identify and validate less explored medicinal plants that are still practiced regularly by local and tribal people since ancient times. Here, in the present article, we would like to review a less explored medicinal plant, Dillenia indica, which has promising effects in treating diabetes and other diabetic-associated complications. In spite of its wide use in the Northeast region of India as traditional medicine, there is only one clinical study where the antidiabetic potential of the fruit powder has been shown. Further well-designed animal and human studies are needed to confirm the role of Dillenia indica in diabetes and its associated complications.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 15:05:01 +000
  • Effects of Highly Absorbable Curcumin in Patients with Impaired Glucose
           Tolerance and Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Oxidative stress is enhanced by various mechanisms. Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a useful prognostic marker in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. To examine the effects of Theracurmin®, a highly absorbable curcumin preparation, on glucose tolerance, adipocytokines, and oxidized LDL, we conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group randomized trial in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We randomly divided the patients with impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and stable individuals into the placebo group and the Theracurmin® (180 mg daily for 6 months) group. Of the 33 patients analyzed, 18 (14 males and 4 females) were administered placebo and 15 (9 males and 6 females) were administered Theracurmin®. The patient characteristics did not differ between the two groups. The primary endpoint, HbA1c, did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, the level of α1-antitrypsin-low-density lipoprotein (AT-LDL), the oxidized LDL, significantly increased () in the placebo group from the beginning of the trial up to 6 months, although there was no such change in the Theracurmin® group. The percentage change in BMI from the beginning of the trial up to 6 months tended to be higher in the Theracurmin® group than in the placebo group. Patients in the Theracurmin® group tended to have a larger percentage change in adiponectin and LDL-C than those in the placebo group. Patients in the Theracurmin® group showed a smaller percentage change in AT-LDL than those in the placebo group. This study suggests that the highly absorbable curcumin could potentially inhibit a rise in oxidized LDL in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This trial is registered with UMIN000007361.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 11:05:06 +000
  • High Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity in Urban Sri Lanka: Findings from
           the Colombo Urban Study

    • Abstract: Background. South Asian countries face a double burden of malnutrition characterized by high prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity. Understanding the distribution of this public health problem is important to tailor targeted interventions for communities. The objective of the current study was to find out the prevalence of obesity in urban Sri Lanka and to identify sociodemographic factors associated with it. Methods. Adult males and females residing in an urban government division of the Colombo District in Sri Lanka were included in this study (Colombo Urban Study). Stratified simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 463 from the total population. Sociodemographic data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and serum samples were obtained for investigations. Results. When the global BMI cutoffs were applied, the community prevalences of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity were 7.7%, 39.6%, 37.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. When the Asian BMI cutoffs were applied, the respective prevalences were 7.7%, 26.8%, 34.3%, and 31.2%. The community prevalence for abdominal obesity was 58.1% when using Asian cutoffs. Females had a higher prevalence of both obesity and abdominal obesity. There was an ethnic difference in obesity rates with Moors having the highest rates (65.5%) followed by Sinhalese (52.3%) and Tamils (40.2%). The highest obesity prevalence was observed in the most educated group. Multiple regression analysis showed that high BMI was associated with female gender and family history of hypertension. Serum LDL negatively associated with BMI while the strength of this relationship was impacted by serum HBA1c levels. Finally, serum triglyceride level showed positive association with BMI, and the effect was more marked in Moors compared to Sinhalese. Conclusion. Two-thirds of adults in the studied urban population were overweight or obese. This highlights the urgent need for interventions to curb this epidemic. The gender, ethnic differences in obesity, its associations with educational status, and the interactions with metabolic comorbidities indicate that these interventions may need to be targeted towards different groups in the population.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 16:05:05 +000
  • The Role of Peer Support Education Model in Management of Glucose and
           Lipid Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Adults

    • Abstract: Aims. To investigate the effect of peer support education model on the levels of glucose and lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China. Methods. 120 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) were assigned to two groups randomly from December 2016 to October 2017. Group 1 was trained on basic diabetic medical knowledge by a professional medical staff. After 8 weeks of studying, these specially trained patients then trained the patients of Group 2. Results. It was found that after 3 months of intervention, the levels of fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased for the two groups (). However, with the prolongation of time, there were no significant changes in the two groups in the above indices () after 6 months, and the result was the same after strafing sex, age, and education level. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in decreasing glucose and lipid level between the two groups’ participants ().Conclusion. It was found that both the peer support education model and medical staff education model have a better short-term effect on blood glucose and lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. As there is no difference of effect between the two methods of training, the peer support education model can be widely used in diabetes education.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 13:05:03 +000
  • Frequency of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Reappearance or Absence during
           the Second Pregnancy of Women Treated at Mayo Clinic between 2013 and 2018

    • Abstract: The Center for Disease Control and Prevention ranks diabetes mellitus (DM) as the seventh leading cause of death in the USA. The most prevalent forms of DM include Type 2 DM, Type 1 DM, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). While the acute problem of diabetic hyperglycemia can be clinically managed through dietary control and lifestyle changes or pharmacological intervention with oral medications or insulin, long-term complications of the disease are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These long-term complications involve nearly all organ systems of the body and share common pathologies associated with endothelial cell abnormalities. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying DM as related to future long-term complications following hyperglycemia, we have undertaken a study to determine the frequency that GDM did or did not occur in the second pregnancy of women who experienced GDM in their first pregnancy between 2013 and 2018 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Within the five-year period of the study, the results indicate that 7,330 women received obstetrical care for pregnancy during the study period. Of these, 150 developed GDM in their first pregnancy and of these, 42 (28%) had a second pregnancy. Of these 42 women, 20 again developed GDM and 22 did not develop GDM in their second pregnancy within the study period. Following the occurrence of GDM in the first pregnancy, the study (1) established the number of women with and without GDM in the second pregnancy and (2) confirmed the feasibility to study diabetic metabolic memory using maternal placental tissue from GDM women. These studies represent Phase I of a larger research project whose goal is to analyze epigenetic mechanisms underlying true diabetic metabolic memory using endothelial cells isolated from the maternal placenta of women with and without GDM as described in this article.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 13:05:01 +000
  • ALDH2 Overexpression Alleviates High Glucose-Induced Cardiotoxicity by
           Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    • Abstract: Although the underlying mechanisms of diabetes-induced myocardial injury have not been fully illuminated, the inflammation reaction has been reported intently linked with diabetes. The nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, the key component of pyroptosis, is involved in inflammation reaction, which may be one of the important mechanisms in diabetes-induced myocardial injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis in high glucose-induced H9C2 cardiac cell injury and investigate whether overexpression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) can reduce the occurrence of pyroptosis. The H9C2 cardiac cells were exposed to 35 mM glucose for 24 h to induce cytotoxicity. Mitochondrial ALDH2 overexpression cardiac cell line was constructed. The results showed in high glucose condition that ALDH2 overexpression significantly increased H9C2 cardiac cell viability, increased mitochondrial ALDH2 activity and protein expression, and reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels; meanwhile, the pyroptosis key components—NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), cysteine-containing aspartate specific protease 1 (Caspase-1), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) protein expressions—were significantly decreased, and IL-18 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were also decreased. In high glucose-induced cardiac cell injury, ALDH2 overexpression may reduce ROS production, thereby inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammation and cell pyroptosis. ALDH2 gene might play the potential role in the treatment of high glucose-induced H9C2 cardiac cell injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Nov 2019 15:05:00 +000
  • Quality Assessment of Systematic Review of the Bariatric Surgery for
           Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Objective. Using the AMSTAR tool, this study evaluated the quality of systematic reviews (SRs) that assessed the efficacy of bariatric surgery in diabetic patients. We aimed to identify studies that can be used as clinical references. Methods. Medline (via PubMed), EMBASE, Epistemonikos, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang Data were systematically searched from inception to December 31, 2017. Two reviewers independently selected SRs and extracted data. Disagreements were solved by discussions or through consultation with a third reviewer. Reviewers extracted data (characteristics of included SRs, e.g., publication year, language, and number of authors) into the predefined tables in the Microsoft Excel 2013 sheet. Data were visualized using the forest plot in RevMan 5.3 software. Results. A total of 64 SRs were included. The average AMSTAR score was . AMSTAR scores of 7 (, 32.8%) and 8 (, 28.1%) were most common. The AMSTAR scores of SRs published before 2016 (, 71.9%) were compared with SRs published after 2016 (, 28.1%), and no significant differences were observed (, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.65-0.07, ). For SRs published in Chinese (, 26.6%) compared to those published in English (, 73.4%), the AMSTAR scores significantly differed (, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.97), ). For SRs published in China (, 51.6%) compared to those published outside of China (, 48.4%), significant differences in the AMSTAR scores were observed (, 95% CI (0.29, 1.91), ). For SRs with an author (, 48.4%) compared to SRs with (, 51.6%), no significant differences were observed (, 95% CI (-1.22, 0.50), ). For high-quality SRs published after 2016 (, 17.2%) compared to other SRs (, 82.8%), statistically significant differences were noted (, 95% CI (1.01, 2.49), ).Conclusions. The number of SRs assessing the efficacy of bariatric surgery in diabetic patients is increasing by year, but only a small number meet the criteria to support guideline recommendations. Study protocols not being registered, grey literature not retrieved, incorporation of grey literature as exclusion criteria, and failure to evaluate publication bias and report a conflict of interest were the main causes of low AMSTAR scores.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Nov 2019 12:05:09 +000
  • Corrigendum to “The Motivating Function of Healthcare Professional in
           eHealth and mHealth Interventions for Type 2 Diabetes Patients and the
           Mediating Role of Patient Engagement”

    • PubDate: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 15:05:02 +000
  • Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
           Receiving a Primary Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty

    • Abstract: Aim. The purpose of this study is to explore clinical characteristics of patients with T2DM receiving a primary knee (TKA) or hip (THA) arthroplasty to patients without T2DM receiving a TKA or THA and patients with T2DM with no history of osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. The study included a retrospective database review of 500 consecutive primary TKA or THA identified with ICD-9 codes and 100 consecutive T2DM patients. Patients who received a TKA or THA were screened for inclusion and exclusion and divided into with or without T2DM groups. A comparison group of patients with T2DM only without arthroplasty was screened to exclude patients with a history of OA or arthroplasty. All groups were compared based on demographic and relevant comorbidity differences. OA characteristics, including OA and previous arthroplasty of the involved and contralateral joints, were compared between patients with and without T2DM receiving a TKA or THA. Finally, patients with T2DM with and without TKA or THA were compared for T2DM differences. Results. Study results found that among those receiving a primary arthroplasty, patients with T2DM were more likely to be obese and older and reported cardiovascular, urinary, dyslipidemia, and peripheral neuropathy than those with T2DM. Among the T2DM individuals, those receiving an arthroplasty surgery were older and obese and more likely to report peripheral neuropathy; however, those with T2DM with no OA were more likely to report atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Within the arthroplasty subgroup of individuals with T2DM, those requiring antidiabetic medication were 4.5 times more likely to have contralateral OA or arthroplasty. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that patients with T2DM requiring a primary arthroplasty are a unique subgroup that requires careful considerations as they are often older, have obesity, and specific comorbidities predisposing to worse postoperative outcomes than their non-T2DM arthroplasty counterparts. Therefore, clinical practice and future studies must consider strategies that would limit OA and arthroplasty management delays while accounting for comorbidities and patient characteristics.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:05:10 +000
  • The Haematological Effects of Oleanolic Acid in Streptozotocin-Induced
           Diabetic Rats: Effects on Selected Markers

    • Abstract: Background. Sustained hyperglycaemia leads to the development of haematological alterations which, if left untreated, is associated with cardiovascular complications. Insulin is the mainstay drug in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); however, the use of insulin is associated with haematological alterations that could further worsen cardiovascular complications. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the haematological effects of oleanolic acid (OA) in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. The animals were separated into five groups; the nondiabetic group (ND), the diabetic control group (DC), and the treatment groups of insulin (170 μg/kg, s.c), metformin (500 mg/kg, p.o), and OA (80 mg/kg, p.o). OA was administered orally twice a day. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were collected for haematological, hormonal, and oxidative status analysis. Results. Untreated diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycaemia, elevated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), oxidative stress, and a reduced erythropoietin (EPO) concentration when compared to ND rats. However, administration of OA attenuated hyperglycaemia, HbA1c, and EPO concentrations compared to DC rats. The reduction of blood glucose concentration, HbA1c, and improved EPO concentrations was further associated with a notable increase in red blood cell (RBC) count and other RBC indices. We also observed an increase in the antioxidant status of the RBCs with a concomitant decrease in oxidative stress. Conclusion. These findings suggest that OA improves diabetes-induced haematological changes caused by hyperglycaemia and attenuates the progression of cardiovascular complications in DM individuals.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:05:08 +000
  • Determinants of Maternal Insulin Resistance during Pregnancy: An Updated

    • Abstract: Insulin resistance changes over time during pregnancy, and in the last half of the pregnancy, insulin resistance increases considerably and can become severe, especially in women with gestational diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Numerous factors such as placental hormones, obesity, inactivity, an unhealthy diet, and genetic and epigenetic contributions influence insulin resistance in pregnancy, but the causal mechanisms are complex and still not completely elucidated. In this review, we strive to give an overview of the many components that have been ascribed to contribute to the insulin resistance in pregnancy. Knowledge about the causes and consequences of insulin resistance is of extreme importance in order to establish the best possible treatment during pregnancy as severe insulin resistance can result in metabolic dysfunction in both mother and offspring on a short as well as long-term basis.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:05:07 +000
  • Monotherapy with Metformin versus Sulfonylureas and Risk of Cancer in Type
           2 Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinemia are at an increased risk of developing malignancies. It remains to be fully elucidated whether the use of metformin, an insulin sensitizer, and/or sulfonylureas, insulin secretagogues, affects cancer incidence in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to compare the risk of cancer incidence associated with monotherapy with metformin compared with monotherapy with sulfonylureas in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods. Search was performed throughout MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and up until December 2018. In this meta-analysis, each raw data (unadjusted) and study-specific (adjusted) relative risks (RRs) was combined and the pooled unadjusted and adjusted RRs with the 95% CI were calculated using the random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. Heterogeneity among the studies was evaluated using statistics. Publication bias was evaluated using the funnel plot asymmetry test. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to assess the study quality. Results. A total of 8 cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. Obvious heterogeneity was noted, and monotherapy with metformin was associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence (unadjusted , 95% CI: 0.55-0.99, ,; adjusted , 95% CI: 0.54–1.07, ,) compared with monotherapy with sulfonylurea, using the random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. Conclusions. According to this review, the monotherapy with metformin appears to be associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence than monotherapy with sulfonylurea in patients with type 2 diabetes. This analysis is mainly based on cohort studies, and our findings underscore the need for large-scale randomized controlled trials to establish the effect of metformin monotherapy, relative to sulfonylureas monotherapy on cancer.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:05:05 +000
  • Effect of Induced Membrane Formation Followed by Polymethylmethacrylate
           Implantation on Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing When Revascularization Is Not

    • Abstract: No study has investigated the role of induced membrane (IM) formation in treating diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This retrospective study was aimed (1) at evaluating the potential role of a two-staged surgical approach, comprising polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) implantation and IM formation, in the treatment of DFU and (2) at comparing the results of those with routine wound debridement in patients with DFUs and nonrevascularized peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Fifty patients with infected DFUs who were not candidates for vascular interventions were enrolled between February 2016 and April 2018 and assigned to the PMMA group () and conventional group (). The healing rate, major amputation rate, duration of healing, frequency of debridement procedures, patient survival rate, and reulceration of DFUs were determined. The Mann-Whitney test, independent sample -test, and or Fisher exact test were used in statistical analysis. Overall clinical outcomes were statistically different between the groups (,). In the PMMA group, 16 patients (57.1%) with intact IM formation achieved ulceration healing at weeks with a mean number of debridements of , which were significantly different compared to those values in 5 patients of the conventional group (22.7%, ; healing duration: weeks, ; mean number of debridements: ,). At a mean -month follow-up, patient survival rates were 92.9% and 68.2% in the PMMA and conventional groups, respectively (). The major amputation rate and reulceration of DFUs were similar between the groups. The two-staged surgical approach is an available, effective modality for improving healing of DFUs. This study provides preliminary information of IM formation followed by PMMA implantation in the management of DFUs in PAD when revascularization is not feasible.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:05:03 +000
  • Hyperbaric Normoxia Improved Glucose Metabolism and Decreased Inflammation
           in Obese Diabetic Rat

    • Abstract: Hyperbaric treatment improves hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. However, its mode of action is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influences of regular hyperbaric treatment with normal air at 1.3 atmospheres absolute (ATA) on glucose tolerance in type 2 diabetes with obesity. The focus was directed on inflammatory cytokines in the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were used as models of type 2 diabetes with obesity and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats served as healthy controls. The rats were randomly assigned to untreated or hyperbaric treatment groups exposed to 1.3 ATA for 8 h d-1 and 5 d wk-1 for 16 wks. Glucose levels were significantly higher in the diabetic than in the healthy control rats. Nevertheless, glucose levels at 30 and 60 min after glucose administration were significantly lower in the diabetic rats treated with 1.3 ATA than in the untreated diabetic rats. Insulin levels at fasting and 120 min after glucose administration were significantly lower in the diabetic rats treated with 1.3 ATA than in the untreated diabetic rats. Hyperbaric treatment also increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression in the skeletal muscle and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) expression in adipose tissue. These results suggested that TNFα downregulation and IL-10 upregulation in diabetic rats subjected to hyperbaric treatment participate in the crosstalk between the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues and improve glucose intolerance.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 16:05:02 +000
  • Metagenomics and Faecal Metabolomics Integrative Analysis towards the
           Impaired Glucose Regulation and Type 2 Diabetes in Uyghur-Related Omics

    • Abstract: Objective. Gut microbiota and their metabolites play an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This research was designed to study the relationship between gut microbiota and faecal metabolites of Uyghur newly onset T2DM and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) patients. Materials and Methods. A total of 60 different glycemic Uyghur subjects were enrolled and divided into T2DM, IGR, and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) groups. Metagenomics and LC-MS-based untargeted faecal metabolomics were employed. Correlations between bacterial composition and faecal metabolomics were evaluated. Results. We discovered that the composition and diversity of gut microbiota in newly onset T2DM and IGR were different from those in NGT. The α-diversity was higher in NGT than in T2DM and IGR; β-diversity analysis revealed apparent differences in the bacterial community structures between patients with T2DM, IGR, and NGT. LC-MS faecal metabolomics analysis discovered different metabolomics features in the three groups. Alchornoic acid, PE (14 : 0/20 : 3), PI, L-tyrosine, LysoPC (15 : 0), protorifamycin I, pimelic acid, epothilone A, 7-dehydro-desmosterol, L-lysine, LysoPC (14 : 1), and teasterone are the most significant differential enriched metabolites. Most of the differential enriched metabolites were involved in metabolic processes, including carbohydrate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and biosynthesis of amino acids. Procrustes analysis and correlation analysis identified correlations between gut microbiota and faecal metabolites. Matricin was positively correlated with Bacteroides and negatively correlated with Actinobacteria; protorifamycin I was negatively correlated with Actinobacteria; epothilone A was negatively correlated with Actinobacteria and positively correlated with Firmicutes; PA was positively correlated with Bacteroides and negatively correlated with Firmicutes; and cristacarpin was positively correlated with Actinobacteria; however, this correlation relationship does not imply causality. Conclusions. This study used joint metagenomics and metabolomics analyses to elucidate the relationship between gut microbiota and faecal metabolites in different glycemic groups, and the result suggested that metabolic disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis occurred in Uyghur T2DM and IGR. The results provide a theoretical basis for studying the pathological mechanism for further research.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 16:05:11 +000
  • Ranirestat Improved Nerve Conduction Velocities, Sensory Perception, and
           Intraepidermal Nerve Fiber Density in Rats with Overt Diabetic

    • Abstract: Distal sensory-motor polyneuropathy is one of the most frequent diabetic complications. However, few therapies address the etiology of neurodegeneration in the peripheral nervous systems of diabetic patients. Several metabolic mechanisms have been proposed as etiologies of this polyneuropathy. In this study, we revisited one of those mechanisms, the polyol pathway, and investigated the curative effects of a novel strong aldose reductase inhibitor, ranirestat, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with preexisting polyneuropathy. Twelve weeks after the onset of diabetes, rats which had an established polyneuropathy were treated once daily with a placebo, ranirestat, or epalrestat, over 6 weeks. Before and after the treatment, nerve conduction velocities and thermal perception threshold of hindlimbs were examined. After the treatment, intraepidermal fiber density was evaluated. As an ex vivo assay, murine dorsal root ganglion cells were dispersed and cultured with or without 1 μmol/l ranirestat for 48 hours. After the culture, neurite outgrowth was quantified using immunological staining. Sensory nerve conduction velocity increased in diabetic rats treated with ranirestat ( m/s) compared with rats treated with placebo (). Motor nerve conduction velocity also increased in the ranirestat group () compared with the placebo group (). The foot withdrawal latency to noxious heating was improved in the ranirestat group ( seconds) compared with the placebo group (). The decrease in the intraepidermal fiber density was significant in the diabetic placebo group (/mm) but not significant in the diabetic ranirestat group () compared with the nondiabetic placebo group (). Neurite outgrowth was promoted in the neurons supplemented with ranirestat (control  μm/neuron, ranirestat ). Ranirestat improved the peripheral nervous dysfunctions in rats with advanced diabetic polyneuropathy. Ranirestat could have potential for regeneration in the peripheral nervous system of diabetic rats.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 16:05:09 +000
  • Association between Sarcopenia and Renal Function in Patients with
           Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Previous studies involving patients with diabetes have indicated that sarcopenia is related to renal function. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between sarcopenia and urinary albumin level, urinary protein level, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with diabetes. A meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, and Data were extracted from studies investigating the association between sarcopenia and urinary albumin level, urinary protein level, and eGFR and by calculating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Statistical analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate pooled OR and 95% CI. Six studies (2662 patients) that met the criteria were included in the meta-analysis. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with urinary albumin level with a pooled OR of 2.11 (95% CI, 1.55–2.88; ). The pooled ORs of the associations between sarcopenia and urinary protein level and decreased eGFR were 1.82 (95% CI, 1.13–2.92; ) and 3.75 (95% CI, 1.24–11.41), respectively. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with urinary albumin level, urinary protein level, and decreased eGFR. However, further investigations are needed, including meta-analyses with a larger number of studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 16:05:07 +000
  • Utility of Tetrahydrobiopterin Pathway in the Assessment of Diabetic Foot
           Ulcer: Significant and Complex Interrelations

    • Abstract: Objectives. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) pathway that included generation of neopterin (Neop), biopterin (Biop), and nitric oxide (NO) is altered in type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of this study was to assess the biomarkers of BH4 pathway in noninfected DFUs and to relate these levels to the variables of diabetes as well as to the hematological indices. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional investigating study in a Kurdish people including 30 healthy subjects (group I), 66 T2D patients (group II), and 57 DFUs patients (group III). Hematological indices including red cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet distribution width (PDW) were determined by Coulter hematological analysis. Serum BH4 markers including NO, Neop, and Biop were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology. The relationship between BH4 markers with glycemic and hematological indices was assessed by Spearman’s correlation and multivariable regression analysis. Results. Neop was significantly increased while PDW was significantly decreased in group III compared with group II patients. Nitric oxide was found to be inversely correlated with age (), duration of diabetes (), mean arterial blood pressure (), body mass index (), RDW (), and PDW () in group III patients. Circulating Neop and Biop significantly correlated with RDW and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that serum Neop predicted the DFUs in 92.5% of group III patients. Conclusion. Tetrahydrobiopterin biomarkers are predictors of DFUs and the significant correlation of neopterin with red distribution width and erythrocyte sedimentation rate indicating the role of neopterin in the vascular and inflammation concerns of noninfected DFUs.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 07:05:08 +000
  • Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Diabetic Kidney Disease via
           Activating Autophagy

    • Abstract: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD), a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), has become a serious public health problem worldwide and lacks effective therapies due to its complex pathogenesis. Recent studies suggested defective autophagy involved in the pathogenesis and progression of DKD. Chinese herbal medicine, as an emerging option for the treatment of DKD, could improve diabetic kidney injury by activating autophagy. In this review, we briefly summarize underlying mechanisms of autophagy dysregulation in DKD, including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and the sirtuin (Sirt) pathways, and we particularly concentrate on the current status of Chinese herbal medicine treating DKD by regulating autophagy. The advances in our understanding regarding the treatment of DKD via regulating autophagy with Chinese herbal medicine will enhance the clinical application of Chinese medicine as well as discovery of novel therapeutic agents for diabetic patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 07:05:06 +000
  • Characteristics of Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Older
           Adults: A National Prospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To investigate the metabolic profiles of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (NEW2D) in Chinese older adults (≥65 years) and assess the proportion of patients who achieved the targeted goals of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipid. Methods. NEW2D study was an observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study involving patients who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) within the past 6 months and had a follow-up of 12 months. Participants were divided into younger NEW2D group (aged 20-65 years old) and older NEW2D group (aged ≥65 years old) according to age of diabetes onset. The baseline metabolic profiles were compared and the proportion of patients achieving adequate control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids in reference to target goals were assessed during treatment. Results. The older NEW2D () had a lower BMI, HbA1c%, diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and total cholesterol, higher systolic blood pressure, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at baseline. 47.8%, 66.7%, and 39.4% reached the target of , mmHg, and mmol/L, respectively. After 12 months, the proportion achieving above three targets increased to 70.2%, 76.1%, and 47.5%, respectively. The proportions of patients achieving three combined therapeutic targets doubled from 13.5% to 26.7%. Conclusion. The older NEW2D patients have special metabolic profiles compared with younger patients. The control of cardiovascular disease risk factors was suboptimal in older adults with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Nov 2019 02:05:01 +000
  • Effectiveness of Dose Adjustment of Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes among
           Hemodialysis Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Randomized Crossover

    • Abstract: Determining insulin requirements for hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is difficult. We performed a randomized crossover study among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with ESRD on continuous hemodialysis and receiving standard insulin for glycemic control. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: daily insulin needed on the day after hemodialysis and a 25% decrease in daily insulin needed on the day after hemodialysis. A total of 51 T2DM patients with ESRD were enrolled. The adjusted-insulin group had higher plasma glucose levels at the 2nd hour of dialysis than those of the nonadjusted-insulin group. Incidence of hypoglycemia per dialysis session (3.3% vs. 0.7%, ) and symptoms related to hypoglycemia (6.9% vs. 0.7%, ) were more frequent in the nonadjusted-insulin group. A reduced insulin administration of 25% among T2DM patients undergoing hemodialysis on the day of dialysis was associated with sustained glycemic efficacy and the production of fewer hypoglycemic symptoms. This trial is registered with TCTR20180724002.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Nov 2019 06:05:02 +000
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