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Showing 1 - 200 of 288 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
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Journal Cover Experimental Diabetes Research
  [SJR: 1.591]   [H-I: 30]   [14 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Utility of Neck Circumference for Identifying Metabolic Syndrome by
           Different Definitions in Chinese Subjects over 50 Years Old: A
           Community-Based Study

    • Abstract: Aims. Whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valuable tool for identifying metabolic syndrome (MS) by different criteria in Chinese is still unclear. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey from October 2010 to January 2011 in Shipai community, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. A total of 1473 subjects aged over 50 years were investigated. We measured height, weight, NC, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids in all subjects. MS was identified by criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III), Chinese Diabetes Society (CDS), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results. Mean NC was 38.0 ± 2.7 cm in men and 34.2 ± 2.5 cm in women. By using receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve (AUC) of NC for identifying MS (IDF) was 0.823 in men and 0.777 in women, while for identifying MS (CDS), it was 0.788 in men and 0.762 in women. The AUC of NC for diagnosing MS (ATP III) was 0.776 in men and 0.752 in women. The optimal cut points of NC for MS were 38.5 cm by three definitions in men, while those were 34.2 cm, 33.4 cm, and 34.0 cm in women by IDF, ATP III, and CDS definitions, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the AUC of NC and BMI for diagnosing MS by using different criteria (all ). Conclusions. NC is associated with MS by different definitions in Chinese subjects over 50 years old. It may be a useful tool to identify MS in a community population.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 08:01:35 +000
  • Calcium Signaling in the Ventricular Myocardium of the Goto-Kakizaki Type
           2 Diabetic Rat

    • Abstract: The association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and high mortality linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major concern worldwide. Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated a variety of diastolic and systolic dysfunctions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the severity of abnormalities depending on the patients’ age and duration of diabetes. The cellular basis of hemodynamic dysfunction in a type 2 diabetic heart is still not well understood. The aim of this review is to evaluate our current understanding of contractile dysfunction and disturbances of Ca2+ transport in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic rat heart. The GK rat is a widely used nonobese, nonhypertensive genetic model of T2DM which is characterized by insulin resistance, elevated blood glucose, alterations in blood lipid profile, and cardiac dysfunction.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 09:55:55 +000
  • Evaluation of Aldose Reductase, Protein Glycation, and Antioxidant
           Inhibitory Activities of Bioactive Flavonoids in Matricaria recutita L.
           and Their Structure-Activity Relationship

    • Abstract: The inhibitory activities of Matricaria recutita L. 70% methanol extract were evaluated by isolating and testing 10 of its compounds on rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging. Among these compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, 3,5-O-di-caffeoylquinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin showed potent inhibition, and their IC50 values in RLAR were 4.25, 1.12, 1.16, 0.85, 0.72, 1.72, and 1.42 μM, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds suppressed sorbitol accumulation in rat lens under high-glucose conditions, demonstrating their potential to prevent sorbitol accumulation ex vivo. Notably, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide and luteolin showed antioxidative as well as AGE-inhibitory activities (IC50 values of these compounds in AGEs were 3.39 and 6.01 μM). These results suggest that the M. recutita extract and its constituents may be promising agents for use in the prevention or treatment of diabetic complications.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 09:45:27 +000
  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and the Risk of Pancreatitis in Patients
           with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Information on the risk of acute pancreatitis in patients receiving dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors (DPP-4i) is limited and controversial. One study suggested that the differences in findings between these meta-analyses were attributed to whether they included large randomized control trials with cardiovascular outcomes or not. The aim of our study was to determine whether the use of DPP-4i increases the risk of acute pancreatitis compared with sulfonylurea (SU) and whether the risk is higher in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. A population-based cohort study was performed using Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort data. We included 33,395 new users of SU and DPP-4i from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015. SU-treated patients and DPP-4i-treated patients were matched by 1 : 1 propensity score matching. We used Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to calculate the risk of acute pancreatitis. Results. The hazard ratio (HR) of hospitalization for acute pancreatitis was 0.642 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.535–0.771) in DPP-4i-treated patients compared with SU-treated patients. The HR of DPP-4i use was also lower than that of SU use in patients without underlying CVD (HR: 0.591; 95% CI: 0.476–0.735) but not in patients with underlying CVD (HR: 0.727; 95% CI: 0.527–1.003). Conclusion. Our findings suggest that DPP-4i is less likely to cause drug-induced pancreatitis than SU. This finding was not evident in patients with CVD, but DPP-4i was not more likely to induce pancreatitis in these patients than SU was.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 09:42:51 +000
  • Proteomic Analysis of Hippocampus and Cortex in Streptozotocin-Induced
           Diabetic Model Mice Showing Dementia

    • Abstract: Aim. Diabetes with its associated hyperglycemia induces various type of peripheral damage and also impairs the central nervous system (CNS). This study is aimed at clarifying the precise mechanism of diabetes-induced dementia as an impairment of CNS. Methods. The proteomic analysis of the hippocampus and cortex in streptozotocin- (STZ-) treated mouse diabetic model showing dementia was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (/group). Results. Significant changes in the expression of 32 proteins and 7 phosphoproteins were observed in the hippocampus and cortex. These identified proteins and phosphoproteins could be functionally classified as cytoskeletal protein, oxidoreductase, protein deubiquitination, energy metabolism, GTPase activation, heme binding, hydrolase, iron storage, neurotransmitter release, protease inhibitor, transcription, glycolysis, antiapoptosis, calcium ion binding, heme metabolic process, protein degradation, vesicular transport, and unknown in the hippocampus or cortex. Additionally, Western blotting validated the changes in translationally controlled tumor protein, ATP-specific succinyl-CoA synthetase beta subunit, and gamma-enolase isoform 1. Conclusions. These findings showed that STZ-induced diabetes changed the expression of proteins and phosphoproteins in the hippocampus and cortex. We propose that alterations in expression levels of these proteins play an important role in diabetes-induced dementia.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 07:26:03 +000
  • Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, and TNF-α in
           Aqueous Humour of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

    • Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age individuals in developed countries. However, the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of DR is not completely understood. This is an observational clinical research enrolling 80 type II diabetic patients who had undergone cataract surgeries either with DR or without DR. All cases were further categorized by the proliferative stages of retinal neovascularization and by the lengths of diabetic history. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α in aqueous humour were tested. Results in this study indicated that these cytokine levels were increased in DR patients and might have a synergistic effect on the pathogenesis of this disease. They were also elevated along with the progression of neovascularization, reflecting the severity of DR. The results also suggested that for diabetic patients, the higher these levels are, the sooner retinal complications might appear. In conclusion, the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, and TNF-α in aqueous humour may be associated with the pathogenesis, severity, and prognosis of DR.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:12:49 +000
  • Glycine Protects H9C2 Cardiomyocytes from High Glucose- and
           Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury via Inhibiting PKCβ2 Activation and
           Improving Mitochondrial Quality

    • Abstract: Background. Patients with diabetes are more vulnerable to myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), which is involved in PKCβ2 activation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Glycine has been documented as a cytoprotective agent to attenuate diabetes-related abnormalities and reduce myocardial IRI, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We determined whether glycine could attenuate high glucose- (HG-) and hypoxia/reoxygenation- (H/R-) induced injury by inhibiting PKCβ2 activation and improving mitochondrial quality in cultured H9C2 cells. Methods. H9C2 cells were either exposed to low glucose (LG) or HG conditions with or without treatment of glycine or CGP53353 (a selective inhibitor of PKCβ2) for 48 h, then subjected to 4 h of hypoxia followed by 2 h of reoxygenation (H/R). Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were detected using corresponding commercial kits. Mitochondrial quality control-related proteins (LC-3II, Mfn-2, and Cyt-C) and PKCβ2 activation were detected by Western blot. Results. HG stimulation significantly decreased cell viability and SOD activity and increased LDH release, MDA production, and PKCβ2 activation as compared to LG group, all of which changes were further increased by H/R insult. Glycine or CGP53353 treatment significantly reduced the increase of LDH release, MDA production, PKCβ2 activation, and Cyt-C expression and the decrease of cell viability, SOD activity, MMP, Mfn-2 expression, and LC-3II/LC-3I ratio induced by HG and H/R stimulation. Conclusions. Supplementary glycine protects H9C2 cells from HG- and H/R-induced cellular injury by suppressing PKCβ2 activation and improving mitochondria quality.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Assessment of Vitamin D-Binding Protein and Early Prediction of
           Nephropathy in Type 2 Saudi Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: Early detection of diabetic nephropathy (DN) represents a great challenge in an attempt to reduce the burden of chronic kidney diseases in diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the potential early prediction role of urinary vitamin D-binding protein (uVDBP) for the diagnosis of DN and to examine the possible correlation to serum VDBP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and insulin resistance in these patients. Serum and urine samples were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers and 120 patients with type 2 diabetes divided into 3 groups: normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate 300 μg/mg, resp.); /group. Serum and urinary VDBP levels were quantified by ELISA. Insulin resistance has been assessed by homeostasis model assessment index (HOMAI). Correction for urine creatinine concentration was applied for urinary quantitative measurements. uVDBP levels were significantly elevated in micro- and macroalbuminuria patient groups compared with those of the normoalbuminuria patient group and controls (820.4 ± 402.8 and 1458.1 ± 210.0 compared with 193.1 ± 141.0 and 127.7 ± 21.9 ng/mg, resp.) (). There was significant correlation between serum and urinary levels of VDBP in total patient group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of uVDBP levels showed optimum cut-off value of 216.0 ng/mg corresponding to 98.8% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity and an area under the curve of 0.973 to discriminate the normoalbuminuria from the microalbuminuria groups. In multivariate analysis, ordination plot showed obvious demarcation between the study groups caused by the higher levels of uVDBP and albumin/creatinine ratio among other variables. The study findings suggested a possible clinical application of uVDPB as an early and a good marker for the detection of early renal disease in type 2 DM Saudi patients. Large-scale validation studies are warranted to confirm the results before including uVDBP with the available list of other conventional biomarkers.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Constellation of Macrovascular Risk Factors in Early Onset T2DM: A
           Cross-Sectional Study in Xinjiang Province, China

    • Abstract: Background. Despite a rapid popular of early onset type 2 diabetes (defined as diagnosis at
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • MicroRNA-22 Promotes Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis by Targeting PTEN
           and Suppressing Autophagy in Diabetic Nephropathy

    • Abstract: Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a major feature of diabetic nephropathy (DN). There is increasing evidence demonstrating that microRNAs act as key players in the regulation of autophagy and are involved in DN. However, the exact link among microRNAs, autophagy, and TIF in DN is largely unknown. In this study, our results showed that TIF was observed in DN rats together with obvious autophagy suppression. Moreover, microRNA-22 (miR-22) was upregulated and associated with reduced expression of its target gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in both the kidneys of DN rats and high glucose-cultured NRK-52E cells. Intriguingly, induction of autophagy by rapamycin antagonized high glucose-induced collagen IV (Col IV) and α-SMA expression. In addition, ectopic expression of miR-22 suppressed autophagic flux and induced the expression of Col IV and α-SMA, whereas the inhibition of endogenous miR-22 effectively relieved high glucose-induced autophagy suppression and the expression of Col IV and α-SMA in NRK-52E cells. Overexpression of PTEN protectively antagonized high glucose- and miR-22-induced autophagy suppression and the expression of Col IV. Therefore, our findings indicated that miR-22 may promote TIF by suppressing autophagy partially via targeting PTEN and represents a novel and promising therapeutic target for DN.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Roles of Autophagy in Acute Lung Injury Induced by Myocardial Ischemia
           Reperfusion in Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Patients with diabetes are vulnerable to myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury, which may also induce acute lung injury (ALI) due to overaccumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation cytokine in circulation. Despite autophagy plays a significant role in diabetes and pulmonary IR injury, the role of autophagy in ALI secondary to myocardial IR in diabetes remains largely elusive. We aimed to investigate pulmonary autophagy status and its roles in oxidative stress and inflammation reaction in lung tissues from diabetic rats subjected to myocardial IR. Control or diabetic rats were either treated with or without autophagy inducer rapamycin (Rap) or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) before myocardial IR, which was achieved by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min and followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Diabetic rats subjected to myocardial IR showed more serious ALI with higher lung injury score and WET/DRY ratio and lower PaO2 as compared with control rats, accompanied with impaired autophagy indicated by reduced LC-3II/LC-3I ratio and Beclin-1 expression, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and increased 15-F2t-Isoprostane formation in lung tissues, as well as increased levels of leukocyte count and proinflammatory cytokines in BAL fluid. Improving autophagy with Rap significantly attenuated all these changes, but the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA exhibited adverse or opposite effects as Rap. In conclusion, diabetic lungs are more vulnerable to myocardial IR, which are involved in impaired autophagy. Improving autophagy could attenuate ALI induced by myocardial IR in diabetic rats, possibly through inhibiting inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Choroidal Thickness and Ganglion Cell Complex in Pubescent Children with
           Type 1 Diabetes without Diabetic Retinopathy Analyzed by Spectral Domain
           Optical Coherence Tomography

    • Abstract: Aim. To assess the retinal and choroidal thickness and ganglion cell complex (GCC) in pubescent children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) without diabetic retinopathy (DR), using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Materials and Method. Sixty-four right eyes of 64 subjects with T1D and 45 right eyes of 45 age-matched healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled in this study. The mean age of the subjects and controls was 15.3 (±SD = 2.2) and 14.6 (±SD = 1.5), respectively. SD-OCT was performed using RTVue XR Avanti. Ganglion cell complex (GCC), GCC focal loss volume (FLV), GCC global loss volume (GLV), choroidal thickness (CT), foveal (FT) and parafoveal thickness (PFT), and foveal (FV) and parafoveal volume (PFV) data were analyzed. Results. There was no significant difference between subjects and controls in the CT in the fovea and nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior quadrants of the macula. There were no significant correlations between CT, duration of diabetes, and HbA1C level ( and , resp.). GCC thickness did not differ significantly between the groups (), but there was a significant difference in FLV (). Significant differences between the groups were found in the PFT and PFV ( and , resp.). There was a significant negative correlation between PFT, PFV, and HbA1C level ( and , resp.). Conclusions. Choroidal thickness remains unchanged in children with T1D. Increased GCC FLV might suggest an early alteration in neuroretinal tissue. Parafoveal retinal thickness is decreased in pubescent T1D children and correlates with HbA1C level. OCT can be considered a part of noninvasive screening in children with T1D and a tool for early detection of retinal and choroidal abnormalities. Further OCT follow-up is needed to determine whether any of the discussed OCT measurements are predictive of future DR severity.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease prevalence of which is high and continually growing. Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death in patients with T2DM. The prevention of cardiovascular complications and the cardiovascular safety of treatments should be a primary objective when selecting treatment. Among all the drugs available, the compounds known as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) appear to be not just innocuous in terms of CVD but indeed to be beneficial. GLP-1 RA actions not only translate on an improvement of well-known cardiovascular risk factors such as glycaemic control, dyslipidaemia, weight, or arterial hypertension but also might show benefits on endothelial function, coronary ischaemia, and heart failure. On the other hand, recent clinical trials aimed at studying cardiovascular episodes have been conducted with GLP-1 RAs. Only liraglutide and semaglutide have shown superiority in cardiovascular benefit compared with placebo. Although many of the mechanisms by which liraglutide and semaglutide produce a cardiovascular benefit are still unknown it would be desirable for these benefits to be incorporated into the therapeutic algorithms routinely used in clinical practice. The purpose of this review is to explore GLP-1 RA actions not only in cardiovascular risk factors (glucose, weight, and hypertension) but also the possible effects on established cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 04:06:26 +000
  • Effect of Diacerein on Metabolic Control and Inflammatory Markers in
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using Antidiabetic Agents: A Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction. Studies have shown that T2DM is an inflammatory disease. Thus, the present study was aimed at evaluating whether diacerein could improve the metabolic and inflammatory profile among patients with T2DM under long-term treatment with glucose-lowering agents. Methods. This is a double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled trial with 72 participants randomly assigned to diacerein 50 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in change in HbA1c. Secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients achieving metabolic control [ (53 mmol/mol)] and change in inflammatory mediators. Results. Participants in the diacerein group had greater reductions in mean HbA1c level in comparison to placebo (−0.98; 95% CI: −2.02 to 0.05, ), independently of confounding factors. The difference in HbA1c level was −1.3 (95% CI: −2.3 to −0.4) in favor of diacerein () in those with
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Sex Differences in the Prevalence and Modulators of Sleep-Disordered
           Breathing in Outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: In patients with type 2 diabetes, sleep-disordered breathing is a widespread cause of deteriorated quality of life. However, robust prevalence estimates for sleep-disordered breathing in patients with type 2 diabetes are limited due to scarce data. We investigated sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing prevalence and its modulators in the DIACORE SDB substudy, a sample of outpatient type 2 diabetes. 721 participants were tested for sleep-disordered breathing using a two-channel sleep apnoea monitoring device. Patients were stratified according to the severity of sleep-disordered breathing, defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index 
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Previous Exercise Training Reduces Markers of Renal Oxidative Stress and
           Inflammation in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Female Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of regular moderate exercise training initiated previously or after induction of diabetes mellitus on renal oxidative stress and inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic female rats. For this purpose, Wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD), trained diabetic (TD), and previously trained diabetic (PTD). Only the PTD group was submitted to treadmill running for 4 weeks previously to DM induction with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i.v). After confirming diabetes, the PTD, TD, and TC groups were submitted to eight weeks of exercise training. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluated the following: glycosuria, body weight gain, plasma, renal and urinary levels of nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, renal glutathione, and immunolocalization of lymphocytes, macrophages, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB/p65) in the renal cortex. The results showed that exercise training reduced glycosuria, renal TBARS levels, and the number of immune cells in the renal tissue of the TD and PTD groups. Of note, only previous exercise increased weight gain and urinary/renal NO levels and reduced NF-κB (p65) immunostaining in the renal cortex of the PTD group. In conclusion, our study shows that exercise training, especially when initiated previously to diabetes induction, promotes protective effects in diabetic kidney by reduction of renal oxidative stress and inflammation markers in female Wistar rats.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Timing of Exercise Affects Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients
           Treated with Metformin

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of the study was to examine the acute effects of the timing of exercise on the glycemic control during and after exercise in T2D. Methods. This study included 26 T2D patients (14 women and 12 men) who were treated with metformin. All patients were tested on four occasions: metformin administration alone (Metf), high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed at 30 minutes (EX30), 60 minutes (EX60), and 90 minutes (EX90) postbreakfast, respectively. Glucose, insulin, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were examined. Results. Glucose decreased significantly after the exercise in EX30, EX60, and EX90. Compared with Metf, the decline in glucose immediately after the exercise was larger in EX30 (−2.58 mmol/L; 95% CI, −3.36 to −1.79 mmol/L; ), EX60 (−2.13 mmol/L; 95% CI, −2.91 to −1.34 mmol/L; ), and EX90 (−1.87 mmol/L; 95% CI, −2.65 to −1.08 mmol/L; ), respectively. Compared with Metf, the decrease in insulin was larger in EX30 and EX60 (both ). Conclusions. Timing of exercise is a factor to consider when prescribing exercise for T2D patients treated with metformin. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOR-16008469 on 13 May 2016.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Red Blood Cell Distribution Width Is Associated with Carotid
           Atherosclerosis in People with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aims. Red cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The relationship between RDW and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, has been inconsistent in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we investigated the relationship between RDW and carotid atherosclerosis in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods. Four hundred sixty-nine people with type 2 diabetes without history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases were enrolled. Anthropometric measures and various biochemical parameters including RDW were assessed. Ultrasonographic measurement of carotid intima-media thickness was used to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis. Results. The participants were stratified into 3 groups according to RDW. The C-IMT increased gradually according to RDW tertiles (lowest, second, highest RDW tertiles; 0.740 ± 0.120, 0.772 ± 0.138, and 0.795 ± 0.139, respectively; ). Multiple regression analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that RDW was associated with C-IMT in people with type 2 diabetes, and it remained significant after control for various cardiovascular risk factors including body mass index, blood pressure, insulin resistance, and smoking status in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion. RDW is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by carotid IMT after control of various covariates in people with type 2 diabetes without cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Diabetes-Related Distress Assessment among Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives. Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases; it is a debilitating and hard to live with. Diabetes-related distress (DRD) refers to the emotional and behavioral changes caused by diabetes. Our study aims to assess the prevalence of DRD among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients using Diabetes Distress Scale-17 items (DDS-17) and its relation to complications and treatment modalities. Methods. A cross-sectional study of adult T2D patients with follow-up visits at the Diabetes and Endocrinology Center in Taif, Saudi Arabia, between January and July 2017. We excluded patients with other forms of diabetes, untreated hypothyroidism, and psychiatric illness. The total score of DDS-17 was calculated by summing the 17 items’ results and then dividing the total by 17. If the total score was>2, then it was considered as clinically significant results (moderate distress), but if it is ≥3, then it is classified as a high distress. Results. A total of 509 T2D patients with a mean age of 58 ± 14 years were included. The majority of participants were male, married, not college educated, and reported a sedentary lifestyle. We found 25% of the screened T2D patients have moderate to high DRD. Regarding the DRD components, emotional distress was the most prevalent followed by physician-related distress. HabA1c was significantly higher in those with high combined distress and high emotional distress compared to those with mild/moderate distress ( and 0.030, resp.). Conclusion. Our study shows that DRD is a medically relevant issue that clinicians need to address. Despite observing a low prevalence of DRD compared to other studies, we found significant correlations between DRD scores and HabA1c, triglyceride levels, BMI, T2D duration, and interval between visits.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Genetic Variability of the Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Gene
           Is Involved in the Premature Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese
           Population with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is closely related to diabetes and obesity, both of which are confirmed to increase the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Our study aimed to investigate whether the polymorphisms in GIP genes could affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients in the Chinese Han population. Methods. We selected and genotyped two haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) (rs2291725 C>T, rs8078510 G>A) of GIP gene based on CHB data in HapMap Phase II database (). The case-control study of Chinese Han population involved 390 diabetic patients with CAD as positive group and 276 diabetic patients without CAD as control group. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between the two groups. Results. In dominant inheritance model, the carriers of T/T or T/C had a lower risk of CAD (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.463–0.872, ), even after adjustment other CAD risk factors (gender, age, BMI, smoking status, dyslipidemia, hypertension history, and diabetic duration) (OR = 0.769, 95% CI = 0.626–0.945, ). The allele A at rs8078510 was associated with decreased risk of CAD (OR = 0.732, ). in subgroup analysis, individuals with higher BMI (≥24 kg/m2) had increased risk for CAD when carrying C/C at rs2291725 (OR = 1.291, 95% CI = 1.017–1.639, ). In age 
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Insulin Secretion and Risk for Future Diabetes in Subjects with a
           Nonpositive Insulinogenic Index

    • Abstract: Aim. To characterize subjects with a nonpositive insulinogenic index and longitudinally observe changes in their glucose tolerance. Subjects and Methods. A historical cohort study was conducted using data from the medical checkups of public school workers. Indices of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the incidences of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were compared among subgroups of subjects with different insulinogenic index (change in insulin/change in glucose over the first 30 min on the OGTT). Results. Of the 1464 nondiabetic subjects at baseline, 72 (4.9%) subjects had a nonpositive insulinogenic index: 42 of those subjects had a nonpositive glucose response (ΔGlu0–30 ≤ 0) and 30 had a nonpositive insulin response (ΔIns0–30 ≤ 0). Compared with subjects who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with insulinogenic index ≥ 0.4, subjects with a nonpositive glucose response had a higher first-phase Stumvoll and lower incidences of diabetes and IGT based on a log-rank test (), whereas subjects with a nonpositive insulin response had lower indices of insulin secretion and a higher incidence of diabetes (). Conclusions. These results demonstrate that in the first 30 min on the OGTT, subjects with a nonpositive insulinogenic index due to a nonpositive glucose response (ΔGlu0–30 ≤ 0) had a lower risk for future diabetes and that subjects with nonpositive insulin response (ΔIns0–30 ≤ 0) had a higher risk for future one.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 08:41:50 +000
  • Advanced Glycation End Products Enhance Murine Monocyte Proliferation in
           Bone Marrow and Prime Them into an Inflammatory Phenotype through MAPK

    • Abstract: Objective. Increased monocytes, particularly the inflammatory subset, are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes through thus far incompletely defined mechanisms. The present study tested the hypothesis that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) promote bone marrow monocytes to proliferate and drive them into an inflammatory phenotype. Methods and Results. In vivo, AGEs (25 mg/kg i.p. for 7 days) increased proportions of CD115+ monocytes and the inflammatory subset, the CD115+Ly6Chigh cells, in murine bone marrow (flow cytometry analysis (FCM)), and enhanced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) but only slightly upregulated mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) (real-time PCR) in monocytes. In vitro, when the monocytes were treated with different dosages of AGEs (50, 150, and 300 μg/mL), we found that proliferation (CCK8) but not apoptosis (FCM) of the monocytes was induced; the mRNA expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and GM-CSF were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner while mRNA levels of IL-10 and M-CSF were changed much less in monocytes (real-time PCR). Furthermore, AGEs (300 μg/mL) significantly enhanced the expression of Ki67 in monocytes (immunofluorescence staining (IF)), and this dose of AGEs markedly increased secretion of GM-CSF but not that of M-CSF (ELISA). For a pathway study, the monocytes were stimulated by 300 μg/mL AGEs for different periods of time (0, 15, 30, and 120 min) and the activation of the MAPK pathway was tested (FCM); the results showed the p38 and ERK pathways were activated but not JNK signaling. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of p38 (SB203580) or ERK (U0126) attenuated AGE-induced gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and GM-CSF (real-time PCR), as well as reversing AGE-induced Ki67 expression (IF). Conclusions. AGEs promote bone marrow monocytes to proliferate and drive them into an inflammatory phenotype through p38 and ERK activation.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Astaxanthin Promotes Nrf2/ARE Signaling to Alleviate Renal Fibronectin and
           Collagen IV Accumulation in Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Astaxanthin (AST), a natural keto-carotenoid classified as a xanthophyll, is well known for its antioxidant properties. AST can ameliorate the pathological characteristics of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be explored. This study was aimed at exploring whether AST exerts a protective effect on DN via activating nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2– (Nrf2–) antioxidative response element (ARE) signaling. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with AST for 12 weeks. We found that AST treatment ameliorated renal morphological injury. Reduced fibronectin and collagen IV protein expression were found in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Furthermore, AST promoted the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and increased its downstream protein heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase 1 expression. AST also increased the activity of SOD and decreased malondialdehyde generation in the serum of diabetic rats. These results suggest that the renoprotective effect of AST on DN partly depends on Nrf2–ARE signaling. The antioxidative stress effect of AST is responsible for the activation of Nrf2–ARE signaling in DN.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 at Diagnosis and during Subsequent Years in
           Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in adolescents is associated with alterations in the insulin-like factor system probably caused both by a deranged metabolism and insulinopenia in the portal vein. Objective. To study how the circulating IGF-1 is affected at diagnosis and during subsequent years in adolescents with T1D. Methods. Ten girls and ten boys with type 1 diabetes (T1D), aged 13.0 ± 1.4 (mean ± SD) years at diagnosis, took part in the study. Blood samples were drawn at diagnosis and after 3, 9, 18, and 48 months. HbA1c, total IGF-1, and C-peptide were measured. Results. At diagnosis, the patients had high HbA1c, low IGF-1, and measurable C-peptide. After the start of insulin treatment, maximal improvement in glycemic control and IGF-1 occurred within 3 months and then both tended to deteriorate, that is, HbA1c to increase and IGF-1 to decrease. C-peptide decreased with time, and after 4 years, half of the patients were C-peptide negative. At diagnosis, C-peptide correlated positively to IGF-1 (; ). C-peptide correlated negatively with insulin dose (U/kg) after 18 and 48 months from diagnosis (; and ; , resp.). Conclusions. In conclusion, our results show that in newly diagnosed adolescents with type 1 diabetes and deranged metabolism, the IGF-1 level is low and rapidly improves with insulin treatment but later tends to decrease concomitantly with declining endogenous insulin secretion.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • High-Salt Intake Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Insulin Resistance in
           WBN/Kob-Leprfa/fa Rats: A New Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: High-salt intake is a major risk factor for developing hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but its effects on glucose homeostasis are controversial. We previously found that high-salt intake induces severe hypertension in WBN/Kob diabetic fatty (WBKDF) rats. In the present study, we examined the effects of a high-salt intake on glucose homeostasis in WBKDF rats. Male WBKDF rats and age-matched Wistar rats at 6 weeks of age were each divided into two groups and fed either a normal-sodium (NS, 0.26%) diet or high-sodium (HS, 8%) diet for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and urine volume were increased in WBKDF-HS and Wistar-HS. Body weight gain and food consumption were comparable between NS and HS in both strains. Plasma and urine glucose levels were significantly increased in WBKDF-NS but not in WBKDF-HS. HOMA-IR in WBKDF-HS was significantly lower compared with that in WBKDF-NS. The high plasma adiponectin level in WBKDF-NS compared with that in Wistar-NS was further enhanced in WBKDF-HS. Glycogen deposits and fat droplets in the livers of WBKDF-HS were reduced compared with those of WBKDF-NS. The present study demonstrated that HS intake ameliorated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in WBKDF rats, which may be due to increased plasma levels of adiponectin.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Identification of Potential Therapeutic Targets in the Liver of
           Pioglitazone-Treated Type 2 Diabetes Sprague-Dawley Rats via Expression
           Profile Chip and iTRAQ Assay

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study was to identify key antidiabetic nodes in the livers of pioglitazone-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus Sprague-Dawley rats by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Rats were randomly divided into the control, the diabetes model, and the pioglitazone-treated groups. After treatment with pioglitazone for 11 weeks, the effects on fasting blood glucose, body weight, and blood biochemistry parameters were evaluated. Microarray and iTRAQ analysis were used to determine the differentially expressed genes/proteins in rat livers. 1.5-fold changes in gene expression and 1.2-fold changes in protein were set as the screening criteria. After treatment with pioglitazone for 11 weeks, fasting blood glucose in pioglitazone-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the model group. There was a tendency for pioglitazone to reduce TC, TG, TP, ALB, BUN, and HDL-c levels. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and gene ontology (GO) were applied to analyze differentially expressed genes/proteins. Furthermore, Western blotting and RT-qPCR were used to validate the results of microarray and iTRAQ. In conclusion, Cyp7a1, Cp, and RT1-EC2 are differentially expressed genes/proteins since they showed a similar trend in rats in the model group and the pioglitazone-treated group.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Identification of Protein Kinase C Isoforms Involved in Type 1 Diabetic
           Encephalopathy in Mice

    • Abstract: Diabetic encephalopathy is a complication of diabetes mellitus characterized by impaired cognitive functions. Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms are rarely reported on diabetic encephalopathy, although they have been believed to play crucial roles in other diabetic complications. In this study, streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice were found to exhibit learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze test. Meanwhile, the expression of cPKCβII, nPKCε, and cPKCγ did not change in the hippocampus, cortex, and striatum at 2 and 8 weeks after STZ injection. The nPKCε translocation to the membrane, where it is activated, was not altered in the above brain regions at 2 and 8 weeks after STZ injection. Nevertheless, cPKCβII translocation to the membrane was significantly decreased in the cortex and hippocampus at 8 weeks after STZ injection. The translocation of cPKCγ from the cytosol to the membrane was remarkably decreased in the hippocampus at 2 and 8 weeks and in the cortex and striatum at 8 weeks after STZ injection. In addition, deletion of cPKCγ aggravated the impairment of spatial learning and memory. In conclusion, our results suggest that the decrease in the activity of cPKCβII and cPKCγ, especially cPKCγ, may play key roles in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Metformin Inhibits Mouse Islet Insulin Secretion and Alters Intracellular
           Calcium in a Concentration-Dependent and Duration-Dependent Manner near
           the Circulating Range

    • Abstract: Metformin is considered the first-line treatment for type 2 diabetes. While metformin primarily increases insulin sensitivity, evidence also suggests that metformin affects the activity of insulin-secreting pancreatic islets. This study was designed to systematically examine the direct effects of metformin by measuring insulin secretion and the kinetics of the calcium response to glucose stimulation in isolated mouse islets using varying concentrations (20 μM, 200 μM, and 1 mM) and durations (~1, 2, and 3 days) of metformin exposure. We observed both concentration- and duration-dependent inhibitory effects of metformin. Concentrations as little as 20 μM (nearing circulating therapeutic levels) were sufficient to reduce insulin secretion following 3-day treatment. Concentrations of 200 μM and 1 mM produced more pronounced effects more rapidly. With 1 mM metformin, islets showed severe impairments in calcium handling, inhibition of insulin secretion, and increased cell death. No stimulatory effects of metformin were observed for any experimental endpoint. We conclude that the direct effects of metformin on islets are inhibitory at near-physiological concentrations. Beneficial effects of metformin observed on islets under various stressors may occur by “resting” fatigued cellular processes. However, metformin may have unintended consequences on normally functioning islets within the circulating range that require further evaluation.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • AGE/RAGE-Induced EMP Release via the NOX-Derived ROS Pathway

    • Abstract: Objective. Diabetes is associated with accelerated formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that are extensively found in circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs). This study aimed to investigate whether AGEs have a direct effect on EMP formation and the possible underlying mechanism. Methods. In vitro, cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with AGEs (200 and 400 μg/ml) for 24 hours with or without pretreatment with anti-RAGE antibody, NOX inhibitor, or ROS scavenger. The number of CD31-positive EMPs was assessed by flow cytometry. Results. The number of EMPs was significantly increased in HUVECs stimulated by AGEs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, receptors for AGEs (RAGE), NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased by AGEs as compared to the control group. These changes could be reversed when HUVECs were pretreated with anti-RAGE antibody. Moreover, inhibition of NOX as well as antioxidant treatment reduced the release of EMPs induced by AGEs. Conclusion. Our study suggested that AGEs increased EMP generation, which was mediated by RAGE signaling through NOX-derived ROS.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Temporal Trends in Gestational Diabetes Prevalence, Treatment, and
           Outcomes at Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, between 2004 and 2016

    • Abstract: Background. The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is increasing worldwide. The most important risk of GDM in pregnancy is excessive fetal growth, increasing the risk of complications during delivery as well as long-term complications like obesity and diabetes in both the mother and the offspring. Method. All women with GDM who delivered a singleton between 2004 and 2016 were included. The treatment of GDM patients sought to achieve normal blood glucose levels, primarily by diet and exercise. If the glycemic targets were not reached, insulin therapy was initiated. Birth weight and birth weight Z-score was calculated corrected for gender and gestational age at delivery. Results. The study included 1910 women. The number of GDM women increased significantly each year over the course of the study, as did the proportion requiring insulin therapy. Birth weight and birth weight Z-score fell significantly over the years largely due to a decrease in large for gestational age frequency from 29% to around 19%. Conclusion. During the last 13 years, the number of women diagnosed with GDM has increased. Furthermore, the proportion of GDM women receiving insulin treatment has increased. The birth weight in diet-treated women has been virtually normal for the last 5 years of the reported period.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
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