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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 193)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Diabetes Research
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Effects of Lifestyle Modifications and Dietary Habits on Prevention of
           Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    • PubDate: Tue, 11 Dec 2018 09:08:46 +000
  • Preserved Expression of Skin Neurotrophic Factors in Advanced Diabetic
           Neuropathy Does Not Lead to Neural Regeneration despite Pancreas and
           Kidney Transplantation

    • Abstract: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes with potential severe consequences. Its pathogenesis involves hyperglycemia-linked mechanisms, which may include changes in the expression of neurotrophic growth factors. We analyzed the expression of 29 factors potentially related to nerve degeneration and regeneration in skin biopsies from 13 type 1 diabetic pancreas and kidney recipients with severe DPN including severe depletion of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENF) in lower limb skin biopsies (group Tx1 1st examination). The investigation was repeated after a median 28-month period of normoglycemia achieved by pancreas transplantation (group Tx1 2nd examination). The same tests were performed in 13 stable normoglycemic pancreas and kidney recipients 6–12 years posttransplantation (group Tx2), in 12 matched healthy controls (group HC), and in 12 type 1 diabetic subjects without severe DPN (group DM). Compared to DM and HC groups, we found a significantly higher ( < 0.05–0.001) expression of NGF (nerve growth factor), NGFR (NGF receptor), NTRK1 (neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1), GDNF (glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor), GFRA1 (GDNF family receptor alpha 1), and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) in both transplant groups (Tx1 and Tx2). Enhanced expression of these factors was not normalized following the median 28-month period of normoglycemia (Tx1 2nd examination) and negatively correlated with IENF density and with electrophysiological indices of DPN (vibration perception threshold, electromyography, and autonomic tests). In contrast to our expectation, the expression of most of 29 selected factors related to neural regeneration was comparable in subjects with severe peripheral nerve fiber depletion and healthy controls and the expression of six factors was significantly upregulated. These findings may be important for better understanding the pathophysiology of nerve regeneration and for the development of intervention strategies.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Diabetic Neuropathy: New Insights to Early Diagnosis and Treatments

    • PubDate: Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • L-Carnitine: An Antioxidant Remedy for the Survival of Cardiomyocytes
           under Hyperglycemic Condition

    • Abstract: Background. Metabolic alterations as hyperglycemia and inflammation induce myocardial molecular events enhancing oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Those alterations are responsible for a progressive loss of cardiomyocytes, cardiac stem cells, and consequent cardiovascular complications. Currently, there are no effective pharmacological measures to protect the heart from these metabolic modifications, and the development of new therapeutic approaches, focused on improvement of the oxidative stress condition, is pivotal. The protective effects of levocarnitine (LC) in patients with ischemic heart disease are related to the attenuation of oxidative stress, but LC mechanisms have yet to be fully understood. Objective. The aim of this work was to investigate LC’s role in oxidative stress condition, on ROS production and mitochondrial detoxifying function in H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes during hyperglycemia. Methods. H9c2 cells in the hyperglycemic state (25 mmol/L glucose) were exposed to 0.5 or 5 mM LC for 48 and 72 h: LC effects on signaling pathways involved in oxidative stress condition were studied by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. To evaluate ROS production, H9c2 cells were exposed to H2O2 after LC pretreatment. Results. Our in vitro study indicates how LC supplementation might protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-related damage, preventing ROS formation and activating antioxidant signaling pathways in hyperglycemic conditions. In particular, LC promotes STAT3 activation and significantly increases the expression of antioxidant protein SOD2. Hyperglycemic cardiac cells are characterized by impairment in mitochondrial dysfunction and the CaMKII signal: LC promotes CaMKII expression and activation and enhancement of AMPK protein synthesis. Our results suggest that LC might ameliorate metabolic aspects of hyperglycemic cardiac cells. Finally, LC doses herein used did not modify H9c2 growth rate and viability. Conclusions. Our novel study demonstrates that LC improves the microenvironment damaged by oxidative stress (induced by hyperglycemia), thus proposing this nutraceutical compound as an adjuvant in diabetic cardiac regenerative medicine.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Autoantigenic Proinsulin B-Chain Peptide B11-23 Synergises with the
           70 kDa Heat Shock Protein DnaK in Macrophage Stimulation

    • Abstract: Background. Heat shock proteins (Hsp) act as intracellular chaperones and in addition are used as adjuvant in vaccines of peptides complexed with recombinant Hsp. By interacting with autologous peptides, Hsp may promote the induction of autoimmune reactivity. Objective. Here, we analysed whether the effect of Hsp on macrophages is modulated by insulin peptides known to interact with Hsp. Results. Combinations of the 70 kDa Hsp DnaK with peptide B11-23 from the core region of the proinsulin B-chain induced the release of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-1β from cells of human and murine macrophage lines. In parallel, there was high-affinity binding of B11-23 to DnaK. DnaK mixed with peptides from other regions of the insulin molecule did not stimulate cytokine secretion. DnaK alone induced little cytokine production, and peptides alone induced none. Conclusion. The macrophage-stimulating potential of Hsp70 family proteins when combined with the proinsulin B-chain peptide B11-23 may contribute to the immunodominance of this peptide in the development of beta cell-directed autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Potent Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for Microvascular Complication:
           Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Diabetic Retinopathy

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) on the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes. The medical records of 21 type 2 diabetic patients who used a SGLT2i and 71 patients with sulfonylurea (control) were reviewed retrospectively. The severity of DR was assessed using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Fewer patients who used a SGLT2i than control patients with sulfonylurea showed progression of DR based on ETDRS scale (44% versus 14%, ). Moreover, treatment with a SGLT2i was associated with a significantly lower risk of DR progression (), and this effect remained significant after adjusting for the age, duration of diabetes, initial DR grade, and HbA1c level by propensity score matching (). Treatment of type 2 diabetic patients with a SGLT2i slowed the progression of DR compared to sulfonylurea, which is independent of its effect on glycemic control. This study provides a foundation for further evaluation of the effect of SGLT2i on the progression of DR.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Dec 2018 07:01:12 +000
  • Effects of Newer Antidiabetic Drugs on Endothelial Function and Arterial
           Stiffness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Newer antidiabetic drugs, i.e., dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) may exert distinct cardiovascular effects. We sought to explore their impact on vascular function. Methods. Published literature was systematically searched up to January 2018 for clinical studies assessing the effects of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 RAs, and SGLT-2 inhibitors on endothelial function and arterial stiffness, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery and pulse wave velocity (PWV), respectively. For each eligible study, we used the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FMD and PWV. The pooled MD for FMD and PWV were calculated by using a random-effect model. The presence of heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by the 2 statistic. Results. A total of 26 eligible studies ( patients) were included in the present meta-analysis. Among newer antidiabetic drugs, only SGLT-2 inhibitors significantly improved FMD (pooled MD 1.14%, 95% CI: 0.18 to 1.73, ), but not DPP-4 inhibitors (pooled MD = 0.86%, 95% CI: -0.15 to 1.86, ) or GLP-1 RA (pooled MD = 2.37%, 95% CI: -0.51 to 5.25, ). Both GLP-1 RA (pooled MD = −1.97, 95% CI: -2.65 to -1.30, ) and, to a lesser extent, DPP-4 inhibitors (pooled MD = -0.18, 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.07, ) significantly decreased PWV. Conclusions. Newer antidiabetic drugs differentially affect endothelial function and arterial stiffness, as assessed by FMD and PWV, respectively. These findings could explain the distinct effects of these drugs on cardiovascular risk of patients with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Dec 2018 09:58:59 +000
  • Food Intake and Core Body Temperature of Pups and Adults in a db Mouse
           Line Deficient in the Long Form of the Leptin Receptor without Misty

    • Abstract: Different involvement of leptin signaling in food intake (FI) and body temperature (BT) in pups and adults has been suggested. However, the leptin receptor (Lepr) long-form-deficient (db) mouse line has not been fully examined in pups. In the most available db mouse line, wild-type (WT) mice have a mutation in the dedicator of cytokinesis 7 gene, named misty, which was recently revealed to be involved in neuronal development. Therefore, we established a line of db mice without the misty mutation using natural mating. Adult (8 weeks of age) homozygous db/db mice displayed significantly higher core body weight (BW) and FI and significantly lower core BT than WT mice. However, postnatal (2 weeks of age) db/db mice displayed similar BW and milk intake and significantly lower core BT than WT mice. Correspondingly, adult and postnatal db/db mice exhibited altered mRNA levels of hypothalamic orexigenic and anorexigenic peptide in adults but not in pups. Additionally, db/db mice displayed significantly lower mRNA levels of brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 at both ages. In conclusion, the db mouse line without the misty mutation clearly showed the different involvements of the Lepr long form in FI and BT in pups and adults.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Influence of Clinically Diagnosed Neuropathy on Respiratory Muscle
           Strength in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Objectives. This cross-sectional study investigated the influence of clinically diagnosed neuropathy (cdNP) on respiratory muscle strength in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. 110 T2DM patients and 35 nondiabetic healthy controls (≥60 years) were allocated to one of three groups depending on the presence of cdNP: T2DM without cdNP (D−; ), T2DM with cdNP (D+; ), and controls without cdNP (C; ). Clinical neurological diagnostic examination consisted of Vibration Perception Threshold and Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom score. Respiratory muscle strength was registered by maximal Inspiratory and Expiratory Pressures (PImax and PEmax), and respiratory function by Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF). Isometric Handgrip Strength and Short Physical Performance Battery were used to evaluate peripheral skeletal muscle strength and physical performance. Univariate analysis of covariance was used with age, level of physical activity, and body mass index as covariates. Results. PImax, PEmax, and PEF were higher in C compared to D− and D+. Exploring more in detail, PImax, PEmax, and PEF were significantly lower in D+ compared to C. PEmax and PEF were also significantly lower in D− versus C. Measures of peripheral muscle strength and physical performance showed less associations with cdNP and T2DM. Conclusions. The presence of cdNP affects respiratory muscle strength in T2DM patients compared to healthy controls. Both cdNP and diabetes in themselves showed a distinctive impact on respiratory muscle strength and function; however, an accumulating effect could not be ascertained in this study. As commonly used measures of peripheral muscle strength and physical performance seemed to be less affected at the given time, the integration of PImax, PEmax, and PEF measurements in the assessment of respiratory muscle weakness could be of added value in the (early) screening for neuropathy in patients with T2DM.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 10:36:13 +000
  • Future Roadmaps for Precision Medicine Applied to Diabetes: Rising to the
           Challenge of Heterogeneity

    • Abstract: Precision medicine, the concept that specific treatments can be targeted to groups of individuals with specific genetic, cellular, or molecular features, is a key aspect of modern healthcare, and its use is rapidly expanding. In diabetes, the application of precision medicine has been demonstrated in monogenic disease, where sulphonylureas are used to treat patients with neonatal diabetes due to mutations in ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channel genes. However, diabetes is highly heterogeneous, both between and within polygenic and monogenic subtypes. Making the correct diagnosis and using the correct treatment from diagnosis can be challenging for clinicians, but it is crucial to prevent long-term morbidity and mortality. To facilitate precision medicine in diabetes, research is needed to develop a better understanding of disease heterogeneity and its impact on potential treatments for specific subtypes. Animal models have been used in diabetes research, but they are not translatable to humans in the majority of cases. Advances in molecular genetics and functional laboratory techniques and availability and sharing of large population data provide exciting opportunities for human studies. This review will map the key elements of future diabetes research in humans and its potential for clinical translation to promote precision medicine in all diabetes subtypes.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 02:20:38 +000
  • Treatment Adherence and Its Associated Factors in Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes: Results from the Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. To investigate treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes and to evaluate its associated factors. Methods. The Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaire was used to assess treatment adherence. Good adherence was defined as ≥5 days a week in each SDSCA item. Pain, emotional, and physical domains of the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were also evaluated. Multivariable logistic regressions explored the independent correlates of good general adherence and of specific items of the SDSCA (diet, exercise, and medications). Results. Good adherence was 93.5% for medication use, 59.3% for foot care, 56.1% for blood glucose monitoring, 29.2% for diet, and 22.5% for exercise. Patients with general good adherence had lower BMI, better serum lipid profile, higher values of functional capacity, emotional and pain domains of SF-36, better occupational performance, and lower prevalence of pain or limitation in the upper and lower limbs than patients with worse adherence. The variables associated with good adherence were younger age, lower BMI, presence of macrovascular complications, better occupational performance and emotional domain of SF-36, and higher HDL cholesterol levels. The presence of pain/limitation in the upper limbs was associated with worse adherence. Good medication adherence was associated with longer diabetes duration, lower BMI, and lower HbA1c levels. Higher values of pain and emotional domains of the SF-36 and lower BMI were related to better exercise and diet adherence, while the presence of peripheral neuropathy and joint pain/limitation were associated with worse exercise adherence. Conclusions. Emotional and physical performances are important determinants of good diabetic treatment adherence. Good adherence has beneficial impact on BMI, lipid, and glycemic control.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • There Is No Impact of Diabetes on the Endothelial Function of Chronic
           Kidney Disease Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased risk of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Several studies have separately analyzed endothelial function in these populations. However, data of patients with both CKD and DM are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of DM has any additional effect on the endothelial dysfunction of CKD patients. Methods. We measured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), stromal-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α), serum and urinary nitric oxide (NO), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 37 CKD patients with DM (CKD-DM group) and in 37 without DM (CKD group). Results. CKD-DM group had a higher prevalence of obesity (), previous myocardial infarction (), myocardial revascularization (), and a trend for more peripheral artery disease (). Additionally, CKD-DM group had higher EPC () and PWV () values. On the other hand, no difference in SDF-1α and serum or urinary NO and FMD was observed between the groups. Conclusions. Endothelial dysfunction is frequent in CKD patients, and an additive effect of diabetes cannot be implicated, suggesting the predominant role of uremia in this condition.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Nov 2018 09:06:45 +000
  • Comparative Biochemical and Histopathological Studies on the Efficacy of
           Metformin and Virgin Olive Oil against Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in
           Sprague-Dawley Rats

    • Abstract: Treatment of diabetic patients with antioxidant, such as extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), may be beneficial in numerous debilitating complexities. This study was aimed at assessing the protective role of virgin olive oil in reducing hyperglycemia in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Thirty-six healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (6 rats per group) including nondiabetic control (NC), diabetic control (DC), and animals treated with metformin, olive oil, and a combination of olive oil and metformin, respectively. The protective effect of olive oil was evaluated by determining the biochemical parameters (lipid profile, liver, and kidney) and by studying the histopathological alterations in pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues. The results showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels in diabetic rats. ALP levels remained significantly elevated in the diabetic rats that were treated with metformin and/or olive oil, and the highest level was noted in the group treated with olive oil (568.33 U/L). Contrarily, pretreatment with olive oil significantly decreased ALT (67.64 U/L) and ALP (226.17 U/L) levels. Histopathological data revealed that all the disorganized islets of Langerhans along with the clusters of inflammatory cells were absent in the group pretreated with the combination of virgin olive oil and metformin, which shows that prophylactic administration of this combination reduces the diabetic complications in a much better way. Therefore, pretreatment with olive oil with or without metformin is an encouraging approach for diabetes therapy with immense potential.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Fasting Plasma Glucose Indicates Reversibility of the Acute Insulin
           Response after Short-Term Intensive Insulin Therapy in Patients with
           Various Duration of Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Recovery of acute insulin response (AIR) is shown to be associated with long-term outcomes of patients with early type 2 diabetes treated with short-term intensive insulin therapy (SIIT). However, the complexity of measuring an AIR limits its utility in a real-world clinical setting. The aim of the study was to assess fasting indicators that may estimate recovery of the AIR after SIIT. We enrolled 62 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of varying disease duration who had poor glycemic control. Participants were treated with SIIT using insulin pumps to achieve near normoglycemia for 7 days. The AIR before and after the therapy were measured by intravenous glucose tolerance tests. After the therapy, AIR increased from −16.7 (−117.4, 52.4) pmol/L·min to 178.7 (31.8, 390.7) pmol/L·min () while hyperglycemia was alleviated; this improvement was observed in all disease duration categories. AIR was almost absent when fasting plasma glucose (FPG) > 10 mmol/L, while both AIR (,) and its improvement from baseline (△AIR, ,) were negatively associated with FPG after SIIT when FPG 
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Th1/Th2 Dichotomy in Obese Women with Gestational Diabetes and Their
           Macrosomic Babies

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess T cell differentiation and the modulation of inflammatory cytokines in obese and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) women and their macrosomic newborns. Hence, immediately after delivery, blood samples were collected through the mother’s arm vein and the umbilical cordon vein. Biochemical parameters measured were HbA1C, glucose, insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (Tchol), HDL cholesterol (HDLchol), and LDL cholesterol (LDLchol). T lymphocytes were purified from the total blood with Ficoll-Paque. The mRNA expression of inflammatory markers in T cells was determined by RT-qPCR. We observed that diabetic mothers exhibited higher HbA1C, glycemia, insulinemia, TG, Tchol, HDLchol, and LDLchol levels than control mothers. Glycemia was not significantly different between macrosomic and control newborns. However, insulinemia was high in macrosomic babies. TG, Tchol, HDLchol, and LDLchol were not significantly different between macrosomic and control babies. In diabetic mothers, mRNA expression of the Th1 cell subtype was significantly increased. Th1 markers were upregulated in babies born to diabetic women than in control newborns. However, expression of two Th2 markers (GATA3 and IL-4) was not significantly different between control and GDM women and between their respective newborns. Interestingly, IL-10 mRNA expression was decreased in diabetic mothers and their offsprings. The Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio was increased in GDM obese mothers and their macrosomic newborns, suggesting a proinflammatory status in these subjects.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Nov 2018 09:33:09 +000
  • Implications of the Intestinal Microbiota in Diagnosing the Progression of
           Diabetes and the Presence of Cardiovascular Complications

    • Abstract: The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases—retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity. Microbes can be considered a complex endocrine system capable of ensuring the proper functioning of the body but are also responsible for the development of numerous pathologies (diabetes, coronary syndromes, peripheral arterial disease, neoplasia, Alzheimer’s disease, and hepatic steatosis). Changes in the intestinal microbiota may influence the host’s sensitivity to insulin, body weight, and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Dysbiosis causes activation of proinflammatory mechanisms, metabolic toxicity, and insulin resistance. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a microbial organic compound generated by the large intestine, and its concentration increases in the blood after ingestion of foods rich in L-carnitine and choline, such as red meat, eggs, and fish. The interest for TMAO in cardiometabolic research has recently emerged, given the preclinical evidence that reveals a link between TMAO, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications. Intestinal microbiota can be modulated by changing one’s lifestyle but also by antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic, and fecal transplantation. The purpose of this article is to highlight issues related to the involvement of microbiota and trimethylamine N-oxide in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Better appreciation of the interactions between food intake and intestinal floral-mediated metabolism can provide clinical insights into the definition of individuals with diabetic risk and cardiometabolic disease as well as potential therapeutic targets for reducing the risk of progression of the disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Association of PD-1 and PD-L1 Genetic Polymorphyisms with Type 1 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aims. The programmed death- (PD-) 1/PD-1 ligand (PD-L) pathway plays an important role in regulating T cell activation and maintaining peripheral tolerance. Accumulated studies showed that PD-1/PD-L1 pathway was involved in the development of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Since the genetic background of type 1 diabetes differs greatly among the different population, we aim to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in PD-1 and PD-L1 with T1DM susceptibility in Chinese population. Methods. In total, 166 T1DM patients and 100 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from 4 mL peripheral blood samples collected from each subject. Genotyping of 8 selected SNPs of PD-1 and PD-L1 was carried out by the pyrosequencing PSQ 24 System using PyroMark Gold reagents (QIAGEN). Results. SNP rs4143815 in PD-L1 was significantly associated with T1DM. People carrying the C allele of rs4143815 suffering less risk of T1DM and T1DM patients with G/G genotype showed higher levels of autoantibody (AAB) positive incidence compared with C allele carriers. No significant associations were found in other SNPs. Conclusions. Our results indicate that rs4143815 of PD-L1 is significantly associated with T1DM and may serve as a new biomarker to predict the T1DM susceptibility.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Nov 2018 05:58:48 +000
  • Artificially Cultivated Ophiocordyceps sinensis Alleviates Diabetic
           Nephropathy and Its Podocyte Injury via Inhibiting P2X7R Expression and
           NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

    • Abstract: Background/Aims. It is known that chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the initiation and development of both diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN), so we designed this study to investigate the role of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome in DN pathogenesis and the antagonistic effects of artificially cultivated Ophiocordyceps sinensis (ACOS). Methods. A rat model of DN caused by high-fat-diet feeding and low-dose streptozotocin injection and a mouse podocyte injury model induced by high-glucose (HG) stimulation were established, and the intervention effects of ACOS on them were observed. The biological parameters of serum and urine and the pathological manifestations of kidney tissue were examined. The expression of mRNA and protein of P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1) and downstream effectors (IL-1β and IL-18), as well as podocyte-associated molecules, was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot assay, respectively. Results. The DN rats showed to have developed insulin resistance, elevated fasting blood glucose, increased urinary protein excretion, and serum creatinine level as well as corresponding glomerular pathological alterations including podocyte damages. ACOS significantly antagonized the above changes. The experiments in vivo and in vitro both displayed that the mRNA and protein expression of P2X7R, NLRP3, ASC, caspase1 (procaspase-1 mRNA in the gene level and active caspase-1 subunit P10 in the protein level), IL-1β, and IL-18 was significantly upregulated and the mRNA and protein expression of podocyte-associated molecules was significantly changed (downregulation of nephrin, podocin, and WT-1 expression and upregulation of desmin expression) indicating podocyte injury in the kidney tissue of DN rats and in the HG-stressed mouse podocytes, respectively. ACOS also significantly antagonized all the above changes. Conclusion. Our research work suggests that P2X7R and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the pathogenesis of DN, and ACOS can effectively inhibit the high expression of P2X7R and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of Ophiocordyceps sinensis.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Role of Adaptive and Innate Immunity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: After the recognition of the essential role of the immune system in the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus, more studies are focused on the effects produced by the abnormal differentiation of components of the immune system. In patients suffering from obesity or T2DM, there were alterations in proliferation of T cells and macrophages, and impairment in function of NK cells and B cells, which represented abnormal innate and adaptive immunity. The abnormality of either innate immunity, adaptive immunity, or both was involved and interacted with each other during the progression of T2DM. Although previous studies have revealed the functional involvement of T cells in T2DM, and the regulation of metabolism by the innate or adaptive immune system during the pathogenesis of T2DM, there has been a lack of literature reviewing the relevant role of adaptive and innate immunity in the progression of T2DM. Here, we will review their relevant roles, aiming to provide new thought for the development of immunotherapy in T2DM.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Nov 2018 09:16:26 +000
  • Administration of RAS Inhibitor before the Onset of Diabetic Nephropathy
           Counteracts the Adverse Effect of Chronic Hyperglycemia and Reduces the

    • Abstract: It is very important to explore how we can reduce urinary albumin excretion which is an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the effects of RAS inhibitor therapy on diabetic nephropathy in Japanese subjects whose urinary albumin levels were within normal range. We enrolled 100 subjects with type 2 diabetes who did not take any renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor. We defined the subjects taking RAS inhibitor for more than 3 years as RAS inhibitor group. RAS inhibitor exerted protective effect on the progression of urinary albumin excretion in subjects with type 2 diabetes without diabetic nephropathy. In addition, RAS inhibitor exerted more protective effects on renal function especially in subjects with poor glycemic control. In conclusion, RAS inhibitor could protect renal function against the deleterious effect of chronic hyperglycemia in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes even before the onset of diabetic nephropathy.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Nov 2018 00:39:18 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Family: Verbenaceae) Extract
           Upregulates the β-Cell Regeneration in STZ Induced Diabetic Rats”

    • PubDate: Mon, 05 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Corneal Subbasal Nerve Plexus Changes in Severe Diabetic Charcot Foot
           Deformity: A Pilot Study in Search for a DNOAP Biomarker

    • Abstract: Introduction. Diabetic neuroosteoarthropathy (DNOAP) early symptoms are unspecific, mimicking general infectious symptoms and rendering a diagnosis challenging. Consequently, unfavourable outcomes occur frequently, with recurrent foot ulceration, infectious complications, and eventually amputation. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) of the subbasal nerve plexus (SNP) is used to detect early peripheral neuropathy in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy. This pilot study was designed to determine if specific SNP changes manifest in severe DNOAP in comparison to a healthy control group. Methods. This pilot study utilized a matched-pair analysis to investigate SNP changes by in vivo CCM for 26 patients (mean patient age 63.7 years, range 27 to 78) with severe DNOAP defined by condition after the need for reconstructive foot surgery () and a healthy control group (). Corneal nerve fibre length (CNFL), nerve fibre density (CNFD), nerve branch density (CNBD), average weighted corneal nerve fibre thickness (CNFTh), nerve connecting points (CNCP), and average weighted corneal nerve fibre tortuosity (CNFTo) were assessed as well as the general clinical status, diabetic status, and ophthalmologic basic criteria. Results. In vivo CCM revealed significantly reduced SNP parameters in the DNOAP group for CNFL (), CNFD (), CNBD (), and CNCP () when compared to the healthy control group. Six patients (46%) of the DNOAP group suffered from diabetic retinopathy and none of the control group. Conclusions. This pilot study revealed a rarefication of SNP in all measured parameters in patients with severe DNOAP. We see a potential value of CCM providing a SNP-based biomarker for early stages of DNOAP prior to the development of any foot deformities that needs to be evaluated in further studies. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials Register (DKRS) DRKS00007537.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Nov 2018 09:52:03 +000
  • The Impact of Obesity on the Cardiovascular System

    • Abstract: Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide. It is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk on the one hand of obesity itself and on the other hand of associated medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance, and sleep apnoea syndrome). Obesity has an important role in atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. Obesity leads to structural and functional changes of the heart, which causes heart failure. The altered myocardial structure increases the risk of atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. However, obesity also has a protective effect on the clinical outcome of underlying cardiovascular disease, the phenomenon called obesity paradox. The improved cardiac imaging techniques allow the early detection of altered structure and function of the heart in obese patients. In this review, we attempt to summarize the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases and outline the underlying mechanisms. The demonstrated new techniques of cardiac diagnostic procedures allow for the early detection and treatment of subclinical medical conditions and, therefore, the prevention of cardiovascular events.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Nov 2018 06:38:46 +000
  • Molecular Modulation of Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts in Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Diabetes is a common disease affecting majority of populations worldwide. Since 1980, there has been an increase in the number of people diagnosed as prediabetic and diabetic. Diabetes is characterized by high levels of circulating glucose and leads to most microvascular and macrovascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Bone marrow vascular disruption and increased adiposity are also linked to various complications in type II diabetes mellitus. In addition to these complications, type 2 diabetic patients also have fragile bones caused by faulty mineralization mainly due to increased adiposity among diabetic patients that affects both osteoblast and osteoclast functions. Other factors that increase fracture risk in diabetic patients are increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and drugs administered to diabetic patients. This review reports the modulation of different pathways that affect bone metabolism in diabetic conditions.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The U-Shaped Association between Bilirubin and Diabetic Retinopathy Risk:
           A Five-Year Cohort Based on 5323 Male Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: Aims. This study aimed at assessing the impact of baseline bilirubin (TBiL) on the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) based on a five-year cohort study which consisted of 5323 Chinese male diabetic patients. Methods. A cohort study based on 5323 male diabetic patients was conducted in Beijing, from 2009 to 2013. Both baseline TBiL and follow-up changes were measured. Cox proportional risk model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of TBiL for DR risk. Results. During the follow-up period, there were 269 new DR cases. The incidence of five-year follow-up was 5.1% (95% CI: 4.5%~5.6%). The TBiL level of those who had diabetic retinopathy was lower than that of those without (12.51+ 1.20 mol/L and 13.11+ 1.32 μmol/L, ). And more interestingly, along with the quintiles of baseline TBiL, there showed a U-shaped curve with DR incidence. And the RRs were 0.928 (95% CI: 0.646–1.331), 0.544 (95% CI: 0.365–0.811), 0.913 (95% CI: 0.629–1.324), and 1.035 (95% CI: 0.725–1.479) for the second, third, fourth, and fifth quintiles of baseline TBiL levels, respectively, compared with the first quintile. For follow-up TBiL changes, after being adjusted for related covariables and baseline TBiL levels (as continuous variable) in the model, the RRs for DR were 1.411 (95% CI: 1.081–1.842) for those who had decreased TBiL level and 0.858 (95% CI: 0.770–0.947) for those who had increased TBiL level during follow-up. And this association was more prominent among those with lower baseline TBiL level. Conclusions. Serum TBiL had a U-shaped relationship with DR incidence, which was independent of control status of diabetes and other related covariates.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Glimepiride Administered in Chow Reversibly Impairs Glucose Tolerance in

    • Abstract: Sulfonylureas are a class of antidiabetes medications prescribed to millions of individuals worldwide. Rodents have been used extensively to study sulfonylureas in the laboratory. Here, we report the results of studies treating mice with a sulfonylurea (glimepiride) in order to understand how the drug affects glucose homeostasis and tolerance. We tested the effect of glimepiride on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion, using glimepiride sourced from a local pharmacy. We also examined the effect on glucagon, gluconeogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. Unexpectedly, glimepiride exposure in mice was associated with fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, and decreased insulin. There was no change in circulating glucagon levels or gluconeogenesis. The effect was dose-dependent, took effect by two weeks, and was reversed within three weeks after removal. Glimepiride elicited the same effects in all strains evaluated: four wild-type strains, as well as the transgenic Grn−/− and diabetic db/db mice. Our findings suggest that the use of glimepiride as a hypoglycemic agent in mice should proceed with caution and may have broader implications about mouse models as a proxy to study the human pharmacopeia.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Oct 2018 07:53:46 +000
  • The Humanistic and Economic Burden Associated with Anxiety and Depression
           among Adults with Comorbid Diabetes and Hypertension

    • Abstract: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study to estimate the humanistic and economic burden associated with depression and anxiety among adults with comorbid diabetes and hypertension. Pooled data from the 2013 and 2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used to include adults (≥18 years old) who were alive and diagnosed with both diabetes and hypertension during the observation period. We assessed the humanistic burden with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and economic burden with the total annual healthcare expenditures. Depending on the presence/absence of depression and anxiety, the study sample was divided into four groups (i.e., no depression/anxiety, depression only, anxiety only, and depression and anxiety). Multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between the depression/anxiety categories and disease burden measures. The incremental burden associated with depression and/or anxiety was estimated with the counterfactual recycled prediction. Of the 4560 adults with comorbid diabetes and hypertension, 13.2% reported depression only, 8.7% reported anxiety only, and 7.7% reported both. Results from adjusted analyses indicated that the presence/absence of depression and anxiety was associated with significantly poorer HRQoL, especially on the mental component. Having either depression or anxiety corresponded to reduced mental component summary scores by more than four points. The reduction was as high as 10.35 points when both conditions occurred. Comparing to adults without depression or anxiety, the per-capital incremental annual healthcare expenditures were $4607 for the depression group, $2481 for the anxiety group, and $8709 for adults with both conditions. Furthermore, adults with depression and anxiety were 58% more likely to spend at least 10% of annual household income on healthcare as compared to those with neither the conditions. Our results highlight the needs for integrating cost-effective mental health services into diabetes management to improve the HRQoL and reduce healthcare costs for adults with comorbid diabetes and hypertension.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Oct 2018 09:16:47 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Vitamin D-Binding Protein Clearance Ratio Is
           Significantly Associated with Glycemic Status and Diabetes Complications
           in a Predominantly Vitamin D-Deficient Population”

    • PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Associations between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Metabolic Risk Factors
           beyond Obesity

    • Abstract: Objective. Individuals with multiple metabolic risk factors often experience concomitant sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We aimed to determine the associations of SDB with individual components of metabolic syndrome independent of obesity. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1137 employees aged 30–64 years. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was assessed using a portable monitor for obstructive sleep apnea by admission. Of these, 451 participants took an oral glucose tolerance test to assess homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI). Results. The odds ratio (OR) of the highest category of the AHI (≥15 episodes per hour) compared to the lowest one (
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Insulin Modulates Paracoccidioides brasiliensis-Induced Inflammation by
           Restoring the Populations of NK Cells, Dendritic Cells, and B Lymphocytes
           in Lungs

    • Abstract: Paracoccidioidomycosis, a key issue for Brazilian health service, can be aggravated in patients with impaired immunological responses, such as diabetic patients. We evaluated the role of insulin in inflammatory parameters in diabetic and nondiabetic mice using a systemic mycosis Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) model. Diabetic C57BL-6 mice and controls were infected with Pb18 and treated with insulin for 12 days prior to experiments. After 55 days, infected diabetic mice exhibited fewer leukocytes in both peritoneal lavage fluid (PeLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced secretion of interleukin- (IL-) 6 in lungs. In addition, diabetic mice presented a reduced influx of TCD4+ cells, TCD8+ cells, B lymphocytes, NK cells, and dendritic cells compared to control infected groups. Insulin treatment restored the leukocyte number in PeLF and restored the presence of B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells in lungs of diabetic animals. The data suggest that diabetic mice present impaired immunological response to Pb18 infection and insulin modulates inflammation by reducing IL-6 levels in lung and CINC-1 levels in spleen and liver homogenates, restoring leukocyte concentrations in PeLF and also restoring populations of dendritic cells and B lymphocytes in lungs of diabetic mice, permitting the host to better control the infection.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
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