Experimental Diabetes Research
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Synergistic Effect of the MTHFR C677T and EPHX2 G860A Polymorphism on the
Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the combined effect of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and EPHX2 G860A (rs751141) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Chinese T2DM patients. This case-control study included a total of 626 Chinese T2DM patients (236 T2DM patients with ischemic stroke and 390 T2DM patients without ischemic stroke). The rs1801133 and rs751141 were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0. Results showed that the combined effect of MTHFR TT and EPHX2 GG or GA + AA genotype has a higher risk of ischemic stroke compared with the control group (combined effect of MTHFR CC and EPHX2 GA + AA genotypes; OR = 3.46 and OR = 3.42, resp.; and , resp.). The A allele showed marked association with a lower risk of ischemic stroke in patients with the lowest Hcy levels under additive, recessive, and dominant genetic models (OR = 0.45, OR = 0.11, and OR = 0.44, resp.; , , and , resp.), which was not observed in medium or high Hcy level groups. In conclusion, the T allele of rs1801133 and the G allele of rs751141 may be risk factors of ischemic stroke in the Chinese T2DM population.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:07:48 +000
- PGC1α Activators Mitigate Diabetic Tubulopathy by Improving Mitochondrial
Dynamics and Quality Control
Abstract: Purpose. In this study, we investigated the effect of PGC1α activators on mitochondrial fusion, fission, and autophagic quality control in renal tubular cells in a diabetic environment in vivo and in vitro. We also examined whether the upregulation of PGC1α attenuates diabetic tubulopathy by normalizing mitochondrial homeostasis. Methods. HKC8 cells were subjected to high-glucose conditions (30 mM D-glucose). Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days) in male C57/BL6J mice. AICAR or metformin was used as a PGC1α activator. Results. Treatment with the PGC1α activators AICAR and metformin improved functional mitochondrial mass in HKC8 cells in high-glucose conditions. Moreover, in renal proximal tubular cells, increased PGC1α activity correlated with the reversal of changes in Drp1, Mfn1, and LC3-II protein expression in a high-glucose environment. Normalized mitochondrial life cycles resulted in low ROS production and reduced apoptosis. AICAR and metformin treatment effectively mitigated albuminuria and renal histopathology and decreased the expression of TGFβ1 and αSMA in the kidneys of diabetic mice. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that increases in PGC1α activity improve diabetic tubulopathy by modulating mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians
with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological
Abstract: Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients () were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, ). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, ). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Association of a Genetic Variant in SCAF8-CNKSR3 with Diabetic Kidney
Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy in a Chinese Population
Abstract: Background. Genome-wide association studies found rs955333 located in 6q25.2 was associated with diabetic kidney disease in multiple ethnic populations, including European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. We aimed to investigate the association between the variant rs955333 in SCAF8-CNKSR3 and DKD susceptibility in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. The variant rs955333 was genotyped in 1884 Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. Associations of the variant rs955333 with DKD and DR susceptibility and related quantitative traits were evaluated. Results. The variant rs955333 was not associated with DKD in our samples, while subjects with genotype GG were associated with DR (, OR = 0.5525 ), and it also showed association with microalbuminuria (, beta = −0.1812 ). Conclusion. Our data suggests the variant rs955333 was not associated with DKD but showed association with diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Epigenetic Regulations in Diabetic Nephropathy
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of diabetes and the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease. It has been reported that multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN, while the molecular mechanisms that lead to DN are still not fully understood. Numerous risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy have been proposed, including ethnicity and inherited genetic differences. Recently, with the development of high-throughput technologies, there is emerging evidence that suggests the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DN. Epigenetic regulations, including DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, and histone modifications, play a pivotal role in DN pathogenesis by a second layer of gene regulation. All these findings can contribute to developing novel therapies for DN.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Glycopatterns of Urinary Protein as New Potential Diagnosis Indicators for
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. However, so little is known about alterations of the glycopatterns in urine with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Presently, we interrogated glycopatterns in urine specimens using a lectin microarray. The results showed that expression levels of Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc recognized by SNA exhibited significantly increased tendency with the development of diabetic nephropathy; moreover, SNA blotting indicated glycoproteins (90 kDa, 70 kDa, and 40 kDa) in urine may contribute to this alteration. Furthermore, the glycopatterns of recognized by STL exhibited difference between diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy. The results of urinary protein microarray fabricated by another 48 urine specimens also indicated is a potential indictor to differentiate the patients with diabetic nephropathy from nondiabetic nephropathy. Furtherly, STL blotting showed that the 50 kDa glycoproteins were correlated with this alteration. In conclusion, our data provide pivotal information to monitor the development of diabetic nephropathy and distinguish between diabetic nephropathy and nondiabetic renal disease based on precise alterations of glycopatterns in urinary proteins, but further studies are needed in this regard.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Corrigendum to “Hypoglycemic Activity through a Novel Combination of
Fruiting Body and Mycelia of Cordyceps militaris in High-Fat Diet-Induced
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mice”
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 09:22:41 +000
- Corrigendum to “Brain Activation and Psychomotor Speed in Middle-Aged
Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: Relationships with Hyperglycemia and Brain
Small Vessel Disease”
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Reduced Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation Contributes to the Pathogenesis of
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults via Regulation of SUV39H2 and KDM4C
Abstract: Aims. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an autoimmune disease of which the mechanism is not clear. Emerging evidence suggests that histone methylation contributes to autoimmunity. Methods. Blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from 26 LADA patients and 26 healthy controls were isolated to detect histone H3 lysine 4 and H3 lysine 9 methylation status. Results. Reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients’ CD4+ T lymphocytes, compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). H3 lysine 4 methylation was not statistically different. The reduced H3 lysine 9 methylation was associated with GADA titer but not correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). When the LADA patient group was divided into those with complication and those without, relatively reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients with complication (P < 0.05). The expression of histone methyltransferase SUV39H2 for H3 lysine 9 methylation was downregulated in LADA patients, and the expression of histone demethylase KDM4C which made H3 lysine 9 demethylation was upregulated. Conclusion. The reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation which may due to the downregulation of methyltransferase SUV39H2 and the upregulation of demethylase KDM4C was found in CD4+ T lymphocytes of LADA patients.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 07:55:30 +000
- Inflammatory Regulation in Diabetes and Metabolic Dysfunction
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Irisin: A Potential Link between Physical Exercise and Metabolism—An
Observational Study in Differently Trained Subjects, from Elite Athletes
to Sedentary People
Abstract: We compared irisin levels among groups of differently trained healthy individuals to explore the role of irisin as a physiological linker between exercise and metabolic health. Irisin and biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in 70 healthy volunteers stratified for sport performance level into four groups: () 20 elite athletes of national level, () 20 subelite athletes of local level, () 20 recreational athletes, and () 10 sedentary subjects. All biochemical parameters were within the ranges of normality. Fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol levels were inversely related to the degree of physical activity. HbA1c was higher in elite athletes compared to all the other groups (). A U-shaped relation between free fatty acids and the degree of physical activity was observed. All groups showed similar plasma irisin levels. After correction for the degree of insulin resistance (irisin/HOMA-IR), elite athletes showed higher levels compared to sedentary and recreational subjects ( and , resp.). In addition, the number of metabolic parameters correlated with irisin increased at increasing the training status. Our study suggests a correlation between sport performance, insulin sensitivity, and irisin levels. Irisin may be one potential mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolic profile.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 09:04:47 +000
- Mechanistic Insight and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy: Recent
Progress and Future Perspective
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes and the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many developed countries. DN is also associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors. However, the exact mechanisms of DN are unclear. Despite the benefits derived from strict control of glucose and blood pressure, as well as inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, many patients continue to enter into ESRD. Thus, there is urgent need for improving mechanistic understanding of DN and then developing new and effective therapeutic approaches to delay the progression of DN. This review focuses on recent progress and future perspective about mechanistic insight and management of DN. Some preclinical relevant studies are highlighted and new perspectives of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for delaying DN progression are discussed in detail. These findings strengthen the therapeutic rationale for TCM in the treatment of DN and also provide new insights into the development of novel drugs for the prevention of DN. However, feasibility and safety of these therapeutic approaches and the clinical applicability of TCM in human DN need to be further investigated.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), an ideal cell source for regenerative therapy with no ethical issues, play an important role in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Growing evidence has demonstrated that MSCs transplantation can accelerate wound closure, ameliorate clinical parameters, and avoid amputation. In this review, we clarify the mechanism of preclinical studies, as well as safety and efficacy of clinical trials in the treatment of DFU. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), compared with MSCs derived from other tissues, may be a suitable cell type that can provide easy, effective, and cost-efficient transplantation to treat DFU and protect patients from amputation.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Corrigendum to “Large Gliadin Peptides Detected in the Pancreas of NOD
and Healthy Mice following Oral Administration”
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Efficacy of Administration of an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
for Two Years on Autonomic and Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with
Abstract: Aim. To evaluate the effect of quinapril on diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Patients and Methods. Sixty-three consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus [43% males, 27 with type 1 DM, mean age 52 years (range 22–65)], definite DCAN [abnormal results in 2 cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs)], and DPN were randomized to quinapril 20 mg/day (group A, ) or placebo (group B, ) for 2 years. Patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were excluded. To detect DPN and DCAN, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Questionnaire and Examination (MNSIQ and MNSIE), measurement of vibration perception threshold with biothesiometer (BIO), and CARTs [R-R variation during deep breathing [assessed by expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I), mean circular resultant (MCR), and standard deviation (SD)], Valsalva maneuver (Vals), 30 : 15 ratio, and orthostatic hypotension (OH)] were used. Results. In group A, E/I, MCR, and SD increased ( for all comparisons < 0.05). Other indices (Vals, 30 : 15, OH, MNSIQ, MNSIE, and BIO) did not change. In group B, all CART indices deteriorated, except Vals, which did not change. MNSIQ, MNSIE, and BIO did not change. Conclusions. Treatment with quinapril improves DCAN (mainly parasympathetic dysfunction). Improved autonomic balance may improve the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 09:14:31 +000
- Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms
Abstract: Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one’s parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, ) as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, ). Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Membrane Cholesterol in Skeletal Muscle: A Novel Player in
Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Insulin Resistance
Abstract: Membrane cholesterol is critical for signaling processes in a variety of tissues. We will address here current evidence supporting an emerging role of cholesterol on excitation-contraction coupling and glucose transport in skeletal muscle. We have centered our review on the transverse tubule system, a complex network of narrow plasma membrane invaginations that propagate membrane depolarization into the fiber interior and allow nutrient delivery into the fibers. We will discuss current evidence showing that transverse tubule membranes have remarkably high cholesterol levels and we will address how modifications of cholesterol content influence excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, we will discuss how membrane cholesterol levels affect glucose transport by modulating the insertion into the membrane of the main insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. Finally, we will address how the increased membrane cholesterol levels displayed by obese animals, which also present insulin resistance, affect these two particular skeletal muscle functions.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 07:02:18 +000
- The Association between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Risk of
Abstract: Aims. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of leisure-time physical activity on undetected prediabetes. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2012 were used in our analyses. Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prediabetes associated with leisure-time physical activity. Results. A total of 8204 subjects were eligible for our analyses. For all subjects, high level of total leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.94) and low level of vigorous leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58, 0.90) were inversely associated with the risk of prediabetes in multivariate-adjusted model. For subjects under 45 years of age, high level of total leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99) and low (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.45, 0.83) and high (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.00) level of vigorous leisure-time physical activity were associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes. In the 45 to 65 age group, only high level of total leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.95) had protective effect on prediabetes. Conclusions. Leisure-time physical activity may be associated with a decreased risk of prediabetes.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Different Perspective for Management of Diabetes Mellitus: Controlling
Viral Liver Diseases
Abstract: Knowing how to prevent and treat diabetes mellitus (DM) earlier is essential to improving outcomes. Through participating in synthesis and catabolism of glycogen, the liver helps to regulate glucose homeostasis. Viral related liver diseases are associated with glycometabolism disorders, which means effective management of viral liver diseases may be a therapeutic strategy for DM. The present article reviews the correlation between DM and liver diseases to give an update of the management of DM rooted by viral liver diseases.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 09:35:56 +000
- Forkhead Protein FoxO1 Acts as a Repressor to Inhibit Cell Differentiation
in Human Fetal Pancreatic Progenitor Cells
Abstract: Our colleagues have reported previously that human pancreatic progenitor cells can readily differentiate into insulin-containing cells. Particularly, transplantation of these cell clusters upon in vitro induction for 3-4 w partially restores hyperglycemia in diabetic nude mice. In this study, we used human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells to identify the forkhead protein FoxO1 as the key regulator for cell differentiation. Thus, induction of human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells for 1 week led to increase of the pancreatic cell markers such as Ngn3, but decrease of stem cell markers including Oct4, Nanog, and CK19. Of note, FoxO1 knockdown or FoxO1 inhibitor significantly upregulated Ngn3 and insulin as well as the markers such as Glut2, Kir6.2, SUR1, and VDCC, which are designated for mature β cells. On the contrary, overexpression of FoxO1 suppressed the induction and reduced expression of these β cell markers. Taken together, these results suggest that FoxO1 may act as a repressor to inhibit cell differentiation in human fetal pancreatic progenitor cells.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 14:21:26 +000
- Association between STK11 Gene Polymorphisms and Coronary Artery Disease
in Type 2 Diabetes in Han Population in China
Abstract: Background. Recent studies indicated that the Serine threonine kinase 11 (STK11), which is a key regulator of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), plays a crucial role in cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate whether genetic variations in the STK11 gene affect the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese type 2 diabetics. Methods. 5 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected, and 288 CAD-positive cases and 159 CAD-negative controls with type 2 diabetes were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Results. The carriers of minor allele A at rs12977689 had a higher risk of CAD compared to the homozygotes of CC (OR = 1.572, 95% CI = 1.039–2.376, ), and the difference was still significant after adjustment for the other known CAD risk factors ( = 1.184, 95% = 1.036–1.353, ). Conclusion. Genetic variability at STK11 locus is associated with CAD risk in type 2 diabetes in the Chinese population.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 13:01:33 +000
- Reducing Caloric Intake Prevents Ischemic Injury and Myocardial
Dysfunction and Affects Anesthetic Cardioprotection in Type 2 Diabetic
Abstract: Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of myocardial ischemia, followed by increased perioperative risk of cardiovascular morbidity. We investigated whether reducing caloric intake reduces ischemic injury and myocardial dysfunction and affects the protective effects of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane in diet-induced T2DM rats. Methods. Rats received a western (WD) or control diet (CD). Caloric intake was reduced by reversing WD-fed rats to CD. Myocardial function was determined with echocardiography. After 8 weeks of diet feeding, myocardial infarction was induced and the effect of sevoflurane was studied on myocardial function and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Results. WD-feeding resulted in a mild T2DM phenotype and myocardial dysfunction. Sevoflurane further impaired systolic function in WD-fed rats. Unexpectedly, WD-feeding reduced infarct size compared to CD-feeding. Sevoflurane reduced infarct size in CD-fed rats; however it enlarged infarct size in WD-fed rats. Caloric reduction restored myocardial dysfunction and the protective effect of sevoflurane against ischemia compared to WD-fed rats, whereas the protective effects of WD-feeding persisted. Conclusion. Caloric reduction restored the T2DM phenotype and myocardial function, while the cardioprotective properties of WD-feeding or sevoflurane persisted. Our data suggest that reducing caloric intake in T2DM might be a possible intervention to reduce perioperative risk of cardiovascular morbidity.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 07:19:51 +000
- Diabetes Is Associated with Increased Autoreactivity of Mannan-Binding
Abstract: Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) has been reported to be involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. MBL is a pattern-recognition molecule of the innate immune system that initiates the lectin pathway of the complement system upon recognition of evolutionary conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns or to altered self-tissue. Our group have previously shown direct effects of MBL on diabetes-induced kidney damage, and we hypothesized that MBL may cause autoactivation of the complement system via binding to neoepitopes induced by hyperglycemia. In the present study, we induced diabetes in MBL knockout mice and in wild type C57BL/6J mice by low-dose streptozotocin injection and measured blood glucose and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio to monitor development of diabetes. After 24 weeks, fluorescently labelled recombinant MBL was injected intravenously in diabetic MBL knockout mice after which the distribution was investigated using in vivo fluorescence imaging. Mice were subjected to in vivo and ex vivo imaging 24 hours after injection. MBL was found to accumulate in the kidneys of diabetic mice as compared to healthy control mice (). These findings support the hypothesis of a significant role of MBL and the complement system in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Comparable Effects of Brief Resistance Exercise and Isotime Sprint
Interval Exercise on Glucose Homeostasis in Men
Abstract: This study compared the effects of a single bout of resistance exercise (RES) on glycemic homeostasis to isotime sprint interval exercise (SIE) using a within-subjects design. Nineteen nondiabetic males (age: yrs; height: cm; weight: kg; % fat: %) were studied. RES involved nine exercises of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-RM using a 2 : 2 s tempo and was interspersed with a one-minute recovery; SIE involved four 30 s’ all-out cycling effort interspersed with four minutes of active recovery. Plasma glucose and insulin in response to a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test were assessed 12 h after exercise. In comparison to a no exercise control trial (CON), the area under curve (AUC) of plasma glucose was reduced with both RES and SIE (), while insulin AUC was only reduced with RES. Cederholm, Gutt, Matsuda, and HOMA indices were improved () following RES compared to CON. Corresponding changes following SIE were only found in Cederholm and Gutt indices (). No difference was found in plasma variables and indices between RES and SIE (). Such findings suggest that the RES may represent a potential alternative to the SIE in the development of time-efficient lifestyle intervention strategies for improving diabetes risk factors in healthy populations.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Diabetes in HFE Hemochromatosis
Abstract: Diabetes in whites of European descent with hemochromatosis was first attributed to pancreatic siderosis. Later observations revealed that the pathogenesis of diabetes in HFE hemochromatosis is multifactorial and its clinical manifestations are heterogeneous. Increased type 2 diabetes risk in HFE hemochromatosis is associated with one or more factors, including abnormal iron homeostasis and iron overload, decreased insulin secretion, cirrhosis, diabetes in first-degree relatives, increased body mass index, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. In p.C282Y homozygotes, serum ferritin, usually elevated at hemochromatosis diagnosis, largely reflects body iron stores but not diabetes risk. In persons with diabetes type 2 without hemochromatosis diagnoses, serum ferritin levels are higher than those of persons without diabetes, but most values are within the reference range. Phlebotomy therapy to achieve iron depletion does not improve diabetes control in all persons with HFE hemochromatosis. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes diagnosed today in whites of European descent with and without HFE hemochromatosis is similar. Routine iron phenotyping or HFE genotyping of patients with type 2 diabetes is not recommended. Herein, we review diabetes in HFE hemochromatosis and the role of iron in diabetes pathogenesis in whites of European descent with and without HFE hemochromatosis.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 09:18:53 +000
- Effects of Apolipoprotein E Isoforms in Diabetic Nephropathy of Chinese
Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the major chronic complications of diabetes. Genetic polymorphism of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been proposed to participating in DN. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ApoE genetic polymorphism and the presence of DN in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. We studied 845 diabetic patients who were divided into DN group () and control group (). ApoE genotype was determined by ApoE genotyping chip and the plasmatic biochemical characterization was performed on all subjects. There were differences () in HbA1c, creatinine, and urinary albumin between the two groups. The ApoE ε2 allelic frequency was 7.69% in DN group versus 3.49% in control group (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.41–3.47, and ), as expected, ApoE E2/E2 and E2/E3 genotype frequency were higher in DN group (13.75% versus 6.49%, ). The ApoE ε4 allelic frequency was 7.93% in DN group versus 11.54% in control group (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.50–0.97, and ), and DN group presented a lower frequency of ApoE E3/E4 and E4/E4 genotype frequency (14.91% versus 19.96%, ). These results suggest ApoE ε2 allele may be a risk factor; however ApoE ε4 allele may play a protective role of DN in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:39:41 +000
- Quality of Life in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic
Abstract: Background and Objective. Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) could significantly increase the likelihood of health problems concerning both potential risks for the mother, fetus, and child’s development and negative effects on maternal mental health above all in terms of a diminished Quality of Life (QoL). The current systematic review study is aimed at further contributing to an advancement of knowledge about the clinical link between GDM and QoL. Methods. According to PRISMA guidelines, PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies aimed at evaluating and/or improving levels of QoL in women diagnosed with GDM. Results. Fifteen research studies were identified and qualitatively analyzed by summarizing results according to the following two topics: GDM and QoL and interventions on QoL in patients with GDM. Studies showed that, in women with GDM, QoL is significantly worse in both the short term and long term. However, improvements on QoL can be achieved through different intervention programs by enhancing positive diabetes-related self-management behaviors. Conclusion. Future studies are strongly recommended to further examine the impact of integrative programs, including telemedicine and educational interventions, on QoL of GDM patients by promoting their illness acceptance and healthy lifestyle behaviors.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:49:33 +000
- The Dynamics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence and Management Rates
among Rural Population in Henan Province, China
Abstract: The aim of this study was to estimate the dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevalence and management rates based on a rural cohort study in Henan Province of China. The rural prospective study was conducted for 20194 Chinese population ≥18 years in 2007-2008 and followed during 2013-2014. A total of 14009 individuals were recruited for the prospective analysis ultimately. Over 5.74 years of follow-up, the age-standardized prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM increased from 6.18%, 44.41%, 34.39%, and 19.08% at baseline to 7.87%, 59.64%, 52.17%, and 26.52% at follow-up in total population, respectively. Similar changes were found in men and women except the age-standardized control in men. The four parameters of T2DM were higher among various factors at follow-up than those at baseline. There was no statistical difference in awareness () and treatment () in the newly diagnosed T2DM compared with the rates at baseline. The current study indicated that the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM displayed chronological increasing trends while the awareness, treatment, and control of T2DM were still disproportionally low in central China. More works are needed urgently to popularize public health education and improve the quality of medical care in T2DM.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:31:25 +000
- mHealth and Health Information Technology Tools for Diverse Patients with
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Oxidative Stress, Epigenetics, Environment, and Epidemiology of Diabetic
PubDate: Wed, 22 Feb 2017 10:09:51 +000