Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 226)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Journal of Diabetes Research
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Research Progress on the Pathological Mechanisms of Podocytes in Diabetic

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not only an important microvascular complication of diabetes but also the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Studies have shown that the occurrence and development of DN are closely related to morphological and functional changes in podocytes. A series of morphological changes after podocyte injury in DN mainly include podocyte hypertrophy, podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation, podocyte detachment, and podocyte apoptosis; functional changes mainly involve podocyte autophagy. More and more studies have shown that multiple signaling pathways play important roles in the progression of podocyte injury in DN. Here, we review research progress on the pathological mechanism of morphological and functional changes in podocytes associated with DN, to provide a new target for delaying the occurrence and development of this disorder.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 05:50:03 +000
  • The Impact of Antidiabetic Agents on Sarcopenia in Type 2 Diabetes: A
           Literature Review

    • Abstract: Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by decline of skeletal muscle mass and function. Contributing factors include nutritional, genetic, inflammatory, and endocrinal factors. The reported prevalence of sarcopenia in type 2 diabetes mellitus is high, especially in patients with poor glycemic control. Additionally, antidiabetic agents may alter the balance between protein synthesis and degradation through various mechanisms of skeletal muscle mass regulation. This study reviewed the literature on the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in diabetes mellitus and the current understanding of whether antidiabetic agents contribute positively or negatively to sarcopenia and muscle wasting.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 12:20:00 +000
  • Fournier Gangrene Associated with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2
           Inhibitors: A Pharmacovigilance Study with Data from the U.S. FDA Adverse
           Event Reporting System

    • Abstract: Background. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a safety warning of Fournier gangrene (FG), a rare but serious adverse effect of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in August 2018. However, existing studies have focused mainly on individual FG case reports. Although several previous studies conducted reviews of cases, objective scientific analysis was not applied, and the prognosis data were inadequate. Objective. This study is aimed at presenting data supplementary to existing studies by analysing postmarketing adverse event reports in the FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database. Multiple statistical analysis methods were applied to evaluate the potential association between SGLT2 inhibitors and FG, thus providing reliable and professionalized medication usage recommendations for SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical practice. Methods. Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were applied for data mining among the suspected adverse event reports of FG associated with SGLT2 inhibitors recorded in the FAERS database during the period from January 2004 to September 2019. Results. There were 542 FG cases identified in the FAERS database in patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors. Among all SGLT2 inhibitor therapies, empagliflozin was associated with the highest number of FG reports (232 in total), while empagliflozin plus metformin had the strongest association with FG occurrence with the reporting odds ratio (ROR 54.79, 95% two-sided CI 31.56 to 95.12) and proportional reporting ratio (PRR 53.36, 2 666.70). There were 391 patients who underwent initial or prolonged hospitalization (72.14%), and 26 patients died (4.81%). Three new FG cases caused by ertugliflozin were found in 2019. Conclusion. The analysis of SGLT2 inhibitor-associated FG reports in the FAERS database identified signals between the drug and adverse events of interest. It also provides comprehensive information on the characteristics of FG onset and prognosis. Clinicians should pay more attention to this rare but severe adverse event when prescribing SGLT2 inhibitors in clinical practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 02:05:00 +000
  • Mechanisms of Herbal Nephroprotection in diabetes mellitus

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of kidney morbidity. Despite the multilayered complexity of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of DN, the conventional treatment is limited to just a few drug classes fraught with the risk of adverse events, including the progression of renal dysfunction. Phytoceuticals offer a promising alternative as they act on the many-sidedness of DN pathophysiology, multitargeting its intricacies. This paper offers a review of the mechanisms underlying the protective action of these phytoagents, including boosting the antioxidant capabilities, suppression of inflammation, averting the proliferative and sclerosing/fibrosing events. The pathogenesis of DN is viewed as a continuum going from the original offense, high glucose, through the noxious products it generates (advanced glycation end-products, products of oxidative and nitrosative stress) and the signaling chains consequently brought into action, to the harmful mediators of inflammation, sclerosis, and proliferation that eventually lead to DN, despite the countervailing attempts of the protective mechanisms. Special attention was given to the various pathways involved, pointing out the ability of the phytoagents to hinder the deleterious ones (especially those leading to, driven by, or associated with TGF-β activation, SREBP, Smad, MAPK, PKC, NF-κB, NLRP3 inflammasome, and caspase), to promote the protective ones (PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, EP4/Gs/AC/cAMP, Nrf2, AMPK, and SIRT1), and to favorably modulate those with potentially dual effect (PI3K/Akt). Many phytomedicines have emerged as potentially useful out of in vitro and in vivo studies, but the scarcity of human trials seriously undermines their usage in the current clinical practice—an issue that stringently needs to be addressed.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jul 2020 03:50:00 +000
  • Associations of KCNQ1 Polymorphisms with the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes
           Mellitus: An Updated Meta-Analysis with Trial Sequential Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Previous studies have examined the role of the KQT-like subfamily Q member1 (KCNQ1) gene polymorphisms on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the findings are inconclusive. Objective. To examine the association between the KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms and the risk of T2DM using an updated meta-analysis with an almost tripled number of studies. Methods. Five electronic databases, such as PubMed and Embase, were searched thoroughly for relevant studies on the associations between seven most studied KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms, including rs2237892, rs2237897, rs2237895, rs2283228, rs231362, rs151290, and rs2074196, and T2DM risk up to September 14, 2019. The summary odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the strength of associations in the random-effects models. We used the trial sequential analysis (TSA) to measure the robustness of the evidence. Results. 49 publications including 55 case-control studies (68,378 cases and 66,673 controls) were finally enrolled. In overall analyses, generally, increased T2DM risk was detected for rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2283228, rs151290, and rs2074196, but not for rs231362 under all genetic models. The ORs and 95% CIs for allelic comparison were 1.23 (1.14-1.33) for rs2237892, 1.21 (1.16-1.27) for rs2237895, 1.27 (1.11-1.46) for rs2237897, 1.25 (1.09-1.42) for rs2283228, 1.14 (1.03-1.27) for rs151290, 1.31 (1.23-1.39) for rs2074196, and 1.16 (0.83, 1.61) for rs231362. Stratified analyses showed that associations for rs2237892, rs2237895, rs2283228, and rs151290 were more evident among Asians than Caucasians. TSA demonstrated that the evidence was sufficient for all polymorphisms in this study. The genotypes of the three SNPs (rs2237892, rs2283228, and rs231362) were significantly correlated with altered KCNQ1 gene expression. Conclusion. This meta-analysis suggested that KCNQ1 gene polymorphisms (rs2237892, rs2283228, rs2237895, rs151290, and rs2074196) might be the susceptible factors for T2DM, especially among Asian population.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jul 2020 03:05:02 +000
  • Diabetic Distal Symmetrical Polyneuropathy: Correlation of Clinical,
           Laboratory, and Electrophysiologic Studies in Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: This cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the prevalence of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP) in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); finding the risk factors for DSPN and DPNP via biochemical tests; and correlating DSPN and DPNP with the results of electrophysiologic studies, quantitative sensory tests, and neurologic examination. The 145 participants with T2DM enrolled were divided into the DSPN (abnormal nerve conduction studies (NCS) with signs of polyneuropathy), subclinical DSPN (abnormal NCS without signs of polyneuropathy), minimal DSPN (normal NCS with signs of polyneuropathy), and no DSPN groups. The biochemical risk factors of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were investigated. Neurologic examinations, laboratory tests, NCS, vibration threshold tests, and thermal threshold tests were conducted. The modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (mMNSI) and Douleur Neuropathique 4 were used to evaluate the severity of DSPN and DPNP, respectively. In all, 30% of participants had DSPN and 11% had DPNP. DSPN correlated strongly with male gender and higher glycohaemoglobin levels; NCS abnormality correlated with higher glycohaemoglobin levels; DSPN severity correlated with NCS of each stimulating nerve. DPNP commonly occurred with clinical and electrophysiologic evidence of DSPN. Symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy significantly correlated with longer disease duration, higher glycohaemoglobin levels, and abnormal vibration tests. The thermal threshold test combined with nerve conduction tests could detect most of the patients with DSPN, subclinical DSPN, and minimal DSPN. Poor diabetic control was independently associated with the development of DSPN. DPNP was associated with DSPN. The combination of thermal threshold tests with NCS can potentially provide the diagnosis of DSPN.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jul 2020 03:05:00 +000
  • The Study of Clustering Effects of Behavior Risk Factors in Patients with
           Metabolic Syndrome in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is now becoming a serious public health threat. Some behaviors risk factors were considered to be associated with MetS and interacted to adversely affect MetS. However, the clustering effects of behavior risk factors of MetS among Chinese population remain unclear. The aim of this study is to observe the behavior risk factors and their clustering effects of MetS in China. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was used. Subjects were recruited in the departments of Cardiology Clinic, Endocrine Clinic, and Health Management from March to December 2019. A demographic sheet was designed to collect the demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects. International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short was applied to evaluate the level of PA in this study. Other behavior risk factors were observed by the questionnaire. The stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the determinants of MetS. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the clustering effects of behavior risk factors in MetS. Results. There are a total of 532 eligible subjects (56.6% females; mean age was years), and approximately 33.3% were diagnosed as MetS. The subjects with a smoking habit (heavy and long-time history) had a 1.833-fold higher risk for MetS than their counterparts (none and light smoking), and the subjects that preferred salty taste had a 1.626-fold higher risk for MetS than the comparison cohort. Smoking and alcohol drinking had the highest clustering effect on MetS among the behavior risk factors. Conclusions. The main finding of this study was that smoking and salty taste preference were the independent determinants of MetS. Smoking and alcohol consumption had the highest clustering effect on southern Chinese MetS.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jul 2020 16:05:00 +000
  • Heritability and Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Sub-Saharan
           Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objectives. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is observing an accelerating prevalence rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) influenced by gene-environment interaction of modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the heritability and genetic risk of T2DM in SSA. Methods. We reviewed all published articles on T2DM in SSA between January 2000 and December 2019 and available in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Studies that reported on the genetics and/or heritability of T2DM or indicators of glycaemia were included. Data extracted included the study design, records of family history, pattern and characteristics of inheritance, genetic determinants, and effects estimates. Results. The pattern and characteristics of T2DM heritability in SSA are preference for maternal aggregation, higher among first degree compared to second-degree relatives; early age-onset (
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 12:20:00 +000
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of B-Cell-Produced Antibodies in
           Vitreous Humor of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy

    • Abstract: Aim. To analyze the levels of B-cell-produced antibodies in the vitreous humor of patients with or without diabetic retinopathy (DR) both qualitatively and quantitatively. Methods. A total of 52 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with DR patients and 52 control subjects without diabetes mellitus or inflammatory diseases were included in this prospective study. The levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, and IgG subtypes were measured using a magnetic color-bead-based multiplex assay. Results. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, and total antibodies in the DR group were significantly higher than those in the control group (all ), but there was no significant difference in the 4 IgG subtypes between the two groups after Bonferroni correction. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed low negative correlations between levels of antibodies (IgA, IgM) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ,, respectively, both ). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis yielded three equations to predict the concentrations of IgA, IgM, and total antibodies in the vitreous humor according to eGFR and other clinical variables (,, and , respectively, all ).Conclusion. Increased levels of IgA, IgM, and total antibodies produced by B cells were observed in the vitreous humor of T2DM patients with DR. There were low negative correlations between levels of antibodies (IgA, IgM) and eGFR.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 03:35:02 +000
  • Association between PNPLA2 Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk of Diabetic
           Kidney Disease in a Chinese Han Population with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most common complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Here, we investigated the association of PNPLA2 gene variations with DKD susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. A total of 818 participants with type 2 diabetes were recruited in the case-control study, including 379 patients diagnosed with DKD. We observed that 2 tagSNPs, PNPLA2 rs28633403 (A>G) and rs1138714 (A>G), were associated with DKD (rs28633403: genotype, ; allele, ; rs1138714: genotype, ; allele, ).PNPLA2 rs1138693 (T>C), a missense SNP, showed no association with DKD (genotype, ; allele, ). Genetic model analysis revealed that minor allele G of PNPLA2 rs28633403 was a protective factor of DKD in a dominant model adjusted by confounders (AG+GG vs. AA: adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.619; 95% CI 0.447-0.857; ) and in an additive model (AG vs. AA: aOR, 0.633; 95% CI 0.447-0.895; ; GG vs. AA: aOR, 0.588; 95% CI 0.385-0.897; ). Minor allele G of PNPLA2 rs1138714 was associated with a higher risk of DKD in a dominant model adjusted by confounders (AG+GG vs. AA: adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.531; 95% CI 1.134-2.067; ) and in an additive model (AG vs. AA: aOR, 1.529; 95% CI 1.118-2.091; ). The combined effect of PNPLA2 rs28633403 AA+rs1138714 AG or GG genotype showed an association with DKD, adjusted by confounders (aOR, 2.194; 95% CI 1.378-3.492; ), which was considered statistically significant with a markedly increased risk of DKD after a Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple tests (). Our results suggest that PNPLA2 rs28633403 and rs1138714 are significantly associated with the risk of DKD in a Chinese Han population with type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Jul 2020 01:50:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “A Liquid-Based Cytology System, without the Use of
           Cytocentrifugation, for Detection of Podocytes in Urine Samples of
           Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy”

    • PubDate: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 11:35:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “The Threshold of the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy
           below Which Intensive Glycemic Control Is Beneficial in Diabetic Patients:
           Estimation Using Data from Large Randomized Clinical Trials” by Yuqi
           Liu,Juan Li, Jinfang Ma, Nanwei Tong

    • PubDate: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 08:35:02 +000
  • Attenuation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Diabetic Mice by Fasudil through
           Regulation of Macrophage Polarization

    • Abstract: Inflammation and fibrosis induced by hyperglycemia are considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. As macrophage polarization may determine the severity and progression of inflammation, regulation of macrophage polarization may be an effective method to treat diabetic complications. Fasudil, a potent Rho-kinase inhibitor, reportedly exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, whether fasudil reduces hyperglycemia-induced diabetic nephropathy via regulation of macrophage polarization remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effect of fasudil on diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. Our data showed that fasudil significantly decreased urinary protein and serum creatinine in diabetic mice, whereas it had no effect on the body weight and blood glucose. We also found increased M1-type macrophages and related proinflammatory cytokines, adverse fibrosis in renal tissue of diabetic mice. Interestingly, treatment of diabetic mice with fasudil increased the number of M2-type macrophages and related anti-inflammatory cytokines, which attenuated renal injury in diabetic mice. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that fasudil could slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The possible mechanism might be associated with its induction of M2 macrophage polarization and the reduction of M1 macrophage polarization and inflammation.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 05:35:00 +000
  • Prevalence and Determinants of Peripheral Neuropathy among Type 2 Adult
           Diabetes Patients Attending Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest
           Ethiopia, 2019, an Institutional-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Diabetes chronic complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality, among which diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) stands out. One of the tools to screen DPN is the Michigan neuropathy screening instrument. However, there is no data compiled using this tool to assess the prevalence and its determinants in Jimma. So, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of DPN and its determinants among patients with diabetes mellitus at Jimma University Medical Center. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Jimma University Medical Center on 366 type 2diabetic patients. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire and entered into EpiData 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Both bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regressions were employed to identify factors associated with DPN. A variable having a value of < 0.25 in the bivariate model was subjected to multivariate analysis to avoid confounding variable’s effect. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated at 95% confidence interval and considered significant with a value of ≤ 0.05. Results. The mean age of participants was years. The study finding showed that the prevalence of DPN was 53.6% among study participants. According to the multivariate logistic regression age above 40 years (; 95% CI: 1.50, 13.9), above 50 years (; 95% CI: 2.24, 18.79), duration of diabetes above 5 years (; 95% CI: 1.63, 5.77), duration above 10 years (; 95% CI: 2.99, 17.28), physical inactivity (; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.55), and smoking (current smoker , 95% CI: 3.22, 19.64; former smoker (; 95% CI: 1.22, 5.77) were independent predictors of DPN among study participants. Conclusion. Almost half of the study participants had DPN. Age above 40 years, diabetes duration of above 5 years, physical inactivity, and smoking were significantly associated with DPN. Early detection and appropriate interventions are important among patients with age above 40 years, physically inactive, smokers, and diabetes duration of above 5 years.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 15:35:04 +000
  • The Relationship between Perirenal Fat Thickness and Reduced Glomerular
           Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background. Obesity has been considered as an important factor in the development and progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Perirenal fat, which is surrounding the kidneys, has been reported to be unique in anatomy and biological functions. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship between perirenal fat thickness (PrFT) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods. A total of 171 patients with T2DM were recruited in the study. The basic and clinical characteristics including sex, age, diabetes duration, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral fat area (VFA), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum uric acid (UA), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were collected. PrFT was measured via ultrasound. eGFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Results. Patients were divided into three groups according to PrFT, and we found patients with higher PrFT had lower eGFR. PrFT was significantly correlated with eGFR in all patients . Subgroup analysis by sex showed that PrFT still significantly and negatively related to eGFR in men , but not in women (,). The association also existed in multivariate analysis after correction for the confounding factors .Conclusions. This study confirmed a negative independent relationship between PrFT and eGFR in patients with T2DM, especially in men, suggesting a possible role of perirenal fat in kidney dysfunction in T2DM patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 15:05:01 +000
  • ADIPOQ rs2241766 Gene Polymorphism and Predisposition to Diabetic Kidney

    • Abstract: Background. This meta-analysis was performed to obtain a more comprehensive estimation of the role of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2241766 in the ADIPOQ gene in the occurrence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods. Relevant studies were identified from digital databases such as Embase, PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, WanFang, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled by means of fixed- or random-effects models. Interstudy heterogeneity was examined using the Q test and statistic, and sensitivity analysis was implemented to test the statistical stability of the overall estimates. Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test were applied to inspect potential publication bias among the included studies. Results. The overall ORs reflected a positive correlation between the ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism and susceptibility to DKD in the GG vs. TT and GG vs. TT+TG comparisons (,;,). After stratification analyses by ethnicity and disease type, a similar trend was also revealed in the Caucasian and African subgroups as well as in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subgroup. Conclusion. The ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism may be associated with an increased risk of DKD, especially in Caucasian and African populations as well as in T2DM patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • Assessing the Relationship between Gestational Glycemic Control and Risk

    • Abstract: Background. Characterizing maternal glucose sampling over the course of the entire pregnancy is an important step toward improvement in prediction of adverse birth outcome, such as preterm birth, for women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Objectives. To characterize the relationship between the gestational glycemic profile and risk of preterm birth using a joint modeling approach. Methods. A joint model was developed to simultaneously characterize the relationship between a longitudinal outcome (daily blood glucose sampling) and an event process (preterm birth). A linear mixed effects model using natural cubic splines was fitted to predict the longitudinal submodel. Covariates included mother’s age at last menstrual period, age at diabetes onset, body mass index, hypertension, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Various association structures (value, value plus slope, and area under the curve) were examined before selecting the final joint model. We compared the joint modeling approach to the time-dependent Cox model (TDCM). Results. A total of 16,480 glucose readings over gestation (range: 50-260 days) with 32 women (28%) having preterm birth was included in the study. Mother’s age at last menstrual period and age at diabetes onset were statistically significant (beta = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10, 1.72; beta = 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 0.98) for the longitudinal submodel, reflecting that older women tended to have higher mean blood glucose and those with later diabetes onset tended to have a lower mean blood glucose level. The presence of nephropathy was statistically significant in the event submodel (beta = 2.29, 95% CI 1.05, 4.48). Cumulative association parameterization provided the best joint model fit. The joint model provided better fit compared to the time-dependent Cox model (;).Conclusion. The joint model approach was able to simultaneously characterize the glycemic profile and assess the risk of preterm birth and provided additional insights and a better model fit compared to the time-dependent Cox model.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jun 2020 16:50:01 +000
  • Renal Complication and Glycemic Control in Korean Veterans with Type 2
           Diabetes: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Objective. Tight glycemic control reduces the risk of diabetes complications, but it may increase the risk of hypoglycemia or mortality in elderly patients. This study is aimed at evaluating the incidence and progression of renal complications and its association with glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. This retrospective cohort study examined the data of 3099 patients with type 2 diabetes who were followed for at least 10 years at the Korean Veterans Hospital and for whom glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured in 2008 and 2017. Participants were divided into six groups according to their baseline or dynamic HbA1c levels. Extended Cox models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with specific HbA1c ranges. Results. During the 10-year follow-up period, 30% of patients developed new CKD, 50% showed progression, and ESRD developed in 1.7%. The risk of CKD was associated with baseline HbA1c from the first year of the study and dynamic HbA1c throughout the study period. The adjusted hazard ratios for CKD were 1.98 and 2.32 for baseline and dynamic HbA1c, respectively, at the level of ≥69 mmol/mol. There was no increased risk for any complications in baseline and dynamic HbA1c below 58 mmol/mol. Conclusions. A higher  mmol/mol was associated with an increased risk of diabetes complications. A less stringent glycemic target of HbA1c could be used as the threshold of renal complications.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jun 2020 12:35:00 +000
  • Noncoding RNAs in Diabetic Nephropathy: Pathogenesis, Biomarkers, and

    • Abstract: The correlation between diabetes and systematic well-being on human life has long established. As a common complication of diabetes, the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been increasing globally. DN is known to be a major cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Till now, the molecular mechanisms for DN have not been fully explored and the effective therapies are still lacking. Noncoding RNAs are a class of RNAs produced by genome transcription that cannot be translated into proteins. It has been documented that ncRNAs participate in the pathogenesis of DN by regulating inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, cell proliferation, and other pathological processes. In this review, the pathological roles and diagnostic and therapeutic potential of three types of ncRNAs (microRNA, long noncoding RNA, and circular RNA) in the progression of DN are summarized and illustrated.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 17:50:00 +000
  • Association between Admission Hyperglycemia and Culprit Lesion
           Characteristics in Nondiabetic Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction:
           An Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    • Abstract: Background. Hyperglycemia is frequently observed in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and non-DM patients have different culprit lesion phenotypes and few data are available on non-DM patients with admission hyperglycemia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between admission hyperglycemia and culprit lesion characteristics using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in AMI patients. Methods and Results. We consecutively enrolled 434 patients with AMI, and 277 patients were included in analysis: 65.7% () non-DM patients and 34.3% () DM patients. We measured acute blood glucose (ABG) and hemoglobin A1c to calculate the acute-to-chronic glycemic ratio (A/C). Then, we grouped non-DM patients into tertiles of A/C. OCT-based culprit lesion characteristics were compared across A/C tertiles in non-DM patients and between DM and non-DM patients. Non-DM patients had fewer lipid-rich plaques (52.7% versus 68.4%, ) and thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) (19.8% versus 34.7%, ) than DM patients but similar prevalence of plaque rupture (47.3% versus 56.8%, ). Non-DM patients with the highest A/C tertile had the highest prevalence of plaque rupture (), lipid-rich plaque (), and TCFA (). but not predicted a high prevalence of plaque rupture, lipid-rich plaque, and TCFA in non-DM patients. Conclusions. In AMI patients without DM, admission hyperglycemia is associated with vulnerable culprit lesion characteristics, and A/C is a better predictor for vulnerable culprit plaque characteristics than ABG. These results call for a tailored evaluation and management of glucose metabolism in nondiabetic AMI patients. This trial is registered with NCT03593928.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 02:50:00 +000
  • The Misconceptions and Determinants of Diabetes Knowledge in Patients with
           Diabetes in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Aim. This study aimed at (1) examining the misconceptions of patients with diabetes in Taiwan and (2) examining the association between patients’ diabetes knowledge and their demographic characteristics. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at a metropolitan hospital in northern Taiwan. A total of 501 outpatients with diabetes were recruited, mostly from the hospital’s endocrinology and metabolism clinic, nephrology clinic, and dialysis center. A self-developed questionnaire that consisted of demographic information and a diabetes knowledge test was administered. The knowledge test included 10 True/False questions and 6 multiple-choice questions that aimed at identifying patients’ common misconceptions about diabetes. Results. A perfect score on the diabetes knowledge test was 16 points, and the score of the respondents was . The most common misconception was “People can always feel when their blood sugar level is high.” (64%), followed by “Taking insulin hurts the kidneys and may result in a need for dialysis.” (52%) and “Being a vegetarian helps control blood sugar levels.” (48%). The total knowledge scores were significantly associated with education levels (,), average monthly income (,), and age (,).Conclusions. Certain misconceptions are prevalent among patients with diabetes, particularly in those with older age, lower education levels, or lower income. Healthcare providers need to work to eliminate common misconceptions and modify diabetes educational programs accordingly to help patients manage diabetes more effectively.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jun 2020 03:20:00 +000
  • Diabetes Distress in Young Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional
           Survey in China

    • Abstract: Background. Diabetes distress is a negative emotion related to diabetes management, which can compromise self-care and management of diabetes. However, few studies on diabetes distress have focused on young adults with type 2 diabetes in China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Using a convenient sampling method, 98 young adults with type 2 diabetes who were admitted to our hospital from June 2017 to July 2018 were selected as research subjects. They were investigated using a basic demographic questionnaire, Diabetes Distress Scale, Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure, and Audit of Disease Knowledge. Pearson’s correlation analysis and regression analysis were used to analyze the influencing factors of diabetic distress. Results. Among participants, 90.82% suffered from diabetes distress with an average score of . Regimen-related, emotional burden-related, and interpersonal-related distress were the most frequently reported as severe. The results of the single-factor analysis showed that gender (), age (), occupation (), smoking (), and diabetes complications () were the main factors affecting diabetes distress. The correlation analysis showed that diabetes distress was negatively correlated with the level of diabetic self-management (,) but not with the level of diabetes knowledge (,). The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that self-management level (, 95% CI: -0.039-0.011), age (, 95% CI: -0.463-0.104), smoking (, 95% CI: -0.504-0.048), and complications (, 95% CI: -0.517-0.076) accounted for 35.42% of the total variation in diabetes distress. Conclusion. Young adults with type 2 diabetes reported severe diabetes distress. Age, smoking, and diabetes complications were the main factors influencing diabetes distress in young adults with type 2 diabetes. Results of the present study are fundamental in selecting targeted measures for alleviating diabetes distress and thus improving the quality of life in these patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jun 2020 02:20:00 +000
  • The Mechanism of Metabolic Influences on the Endogenous GLP-1 by Oral
           Antidiabetic Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Incretin-based therapy is now a prevalent treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been associated with considerably good results in the management of hyperglycemia with cardiac or nephron-benefits. For this reason, it is recommended for individuals with cardiovascular diseases in many clinical guidelines. As an incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) possesses multiple metabolic benefits such as optimizing energy usage, maintaining body weight, β cell preservation, and suppressing neurodegeneration. However, recent studies indicate that oral antidiabetic medications interact with endogenous or exogenous GLP-1. Since these drugs are transported to distal intestine portions, there are concerns whether these oral drugs directly stimulate intestinal L cells which release GLP-1, or whether they do so via indirect inhibition of the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV). In this review, we discuss the metabolic relationships between oral antihyperglycemic drugs from the aspect of gut, microbiota, hormones, β cell function, central nervous system, and other cellular mechanisms.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jun 2020 17:35:01 +000
  • Preparation, Reliability, and Validity of a Japanese Version of the
           “Satisfaction of Treatment among Caregivers of Dependent Type 2 Diabetic
           Patients” Questionnaire

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to prepare a Japanese version of the “Satisfaction of Treatment among Caregivers of Dependent Type 2 Diabetic Patients” (STCD2-J) questionnaire, which is used to assess the satisfaction of family caregivers with respect to the treatment for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who require support. In addition, the reliability and validity of the STCD2-J questionnaire were analyzed. A Japanese version of the original STCD2 questionnaire was prepared, revised, and back-translated; the back-translated version was sent to the authors of the original version for confirmation. Family caregivers of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aged ≥65 years who regularly underwent medical examinations at the diabetes mellitus outpatient clinic of Ise Red Cross Hospital were included. Cronbach’s coefficient was calculated to assess internal consistency. Exploratory factor analyses were performed to assess construct validity, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients between STCD2-J score and HbA1c as well as the degree of satisfaction with patients’ blood glucose levels, depression, and negative self-assessment of nursing care were calculated to assess criterion-related validity. This study included 208 individuals (55 males and 153 females). Cronbach’s coefficient was 0.88. Factor analyses showed a single-factor structure both with and without rotation. The STCD2-J scores were significantly inversely correlated with HbA1c (,). Significant correlations were observed between the STCD2-J scores and degree of satisfaction with patients’ blood glucose levels (,), depression (,), and negative self-assessment of nursing care (,). The reliability and validity of the STCD2-J questionnaire were confirmed. The STCD2-J questionnaire can be used in Japan as a tool to assess the satisfaction of family caregivers with the treatment of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus requiring support.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jun 2020 04:35:02 +000
  • Risk Factors of Hypertension among Diabetic Patients from Yaoundé Central
           Hospital and Etoug-Ebe Baptist Health Centre, Cameroon

    • Abstract: Uncontrolled blood pressure is a threat to diabetic patients’ life. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of hypertension among diabetic patients at different stages from Yaoundé Central Hospital and Etoug-Ebe Baptist Health Center of Cameroon. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months, and 109 participants (types 1 and 2), aged 24–81 years, were enrolled using simple random sampling. A pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, habitual behaviors, clinical history blood pressure, and anthropometric measures. The prevalence of hypertension was 86.2%. Of the total, 13.8% participants were normotensive, 32.1% stage 1 hypertensive, and 54.1% stage 2 hypertensive. Being a male () and not smoking () were negatively associated with stage 1 hypertension whereas eating less than 3 times () and duration of diabetes greater than 9 years among women () were positively associated. Age above 40 years () was negatively associated with stage 2 hypertension. However, age above 40 years had a negative effect among Christian, less educated diabetics, people having diabetes for more than 9 years, and those on medical treatment (). Duration of diabetes (age-adjusted ;) and abnormal waist circumference (crude ;) were positively associated with stage 2. Abnormal waist-to-hip ratio (crude ;) and feeding rate greater than 2 times a day (WHR-adjusted ;) were positively associated with hypertension (stages 1 and 2). This study suggests that hypertension, present at its two stages, is a serious health issue among diabetic patients. Thus, appropriate intervention should be put in place to prevent and control hypertension by managing identified risk factors.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jun 2020 17:05:00 +000
  • Association between Uric Acid and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal
           Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China: A Cross-Sectional Inpatient

    • Abstract: Objective. To analyze the association between uric acid levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 262 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to assess uric acid levels and bone mineral density using the score of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results. (1) Women in the osteoporosis group demonstrated higher uric acid levels and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (, respectively). (2) Uric acid levels were positively correlated with the hip and lumbar spine bone mineral density and score (,;,;,; and ,, respectively). Meanwhile, there was a positive relation between estimated glomerular filtration rate and hip bone mineral density (,). (3) Logistic regression analysis showed that age, body mass index, and diabetic duration are independent risk factors for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The level of estimated glomerular filtration rate and uric acid levels were not independent effect factors for osteoporosis in menopausal women. Conclusion. Uric acid levels are neither a protective factor nor a risk factor for osteoporosis in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 16:05:00 +000
  • Genetic and Biological Effects of ICAM-1 E469K Polymorphism in Diabetic
           Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a complex disease, in which local inflammatory stress results from both metabolic and hemodynamic derangements. Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) is an acute-phase protein marker of inflammation. In the recent years, clinical observations have reported that increased serum/plasma ICAM-1 levels are positively correlated with albuminuria in the patients with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Genetic association studies have demonstrated that genetic polymorphisms, including SNP rs5498 (E469K, G/A), in the ICAM1 gene is associated with DKD. rs5498 is a nonsynonymous SNP and caused by substitution between E (Glu) and K (Lys) for ICAM-1 protein. In this review, we first summarized the genetic effects of ICAM1 E469K polymorphism in DKD and then demonstrated the possible changes of ICAM-1 protein crystal structures according to the genotypes of this polymorphism. Finally, we discussed the genetic effects of the ICAM1 E469K polymorphism and the biological role of increased circulating ICAM-1 protein and its formation changes in DKD.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 04:05:01 +000
  • The Prevalence of Nondiabetic Renal Diseases in Patients with Diabetes
           Mellitus in the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of nondiabetic renal diseases (NDRDs) in renal biopsies of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in the University Hospital of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo. Research Design and Methods. We conducted a retrospective study including kidney biopsies performed in diabetic patients between 1987 and 2013. We evaluated 79 biopsies during this period. The primary variable was the prevalence of NDRD in patients with DM. The secondary variables were the presence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), hematuria, time since diagnosis of DM, serum creatinine, and proteinuria levels. The cases were divided into the following groups: isolated diabetic nephropathy (DN—group I), isolated nondiabetic renal diseases (NDRD—group II), associated NDRD/DN (group III), and associated NDRD+NDRD/DN (group IV). Results. Most of the patients (58.22%) presented only alterations arising from DN. NDRDs were present in 41.77% of the patients. Membranous glomerulonephritis (30.3%) and IgA nephropathy (24.24%) were the most prevalent NDRDs. We found no differences between female and male patients with NDRD when assessing the secondary variables. A time since diagnosis of five years or less revealed a statistical difference () in the comparison between the isolated DN (group I) and the NDRD+NDRD/DN (group IV). The other secondary variables were not significant in the comparison of the groups. Conclusions. We concluded that the prevalence of NDRD is 41.77%. Membranous glomerulonephritis was the most prevalent NDRD in our study. We also conclude that the probability of the presence of NDRD with or without concomitant DN is greater for patients who had biopsies with a time since diagnosis of five years or less. A time since diagnosis of ten years or more does not allow the exclusion of the presence of NDRD.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 03:50:00 +000
  • Restoration of Foveal Bulge after Resolution of Diabetic Macular Edema
           with Coexisting Serous Retinal Detachment

    • Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate the impact of restoration of foveal bulge (FB) in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images on visual acuity after resolution of diabetic macular edema with coexisting serous retinal detachment (SRD-DME). Methods. A total of 52 eyes with resolved SRD-DME and an intact ellipsoid zone at the central fovea were included. All eyes underwent best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) examination and OCT scanning at baseline and follow-up visits (1, 3, and 6 months). The eyes were divided into two groups according to the presence of FB at 6 months. BCVA, central foveal thickness (CFT), height of SRD (SRDH), outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, photoreceptor inner segment (PIS), and outer segment (POS) length were compared between the two groups. Results. A FB was found in 25 of 52 (48%) eyes at 6 months. The FB (+) group had lower SRDH at baseline, and better BCVA, longer POS length at 6 months (all ). There was no significant difference in the CFT, ONL thickness, and PIS length at 6 months between the two groups (all ). More eyes in the FB (+) group had complete SRD resolution at 1 month () and 3 months (). Eyes with complete SRD resolution at 1 month () or 3 months () were more likely to have a FB at 6 months. Conclusions. The Presence of the FB is associated with better BCVA after resolution of SRD-DME. Eyes with lower baseline SRDH or faster SRD resolution are more likely to have a FB at 6 months.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 03:05:00 +000
  • Green Coffea arabica Extract Ameliorates Testicular Injury in High-Fat
           Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic cell death play a major role in the induction and progression of male testicular damage. Plant-derived phytochemicals such as green coffee (Coffea arabica) can possess antidiabetic effects with little toxicity. The current study is aimed at investigating the therapeutic roles of green coffee in diabetic testicular injury stimulated by high-fat diet/streptozotocin administration. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a high-fat diet and a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg kg-1) in male albino rats. Diabetic animals were orally given two different concentrations of green coffee (50 mg kg-1 and 100 mg kg-1) for 28 days. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone and parameters of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were measured. mRNAs and protein levels were detected quantitatively by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. In the diabetic group, the levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone showed a significant reduction while they increased significantly after green coffee treatment. A significant increase of antioxidant markers glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase along with decreased levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide was observed after green coffee treatment in the diabetic group. Finally, the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, Bax, and caspase-3 were also decreased in both treated groups (metformin and green coffee) when compared to the diabetic group. We conclude that testicular oxidative impairment induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and STZ can be reversed by green coffee. Administration of green coffee could represent a promising therapeutic agent which can help the treatment of type 2 DM-induced testicular dysfunction.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 18:20:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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