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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 202)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Experimental Diabetes Research
  [SJR: 1.591]   [H-I: 30]   [11 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Antidiabetic Effect of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Its
           Association with Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin, which plays an important role in the central nervous system, and systemic or peripheral inflammatory conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). BDNF is also expressed in several nonneuronal tissues, and platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. Here, we reviewed the potential role of BDNF in platelet reactivity in T2DM and its association with selected inflammatory and platelet activation mediators. Besides that, we focused on adipocytokines such as leptin, resistin, and adiponectin which are considered to take part in inflammation and both lipid and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients as previous studies showed the relation between adipocytokines and BDNF. We also reviewed the evidences of the antidiabetic effect of BDNF and the association with circulating inflammatory cytokines in T2DM.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 07:08:05 +000
  • Trajectories of Postload Plasma Glucose in the Development of Type 2
           Diabetes in Japanese Adults

    • Abstract: We aimed to clarify how the trajectories of 1-hour postload plasma glucose (PG) and 2-hour PG were different in the development of type 2 diabetes. Using data of repeated health checkups in Japanese workers from April 2006 to March 2016, longitudinal changes of fasting, 1-hour, and 2-hour PG on the oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed with a linear mixed effects model. Of the 1464 nondiabetic subjects at baseline, 112 subjects progressed to type 2 diabetes during the observation period (progressors). In progressors, 1-hour PG and 2-hour PG showed gradual increases with slopes of 1.33 ± 0.2 and 0.58 ± 0.2 mg/dL/year, respectively, followed by a steep increase by which they attained diabetes. Until immediately before the diabetes transition, age- and sex-adjusted mean level of 2-hour PG was 149 ± 2.7 mg/dL, 34 ± 2.7 (30%) higher compared to nonprogressors, while that of 1-hour PG was 206 ± 4.1 mg/dL, 60 ± 4.3 mg/dL (41%) higher compared to nonprogressors. In conclusion, diabetes transition was preceded by a mild elevation of 2-hour PG for several years or more. The elevation in 1-hour PG was larger than that of 2-hour PG until immediately before the transition to diabetes.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Akt/mTOR Role in Human Foetoplacental Vascular Insulin Resistance in
           Diseases of Pregnancy

    • Abstract: Insulin resistance is characteristic of pregnancies where the mother shows metabolic alterations, such as preeclampsia (PE) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), or abnormal maternal conditions such as pregestational maternal obesity (PGMO). Insulin signalling includes activation of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) as well as Src homology 2 domain-containing transforming protein 1, leading to activation of 44 and 42 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinases and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) signalling cascades in the human foetoplacental vasculature. PE, GDM, and PGMO are abnormal conditions coursing with reduced insulin signalling, but the possibility of the involvement of similar cell signalling mechanisms is not addressed. This review aimed to determine whether reduced insulin signalling in PE, GDM, and PGMO shares a common mechanism in the human foetoplacental vasculature. Insulin resistance in these pathological conditions results from reduced Akt activation mainly due to inhibition of IRS1/2, likely due to the increased activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) resulting from lower activity of adenosine monophosphate kinase. Thus, a defective signalling via Akt/mTOR in response to insulin is a central and common mechanism of insulin resistance in these diseases of pregnancy. In this review, we summarise the cell signalling mechanisms behind the insulin resistance state in PE, GDM, and PGMO focused in the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway in the human foetoplacental endothelium.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A Predictor of Type 2 Diabetes'

    • Abstract: Background. The incretin effect is impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim. To assess the relation between the incretin hormone GLP-1 and the prediabetic subtypes: impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and the combined IFG/IGT to investigate whether a low GLP-1 response may be a predictor of prediabetes in adults. Method. 298 articles were found using a broad search phrase on the PubMed database and after the assessment of titles and abstracts 19 articles were included. Results and Discussion. Studies assessing i-IFG/IFG and i-IGT/IGT found both increased, unaltered, and reduced GLP-1 levels. Studies assessing IFG/IGT found unaltered or reduced GLP-1 levels. When assessing the five studies with the largest sample size, it clearly suggests a decreased GLP-1 response in IFG/IGT subjects. Several other factors (BMI, glucagon, age, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA)), including medications (metformin), may also influence the secretion of GLP-1. Conclusion. This review suggests that the GLP-1 response is a variable in prediabetes possibly due to a varying GLP-1-secreting profile during the development and progression of type 2 diabetes or difference in the measurement technique. Longitudinal prospective studies are needed to assess whether a reduced GLP-1 response is a predictor of diabetes.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Renal Denervation on Insulin Sensitivity and Inflammatory
           Markers in Nondiabetic Patients with Treatment-Resistant Hypertension

    • Abstract: Increased sympathetic activity is important in the pathogenesis of hypertension and insulin resistance. Afferent signaling from the kidneys elevates the central sympathetic drive. We investigated the effect of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) on glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, and blood pressure in nondiabetic patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. Eight subjects were included in an open-labelled study. Each patient was studied before and 6 months after RDN. Endogenous glucose production was assessed by a 3-3H glucose tracer, insulin sensitivity was examined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, hormones and inflammatory markers were analyzed, and blood pressure was measured by office blood pressure readings and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Insulin sensitivity (-value) increased nonsignificantly from 2.68 ± 0.28 to 3.07 ± 0.41 (). A significant inverse correlation between the increase in -value and BMI 6 months after RDN () was found, suggesting beneficial effects on leaner subjects. Blood pressure decreased significantly, but there were no changes in hormones, inflammatory markers, or endogenous glucose production. Our results indicate that RDN may improve insulin sensitivity in some patients with treatment-resistant hypertension, albeit confirmation of these indications of beneficial effects on leaner subjects awaits the outcome of larger randomized controlled studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 02:56:03 +000
  • Vitamin D Supplementation Improves Mood in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on improving mood (depression and anxiety) and health status (mental and physical) in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. Fifty women with T2DM and significant depressive symptomology were enrolled into the “Sunshine Study,” where weekly vitamin D supplementation (ergocalciferol, 50,000 IU) was given to all participants for six months. The main outcomes included (1) depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, CES-D, and Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9), (2) anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety), and (3) health status (Short Form, SF-12). Results. Forty-six women (92%) completed all visits. There was a significant decrease in depression (CES-D and PHQ-9, ) and anxiety (state and trait, ). An improvement in mental health status (SF-12, ) was also found. After controlling for covariates (race, season of enrollment, baseline vitamin D, baseline depression (PHQ-9), and body mass index), the decline in depression remained significant (CES-D, ). There was a trend for a better response to supplementation for women who were not taking medications for mood (antidepressants or anxiolytics) (). Conclusions. Randomized trials to confirm that vitamin D supplementation can improve mood and health status in T2DM women are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 02:31:18 +000
  • Increased Serum ANGPTL8 Concentrations in Patients with Prediabetes and
           Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: The objectives of the study were to investigate serum ANGPTL8 concentrations in different glucose metabolic statuses and to explore the correlations between serum ANGPTL8 levels and various metabolic parameters. Serum ANGPTL8 levels were determined using ELISA in 22 subjects with NGT (normal glucose tolerance), 74 subjects with IGR (impaired glucose regulation), and 33 subjects with T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus). Subjects with IFG, IGT, CGI, and T2DM had higher levels of serum ANGPTL8 than subjects with NGT. Serum ANGPTL8 was positively correlated with FPG, fasting C-peptide, and postprandial C-peptide and negatively correlated with BETA/IR when adjusted for age and BMI. Multivariate analysis suggested FPG and fasting C-peptide as independent factors associated with serum ANGPTL8 levels. Serum ANGPTL8 concentrations were significantly increased in IGR and T2DM. Serum ANGPTL8 might play a role in the pathological mechanism of glucose intolerance.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Impact of Ghrelin in Metabolic Diseases: An Immune Perspective

    • Abstract: Obesity and insulin resistance have reached epidemic proportions. Obesogenic conditions are associated with increased risk for the development of other comorbidities and obesity-related diseases. In metabolic disorders, there is chronic low-grade inflammation induced by the activation of immune cells, especially in metabolic relevant organs such as white adipose tissue (WAT). These immune cells are regulated by environmental and systemic cues. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted mainly by X/A-like gastric cells and acts through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This receptor is broadly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and in several cell types, including immune cells. Studies show that ghrelin induces an orexigenic state, and there is increasing evidence implicating an immunoregulatory role for ghrelin. Ghrelin mainly acts on the innate and adaptive immune systems to suppress inflammation and induce an anti-inflammatory profile. In this review, we discuss the immunoregulatory roles of ghrelin, the mechanisms by which ghrelin acts and potential pharmacological applications for ghrelin in the treatment of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D).
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • High Prevalence of Autoimmune Diabetes and Poor Glycaemic Control among
           Adults in Madagascar: A Brief Report from a Humanitarian Health Campaign
           in Ambanja

    • Abstract: Madagascar is a geographically isolated country considered a biodiversity hotspot with unique genomics. Both the low-income and the geographical isolation represent risk factors for the development of diabetes. During a humanitarian health campaign conducted in Ambanja, a rural city in the northern part of Madagascar, we identified 42 adult subjects with diabetes and compared their features to 24 randomly enrolled healthy controls. 42.9% () of diabetic subjects showed HbA1c values ≥ 9.0%. Unexpectedly, waist circumference and BMI were similar in people with diabetes and controls. Different from the healthy controls, diabetic subjects showed a low prevalence of obesity (5.7% versus 30%, ). Accordingly, we found a high prevalence of autoimmune diabetes as 12% of people with diabetes showed positivity for the autoantibody against glutamic acid decarboxylase. Diabetic subjects with positive autoantibody had higher HbA1c values (11.3 ± 4.1% versus 8.3 ± 2.6%, ) compared to diabetic subjects with negative autoantibody. In conclusion, here we describe the presence of diabetes and its features in a rural area of Northern Madagascar, documenting poor glycaemic control and a high prevalence of autoimmune diabetes. These data highlight that the diabetes epidemic involves every corner of the world possibly with different patterns and features.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Low Levels of Usual Physical Activity Are Associated with Higher 24 h
           Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in a Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between usual physical activity and 24 h blood pressure (BP) profile in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). This is a cross-sectional study of 151 participants with type 2 DM. Usual physical activity was assessed by step counting and self-reported questionnaire. BP was measured in office and by 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM; 24 h, daytime and nighttime). Mean participant age was 61.1 ± 8.4 years, 64% was women, and mean duration of diabetes was 14.3 ± 8.5 years. Ninety-two percent of participants had hypertension, and office BP was 138 ± 18/78 ± 10 mmHg. Inverse correlations were observed between step count and 24 h BP (systolic, ; ), daytime BP (systolic, ; ), and nighttime BP (pulse pressure, ; ). People were categorized into tertiles of daily step count, and the 1st tertile had higher 24 h systolic BP, daytime systolic BP, daytime mean BP, and daytime systolic BP load than those in the other tertiles, even after adjusting for age and HbA1c. Participants with type 2 DM and low levels of physical activity exhibit higher 24 h and daytime systolic ambulatory BP values as compared with those who performed more steps per day, even after adjustments for confounding factors.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • db/db Mice Exhibit Features of Human Type 2 Diabetes That Are Not Present
           in Weight-Matched C57BL/6J Mice Fed a Western Diet

    • Abstract: To understand features of human obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) that can be recapitulated in the mouse, we compared C57BL/6J mice fed a Western-style diet (WD) to weight-matched genetically obese leptin receptor-deficient mice (db/db). All mice were monitored for changes in body composition, glycemia, and total body mass. To objectively compare diet-induced and genetic models of obesity, tissue analyses were conducted using mice with similar body mass. We found that adipose tissue inflammation was present in both models of obesity. In addition, distinct alterations in metabolic flexibility were evident between WD-fed mice and db/db mice. Circulating insulin levels are elevated in each model of obesity, while glucagon was increased only in the db/db mice. Although both WD-fed and db/db mice exhibited adaptive increases in islet size, the db/db mice also displayed augmented islet expression of the dedifferentiation marker Aldh1a3 and reduced nuclear presence of the transcription factor Nkx6.1. Based on the collective results put forth herein, we conclude that db/db mice capture key features of human T2D that do not occur in WD-fed C57BL/6J mice of comparable body mass.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Repurposing Lesogaberan to Promote Human Islet Cell Survival and
           β-Cell Replication

    • Abstract: The activation of β-cell’s A- and B-type gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA-Rs and GABAB-Rs) can promote their survival and replication, and the activation of α-cell GABAA-Rs promotes their conversion into β-cells. However, GABA and the most clinically applicable GABA-R ligands may be suboptimal for the long-term treatment of diabetes due to their pharmacological properties or potential side-effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Lesogaberan (AZD3355) is a peripherally restricted high-affinity GABAB-R-specific agonist, originally developed for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) that appears to be safe for human use. This study tested the hypothesis that lesogaberan could be repurposed to promote human islet cell survival and β-cell replication. Treatment with lesogaberan significantly enhanced replication of human islet cells in vitro, which was abrogated by a GABAB-R antagonist. Immunohistochemical analysis of human islets that were grafted into immune-deficient mice revealed that oral treatment with lesogaberan promoted human β-cell replication and islet cell survival in vivo as effectively as GABA (which activates both GABAA-Rs and GABAB-Rs), perhaps because of its more favorable pharmacokinetics. Lesogaberan may be a promising drug candidate for clinical studies of diabetes intervention and islet transplantation.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Urinary Exosomal MicroRNA Profiling in Incipient Type 2 Diabetic Kidney

    • Abstract: Background. Albuminuria is an early sign but not a strong predictor of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Owing to their high stability, urinary exosomal miRNAs can be useful predictors of the progression of early-stage DKD to renal failure; fluid biopsies are ideal for detecting abnormalities in these miRNAs. The aim of this study was to identify novel differentially expressed miRNAs as urine biomarkers for type 2 DKD by comparing between patients of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with and without macroalbuminuria. Methods. Ten patients with T2D, including five who had no renal disease and five with macroalbuminuria (DKD G1-2A3), were selected for this study. Exosome- (UExo-) derived miRNA profiles were used to identify candidate biomarkers, a subset of which was verified using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results. A total of 496 UExo-derived miRNA species were found to be differentially expressed (>2-fold) in patients with DKD, compared to those with T2D. A validation analysis revealed that three miRNAs (miR-362-3p, miR-877-3p, and miR-150-5p) were upregulated and one (miR-15a-5p) was downregulated. These miRNAs might regulate DKD through p53, mTOR, and AMPK pathways. Conclusions. In conclusion, UExo-derived miRNAs were altered in type 2 DKD. MiR-362-3p, miR-877-3p, miR-150-5p, and miR-15a-5p might be novel biomarkers for incipient DKD.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Diosgenin, a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, Attenuates the Galactosemic
           Cataract in Rats

    • Abstract: Objective. To seek efficient aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) with excellent in vitro and in vivo biological activities against rat galactosemic cataract. Methods. The method was firstly optimized to screen strong ARIs from nonoriented synthetic compounds and natural extracts. Then, diosgenin was assessed on osmotic expansion of primarily cultured lens epithelial cells (LECs) induced by galactose (50 mM). Diosgenin was administered to galactosemic rats by oral (100 and 200 mg/kg) or direct drinking (0.1%) to evaluate its anticataract effects. Results. Diosgenin was found as the strongest ARI with IC50 of 4.59 × 10−6 mol/L. Diosgenin (10 μM) evidently inhibited the formation of tiny vacuoles and upregulation of AR mRNA in LECs. In vivo, diosgenin delayed lens opacification, inhibited the increase of ratio of lens weight to body weight, and decreased AR activity, galactitol level, and AR mRNA expression, especially in the diosgenin drinking (0.1%) group. Conclusions. Diosgenin was an efficient ARI, which not only significantly decreased the LECs’ osmotic expansion in vitro but also markedly delayed progression of rat galactosemic cataract in vivo. Thus, diosgenin rich food can be recommended to diabetic subjects as dietary management to postpone the occurrence of sugar cataract, and diosgenin deserves further investigation for chronic diabetic complications.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Ocular Microcirculation Shown
           by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy in a Hospital Setting Devoted to Sleep Apnea
           Syndrome Diagnostics

    • Abstract: Purpose. To clarify whether the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the overlap of MetS components are affecting the ocular circulation shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). Materials and Methods. We studied 76 consistent patients. Blowout score (BOS) and blowout time (BOT), which are the pulse waveform analysis parameters, and mean blur rate (MBR) using LSFG in the optic nerve head (ONH) and choroid were evaluated. Throughout, the ONH was separated out from the vessels and tissue for analysis and MBRs in the ONH were divided into four sections (superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal). Results. Thirty-two patients were diagnosed having Mets. MBR-Tissue (), MBR-All (), MBR-Choroid (), and BOS-Choroid () were significantly lower in patients with MetS than in the patients without MetS. Multiple-regression analysis revealed the temporal side of MBR-Tissue and BOS-Choroid which were identified as factors contributing independently to the overlap of the MetS components. Multiple-regression analysis also revealed that the MetS components were identified to be factors independently contributing to the BOS-Choroid and temporal side of MBR-Tissue. Conclusion. Our study clarified that the incidence of MetS and the overlap of the MetS components are significantly affecting the ONH and choroidal microcirculation.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Charcot Neuroarthropathy on Limb Preservation in Diabetic
           Patients with Foot Wound and Critical Limb Ischemia after Balloon

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this article is to investigate one-year limb preservation rates after below-the-knee angioplasty in patients with diabetic foot wound who only have critical limb ischemia (CLI) and those who have Charchot neuroarthropathy (CN) accompanied by CLI. Methods. This single-center, retrospective study consists of 63 patients with diabetic foot wound who had undergone lower extremity balloon angioplasty of at least 1 below-the-knee (BTK) vessel. Only those patients with postprocedural technical success of 100% were selected from the database. All patients were classified into two groups as patients with CLI and CN and patients with CLI only without CN. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the limb preservation rates for the two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between patient age, gender, diabetic disease duration, and comorbid disease such as chronic renal insufficiency, hypertension, and coronary artery disease of the two groups (). Limb preservation in the 12 months was 59.1% in the CN group and 92.7% in the group without CN. Also, limb preservation rates between the two groups displayed statistically significant differences (). Conclusion. This study showed that CLI can accompany CN in patients with diabetes. Limb preservation rates with endovascular treatment in diabetic patients with CLI only are better than in diabetic patients with CLI and CN.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Incidence and Mortality Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Type 1
           Diabetes among Children and Young Adults in Cochabamba, Bolivia

    • Abstract: Objectives. To determine incidence, mortality, and clinical status of youth with diabetes at the Centro Vivir con Diabetes, Cochabamba, Bolivia, with support from International Diabetes Federation Life for a Child Program. Methods. Incidence/mortality data analysis of all cases (
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Sulodexide Protects Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells from Oxidative
           Stress-Induced Injury via Upregulating Klotho Expression at an Early Stage
           of Diabetic Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: The hypoalbuminuric effect of sulodexide (SDX) on diabetic kidney disease (DKD) was suggested by some clinical trials but was denied by the Collaborative Study Group. In this study, the diabetic rats were treated with SDX either from week 0 to 24 or from week 13 to 24. We found that 24-week treatment significantly decreased the urinary protein and HAVCR1 excretion, inhibited the interstitial expansion, and downregulated the renal cell apoptosis and interstitial fibrosis. Renoprotection was also associated with a reduction in renocortical/urinary oxidative activity and the normalization of renal klotho expression. However, all of these actions were not observed when SDX was administered only at the late stage of diabetic nephropathy (from week 13 to 24). In vitro, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) dose-dependently enhanced the oxidative activity but lowered the klotho expression in cultured proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTECs). Also, H2O2 could downregulate the expression of klotho in a dose-dependent manner. However, overexpression of klotho reduced the HAVCR1 production and the cellular apoptosis level induced by AGEs or H2O2. Our study suggests that SDX may prevent the progression of DKD at the early stage by upregulating renal klotho expression, which inhibits the tubulointerstitial injury induced by oxidative stress.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Renoprotective Effects of the Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor
           Sitagliptin: A Review in Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is now the single commonest cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide and one of the main causes of death in diabetic patients. It is also acknowledged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since sitagliptin was approved, many studies have been carried out revealing its ability to not only improve metabolic control but also ameliorate dysfunction in various diabetes-targeted organs, especially the kidney, due to putative underlying cytoprotective properties, namely, its antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic properties. Despite overall recommendations, many patients spend a long time well outside the recommended glycaemic range and, therefore, have an increased risk for developing micro- and macrovascular complications. Currently, it is becoming clearer that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management must envision not only the improvement in glycaemic control but also, and particularly, the prevention of pancreatic deterioration and the evolution of complications, such as DN. This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge in the field of renoprotective actions of sitagliptin, namely, improvement in diabetic dysmetabolism, hemodynamic factors, renal function, diabetic kidney lesions, and cytoprotective properties.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Differential and Combined Effects of Physical Activity Profiles and
           Prohealth Behaviors on Diabetes Prevalence among Blacks and Whites in the
           US Population: A Novel Bayesian Belief Network Machine Learning Analysis

    • Abstract: The current study assessed the prevalence of diabetes across four different physical activity lifestyles and infer through machine learning which combinations of physical activity, sleep, stress, and body mass index yield the lowest prevalence of diabetes in Blacks and Whites. Data were extracted from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) dataset from 2004–2013 containing demographics, chronic diseases, and sleep duration ( = 288,888). Of the total sample, 9.34% reported diabetes (where the prevalence of diabetes was 12.92% in Blacks/African Americans and 8.68% in Whites). Over half of the sample reported sedentary lifestyles (Blacks were more sedentary than Whites), approximately 20% reported moderately active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks), approximately 15% reported active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks), and approximately 6% reported very active lifestyles (Whites more than Blacks). Across four different physical activity lifestyles, Blacks consistently had a higher diabetes prevalence compared to their White counterparts. Physical activity combined with healthy sleep, low stress, and average body weight reduced the prevalence of diabetes, especially in Blacks. Our study highlights the need to provide alternative and personalized behavioral/lifestyle recommendations to generic national physical activity recommendations, specifically among Blacks, to reduce diabetes and narrow diabetes disparities between Blacks and Whites.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effectiveness of Vildagliptin in Clinical Practice: Pooled Analysis of
           Three Korean Observational Studies (the VICTORY Study)

    • Abstract: The present observational study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of vildagliptin with metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data were pooled from the vildagliptin postmarketing survey (PMS), the vildagliptin/metformin fixed drug combination (DC) PMS, and a retrospective observational study of vildagliptin/metformin (fixed DC or free DC). The effectiveness endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved a glycemic target (HbA1c) of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. In total, 4303 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 2087 patients were eligible. The mean patient age was 56.99 ± 11.25 years. Overall, 58.94% patients achieved an HbA1c target of ≤7.0% at 24 weeks. The glycemic target achievement rate was significantly greater in patients with baseline HbA1c 
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 03:42:13 +000
  • The Relation between Periodontopathogenic Bacterial Levels and Resistin in
           the Saliva of Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: This study aims to investigate the relation between resistin and periodontopathogenic bacterial levels in the saliva of obese adults compared to healthy control and to examine whether salivary resistin can serve as a biomarker of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. A total of 78 saliva samples were collected from patients attending to the University Dental Hospital, Sharjah, UAE. The patients were divided into three equal groups: obese diabetics, obese nondiabetics, and nonobese nondiabetic control. Salivary resistin was measured using ELISA. The levels of bacterial species associated with periodontitis (Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and gingivitis (Fusobacterium spp.) were measured using real-time PCR. Both salivary resistin and periodontopathogenic bacteria including Fusobacterium spp., P. gingivalis, and T. forsythia were detected in significantly higher quantities in the obese patients (diabetics and nondiabetics) than nonobese nondiabetic control. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with BMI; however, its level was not correlated with the blood glucose. In this study, high salivary resistin was associated with obesity, which is a major predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes and also a risk factor for oral diseases. The high levels of salivary periodontopathogenic bacteria could upregulate the local release of salivary resistin in obese people.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 06:42:24 +000
  • Associated Factors with Biochemical Hypoglycemia during an Oral Glucose
           Tolerance Test in a Chinese Population

    • Abstract: Aim. To find the association between biochemical hypoglycemia on a 2-hour screening oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin resistance. Method. Subjects of this study were sampled from the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study that was conducted during 2007 and 2008. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, and 120 minutes after the glucose load. Biochemical hypoglycemia was defined as 2-hour glucose 
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2017 03:22:13 +000
  • Insulin Resistance Predicts Atherogenic Lipoprotein Profile in Nondiabetic

    • Abstract: Background. Atherogenic diabetes is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and mortality in diabetic individuals; however, the impact of insulin resistance (IR) in lipid metabolism in preclinical stages is generally underreported. For that, we evaluated the capacity of IR to predict an atherogenic lipid subfraction profile. Methods. Complete clinical evaluation and biochemical analysis (lipid, glucose profile, LDL, and HDL subfractions and LDL phenotype and size) were performed in 181 patients. The impact of IR as a predictor of atherogenic lipoproteins was tested by logistic regression analysis in raw and adjusted models. Results. HDL-C and Apo AI were significantly lower in individuals with IR. Individuals with IR had a higher percentage of small HDL particles, lower percentage in the larger ones, and reduced frequency of phenotype A (IR = 62%; non-IR = 83%). IR individuals had reduced probability to have large HDL (OR = 0.213; CI = 0.999–0.457) and had twice more chances to show increased small HDL (OR = 2.486; CI = 1.341–7.051). IR was a significant predictor of small LDL (OR = 3.075; CI = 1.341–7.051) and atherogenic phenotype (OR = 3.176; CI = 1.469–6.867). Conclusion. IR, previously DM2 diagnosis, is a strong predictor of quantitative and qualitative features of lipoproteins directly associated with an increased atherogenic risk.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood
           and Interstitial Glucose Changes”

    • PubDate: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Nrf2/Keap1/ARE Pathway and Oxidative Stress as a Therapeutic Target in
           Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Despite improvements in awareness and treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), this disease remains a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and prevalence continues to rise. Oxidative damage caused by free radicals has long been known to contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of TIIDM and its complications. Only recently, however, has the role of the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE master antioxidant pathway in diabetic dysfunction begun to be elucidated. There is accumulating evidence that this pathway is implicated in diabetic damage to the pancreas, heart, and skin, among other cell types and tissues. Animal studies and clinical trials have shown promising results suggesting that activation of this pathway can delay or reverse some of these impairments in TIIDM. In this review, we outline the role of oxidative damage and the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE pathway in TIIDM, focusing on current and future efforts to utilize this relationship as a therapeutic target for prevention, prognosis, and treatment of TIID.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Frequency and Predictors of Self-Reported Hypoglycemia in Insulin-Treated

    • Abstract: Aims. Hypoglycemia is a limiting factor for achieving stringent glycemic control in diabetes. This study analyzes the frequency and predictors of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated diabetes in an ambulatory setting. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed to study self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) data for 3 months prior to a patient’s HbA1c test. Results. Hypoglycemia occurred more frequently in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes; however, 19% of type 2 diabetes patients did experience at least one episode of severe hypoglycemia. For type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia had a positive association with glycemic variability and duration of diabetes and a negative association with HbA1c and lowest blood glucose (BG). For type 2 diabetes, a positive association was noted with glycemic variability and a negative association with age and lowest BG. Conclusions. Delineating factors predisposing to hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes is difficult. Lower HbA1c is a potential predictor of hypoglycemia in type 1 but not in type 2 diabetes. Longer duration of diabetes for type 1 and younger age for type 2 are associated with more hypoglycemia. Glycemic variability portends increased risk for hypoglycemia and should be a focus of further research.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Influencing Factors of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding Medical
           Nutrition Therapy in Patients with Diabetes: A National Cross-Sectional
           Study in Urban China

    • Abstract: To investigate the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) score in diabetes patients living in urban China regarding Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) and explore the influencing factors, this national survey recruited diabetes and prediabetes patients in 40 hospitals across 26 provinces in China. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the data and assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding MNT. Logistic regression was used to explore the factor influencing KAP scores. A total of 6441 diabetes patients (mean age: years) completed this survey. The mean glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level was %, and the control rate of HbA1c (HbA1c < 7.0%) was 38.92%. Of the total, 53.56% had received MNT education. Over half of the patients had a poor total KAP score as well as poor K, A, and P scores. Patients with higher KAP scores had higher control rate of HbA1c () but lower levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (2h-PG). Gender, occupation, residence, education level, and MNT education could influence the KAP scores (). This study showed that diabetes patients in urban China generally had poor understandings and practices related to MNT. Patients with higher KAP scores exhibited better control of blood glucose.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 06:33:55 +000
  • Arterial Stiffness Is More Associated with Albuminuria than Decreased
           Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The
           REBOUND Study

    • Abstract: Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between arterial stiffness and albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. This multicenter cohort study analyzed 2613 patients with type 2 diabetes. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was used as a noninvasive marker of arterial stiffness. Additionally, the patients were categorized into four groups according to their albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, normoalbuminuria versus albuminuria) and estimated GFR (eGFR,
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 06:31:24 +000
  • Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Downregulation of the
           Neurotrophin-MAPK Signaling Pathway in Female Diabetic Peripheral
           Neuropathy Patients

    • Abstract: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It is not diagnosed or managed properly in the majority of patients because its pathogenesis remains controversial. In this study, human whole genome microarrays identified 2898 and 4493 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DM and DPN patients, respectively. A further KEGG pathway analysis indicated that DPN and DM share four pathways, including apoptosis, B cell receptor signaling pathway, endocytosis, and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The DEGs identified through comparison of DPN and DM were significantly enriched in MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and neurotrophin signaling pathway, while the “neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway” was notably downregulated. Seven DEGs from the neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway were validated in additional 78 samples, and the results confirmed the initial microarray findings. These findings demonstrated that downregulation of the neurotrophin-MAPK signaling pathway may be the major mechanism of DPN pathogenesis, thus providing a potential approach for DPN treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
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