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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Diabetes Research
Number of Followers: 14  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Five-Year Predictors of Insulin Initiation in People with Type 2 Diabetes
           under Real-Life Conditions

    • Abstract: We performed a real-life analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters, in orally treated T2DM patients aiming at identifying predictors of insulin treatment initiation. Overall, 366955 patients (55.8% males, age 65 ± 11 years, diabetes duration 7 ± 8 years) were followed up between 2004 and 2011. Each patient was analyzed step-by-step until either eventually starting insulin treatment or getting to the end of the follow-up period. Patients switching to insulin showed a worse global risk profile, longer disease duration (10 ± 9 years vs. 6 ± 7 years, respectively; ), higher HbA1c (8.0 ± 1.6% vs. 7.2 ± 1.5%, respectively; ), higher triglycerides, a greater prevalence of arterial hypertension, antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and aspirin treatment, a higher rate of nonproliferative/proliferative retinopathy, and a nearly 4 times lower prevalence of the “diet alone.” They also showed a higher prevalence of subjects with eGFR 
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Netrin as a Novel Biomarker and Its Therapeutic Implications in Diabetes
           Mellitus and Diabetes-Associated Complications

    • Abstract: Diabetes is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome and is one of the shared long-lasting illnesses globally. It is linked to long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications that contribute to disability, compromised quality of life, and reduction in lifespan, which eventually leads to death. This disease is not only incurring significant economic burden but also adversely affects the patients, caregivers, communities, and the society at large. The interruption of diabetes progress and its complications is a primary focus of scientific communities. In spite of various diagnostic modalities for diabetes, there is a limited marker to investigate the risk and progress of its complications. Netrin has recently received more attention as a biomarker of diabetes and a broader range of long-term complication. Therefore, the impetus of this review is to exhaustively discuss the role of Netrin as a potential biomarker and its therapeutic implication in diabetes and diverse sets of microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes. It also discourses the possible mechanisms of Netrin for the said pharmacological effect for a better understanding of the development and progression of diabetes and its complications in relation to this protein. It enables protective measures to be applied at the subclinical stage and the responses to preventive or therapeutic measures to be scrutinized. Besides, it might also facilitate the appraisal of novel therapeutic options for diabetes and various complications through modifying the endogenous Netrin and provide surrogate endpoints for intervention.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Clinical and Molecular Spectrum of Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene Defects in
           26 Chinese Congenital Hyperinsulinemia Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. To characterize the genotype and phenotype of Chinese patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by activating mutations in GLUD1, the gene that encodes mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Methods. The clinical data of glutamate dehydrogenase hyperinsulinism (GDH-HI) patients were reviewed, and gene mutations were confirmed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger DNA sequencing. Results. Twenty-six patients with GDH-HI heterozygous missense mutations were identified from 240 patients diagnosed as congenital hyperinsulinism over past 15 years. The median age at onset was 8 months (range: 1 day of life to 3 years). Seizure disorder was common in our cohort of patients (23/26). Four patients had normal serum ammonia levels; the median serum concentration was 101 μmol/L (range: 37–190 μmol/L). Hypoglycemic symptoms could be triggered by fasting or protein meals in all patients while blood glucose could be well controlled in all patients with diazoxide. Dosage of diazoxide could be reduced by protein restriction. Attempts to lower ammonia levels failed with different therapies such as protein restriction, benzoate, or N-carbamoyl glutamate. In follow-up, 15 of 26 patients had normal intelligence. Eleven patients developed epilepsy at the age of 6 months to 11 years. De novo mutations in GLUD1 were found in 24 cases, and dominant inheritance was observed in the other two; all were heterozygous. A total of 35% (9/26) patients carried c.1493C>T (p.S445L) mutation. Conclusions. Phenotypic heterogeneity of GDH-HI patients was observed within the Chinese cohort in the present study. The fact that most patients had a GLUD1 p. S445L mutation implies that this site could be a hotspot in Chinese patients. A high frequency of GDH-HI with normal ammonia has been reported in this study. Hence, GLUD1 mutational analysis may be an important method to differential diagnosis of GDH-HI from other diazoxide-responsive CHI in Chinese patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Sep 2018 06:58:09 +000
  • Diabetic Enteropathy: From Molecule to Mechanism-Based Treatment

    • Abstract: The incidence of the micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes is rising, mirroring the increase in the worldwide prevalence. Arguably, the most common microvascular complication is neuropathy, leading to deleterious changes in both the structure and function of neurons. Amongst the various neuropathies with the highest symptom burden are those associated with alterations in the enteric nervous system, referred to as diabetic enteropathy. The primary aim of this review is to provide a contemporaneous summary of pathophysiology of diabetic enteropathy thereby allowing a “molecule to mechanism” approach to treatment, which will include 4 distinct aspects. Firstly, the aim is to provide an overview of the diabetes-induced structural remodelling, biochemical dysfunction, immune-mediated alterations, and inflammatory properties of the enteric nervous system and associated structures. Secondly, the aim is to provide a synopsis of the clinical relevance of diabetic enteropathy. Thirdly, the aim is to discuss the various patient-reported outcome measures and the objective modalities for evaluating dysmotility, and finally, the aim is to outline the clinical management and different treatment options that are available. Given the burden of disease that diabetic enteropathy causes, earlier recognition is needed allowing prompt investigation and intervention, which may lead to improvements in quality of life for sufferers.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Sep 2018 06:52:52 +000
  • Diabetes and Associated Cardiovascular Complications in American
           Indians/Alaskan Natives: A Review of Risks and Prevention Strategies

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of death in the U.S. American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs), who comprise only 2% of the total population. The AI/AN population has a high prevalence of DM in adults aged 20 years or older and is developing DM at a younger age than the general U.S. population. DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality from CVD is higher in AI/ANs than the general population, as is the prevalence of stroke and 1-year poststroke mortality for both genders when compared to non-Hispanic whites. A genome-wide scan found a number of chromosome linkages in the AI/AN population that suggest that genetic factors may contribute to their high risk of DM and CVD. Importantly, studies also suggest that in addition to race/ethnicity, cultural norms and historic conditions play important roles in the prevalence of DM and CVD in this population. Therefore, multiple factors should be taken into consideration when establishing prevention programs to decrease the prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and CVD incidence among adults and children in the AI/AN population. Prevention programs should focus on behavioral risk factors and lifestyle changes like encouraging smoking cessation, healthy diet, and increased physical activity while taking into consideration cultural, economic, and geographic factors.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Simvastatin-Induced Insulin Resistance May Be Linked to Decreased Lipid
           Uptake and Lipid Synthesis in Human Skeletal Muscle: the LIFESTAT Study

    • Abstract: Background. A prevalent side-effect of simvastatin is attenuated glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but impaired lipid metabolism may provide the link. The aim of this study was to investigate whether simvastatin-treated patients had a lower capacity to oxidize lipids and reduced expression of the major proteins regulating lipid uptake, synthesis, lipolysis, and storage in skeletal muscle than matched controls. Materials and Methods. Ten men were treated with simvastatin (HbA1c: 5.7 ± 0.1%), and 10 healthy men (HbA1c: 5.2 ± 0.1%) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a muscle biopsy was obtained. Fat oxidation rates were measured at rest and during exercise. Western blotting was used to assess protein content. Results. Patients treated with simvastatin had impaired glucose tolerance compared with control subjects, but fat oxidation at rest and during exercise was compatible. Skeletal muscle protein content of CD36, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 were lower, and DGAT 2 tended to be lower in patients treated with simvastatin. Conclusions. Patients treated with simvastatin had a reduced capacity to synthesize FA and diacylglycerol (DAG) into triacylglycerol in skeletal muscle compared to matched controls. Decreased lipid synthesis capacity may lead to accumulation of lipotoxic intermediates (FA and DAG) and hence impair glucose tolerance.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Therapeutic Potential of Fulvic Acid in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and

    • Abstract: Chronic inflammatory diseases like diabetes are on a rise in the Western world. Based on the tsunami of new cases every year, new therapeutic measures must be considered. A promising avenue might involve the attenuation of underlying inflammation through natural health products (NHPs). This is because most NHPs have a rich history in traditional medicine and might be considered safer under appropriate doses and conditions. However, the biggest impediment in NHP research is that rarely do these products come with verified health benefits or dosing schedules established through modern scientific research. Fulvic acid (FvA), one such NHP, comes from humic substances produced by microorganisms in soil. Traditional medicine and modern research claim FvA can modulate the immune system, influence the oxidative state of cells, and improve gastrointestinal function; all of which are hallmarks of diabetes. This minireview outlines the available peer-reviewed research on FvA and examines its anecdotal health claims. We show that although available research has been minimal, there is substantial evidence to pursue FvA research in preventing chronic inflammatory diseases, including diabetes.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Sep 2018 09:44:29 +000
  • Polymorphisms in the Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor (GLP-1R) Gene Are
           Associated with the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in Chinese Han
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) bestows protective effects upon the cardiovascular system through direct cardiovascular interactions or by improvements to metabolic function. Both these effects are thought to be at least partly mediated by the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). This case-controlled study investigated whether polymorphisms in the GLP-1R gene affect the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients in the Chinese Han population. Methods. Eleven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), distributed across 22 kb of the 39 kb GLP-1R gene, were selected and genotyped in diabetic patients from a Chinese Han population. Patients were classified based on the severity of coronary artery stenosis. Coronary artery stenosis was ≥50% in 394 patients (coronary artery disease- (CAD-) positive group), and coronary artery stenosis was
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 06:16:00 +000
  • Advanced Glycation End Products Increase MDM2 Expression via Transcription
           Factor KLF5

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk for all-site cancers including colon cancer. Diabetic patients present typical pathophysiological features including an increased level of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which comes from a series of nonenzymatic reactions between sugars and biological macromolecules, positively associated with the occurrence of diabetic complications. MDM2 is an oncogene implicated in cancer development. The present study investigated whether diabetes promoted MDM2 expression in colon cells and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that AGE increased the protein level of MDM2 in a cell model and promoted binding between MDM2 and Rb as well as p53, which led to degradation of Rb and p53. KLF5 was able to bind to the regulatory sequence of the MDM2 gene, and knockdown of the KLF5 protein level inhibited the AGE-triggered MDM2 overexpression, which indicated that KLF5 was the transcription factor for MDM2. In a mouse model of diabetes, we found that AGE level was increased in serum. The protein levels of both KLF5 and MDM2 were increased. KLF5 was able to bind to the regulatory sequence of the MDM2 gene. In conclusion, our results suggest that diabetes increases the level of AGE which enhances the expression of MDM2 via transcription factor KLF5 in colon cells. MDM2 overexpression is a candidate biological link between type 2 diabetes and colon cancer development.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Teens with Type 1 Diabetes: How Does Their Nutrition Measure Up'

    • Abstract: Objective. To characterize the intake of macronutrient and fiber in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine their association with health indicators. Methods. Baseline data from an RCT were examined. Adolescent-parent dyads (, mean age 12 ± 1.2 years, 49.4% girls) reported dietary intake via two separate 24-hour recall interviews during a two-week period. Demographic and medical variables were abstracted from questionnaires and medical charts. Results. Controlling for demographic and diet variables, a higher percentage of daily energy intake from fats was associated with poorer HbA1c. In contrast, an association between higher percent of energy intake from proteins and carbohydrates was found with higher systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. Conclusions. Many early adolescents with T1D did not meet diabetes nutritional guidelines. Lower adherence to nutritional guidelines, specifically more than recommended energy intake from fats, was associated with poorer HbA1c. Addressing nutritional guidelines and increasing adherence as part of treatment may improve health outcomes for youth with T1D.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Sep 2018 06:45:40 +000
  • Obesity-Linked Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis Associated with Derangements in
           Gut Permeability and Intestinal Cellular Homeostasis Independent of Diet

    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the association between non-high-fat diet-induced obesity- (non-DIO-) associated gut microbiome dysbiosis with gut abnormalities like cellular turnover of intestinal cells, tight junctions, and mucin formation that can impact gut permeability. We used leptin-deficient (Lepob/ob) mice in comparison to C57BL/6J control mice, which are fed on identical diets, and performed comparative and correlative analyses of gut microbiome composition, gut permeability, intestinal structural changes, tight junction-mucin formation, cellular turnover, and stemness genes. We found that obesity impacted cellular turnover of the intestine with increased cell death and cell survival/proliferation gene expression with enhanced stemness, which are associated with increased intestinal permeability, changes in villi/crypt length, and decreased expression of tight junctions and mucus synthesis genes along with dysbiotic gut microbiome signature. Obesity-induced gut microbiome dysbiosis is also associated with abnormal intestinal organoid formation characterized with decreased budding and higher stemness. Results suggest that non-DIO-associated gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with changes in the intestinal cell death versus cell proliferation homeostasis and functions to control tight junctions and mucous synthesis-regulating gut permeability.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Iron-Klotho-VDR Axis Is a Major Determinant of Proximal Convoluted
           Tubule Injury in Haptoglobin 2-2 Genotype Diabetic Nephropathy Patients
           and Mice

    • Abstract: The haptoglobin (Hp) genotype (1-1 and 2-2) is a major determinant of nephropathy progression in diabetes mellitus patients. Hp 2-2 diabetic mice have impaired Hb clearance and increased iron deposits and oxidative stress in the proximal tubules (PCT), leading to increased renal injury. However, the precise mechanism of the PCT injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains elusive. In the kidney, 1,25(OH)2D3 suppresses the inflammatory response to renal tubular injury and requires normal renal expression of the α-klotho protein. In this study, we set out to test the hypothesis that the increased renal iron deposits in the PCT of Hp 2-2 DN affect the α-klotho-vitamin D receptor (VDR) axis and thereby exacerbates the PCT injury generated by the iron deposits. Immunohistochemical analysis of human and mouse kidney biopsies along with western blot analysis showed that the increased iron deposits in the PCT of the Hp 2-2 genotype were accompanied with significantly decreased α-klotho and VDR renal expression but significantly increased 1-α-hydroxylase renal expression. In conclusion, the iron-klotho-VDR axis is a major player in the mechanism contributing to iron-mediated PCT injury in diabetic Hp 2-2 mice and patients. Targeting this axis may open the way for new ideas regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of DN.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Skeletal Status, Body Composition, and Glycaemic Control in Adolescents
           with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Background. Disturbed bone turnover, osteoporosis, and increased fracture risk are late complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Little is known about how far and to what extent can glycaemic control of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) prevent disturbances of bone health and body composition during the growth and maturation period. Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the skeletal status outcomes and body composition between patients stratified by glycaemic control (1-year HbA1c levels) into well- and poorly-controlled subgroups in a population of T1DM adolescents, that is,
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Pattern of mRNA Expression Is Changed in Sinoatrial Node from
           Goto-Kakizaki Type 2 Diabetic Rat Heart

    • Abstract: Background. In vivo experiments in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rats have demonstrated reductions in heart rate from a young age. The expression of genes encoding more than 70 proteins that are associated with the generation and conduction of electrical activity in the GK sinoatrial node (SAN) have been evaluated to further clarify the molecular basis of the low heart rate. Materials and Methods. Heart rate and expression of genes were evaluated with an extracellular electrode and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Rats aged 12-13 months were employed in these experiments. Results. Isolated spontaneous heart rate was reduced in GK heart (161 ± 12 bpm) compared to controls (229 ± 11 bpm). There were many differences in expression of mRNA, and some of these differences were of particular interest. Compared to control SAN, expression of some genes were downregulated in GK-SAN: gap junction, Gja1 (Cx43), Gja5 (Cx40), Gjc1 (Cx45), and Gjd3 (Cx31.9); cell membrane transport, Trpc1 (TRPC1) and Trpc6 (TRPC6); hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, Hcn1 (HCN1) and Hcn4 (HCN4); calcium channels, Cacna1d (Cav1.3), Cacna1g (Cav3.1), Cacna1h (Cav3.2), Cacna2d1 (Cavα2δ1), Cacna2d3 (Cavα2δ3), and Cacng4 (Cavγ4); and potassium channels, Kcna2 (Kv1.2), Kcna4 (Kv1.4), Kcna5 (Kv1.5), Kcnb1 (Kv2.1), Kcnd3 (Kv4.3), Kcnj2 (Kir2.1), Kcnk1 (TWIK1), Kcnk5 (K2P5.1), Kcnk6 (TWIK2), and Kcnn2 (SK2) whilst others were upregulated in GK-SAN: Ryr2 (RYR2) and Nppb (BNP). Conclusions. This study provides new insight into the changing expression of genes in the sinoatrial node of diabetic heart.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 07:37:18 +000
  • PTPN2 Downregulation Is Associated with Albuminuria and Vitamin D Receptor
           Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Objective. Inflammation plays a major role in albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our previous studies have shown that the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) is downregulated in T2DM which is closely associated with the severity of albuminuria. In this study, we investigated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2) in T2DM and explored its relationship to albuminuria and VDR. Methods. 101 T2DM patients were divided into three groups based on urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR): normal albuminuria (uACR 
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Aug 2018 06:56:29 +000
  • Rosiglitazone Elicits an Adiponectin-Mediated Insulin-Sensitizing Action
           at the Adipose Tissue-Liver Axis in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats

    • Abstract: Rosiglitazone is an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ that is principally associated with insulin action. The exact mechanisms underlying its insulin-sensitizing action are still not fully elucidated. It is well known that adiponectin mostly secreted in adipose tissue is an insulin sensitizer. Here, we found that treatment of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with rosiglitazone (3 mg/kg, once daily, by oral gavage for 33 weeks) attenuated the increase in fasting plasma insulin concentrations and the index of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance along with the age growth and glucose concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, the increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, concentrations of fasting plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triglyceride, and hepatic triglyceride content was also suppressed. The hepatic protein expression profile revealed that rosiglitazone increased the downregulated total protein expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2. Furthermore, the treatment suppressed the upregulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser307 and IRS-2 at Ser731. The results indicate that rosiglitazone ameliorates hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fatty liver. Mechanistically, rosiglitazone suppressed hepatic protein overexpression of both phosphorylated nuclear factor- (NF-) κBp65 and inhibitory-κB kinase-α/β, a transcription factor that primarily regulates chronic inflammatory responses and the upstream NF-κB signal transduction cascades which are necessary for activating NF-κB, respectively. More importantly, rosiglitazone attenuated the decreases in adipose adiponectin mRNA level, plasma adiponectin concentrations, and hepatic protein expression of adiponectin receptor-1 and receptor-2. Thus, we can draw the conclusion that rosiglitazone elicits an adiponectin-mediated insulin-sensitizing action at the adipose tissue-liver axis in obese rats. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanisms of action of rosiglitazone.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 08:10:46 +000
  • Perceptions on Diet and Dietary Modifications during Postpartum Period
           Aiming at Attenuating Progression of GDM to DM: A Qualitative Study of
           Mothers and Health Care Workers

    • Abstract: Background. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a global concern. GDM mothers have a 7-fold relative risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in their later life. User-friendly and culturally acceptable dietary interventions can minimize this risk. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the perceptions of GDM mothers and health care workers regarding factors that influence postpartum dietary practices aimed at attenuating the trajectory from GDM to DM. Methods. The study was conducted in selected MOH areas in three districts of Sri Lanka. Six focus group discussions were conducted with thirty mothers with a history of GDM and six in-depth interviews with six health care workers. The phenomenon of interest was to obtain inputs of two stakeholder groups on healthy food habits of GDM mothers during the postpartum period. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Data were coded using the analytical framework, abstracted from transcripts, and summarized verbatim in Microsoft Excel in a matrix comprised of one row per participant and one column per code. Finally, the matrix was reviewed intensely and themes were generated. Results. Overall, seven themes emerged from both cases: (1) myths and traditions specific to the postpartum period, (2) lack of motivation, (3) time pressure, (4) financial barriers, (5) negligence of mothers and families, (6) lack of awareness regarding GDM and its postpartum dietary recommendations, and (7) cultural barriers. Conclusions. This study provides an insight into the existing knowledge, common practices, and attitudes regarding food habits among postpartum mothers with a history of GDM. Since the postpartum period is unique, identifying barriers is crucial when introducing dietary modification protocols in order to prevent or attenuate the progression of GDM to T2DM in these mothers. The knowledge gained will be used to introduce feasible, scientifically sound, and culturally acceptable postpartum dietary recommendations for GDM mothers.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Relationships of Insulin Action to Age, Gender, Body Mass Index, and Waist
           Circumference Present Diversely in Different Glycemic Statuses among
           Chinese Population

    • Abstract: Introduction. To study the influence of different glycemic statuses on the relationship of insulin action to age, gender, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) among Chinese population. Methods. A total of 35,327 participants (17,456 males and 17,871 females) were included in this nationally representative cross-sectional study. Glycemic status was defined according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria. Fasting insulin was measured by the chemiluminescence method. Results. Insulin and HOMA-IR levels were the highest in newly diagnosed diabetes and were lowest in normal fasting glucose (NFG) (). Insulin and HOMA-IR levels were higher in females () than in males with previously diagnosed diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and NFG, meanwhile decreased with age () among IFG and NFG participants. As compared with participants with a BMI from 18.5 to 19.9, those in the lowest BMI category (
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Coincidence of Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with IgM
           Antibody Positivity to Enteroviruses and Respiratory Tract Viruses

    • Abstract: Objective. Viruses trigger and promote islet cell destruction and cause type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship is under debate. The aim of this study is to investigate the sero-epidemiological and molecular evidence on enteroviruses and respiratory viruses in patients with newly diagnosed T1DM during the cold season. Design. Forty children newly diagnosed with T1DM and 30 healthy children who presented to the clinic over the course of a year were included in the study. The IgM antibodies against enteroviruses and respiratory viruses were studied using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) test, and no CBV4-specific RNA was detected in the children. The onset times of T1DM were classified into fall-winter and spring-summer seasons and separated into cold, moderate, or warm months in terms of temperature. Results. The percentages of viral IgM antibodies against most common viruses were detected in the patients as follows: influenza B (IVB) (70%), echovirus 7 (ECHO7) (45%), parainfluenza virus 4 (PIV4) (40%), coxsackievirus A7 (CAV7) (27.5%), and H3N2 (22.5%). Compared with the control group, the above viruses had a significant association with T1DM (, , , , and , resp.). CBV4-specific RNA was not detected in any serum. A total of 75% and 95% patients were diagnosed with T1DM in the fall-winter seasons and cold-moderate months, respectively. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates the significant association between T1DM and the presence of IgM antibodies against IVB, ECHO7, PIV4, CAV7, and H3N2, and the majority of newly diagnosed T1DM appeared in the fall-winter season. It suggests that enteroviruses and respiratory viruses, in addition to seasonal variation, could play a role in the etiopathogenesis and clinical onset of T1DM.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:23:39 +000
  • Involvement of RBP4 in Diabetic Atherosclerosis and the Role of Vitamin D

    • Abstract: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the expression of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in diabetic rats with atherosclerosis and to investigate the role of vitamin D intervention. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, including the control group (NC), the diabetic rats (DM1), the untreated diabetic atherosclerosis rats (DM2), and the vitamin D-treated diabetic atherosclerosis rats (DM3). The levels of serum and adipose RBP4, fasting insulin (FINS), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], C-reactive protein (CRP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment β-cell function index (HOMA-β), and atherogenic indexes (AI) were calculated. Compared with group NC, the levels of RBP4, TG, LDL-c, FPG, FINS, CRP, AI1, AI2, SBP, and HOMA-IR increased, while the levels of HDL-c, 25(OH)D, and HOMA-β decreased in groups DM1 and DM2. After 8 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in group DM3, the levels of 25(OH)D and HOMA-β increased and the levels of LDL-c, TC, HOMA-IR, FINS, CRP, RBP4, AI1, AI2, and SBP decreased significantly when compared with group DM2 (); Pearson analysis showed that serum RBP4 was positively correlated with TG, FINS, HOMA-IR, SBP, CRP, and AI and negatively correlated with 25(OH)D. In addition, multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that serum RBP4, SBP, and HDL-c were predictors for the presence of diabetic atherosclerosis. These findings suggested that RBP4 could involve in the improvement of diabetic atherosclerosis; vitamin D had the ability to decrease the level of RBP4 and eventually played an important role in preventing atherosclerosis in diabetes.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 06:57:02 +000
  • Enhancement of Adiponectin Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
           via Inhibition of FoxO1 in Type I Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease which has been previously shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent research has indicated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is also involved in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) and adiponectin (APN) have been proposed to play an important role in the processes in NAFLD in T1DM. We herein investigated the effects of FoxO1 and APN on the development of NAFLD and the underlying mechanism in streptozotocin-induced T1DM. Serum liver enzymes AST, ALT, and triglyceride (TG) were determined by commercially available kits. Blood glucose levels were measured by the OneTouch Ultra glucose meter. Relevant protein expression was tested by Western blot analysis. Results showed that serum AST, ALT, and TG were all significantly increased in T1DM rats, which was ameliorated by application of APN or selective inhibition of FoxO1 with AS1842856. Moreover, APN and AS1842856 both decreased the expression of liver nuclear FoxO1 which was significantly increased in diabetic rats. However, the inhibition of FoxO1 did not alter the expression of APN and its receptors. We also found that Akt1 expression was significantly declined in diabetic rat which was restored by APN and moderately and significantly increased by FoxO1 inhibition. It is concluded that APN ameliorates NAFLD via inhibition of FoxO1 through Akt1/FoxO1 signaling pathway.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors for Glucose Intolerance among Saudi Women with
           Gestational Diabetes

    • Abstract: Objectives. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of glucose intolerance one year after delivery in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). Methods. All women who had GDM and completed one year since delivery at King Khalid University Hospital were contacted to participate in the study. Based on to the American Diabetes Association criteria and the results of fasting blood glucose (FPG) and HbA1c, participants were classified into three groups: diabetic, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and normal. The incidence of diabetes and IGT was calculated. Clinical, biochemical, and sociodemographic predictors of glucose intolerance were compared between the three groups. Odds ratio (OR) for risk factors with value less than 0.05 was calculated. Results. From a total 316 eligible women, 133 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. From the study participants, 58 (44%) women were normoglycemic, 60 (45%) women had IGT, and 15 (11%) women were diabetic. The odds of developing IGT or diabetes increased to nearly fourfold when women needed insulin for the control of GDM during pregnancy (OR 3.8, 95% CI 0.81–18.3, ) and to nearly one-and-a-half-fold when they have positive family history of T2DM (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.74–2.09, ). Nevertheless, none of the odds ratios was statistically significant. Conclusion. The incidence of postpartum hyperglycemia (diabetes and IGT) is very high in Saudi women with GDM. Family history of diabetes and insulin treatment of GDM may be predictors of postpartum hyperglycemia.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 06:51:48 +000
  • TERT and Akt Are Involved in the Par-4-Dependent Apoptosis of Islet β
           Cells in Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Islet β cell apoptosis plays an important role in type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that Par-4-mediated islet β cell apoptosis is induced by high-glucose/fatty acid levels. In the present study, we show that Par-4, which is induced by high-glucose/fatty acid levels, interacts with and inhibits TERT in the cytoplasm and then translocates to the nucleus. Par-4 also inhibited Akt phosphorylation, leading to islet β cell apoptosis. We inhibited Par-4 in islet β cells under high-glucose/fatty acid conditions and knocked out Par-4 in diabetic mice, which led to the up-regulation of TERT and an improvement in the apoptosis rate. We inhibited Akt phosphorylation in islet β cells and diabetic mice, which led to aggressive apoptosis. In addition, the biological film interference technique revealed that Par-4 bound to TERT via its NLS and leucine zipper domains. Our research suggests that Par-4 activation and binding to TERT are key steps required for inducing the apoptosis of islet β cells under high-glucose/fatty acid conditions. Inhibiting Akt phosphorylation aggravated apoptosis by activating Par-4 and inhibiting TERT, and Par-4 inhibition may be an attractive target for the treatment of islet β cell apoptosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cognitive Function Is Impaired in Patients with Recently Diagnosed Type 2
           Diabetes, but Not Type 1 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Objective. To test whether cognitive function is impaired in early states of diabetes and to identify possible risk factors for cognitive impairment. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis within the German Diabetes Study included patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes within the first year after diagnosis or five years after study inclusion and metabolically healthy individuals. Participants underwent comprehensive metabolic phenotyping and testing of different domains of cognitive function. Linear regression models were used to compare cognition test outcomes and to test associations between cognitive function and possible influencing factors within the groups. Results. In participants with recently diagnosed diabetes, verbal memory was poorer in patients with type 2 diabetes (), but not in type 1 diabetes (), when compared to healthy individuals. Five years after diagnosis, type 2 diabetes patients also showed lower verbal memory than those with type 1 diabetes (). In addition to crystallized intelligence, a higher body mass index among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes and male sex among individuals with recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes were associated with impaired verbal memory (all ). Conclusion. Verbal memory is impaired in individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes and likely associated with higher body mass. This trial is registered with the trial registration number NCT01055093.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 06:11:25 +000
  • Height and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Results from the Healthy
           Baby Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to examine the association between height and plasma glucose level, as well as risk of GDM among Chinese women. Methods. A total of 6941 pregnant Chinese women were recruited from the Healthy Baby Cohort study in Hubei Province, China, in 2012–2014. Measured height was categorized into four groups according to the quartile distribution (≤158.0 cm, 158.1–161.0 cm, 161.1–164.0 cm, and>164.0 cm). GDM was defined based on the International Association of the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between height and plasma glucose levels. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between height and GDM. Results. The prevalence of GDM was 14.7% in our study. Height was inversely associated with the 1 h and 2h plasma glucose levels (all value for trend 
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Physical Activity Patterns and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic
           Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Elderly Northern Chinese Adults

    • Abstract: The main aim of this study is to quantitatively describe the status of physical activity and evaluate its levels in a rural population and to investigate the association between the quantifiable physical activity and type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In total, 2076 participants aged over 40 years were included in a cross-sectional analysis. Physical activity status and the contributions of different types of activity were evaluated. The association between social behaviors and physical activities was analyzed. In addition, the impact of physical activities on type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome was also analyzed by logistic regression. Approximately half of the total activity in rural areas consisted of work-related activity (49.3%) followed by commuting (30.2%) and recreational activity (20.5%). In rural areas, the prevalence of physical activity levels was 28.6% for low levels, 47.3% for moderate levels, and 24.1% for high levels. Educational level showed a significant negative association with the physical activity level. Lower physical activity shows a strong and significant association with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, insufficient physical activity among rural people over 40 years old increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Population-wide and individualized guidelines for physical activities especially recreational physical activities should be developed.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Aug 2018 06:36:34 +000
  • Distribution of Microbes and Drug Susceptibility in Patients with Diabetic
           Foot Infections in Southwest China

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the microbial distribution and drug susceptibility among diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) with different Wagner grades and between acute and chronic DFUs. Methods. We enrolled 428 DFU patients who were hospitalized and treated in the Southwest Hospital. We collected deep ulcer secretion for microbial culture and drug susceptibility tests and analyzed the results. We reexamined 67 patients with poor anti-infection efficacy and analyzed microbial species. Results: The 354 positive samples included 201 cases (56.8%) of single-pathogen infections and 153 cases (43.2%) of multiple-pathogen infections before antibiotic therapy. A total of 555 strains were cultivated, including 205 (36.9%) strains of gram-positive organisms (GPOs), 283 (51.0%) gram-negative bacilli (GNB), and 67 (12.1%) fungal strains. In terms of distribution, patients with different Wagner grades had different bacterial composition ratios (). Patients with Wagner grades 3–5 mainly had GNB. The specimens from chronic ulcer wounds were primarily GNB (54.2%), whereas fungi accounted for 14.4% of the infections; the distribution was significantly different from that of acute ulcers (). The susceptibility tests showed that the Staphylococcus genus was more susceptible to vancomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. Tobramycin was the most effective drug (97%) for the treatment of Escherichia coli, followed by ertapenem (96.4%), imipenem (93.5%), and cefotetan (90%). Most of the remaining GNB were susceptible to antibiotics such as carbapenems, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, ceftazidime, cefepime, and piperacillin-tazobactam (>63.2%). After antibiotic therapy, the positive rate of microbial culture was 52.2%, and the proportion of GNB and fungi increased to 68.9% and 20%. Conclusion. The distribution and types of bacteria in diabetic foot infection (DFI) patients varied with the different Wagner classification grades, courses of the ulcers, and antibiotic therapy. Multidrug resistance were increased, and the clinical treatment of DFIs should select the most suitable antibiotics based on the pathogen culture and drug susceptibility test results.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Markers of Local Inflammation and Bone Resorption in the Acute Diabetic
           Charcot Foot

    • Abstract: Objective. Due to the localized nature of Charcot foot, systemically altered levels of inflammation markers can be difficult to measure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether it is possible to detect an arteriovenous (A-V) flux in any locally produced inflammatory biomarkers from an acute Charcot foot by comparing local and systemic measurements. Methods. We included patients with acute diabetic Charcot foot. Blood was sampled from the vena saphena magna on the distal part of the crus bilaterally as well as from the arteria radialis. To minimize the A-V shunting effect, the feet were externally cooled with ice water prior to resampling. Results. Both before and after cooling, the A-V flux of interleukin-6 (IL-6) between the Charcot feet and the arterial level was significantly higher than the flux between the healthy feet and the arterial level (Δvaluebefore: 7.25 versus 0.41 pg/mL, resp., ; Δvalueafter: 10.04 versus 1.68 pg/mL, resp., ). There were no differences in the fluxes for other markers of inflammation. Conclusion. We have found an increased A-V flux of IL-6 in the acute diabetic Charcot foot compared to the healthy foot in the same patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Aug 2018 05:45:52 +000
  • Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Diabetic Monkey Model and
           Therapeutic Testing of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    • Abstract: Clinically, acute kidney injury (AKI) episodes in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients are associated with a cumulative risk of developing end-stage renal disease. In this study, we asked whether the severity of AKI induced by renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is more prominent in DM than in non-DM control using a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) model. We also investigated whether human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) infused via the renal artery could ameliorate renal IRI in DM monkeys. The experimental data, including mortality rate, histologic findings, and urinary albumin secretion indicate that the severity of AKI was greater in DM monkeys than in control animals. Moreover, histological findings and qRT-PCR analysis of Ngal mRNA in renal biopsy tissue showed that hBM-MSC promoted the recovery of tubular damage caused by AKI. Serum analysis also revealed that the level of albumin and ALT was increased 24 and 48 hours after AKI, respectively, suggesting that AKI induced acute liver injury. We suggest that this nonhuman primate model could provide essential information about the renal and nonrenal impairment related to DM and help determine the clinical usefulness of MSCs in AKI.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Lower Circulating miR-122 Level in Patients with HNF1A Variant-Induced
           Diabetes Compared with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: miR-122, the expression of which is regulated by several transcription factors, such as HNF1A, was recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hepatocellular carcinoma. HNF1A variants can cause diabetes and might be involved in the development of primary liver neoplasm. Differences in miR-122 expression among different types of diabetes have not been studied. This study aimed to investigate differences in serum miR-122 levels in Chinese patients with different forms of diabetes, including T2DM, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), HNF1A variant-induced diabetes (HNF1A-DM), glucokinase variant-induced diabetes (GCK-DM), and mitochondrial A3243G mutation-induced diabetes (MDM). In total, 12 HNF1A-DM patients, 24 gender-, age-, and body mass index-matched (1 : 2) T2DM patients and 24 healthy subjects were included in this study. In addition, 30 monogenic diabetes (11 GCK-DM and 19 MDM) and 17 T1DM patients were included. Fasted blood biochemistry and miR-122 were measured. The results showed that the HNF1A-DM patients had lower miR-122 levels [0.046 (0.023, 0.121)] than T2DM patients [0.165 (0.036, 0.939), ] and healthy controls [0.249 (0.049, 1.234), ]. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for miR-122 to discriminate HNF1A-DM and T2DM was 0.687 (95% CI: 0.52–0.86, ). There was no difference in serum miR-122 among HNF1A-DM, GCK-DM, MDM, and T1DM patients. Lower serum miR-122 is a unique feature of HNF1A-DM patients and might partially explain the increased risk for liver neoplasm and abnormal lipid metabolism in HNF1A-DM patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
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