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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 201)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

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Journal Cover Experimental Diabetes Research
  [SJR: 1.591]   [H-I: 30]   [11 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • HLA Class II Allele, Haplotype, and Genotype Associations with Type 1
           Diabetes in Benin: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. Several studies have reported the implication of HLA-DR/DQ loci in the susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D). Since no such study has yet been performed in Benin, this pilot one aimed at assessing HLA class II allele, haplotype, and genotype associations with T1D. Material and Methods. Class II HLA genotyping was performed in 51 patients with T1D and 51 healthy unrelated controls by means of the PCR-SSP method. The diagnosis of T1D was set up according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the associations between T1D and HLA alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes. Results. Participants were aged 1–24 years. T1D was significantly associated with DR3, DQA105:01, DQB102:01, and DR3-DR4. No significant associations were observed with DR4, DQB103:02, and DQB106:02. Conclusion. Certain HLA class II alleles, haplotypes, and genotypes were related to T1D and may be used as genetic susceptibility markers to T1D in Benin.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 05:46:30 +000
  • Meprin Metalloprotease Deficiency Associated with Higher Mortality Rates
           and More Severe Diabetic Kidney Injury in Mice with STZ-Induced Type 1

    • Abstract: Meprins are membrane-bound and secreted metalloproteinases consisting of α and/or β subunits that are highly expressed in kidney epithelial cells and are differentially expressed in podocytes and leukocytes (macrophages and monocytes). Several studies have implicated meprins in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and fibrosis-associated kidney disease. However, the mechanisms by which meprins modulate DN are not understood. To delineate the role of meprins in DN, we subjected meprin αβ knockout (αβKO) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts to streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes. The 18-week survival rates were significantly lower for diabetic meprin αβKO mice when compared to those for their WT counterparts. There were significant decreases in mRNA and protein levels for both meprin α and β in diabetic WT kidneys. Furthermore, the blood urea nitrogen levels and urine albumin/creatinine ratios increased in diabetic meprin αβKO but not in diabetic WT mice, indicating that meprins may be protective against diabetic kidney injury. The brush border membrane levels of villin, a meprin target, significantly decreased in diabetic WT but not in diabetic meprin αβKO kidneys. In contrast, isoform-specific increases in cytosolic levels of the catalytic subunit of PKA, another meprin target, were demonstrated for both WT and meprin αβKO kidneys.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Associated Factors among Adult
           Diabetic Patients Who Attend the Diabetic Follow-Up Clinic at the
           University of Gondar Referral Hospital, North West Ethiopia, 2016:
           Institutional-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is characterized by multiple long-term complications that affect almost every system in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the main complications of diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited evidence on the occurrence of foot ulcer and influencing factors in Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia, to investigate foot ulcer occurrence in diabetic patients. Systematic random sampling was used to select 279 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be 13.6%. Rural residence [AOR = 2.57; 95% CI: 1.42, 5.93], type II diabetes mellitus [AOR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.22, 6.45], overweight [AOR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.10], obesity [AOR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.25, 5.83], poor foot self-care practice [AOR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.21, 6.53], and neuropathy [AOR = 21.76; 95% CI: 8.43, 57.47] were factors associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetic foot ulcer was found to be high. Provision of special emphasis for rural residence, decreasing excessive weight gain, managing neuropathy, and promoting foot self-care practice would decrease diabetic foot ulcer.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 01:29:04 +000
  • Research Progress on Mechanism of Podocyte Depletion in Diabetic

    • Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) together with glomerular hyperfiltration has been implicated in the development of diabetic microangiopathy in the initial stage of diabetic diseases. Increased amounts of urinary protein in DN may be associated with functional and morphological alterations of podocyte, mainly including podocyte hypertrophy, epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT), podocyte detachment, and podocyte apoptosis. Accumulating studies have revealed that disruption in multiple renal signaling pathways had been critical in the progression of these pathological damages, such as adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase signaling pathways (AMPK), wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways, endoplasmic reticulum stress-related signaling pathways, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway, and Rho GTPases. In this review, we highlight new molecular insights underlying podocyte injury in the progression of DN, which offer new therapeutic targets to develop important renoprotective treatments for DN over the next decade.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Assessment of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
           T1 Mapping: Correlation with Left-Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and
           Diabetic Duration

    • Abstract: Purpose. To quantify extracellular matrix expansion with the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 mapping technique and the derived extracellular volume fraction (ECV) in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM) patients and to detect the relationship among ECV, duration of diabetes, and diastolic function. Materials. Thirty-eight patients with diabetic cardiomyopathy (20 males, age 54.6 ± 8.6 years) and thirty-two matched normal controls (15 males, age 51.4 ± 13.6 years) were prospectively enrolled. All of them were scanned by T1 mapping to obtain the native and postcontrast T1 values of myocardium and blood, and ECV was calculated accordingly. All patients also underwent transthoracic echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging to assess left-ventricular diastolic function. Results. There was a significant difference in ECV between the two groups (DbCMs 30.4 ± 2.9% versus controls 27.1 ± 2.4%, ). The duration of diabetes was positively and strongly associated with ECV (, ). There was also a significant difference in ECV () among four groups (A, controls; B, DbCM patients with duration of diabetes 10 years). ECV was negatively associated with LV E’/A’ (, ). Conclusion. CMR T1 mapping can reflect myocardial extracellular matrix expansion in DbCM and can be a powerful technique for the early diagnosis of DbCM.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Effects of Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Activities of
           Cyclooxygenases and Levels of Prostaglandins E2 and F2α Metabolites, in
           the Offspring of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes”

    • PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Exercise Training and Weight Loss on Plasma Fetuin-A Levels and
           Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Older Men

    • Abstract: Aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL) improves insulin sensitivity in overweight adults; however, the underlying pathways are incompletely understood. Fetuin-A, a hepatokine that inhibits insulin signaling, may be involved in the salutary effects of AEX+WL. Therefore, we examined the effects of 6-month AEX+WL on plasma fetuin-A levels (36–48 hours after the last bout of exercise), aerobic capacity (VO2max), body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity (M) in 16 sedentary, overweight-obese older men (age = 60 ± 2 years, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m2) with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. At baseline, fetuin-A levels correlated directly with adiposity and had a borderline inverse correlation with M. After AEX+WL, body weight decreased by ~10 kg, while both VO2max and M increased by 16% ( for all). Contrary to our hypothesis, plasma fetuin-A levels increased after AEX+WL (1.16 ± 0.10 g/L versus 1.70 ± 0.19 g/L, ). This increase was unrelated to changes in body composition or glucose metabolism, but directly correlated with changes in VO2max (, ). Thus, in overweight-to-obese older men, AEX+WL appears to increase plasma fetuin-A levels. Although not associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity, this increase in fetuin-A was related to improvements in aerobic capacity and could be representative of the cardioprotective effects of AEX+WL in older men.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Diabetic Neuropathy: Current Status and Future Prospects

    • PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Association between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thyroid Cancer

    • Abstract: Aim. The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is also increasing. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of T2DM on thyroid cancer. Methods. A case-control study was performed. A total of 415 healthy controls with thyroid ultrasound screening and physician consultation were selected from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS). Among patients with thyroid cancer who were enrolled in T-CALOS, 415 patients were matched to the control group according to age and sex. We assessed the effects of T2DM, T2DM duration, and T2DM medication on thyroid cancer. Results. Women with T2DM had lower odds of thyroid cancer than women without T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20–0.81). Individuals receiving T2DM medication had higher odds of thyroid cancer compared to those without T2DM medication (OR: 5.21, 95% CI: 1.58–17.15). Individuals with T2DM duration
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Alcohol Consumption Is a Risk Factor for Lower Extremity Arterial Disease
           in Chinese Patients with T2DM

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and diabetic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We evaluated 138 hospitalized patients with T2DM who consumed alcohol and 833 who did not. We used propensity score matching to reduce the confounding bias between groups. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis was performed with the matched data to evaluate the LEAD risk. Results. In total, 119 pairs of patients who did and did not consume alcohol were matched. According to the logistic regression analysis, patients who consumed >8 U of alcohol/day had a higher risk of LEAD (odds ratio (OR): 6.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78–22.65) than patients who did not consume alcohol. Additionally, after adjusting for age, gender, region, occupation, smoking status, body mass index, weight change, and duration of diabetes, the OR of peripheral artery disease after >20 years of alcohol consumption was 3.48 (95% CI: 1.09–11.15). Furthermore, we observed a significant dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and LEAD. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption may be a risk factor of LEAD in patients with T2DM. Patients with T2DM should be advised to stop drinking, to prevent the onset of LEAD.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Decreased Cardiovascular Risk after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery in
           Chinese Diabetic Patients with Obesity

    • Abstract: Background. The influence of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular risks in Chinese diabetic patients remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on cardiovascular risks in Chinese diabetic patients with obesity. Methods. Twenty Chinese patients with T2DM and obesity undergoing RYGB surgery were included in this study. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured before and 18 months after surgery. A 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated by the UKPDS risk engine. Linear regression analysis was performed on CHD risk, stroke risk, and baseline metabolic parameters. Results. The complete remission rate of diabetes was 90% after RYGB surgery, with significant improvements in blood pressure, BMI, glucose, and lipid metabolism (). The 10-year cardiovascular risk of coronary heart disease reduced from 13.05% to 3.81% () and the 10-year risk of stroke reduced from 19.66% to 14.22% (). In subgroup analysis, Chinese diabetic patients who were women,
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Using iPS Cells and Spice Polyphenols

    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that threatens human health. The disease is caused by a metabolic disorder of the endocrine system, and long-term illness can lead to tissue and organ damage to the cardiovascular, endocrine, nervous, and urinary systems. Currently, the disease prevalence is 11.4%, the treatment rate is 48.2%, and the mortality rate is 2.7% worldwide. Comprehensive and effective control of diabetes, as well as the use of insulin, requires further study to develop additional treatment options. Here, we reviewed the current reprogramming of somatic cells using specific factors to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells capable of repairing islet β cell damage in diabetes patients to treat patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We also discuss the shortcomings associated with clinical use of iPS cells. Additionally, certain polyphenols found in spices might improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in diabetes patients, thereby constituting promising options for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 08:31:33 +000
  • Proinsulin Promotes Self-Renewal of a Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Line
           In Vitro

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of exogenously expressed proinsulin on the biological characters of a hematopoietic stem cell line (HSC) and erythroid myeloid lymphoid (EML) cells and explore new strategies for cell therapy for type I diabetes. EML cells were transduced with lentivirus particles carrying the human proinsulin (proINS) gene. The positive transduced cells were selected based on green fluorescence protein (GFP) positivity and puromycin resistance. Overexpression of proINS was confirmed via real-time PCR and Western blotting. The functional activity of the human proINS secreted by EML cells was elucidated by analyzing the activation of insulin receptor and its downstream signaling. Pro-INS + EML cells were able to prime the phosphorylation of insulin receptor as well as induce the expression of downstream genes of insulin receptor. Furthermore, Wnt3a can significantly promote self-renewal of Pro-INS + EML cells. However, we did not observe significant changes in the proliferation and differentiation of INS + EML cells, compared to the control EML cells. Our results might be useful for developing a new therapy for diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Association of Haptoglobin Gene Variants and Retinopathy in Type 2
           Diabetic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Aims/Introduction. To collectively evaluate the association between haptoglobin (Hp) gene variants and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A comprehensive literature review was performed for eligible studies. After inclusion and exclusion selection as well as quality assessment, those studies meeting quality standards were included. In this study, diabetic patients with retinopathy were selected as the case group and those ones without DR were treated as the control group. The recessive model, allele model, additive model, heterozygote model, and homozygote model were utilized to investigate the association of three Hp gene variants and DR. Subgroup analysis on different severity of DR including nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was also conducted. Results. Six trials from different regions were finally included. A total of 1145 subjects containing 564 T2DM patients with retinopathy were included. The recessive model, allele model, additive model, and homozygote model results showed that Hp gene variants were not associated with DR, NPDR, and PDR. However, the heterozygote model indicated the association of Hp gene variants with DR. Conclusions. No association was found between the Hp gene variants and PDR and NPDR. More studies are required to verify these findings.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Protects against Hyperglycemic Stress by
           Activating Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Proteins

    • Abstract: We have shown earlier that pretreatment of cultured cells with aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors prevents hyperglycemia-induced mitogenic and proinflammatory responses. However, the effects of AR inhibitors on Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory responses have not been elucidated yet. We have investigated how AR inhibitor fidarestat protects high glucose- (HG-) induced cell viability changes by increasing the expression of Nrf2 and its dependent phase II antioxidant enzymes. Fidarestat pretreatment prevents HG (25 mM)-induced Thp1 monocyte viability. Further, treatment of Thp1 monocytes with fidarestat caused a time-dependent increase in the expression as well as the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2. In addition, fidarestat augmented the HG-induced Nrf2 expression and activity and also upregulated the expression of Nrf2-dependent proteins such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1) and NQO1 in Thp1 cells. Similarly, treatment with AR inhibitor also induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO1 in STZ-induced diabetic mice heart and kidney tissues. Further, AR inhibition increased the HG-induced expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and activation of AMPK-α1 in Thp1 cells. Our results thus suggest that pretreatment with AR inhibitor prepares the monocytes against hyperglycemic stress by overexpressing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative proteins.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 07:00:25 +000
  • Association between Hemoglobin Levels and Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
           in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Electronic
           Health Records

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the relationship between hemoglobin levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. 1511 patients with T2DM were included in the study. DPN was diagnosed based on symptoms, signs, and laboratory tests. Hemoglobin was defined as both a continuous variable and a quartile category variable. We compared patient characteristics between the no diabetic peripheral neuropathy (NDPN) and DPN groups. Logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association of DPN with hemoglobin in all T2DM patients. Linear regression was also performed to investigate the impact of hemoglobin on the vibrating perception threshold (VPT). Results. Compared with the NDPN group, hemoglobin level in the DPN group was significantly lower (118.54 ± 16.91 versus 131.62 ± 18.32 g/L, ). The prevalence of DPN increased by 50.1% (95% CI: 42.2–57.0%; ) per standard deviation decrease in hemoglobin. Compared to the highest quartile of hemoglobin, the lower quartiles were associated with a significantly increased risk of DPN in the entire T2DM population (all ). A per unit decrease in hemoglobin leads to a 0.12 (95% CI: 0.07–0.168) unit increase in VPT after adjustment for possible confounders (). Conclusions. Lower hemoglobin levels were associated with increased prevalence of DPN and higher VPT.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 07:07:13 +000
  • Rapid Detection of the mt3243A > G Mutation Using Urine Sediment in
           Elderly Chinese Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. In this study, we aimed to identify mt3243A > G mutation carriers in a group of Chinese elderly type 2 diabetic patients by a rapid and noninvasive diagnostic system. Methods. DNA was extracted from blood, saliva, and urine sediment samples. The mutation screening and quantitation of heteroplasmy were performed by high-resolution melting (HRM) curve and pyrosequencing, respectively. Patients with mt3243A > G mutation underwent a detailed audiometric, ophthalmologic, neurological, and cardiac examination. Results. Two patients (2/1041) carrying the mt3243A > G mutation were detected among all type 2 diabetic patients. In patient 1, the heteroplasmy was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 14.7% in peripheral blood leukocytes, saliva, and urine sediment, respectively. In patient 2, the heteroplasmy was 5.3%, 8.4%, and 37.7% in peripheral blood leukocytes, saliva, and urine sediment, respectively. Both of the two patients showed hearing impairment. Abnormal ophthalmologic conditions and hyperintensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images were showed in patient 1. Conclusion. The occurrence of mt3243 A > G mutation was 0.2% in Chinese elderly type 2 diabetic patients. Moreover, detection of mt3243 A > G mutation in urine sediment with high-resolution melting (HRM) curve and pyrosequencing is feasible in molecular genetic diagnosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 06:39:57 +000
  • The Predictive Role of Tooth Extractions, Oral Infections, and
           hs-C-Reactive Protein for Mortality in Individuals with and without
           Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study of a 12 1/2-Year Follow-Up

    • Abstract: The predictive role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), number of tooth extractions, and oral infections for mortality in people with and without diabetes is unclear. This prospective cohort study is a 12 1/2-year follow-up of the Oslo II study, a health survey in 2000. In all, 12,764 men were invited. Health information was retrieved from 6434 elderly men through questionnaire information, serum measurements, and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements. Diabetes was reported by 425 men. Distinct differences were observed in baseline characteristics in individuals with and without diabetes. In the diabetes group, age and hs-CRP were statistically significant whereas in the nondiabetes group, age, hs-CRP, number of tooth extractions, tooth extractions for infections and oral infections combined, nonfasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, regular alcohol drinking, daily smoking, and level of education were independent risk factors. The number of tooth extractions
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 05:57:27 +000
  • Renoprotective Effect of the Shen-Yan-Fang-Shuai Formula by Inhibiting
           TNF-α/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease, and satisfactory therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. The Shen-Yan-Fang-Shuai Formula (SYFSF) is a traditional Chinese formula composed of Astragali radix, Radixangelicae sinensis, Rheum officinale Baill, and four other herbs. It has been widely used as an effective treatment for DKD patients in China. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying SYFSF’s renoprotection. In this study, we compared the protective effect of SYFSF to irbesartan on the histology and renal cells in type 2 DKD rat model and high-glucose (HG) cultured mesangial cells, respectively. We found that SYFSF could significantly decrease urinary albumin, cholesterol, and triglyceride. And a decrease in serum creatinine was also found in SYFSF-treated group compared with irbesartan-treated rats. In addition, SYFSF inhibited the interstitial expansion and glomerulosclerosis in diabetic rats. Notably, SYFSF markedly downregulated the expression of MCP-1, TGF-β1, collagen IV, and fibronectin in diabetic rat models and HG-induced mesangial cell models. The renoprotection was closely associated with a reduced expression of TNF-α and phosphorylated NF-κBp65. Our study suggests that SYFSF may ameliorate diabetic kidney injury. The observed renoprotection is probably attributable to an inhibition of inflammatory response and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation mediated by TNF-α/NF-κBp65 signaling pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Increased Serum Uric Acid Level Is a Risk Factor for Left Ventricular
           Hypertrophy but Not Independent of eGFR in Patients with Type 2 Diabetic
           Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Although the relation between serum uric acid (SUA) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been studied for decades, however, their association remains debatable. Methods. This is a retrospective study in which a total of 435 hospitalized Chinese patients with type 2 DKD were enrolled. The subjects were stratified into quartiles according to SUA level. LVH was assessed by two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiography. Results. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of LVH in patients with type 2 DKD across SUA quartiles (28.9, 26.5, 36.1, and 49.5%; ). The Spearman analysis indicated that SUA was positively correlated to LVMI and negatively correlated to eGFR. The logistic regression analysis revealed that the odd ratio for LVH in the highest SUA quartile was 2.439 (95% CI 1.265–4.699; ; model 1) or 2.576 (95% CI 1.150–5.768; ; model 2) compared with that in the lowest SUA quartile. However, there was no significant increased risk of LVH in the subjects with the highest SUA quartile after adjusting the eGFR (OR = 1.750; 95% CI 0.685–4.470; ; model 3). Conclusions. In selected population, such as type 2 DKD, the elevated SUA level is positively linked with the increased risk of LVH, but this relationship is not independent of eGFR.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 08:23:00 +000
  • Association between the Time of Length since Smoking Cessation and Insulin
           Resistance in Asymptomatic Korean Male Ex-Smokers

    • Abstract: Aim. Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus, mainly due to decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance. However, there has been little research on the effects of smoking cessation period on changes in insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated the relationships between the length of time since smoking cessation period and insulin resistance in asymptomatic Korean male ex-smokers. Methods. A total of 851 male adults were included in this study. We considered several factors that can affect insulin resistance, and through multiple linear regression analysis, we assessed the effect the length of time since smoking cessation on insulin resistance in ex-smokers. Insulin resistance was represented as the insulin resistance index estimated by homeostasis model assessment. Results. HOMA-IR values showed a statistically significant negative correlation with the length of time since smoking cessation () in ex-smokers. After performing multiple linear regression analysis using factors that could potentially influence insulin resistance, we found that waist circumference () and the length of time since smoking cessation () were independent predictors of HOMA-IR in asymptomatic male ex-smokers. Conclusion. The longer the smoking cessation period, the more the insulin resistance tended to decrease in asymptomatic Korean male ex-smokers.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:24:13 +000
  • Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional
           Responses in Healthy Individuals

    • Abstract: We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (), suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (, ).
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 06:37:17 +000
  • All-Cause Mortality Risk in Australian Women with Impaired Fasting Glucose
           and Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aims. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes are increasing in prevalence worldwide and lead to serious health problems. The aim of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between impaired fasting glucose or diabetes and mortality over a 10-year period in Australian women. Methods. This study included 1167 women (ages 20–94 yr) enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in diabetes, IFG, and normoglycaemia were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results. Women with diabetes were older and had higher measures of adiposity, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides compared to the IFG and normoglycaemia groups (all ). Mortality rate was greater in women with diabetes compared to both the IFG and normoglycaemia groups (HR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.7). Mortality was not different in women with IFG compared to those with normoglycaemia (HR 1.0; 95% CI 0.7–1.4). Conclusions. This study reports an association between diabetes and all-cause mortality. However, no association was detected between IFG and all-cause mortality. We also showed that mortality in Australian women with diabetes continues to be elevated and women with IFG are a valuable target for prevention of premature mortality associated with diabetes.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in the Development of Early Diabetic

    • Abstract: The pathological mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness in adults with diabetes mellitus, remain incompletely understood. Because microRNAs (miRNAs) represent effective DR therapeutic targets, we identified aberrantly expressed miRNAs associated with cellular dysfunction in early DR and detected their potential targets. We exposed human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) and a cell line of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to high glucose (25 mmol/L, 1–7 days) to mimic DR progression and used streptozotocin-injected rats (4–8 weeks) for an in vivo diabetes model. HREC/RPE viability decreased after 24 h incubation and diminished further over 6 days, and Hoechst staining revealed hyperglycemia-induced HREC/RPE apoptosis. Although miR-124/-125b expression decreased with DR progression in vitro and in vivo, miR-135b/-199a levels decreased in retinal cells under hyperglycemia exposure, but increased in diabetic retinas. Moreover, miR-145/-146a expression decreased gradually in high-glucose-treated HRECs, but increased in hyperglycemia-exposed RPE cells and in diabetic rats. Our findings suggested that aberrant miRNA expression could be involved in hyperglycemia-induced retinal-cell dysfunction, and the identified miRNAs might vary in different retinal layers, with expression changes associated with DR development. Therefore, miRNA modulation and the targeting of miRNA effects on transcription factors could represent novel and effective DR-treatment strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2017 03:31:51 +000
  • PNPLA3 rs1010023 Predisposes Chronic Hepatitis B to Hepatic Steatosis but
           Improves Insulin Resistance and Glucose Metabolism

    • Abstract: PNPLA3 polymorphisms serve as the genetic basis of hepatic steatosis in normal population and lead to dysregulated glucose metabolism. Whether it underlies the hepatic steatosis and glucose homeostasis in chronic hepatitis B patients remains uncertain. Here, we investigated the PNPLA3 polymorphisms in biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis B patients with (CHB+HS group, ) or without hepatic steatosis (CHB group, ) and non-CHB subjects with (HS group, ) or without hepatic steatosis (normal group, ). When compared to the TT genotype, C-allele at PNPLA3 rs1010023 (CC and TC genotypes) conferred higher risk to hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B patients (odds ratio (OR) = 1.768, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.027–3.105; ) independent of age, gender, and body mass index. In contrast to their role in hepatic steatosis, CC and TC genotypes of PNPLA3 rs1010023 were correlated to significant improvement of homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR) as compared to TT genotype in the CHB+HS group. Downregulated fasting blood glucose also characterized the CHB+HS patients with C-allele at PNPLA3 rs1010023 (CC/TC versus TT: 4.81 ± 0.92 mmol/L versus 5.86 ± 2.11 mmol/L, ). These findings suggest that PNPLA3 rs1010023 may predispose chronic hepatitis B patients to hepatic steatosis but protects them from glucose dysregulation by attenuating insulin resistance.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 06:26:01 +000
  • Role of Epigenetic Histone Modifications in Diabetic Kidney Disease
           Involving Renal Fibrosis

    • Abstract: One of the commonest causes of end-stage renal disease is diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Renal fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in glomerular basement membranes and the tubulointerstitium, is the final manifestation of DKD. The TGF-β pathway triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays a key role in the accumulation of ECM proteins in DKD. DCCT/EDIC studies have shown that DKD often persists and progresses despite glycemic control in diabetes once DKD sets in due to prior exposure to hyperglycemia called “metabolic memory.” These imply that epigenetic factors modulate kidney gene expression. There is evidence to suggest that in diabetes and hyperglycemia, epigenetic histone modifications have a significant effect in modulating renal fibrotic and ECM gene expression induced by TGF-β1, as well as its downstream profibrotic genes. Histone modifications are also implicated in renal fibrosis through its ability to regulate the EMT process triggered by TGF-β signaling. In view of this, efforts are being made to develop HAT, HDAC, and HMT inhibitors to delay, stop, or even reverse DKD. In this review, we outline the latest advances that are being made to regulate histone modifications involved in DKD.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 04:37:17 +000
  • High Serum Advanced Glycation End Products Are Associated with Decreased
           Insulin Secretion in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Brief Report

    • Abstract: Objective. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are important in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They directly cause insulin secretory defects in animal and cell culture models and may promote insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects. We have developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for measuring AGEs in human serum. Here, we use this method to investigate the relationship between AGEs and insulin secretion and resistance in patients with T2DM. Methods. Our study involved 15 participants with T2DM not on medication and 20 nondiabetic healthy participants. We measured the AGE carboxyethyllysine (CEL), carboxymethyllysine (CML), and methyl-glyoxal-hydro-imidazolone (MG-H1). Plasma glucose and insulin were measured in these participants during a meal tolerance test, and the glucose disposal rate was measured during a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Results. CML and CEL levels were significantly higher in T2DM than non-DM participants. CML showed a significant negative correlation with insulin secretion, HOMA-%B, and a significant positive correlation with the insulin sensitivity index in T2DM participants. There was no correlation between any of the AGEs measured and glucose disposal rate. Conclusions. These results suggest that AGE might play a role in the development or prediction of insulin secretory defects in type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Relationships between Bone Turnover and Energy Metabolism

    • Abstract: It is well established that diabetes can be detrimental to bone health, and its chronic complications have been associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, there is growing evidence that the skeleton plays a key role in a whole-organism approach to physiology. The hypothesis that bone may be involved in the regulation of physiological functions, such as insulin sensitivity and energy metabolism, has been suggested. Given the roles of insulin, adipokines, and osteocalcin in these pathways, the need for a more integrative conceptual approach to physiology is emphasized. Recent findings suggest that bone plays an important role in regulating intermediary metabolism, being possibly both a target of diabetic complications and a potential pathophysiologic factor in the disease itself. Understanding the relationships between bone turnover and glucose metabolism is important in order to develop treatments that might reestablish energy metabolism and bone health. This review describes new insights relating bone turnover and energy metabolism that have been reported in the literature.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Depressive Symptoms in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The
           LINDA-Brazil Study

    • Abstract: This study aimed to assess the frequency and severity of depressive symptoms and their relationship with sociodemographic characteristics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who participated in the LINDA-Brazil study. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of 820 women with GDM who were receiving prenatal care in the public health system. We conducted structured interviews to obtain clinical and sociodemographic information and applied the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to assess depressive symptoms. We classified the presence and severity of depressive symptoms using scores of ≥12 and ≥18, respectively. We used Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). Most of the women lived with a partner (88%), 50% were between 30 and 39 years old, 39% had finished high school, 39% had a family income of 1-2 minimum wages, and 47% were obese before their pregnancies. The presence of depressive symptoms was observed in 31% of the women, and severe depressive symptoms were observed in 10%; 8.3% reported self-harm intent. Lower parity and higher educational levels were associated with lower EPDS score. Depressive symptoms were common and frequently severe among women with GDM, indicating the need to consider this situation when treating such women, especially those who are more socially vulnerable. This trial is registered with NCT02327286, registered on 23 December 2014.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 03:07:09 +000
  • Muscle Lipid Metabolism: Role of Lipid Droplets and Perilipins

    • Abstract: Skeletal muscle is one of the main regulators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in our organism, and therefore, it is highly susceptible to changes in glucose and fatty acid (FA) availability. Skeletal muscle is an extremely complex tissue: its metabolic capacity depends on the type of fibers it is made up of and the level of stimulation it undergoes, such as acute or chronic contraction. Obesity is often associated with increased FA levels, which leads to the accumulation of toxic lipid intermediates, oxidative stress, and autophagy in skeletal fibers. This lipotoxicity is one of the most common causes of insulin resistance (IR). In this scenario, the “isolation” of certain lipids in specific cell compartments, through the action of the specific lipid droplet, perilipin (PLIN) family of proteins, is conceived as a lifeguard compensatory strategy. In this review, we summarize the cellular mechanism underlying lipid mobilization and metabolism inside skeletal muscle, focusing on the function of lipid droplets, the PLIN family of proteins, and how these entities are modified in exercise, obesity, and IR conditions.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 02:33:19 +000
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