Experimental Diabetes Research
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-5214 - ISSN (Online) 1687-5303
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Podocyte Autophagy: A Potential Therapeutic Target to Prevent the
Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), becomes a worldwide problem. Ultrastructural changes of the glomerular filtration barrier, especially the pathological changes of podocytes, lead to proteinuria in patients with diabetes. Podocytes are major components of glomerular filtration barrier, lining outside of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) to maintain the permeability of the GBM. Autophagy is a high conserved cellular process in lysosomes including impaired protein, cell organelles, and other contents in the cytoplasm. Recent studies suggest that activation of autophagy in podocytes may be a potential therapy to prevent the progression of DN. Here, we review the mechanisms of autophagy in podocytes and discuss the current studies about alleviating proteinuria via activating podocyte autophagy.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Role of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 in Diabetic
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is manifested as increased urinary protein level, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and final renal dysfunction. DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide and causes a huge societal healthcare burden. Since satisfied treatments are still limited, exploring new strategies for the treatment of this disease is urgently needed. Oxidative stress takes part in the initiation and development of DN. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a key role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. Thus, activation of Nrf2 seems to be a new choice for the treatment of DN. In current review, we discussed and summarized the therapeutic effects of Nrf2 activation on DN from both basic and clinical studies.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Effectiveness of Lifestyle Adaptation for the Prevention of
Prediabetes in Adults: A Systematic Review
Abstract: Diabetes prevalence is increasing exceptionally worldwide and with this come associated healthcare costs. The primary outcome of this systematic review was to assess glycaemic control and incidence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) diagnosis after exercise and dietary intervention (measured with any validated scale). The secondary outcome assessed body mass index change, weight change, and physical exercise capacity after diet and exercise intervention (measured with any validated scale). 1,780 studies were identified from searching electronic databases. Relevant studies went through a selection process. The inclusion criteria for all studies were people with prediabetes diagnosed by either impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Lifestyle adaptation reduced the incidence of diabetes development more than standard treatment. Furthermore, better glycaemic control, improved physical exercise capacity, and increased weight reduction were observed with lifestyle intervention over standard treatment. Finally, improvements over the long term deteriorated, highlighting problems with long-term adherence to lifestyle changes. Overall, cumulative incidence of diabetes is drastically reduced in the intervention groups compared to control groups (standard care). Furthermore, glycaemic control was improved in the short term, with many participants reverting to normoglycaemia.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 08:22:21 +000
- The Imbalance of B-Lymphocyte Subsets in Subjects with Different Glucose
Tolerance: Relationship with Metabolic Parameter and Disease Status
Abstract: B lymphocytes are involved in inflammation and are related to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated the phenotype and frequency of B-lymphocyte subsets in subjects recently diagnosed with T2D (), impaired glucose regulation (IGR, ), and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, ) by flow cytometry. T2D subjects had an increased percentage of CD19+CD23+ (B-2) cells and a decreased percentage of CD19+CD23− (B-1) cells attributing to CD19+CD23−CD5− (B-1b) cells, but not CD19+CD23−CD5+ (B-1a) cells, compared to NGT and IGR subjects. The proportion of CD19+CD5+CD1dhi (B10) cells did not differ between the IGR or T2D group and NGT controls. Of note, HbA1c and triglyceride showed a positive correlation with B-2 cells but an inverse correlation with B-1 and B-1b cells, which were independently associated with the presence of T2D by logistic regression models. In summary, this study shows an unbalanced proinflammatory phenotype of B-cell subsets correlated with glycemia and lipidemia in patients with T2D. Our data provide new insight into chronic activation of the immune system and subclinical inflammation in T2D. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm our observations.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 07:08:21 +000
- Noninvasive Retinal Markers in Diabetic Retinopathy: Advancing from Bench
Abstract: The retinal vascular system is the only part of the human body available for direct, in vivo inspection. Noninvasive retinal markers are important to identity patients in risk of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Studies have correlated structural features like retinal vascular caliber and fractals with micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in diabetes. Likewise, the retinal metabolism can be evaluated by retinal oximetry, and higher retinal venular oxygen saturation has been demonstrated in patients with diabetic retinopathy. So far, most studies have been cross-sectional, but these can only disclose associations and are not able to separate cause from effect or to establish the predictive value of retinal vascular dysfunction with respect to long-term complications. Likewise, retinal markers have not been investigated as markers of treatment outcome in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The Department of Ophthalmology at Odense University Hospital, Denmark, has a strong tradition of studying the retinal microvasculature in diabetic retinopathy. In the present paper, we demonstrate the importance of the retinal vasculature not only as predictors of long-term microvasculopathy but also as markers of treatment outcome in sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy in well-established population-based cohorts of patients with diabetes.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 05:13:49 +000
- Incidence and Contributing Factors of Persistent Hyperglycemia at 6–12
Weeks Postpartum in Iranian Women with Gestational Diabetes: Results from
LAGA Cohort Study
Abstract: Background. A history of gestational diabetes is an important predictor of many metabolic disturbances later in life. Method. Life after gestational diabetes Ahvaz Study (LAGAs) is an ongoing population-based cohort study. Up to February 2016, 176 women with gestational diabetes underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 6–12 weeks postpartum in Ahvaz (southwestern of Iran). Gestational diabetes was diagnosed according to the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria and the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria applied for diagnosis of postpartum prediabetes and diabetes. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were done. Results. Overall incidence of early postpartum glucose intolerance was 22.2% (95% CI, 16.3–29.0), 17.6% prediabetes (95% CI, 12.3–24.1) and 4.5% diabetes (95% CI, 2.0–8.8%). Independent risk factors for glucose intolerance were FPG ≥ 100 at the time of OGTT (OR 3.86; 95% CI; 1.60–9.32), earlier diagnosis of GDM (OR 0.92; 95% CI; 0.88–0.97), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.02; 95% CI; 1.002–1.04), and insulin or metformin therapy (OR 3.14; 95% CI; 1.20–8.21). Conclusion. Results determined a relatively high rate of glucose intolerance at 6–12 weeks after GDM pregnancy. Early postpartum screening of type 2 diabetes is needed particularly in women at high risk of type 2 diabetes.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 06:36:25 +000
- Adipose Tissue-Specialized Immunologic Features Might Be the Potential
Therapeutic Target of Prospective Medicines for Obesity
Abstract: Excessive lipid accumulation in adipose tissue is either the source of obesity or the cause and result of chronic local inflammation, and recent studies indicate that the accumulation may induce many other specialized immunologic features with macrophages and epidemic diseases. We analyze the effective stages of immune cells in adipose tissue, including macrophage recruitment, macrophage polarization, and macrophage-like phenotype preadipocyte possession to find optimal sites as drug targets. Subsequently, some main signaling pathways are summarized in this review, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, the JNK signaling pathway, and a novel one, the Notch signaling pathway. We illustrate all these points in order to determine the general pathogenesis of chronic low-grade local inflammation in adipose tissue and the related signaling pathways. In addition, signal-associated prospective compounds, such as berberine, are summarized and discussed with potential targets in pathogenesis. This might provide some possible thoughts and novel therapies for studying chronic inflammatory diseases, such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Levels Are Associated with Carotid Intima-Media
Thickness and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. 314 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. The clinical data and laboratory examinations of subjects were recorded, such as serum 25(OH)D3, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), serum lipids, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and other biochemical parameters. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to measure carotid IMT and carotid atherosclerotic plaques. Patients were divided into four quartile groups according to the serum 25(OH)D3 levels from low to high: group Q1~group Q4. Results. From group Q1 to group Q4, carotid IMT and the incidence of plaque were gradually reduced. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were lower in the plaque group compared with the nonplaque group (). Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were negatively correlated with the carotid IMT (, ). Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D3 was independently associated with carotid IMT (, ). Logistic regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D3 levels were independently associated with the presence of carotid plaque in T2DM (OR = 0.95; 95%CI: 0.92~0.98, ). Conclusions. Low vitamin D status may contribute to the incidence of carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetic patients.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 07:44:29 +000
- MicroRNAs-Mediated Regulation of Skeletal Muscle GLUT4 Expression and
Translocation in Insulin Resistance
Abstract: The solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter member 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in the insulin-induced glucose uptake by muscle and adipose tissues. In prediabetes and diabetes, GLUT4 expression/translocation has been detected as reduced, participating in mechanisms that impair glycemic control. Recently, a class of short endogenous noncoding RNAs named microRNAs (miRNAs) has been increasingly described as involved in the posttranscriptional epigenetic regulation of gene expression. The present review focuses on miRNAs potentially involved in the expression of GLUT4 expression, and proteins related to GLUT4 and translocation in skeletal muscle, seeking to correlate them with insulin resistance and diabetes. So far, miR-21a-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-29c-3p, miR-93-5p, miR-106b-5p, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b-3p, miR-222-3p, and miR-223-3p have been reported to directly and/or indirectly regulate the GLUT4 expression; and their expression is altered under diabetes-related conditions. Besides, some miRNAs that have been linked to the expression of proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation machinery in muscle could also impact glucose uptake. That makes these miRNAs promising targets for preventive and/or therapeutic approaches, which could improve glycemic control, thus deserving future new investigations.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Therapeutic Effects of Static Magnetic Field on Wound Healing in Diabetic
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on cutaneous wound healing of Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. 20 STZ-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups (10 in each group): diabetic rats with SMF exposure group which were exposed to SMF by gluing one magnetic disk of 230 mT intensity and diabetic rats with sham SMF exposure group (sham group). 10 normal Wistar rats were used as the control group. One open circular wound with 2 cm diameter in the dorsum was generated on both normal and diabetic rats and then covered with sterile gauzes. Wound healing was evaluated by wound area reduction rate, mean time to wound closure, and wound tensile strength. Results. The wound area reduction rate in diabetic rats in comparison with the control group was significantly decreased (). Compared with sham magnet group, diabetic rats under 230 mT SMF exposure demonstrated significantly accelerated wound area reduction rate on postoperative days 7, 14, and 21 and decreased gross time to wound closure (), as well as dramatically higher wound tissue strength () on 21st day. Conclusion. 230 mT SMF promoted the healing of skin wound in diabetic rats and may provide a non-invasive therapeutic tool for impaired wound healing of diabetic patients.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Preferential Impairment of Pupil Constriction Stimulated by Blue Light
in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes without Autonomic Neuropathy
Abstract: The main aim of the present paper is to examine whether the pupillary light reflex (PLR) mediated by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) is impaired in type 2 diabetic patients. One hundred and three diabetic patients without diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and 42 age-matched controls underwent a series of detailed neurological examinations. The patients were stratified into three groups: stage I, no neuropathy; stage II, asymptomatic neuropathy; stage III, symptomatic but without DAN. The PLR to 470 and 635 nm light at 20 cd/m2 was recorded. Small fiber neuropathy was assessed by corneal confocal microscopy and quantifying corneal nerve fiber (CNF) morphology. The 470 nm light induced a stronger and faster PLR than did 635 nm light in all subjects. The PLR to both lights was impaired equally across all of the diabetic subgroups. The postillumination pupil response (PIPR) after 470 nm light offset at ≥1.7 sec was attenuated in diabetic patients without differences between subgroups. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the PIPR mediated by ipRGCs in patients with stage II and stage III neuropathy was different from that of the control subjects. Clinical factors, nerve conduction velocity, and CNF measures were significantly correlated with PLR parameters with 470 nm light. PLR kinetics were more impaired by stimulation with blue light than with red light in diabetic patients without DAN.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Increased Circulating Plasma Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth
Factor in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Do Not Correlate to Metabolic
Abstract: Aim. To characterize the plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and its relation to both present and historical metabolic control and microvascular complications. Methods. Plasma levels of VEGF and routine clinical parameters were analyzed in 115 patients with long-standing T1D and 45 healthy controls (HC). All patients were under clinical routine diabetes treatment at Uppsala University Hospital. Results. The plasma levels of VEGF were increased by 37% in patients with T1D when compared to HC ( versus pg/ml, ). The levels of VEGF correlated to insulin needs and BMI but not to present or historical metabolic control. The levels of VEGF were similar in patients with T1D and microvascular complications (microalbuminuria and retinopathy) when compared with patients without microvascular complications. Historical HbA1c levels were found to be the best predictor for present metabolic control. Conclusion. Circulating plasma levels of VEGF do not correlate to present or historical metabolic control in long-standing T1D and the levels are not affected by the presence of microvascular complications.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 08:19:39 +000
- Diabetic Cardiomyopathy: Current Approach and Potential Diagnostic and
Abstract: Although ischemic heart disease is the major cause of death in diabetic patients, diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is increasingly recognized as a clinically relevant entity. Considering that it comprises a variety of mechanisms and effects on cardiac function, increasing the risk of heart failure and worsening the prognosis of this patient category, DCM represents an important complication of diabetes mellitus, with a silent development in its earlier stages, involving intricate pathophysiological mechanisms, including oxidative stress, defective calcium handling, altered mitochondrial function, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and consequent deficient cardiomyocyte contractility. While DCM is common in diabetic asymptomatic patients, it is frequently underdiagnosed, due to few diagnostic possibilities in its early stages. Moreover, since a strategy for prevention and treatment in order to improve the prognosis of DCM has not been established, it is important to identify clear pathophysiological landmarks, to pinpoint the available diagnostic possibilities and to spot potential therapeutic targets.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Synergistic Effect of the MTHFR C677T and EPHX2 G860A Polymorphism on the
Increased Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Chinese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the combined effect of MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and EPHX2 G860A (rs751141) polymorphism and ischemic stroke in Chinese T2DM patients. This case-control study included a total of 626 Chinese T2DM patients (236 T2DM patients with ischemic stroke and 390 T2DM patients without ischemic stroke). The rs1801133 and rs751141 were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0. Results showed that the combined effect of MTHFR TT and EPHX2 GG or GA + AA genotype has a higher risk of ischemic stroke compared with the control group (combined effect of MTHFR CC and EPHX2 GA + AA genotypes; OR = 3.46 and OR = 3.42, resp.; and , resp.). The A allele showed marked association with a lower risk of ischemic stroke in patients with the lowest Hcy levels under additive, recessive, and dominant genetic models (OR = 0.45, OR = 0.11, and OR = 0.44, resp.; , , and , resp.), which was not observed in medium or high Hcy level groups. In conclusion, the T allele of rs1801133 and the G allele of rs751141 may be risk factors of ischemic stroke in the Chinese T2DM population.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:07:48 +000
- PGC1α Activators Mitigate Diabetic Tubulopathy by Improving Mitochondrial
Dynamics and Quality Control
Abstract: Purpose. In this study, we investigated the effect of PGC1α activators on mitochondrial fusion, fission, and autophagic quality control in renal tubular cells in a diabetic environment in vivo and in vitro. We also examined whether the upregulation of PGC1α attenuates diabetic tubulopathy by normalizing mitochondrial homeostasis. Methods. HKC8 cells were subjected to high-glucose conditions (30 mM D-glucose). Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days) in male C57/BL6J mice. AICAR or metformin was used as a PGC1α activator. Results. Treatment with the PGC1α activators AICAR and metformin improved functional mitochondrial mass in HKC8 cells in high-glucose conditions. Moreover, in renal proximal tubular cells, increased PGC1α activity correlated with the reversal of changes in Drp1, Mfn1, and LC3-II protein expression in a high-glucose environment. Normalized mitochondrial life cycles resulted in low ROS production and reduced apoptosis. AICAR and metformin treatment effectively mitigated albuminuria and renal histopathology and decreased the expression of TGFβ1 and αSMA in the kidneys of diabetic mice. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that increases in PGC1α activity improve diabetic tubulopathy by modulating mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Peripheral and Autonomic Neuropathy in South Asians and White Caucasians
with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Possible Explanations for Epidemiological
Abstract: Objectives. To compare the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and that of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) between South Asians and White Caucasians with type 2 diabetes and to explore reasons for observed differences. Methods. A cross-sectional study of casually selected South Asian and White Caucasian adults attending a hospital-based diabetes clinic in the UK. DPN and CAN were assessed using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) and heart rate variability testing, respectively. Results. Patients () were recruited (47.4% South Asians). DPN was more common in White Caucasians compared to South Asians (54.3% versus 38.1%, ). Foot insensitivity as assessed by 10 g monofilament perception was more common in White Caucasians (43.9% versus 23.8%, ). After adjustment for confounders, White Caucasians remained twice as likely to have DPN as South Asians, but the impact of ethnicity became nonsignificant after adjusting for adiposity measures or height. No difference in prevalence of standardized CAN test abnormalities was detected between ethnicities. Skin microvascular assessment demonstrated that South Asians had reduced heating flux but preserved acetylcholine response. Conclusions. South Asians with type 2 diabetes have fewer clinical signs of DPN compared to White Caucasians. Differences in adiposity (and its distribution) and height appear to explain these differences.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Association of a Genetic Variant in SCAF8-CNKSR3 with Diabetic Kidney
Disease and Diabetic Retinopathy in a Chinese Population
Abstract: Background. Genome-wide association studies found rs955333 located in 6q25.2 was associated with diabetic kidney disease in multiple ethnic populations, including European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. We aimed to investigate the association between the variant rs955333 in SCAF8-CNKSR3 and DKD susceptibility in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. Methods. The variant rs955333 was genotyped in 1884 Chinese type 2 diabetes patients. Associations of the variant rs955333 with DKD and DR susceptibility and related quantitative traits were evaluated. Results. The variant rs955333 was not associated with DKD in our samples, while subjects with genotype GG were associated with DR (, OR = 0.5525 ), and it also showed association with microalbuminuria (, beta = −0.1812 ). Conclusion. Our data suggests the variant rs955333 was not associated with DKD but showed association with diabetic retinopathy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Epigenetic Regulations in Diabetic Nephropathy
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic complication of diabetes and the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease. It has been reported that multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN, while the molecular mechanisms that lead to DN are still not fully understood. Numerous risk factors for the development of diabetic nephropathy have been proposed, including ethnicity and inherited genetic differences. Recently, with the development of high-throughput technologies, there is emerging evidence that suggests the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of DN. Epigenetic regulations, including DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, and histone modifications, play a pivotal role in DN pathogenesis by a second layer of gene regulation. All these findings can contribute to developing novel therapies for DN.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Glycopatterns of Urinary Protein as New Potential Diagnosis Indicators for
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease. However, so little is known about alterations of the glycopatterns in urine with the development of diabetic nephropathy. Presently, we interrogated glycopatterns in urine specimens using a lectin microarray. The results showed that expression levels of Siaα2-6Gal/GalNAc recognized by SNA exhibited significantly increased tendency with the development of diabetic nephropathy; moreover, SNA blotting indicated glycoproteins (90 kDa, 70 kDa, and 40 kDa) in urine may contribute to this alteration. Furthermore, the glycopatterns of recognized by STL exhibited difference between diabetic and nondiabetic nephropathy. The results of urinary protein microarray fabricated by another 48 urine specimens also indicated is a potential indictor to differentiate the patients with diabetic nephropathy from nondiabetic nephropathy. Furtherly, STL blotting showed that the 50 kDa glycoproteins were correlated with this alteration. In conclusion, our data provide pivotal information to monitor the development of diabetic nephropathy and distinguish between diabetic nephropathy and nondiabetic renal disease based on precise alterations of glycopatterns in urinary proteins, but further studies are needed in this regard.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Corrigendum to “Hypoglycemic Activity through a Novel Combination of
Fruiting Body and Mycelia of Cordyceps militaris in High-Fat Diet-Induced
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mice”
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 09:22:41 +000
- Corrigendum to “Brain Activation and Psychomotor Speed in Middle-Aged
Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: Relationships with Hyperglycemia and Brain
Small Vessel Disease”
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Reduced Histone H3 Lysine 9 Methylation Contributes to the Pathogenesis of
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults via Regulation of SUV39H2 and KDM4C
Abstract: Aims. Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) is an autoimmune disease of which the mechanism is not clear. Emerging evidence suggests that histone methylation contributes to autoimmunity. Methods. Blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from 26 LADA patients and 26 healthy controls were isolated to detect histone H3 lysine 4 and H3 lysine 9 methylation status. Results. Reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients’ CD4+ T lymphocytes, compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). H3 lysine 4 methylation was not statistically different. The reduced H3 lysine 9 methylation was associated with GADA titer but not correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). When the LADA patient group was divided into those with complication and those without, relatively reduced global H3 lysine 9 methylation was observed in LADA patients with complication (P < 0.05). The expression of histone methyltransferase SUV39H2 for H3 lysine 9 methylation was downregulated in LADA patients, and the expression of histone demethylase KDM4C which made H3 lysine 9 demethylation was upregulated. Conclusion. The reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation which may due to the downregulation of methyltransferase SUV39H2 and the upregulation of demethylase KDM4C was found in CD4+ T lymphocytes of LADA patients.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 07:55:30 +000
- Inflammatory Regulation in Diabetes and Metabolic Dysfunction
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Irisin: A Potential Link between Physical Exercise and Metabolism—An
Observational Study in Differently Trained Subjects, from Elite Athletes
to Sedentary People
Abstract: We compared irisin levels among groups of differently trained healthy individuals to explore the role of irisin as a physiological linker between exercise and metabolic health. Irisin and biochemical parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in 70 healthy volunteers stratified for sport performance level into four groups: () 20 elite athletes of national level, () 20 subelite athletes of local level, () 20 recreational athletes, and () 10 sedentary subjects. All biochemical parameters were within the ranges of normality. Fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol levels were inversely related to the degree of physical activity. HbA1c was higher in elite athletes compared to all the other groups (). A U-shaped relation between free fatty acids and the degree of physical activity was observed. All groups showed similar plasma irisin levels. After correction for the degree of insulin resistance (irisin/HOMA-IR), elite athletes showed higher levels compared to sedentary and recreational subjects ( and , resp.). In addition, the number of metabolic parameters correlated with irisin increased at increasing the training status. Our study suggests a correlation between sport performance, insulin sensitivity, and irisin levels. Irisin may be one potential mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolic profile.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 09:04:47 +000
- Mechanistic Insight and Management of Diabetic Nephropathy: Recent
Progress and Future Perspective
Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious microvascular complication of diabetes and the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in many developed countries. DN is also associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. It occurs as a result of interaction between both genetic and environmental factors. Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and genetic predisposition are the major risk factors. However, the exact mechanisms of DN are unclear. Despite the benefits derived from strict control of glucose and blood pressure, as well as inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, many patients continue to enter into ESRD. Thus, there is urgent need for improving mechanistic understanding of DN and then developing new and effective therapeutic approaches to delay the progression of DN. This review focuses on recent progress and future perspective about mechanistic insight and management of DN. Some preclinical relevant studies are highlighted and new perspectives of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for delaying DN progression are discussed in detail. These findings strengthen the therapeutic rationale for TCM in the treatment of DN and also provide new insights into the development of novel drugs for the prevention of DN. However, feasibility and safety of these therapeutic approaches and the clinical applicability of TCM in human DN need to be further investigated.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcer
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), an ideal cell source for regenerative therapy with no ethical issues, play an important role in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Growing evidence has demonstrated that MSCs transplantation can accelerate wound closure, ameliorate clinical parameters, and avoid amputation. In this review, we clarify the mechanism of preclinical studies, as well as safety and efficacy of clinical trials in the treatment of DFU. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), compared with MSCs derived from other tissues, may be a suitable cell type that can provide easy, effective, and cost-efficient transplantation to treat DFU and protect patients from amputation.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Corrigendum to “Large Gliadin Peptides Detected in the Pancreas of NOD
and Healthy Mice following Oral Administration”
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Efficacy of Administration of an Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor
for Two Years on Autonomic and Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with
Abstract: Aim. To evaluate the effect of quinapril on diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Patients and Methods. Sixty-three consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus [43% males, 27 with type 1 DM, mean age 52 years (range 22–65)], definite DCAN [abnormal results in 2 cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs)], and DPN were randomized to quinapril 20 mg/day (group A, ) or placebo (group B, ) for 2 years. Patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease were excluded. To detect DPN and DCAN, the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Questionnaire and Examination (MNSIQ and MNSIE), measurement of vibration perception threshold with biothesiometer (BIO), and CARTs [R-R variation during deep breathing [assessed by expiration/inspiration ratio (E/I), mean circular resultant (MCR), and standard deviation (SD)], Valsalva maneuver (Vals), 30 : 15 ratio, and orthostatic hypotension (OH)] were used. Results. In group A, E/I, MCR, and SD increased ( for all comparisons < 0.05). Other indices (Vals, 30 : 15, OH, MNSIQ, MNSIE, and BIO) did not change. In group B, all CART indices deteriorated, except Vals, which did not change. MNSIQ, MNSIE, and BIO did not change. Conclusions. Treatment with quinapril improves DCAN (mainly parasympathetic dysfunction). Improved autonomic balance may improve the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 09:14:31 +000
- Ethnic Minorities with Diabetes Differ in Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms
Abstract: Objective. To determine the association between ethnicity, diabetes-distress, and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adult outpatients with diabetes. Research Design and Methods. Diabetes-distress (Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, PAID5), depressive and anxiety symptoms (Extended Kessler-10, EK10), and quality of life (Short-Form 12, SF12) were assessed in an ethnic diverse diabetes outpatient population of a teaching hospital in Amsterdam. Descent of one’s parents and self-classified ethnicity were obtained to define ethnicity. HbA1c, clinical data, and socioeconomic status were derived from the medical charts. Based on established cut-offs for PAID5- and EK10-scores, emotional distress was dichotomized for the purpose of logistic regression analyses. Results. Of 1007 consecutive patients approached, 575 participated. Forty-nine percent were of non-Dutch ethnicity and 24.7% had type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-distress was reported by 12.5% of the native Dutch patients and by 22.0%, 34.5%, and 42.6% of the Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan patients, respectively. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 9.4% in native Dutch patients and 20.4%, 34.5%, and 27.3% in the other groups mentioned. Diabetes-distress and Moroccan origin were significantly associated (OR = 3.60, ) as well as depressive symptoms and Turkish origin (OR = 4.23, ). Conclusions. Different ethnic minorities with diabetes vary in their vulnerability for emotional distress, warranting clinical attention. Future research should elucidate explanatory factors and opportunities for tailored interventions.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Membrane Cholesterol in Skeletal Muscle: A Novel Player in
Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Insulin Resistance
Abstract: Membrane cholesterol is critical for signaling processes in a variety of tissues. We will address here current evidence supporting an emerging role of cholesterol on excitation-contraction coupling and glucose transport in skeletal muscle. We have centered our review on the transverse tubule system, a complex network of narrow plasma membrane invaginations that propagate membrane depolarization into the fiber interior and allow nutrient delivery into the fibers. We will discuss current evidence showing that transverse tubule membranes have remarkably high cholesterol levels and we will address how modifications of cholesterol content influence excitation-contraction coupling. In addition, we will discuss how membrane cholesterol levels affect glucose transport by modulating the insertion into the membrane of the main insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. Finally, we will address how the increased membrane cholesterol levels displayed by obese animals, which also present insulin resistance, affect these two particular skeletal muscle functions.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 07:02:18 +000