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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 223)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.683
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 25  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Effect of Lifestyle Factors on Hypertension by Constitution Type: A Large
           Community-Based Study

    • Abstract: Background. The risk of hypertension differs according to lifestyle factors and individual constitution types. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lifestyle factors on hypertension and to assess whether those effects differ according to the constitution types. Methods. A total of 5,793 men and women were recruited between 2012 and 2014. Odds ratios for hypertension associated with constitution types and lifestyle factors were estimated. Lifestyle factors included smoking status, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and sleep quality. Constitution types were estimated based on the Sasang constitutional medicine as the TE type, SE type, and SY type. Results. The risk of hypertension was significantly higher for SY (odds ratio 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.52) and TE types (1.38 (1.10 to 1.74)) than the SE type even with adjustment of health behaviors. Compared with individuals who had an unhealthy lifestyle, those with healthy lifestyle scores showed significantly lower risk of hypertension in only SY (odds ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.81)) and TE types (0.69 (0.58 to 0.81)). The difference in risk for hypertension among constitution types was decreased with a healthy lifestyle (1.34 in SY and 2.35 in TE types, as compared with the SE type) versus an unhealthy lifestyle (2.21 in SY and 3.64 in TE types, as compared with the SE type). Conclusion. The risk of hypertension was different by Sasang constitution types. The impact of lifestyle factors differed according to Sasang constitution types, and the difference in risk of hypertension among constitution types was decreased with a healthy lifestyle.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Dec 2019 13:05:01 +000
  • Phytochemistry, Antioxidant Activity, Antiproliferative Effect, and Acute
           Toxicity Testing of Two Moroccan Aristolochia Species

    • Abstract: Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Aristolochia baetica (A. baetica) and Aristolochia paucinervis (A. paucinervis) have been largely used in Moroccan folk medicine. The objective of the study was to investigate the phytochemical composition, the antioxidant activity, the antiproliferative effect, and the acute toxicity of the methanolic extract of A. baetica and A. paucinervis roots. Materials and Methods. Phytochemical composition of the methanolic extract of A. baetica and A. paucinervis roots were studied using qualitative and quantitative methods, the antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH assay, the antiproliferative effects against human cancer cell lines (T-24, HT-29, and Hep G-2) was assessed using WST1 assay, and the acute toxicity was carried out orally by gavage of single dose 2000 mg/kg to mice for 14 days. Results. The two studied plants have different classes of secondary metabolites. The concentrations of the total polyphenolic content of A. baetica and A. paucinervis root extracts were estimated at 360 ± 20 mg GAE/g and 280 ± 27 mg GAE/g, respectively. The total flavonoids content of A. baetica and A. paucinervis extracts were estimated at 35 ± 8 mg QE/g and 235 ± 7 mg QE/g, respectively. A. baetica and A. paucinervis extracts exhibited promising DPPH activity with IC50 values of 150 ± 8 μg/ml and 160 ± 10 μg/ml, respectively. The extracts exerted also antiproliferative effects on all tested cancer cell lines (T-24, HT-29, and Hep G-2) with IC50 values ranging from 6 ± 1 μg/ml to 380 ± 7 μg/ml. Regarding the results of acute toxicity study, no signs of toxicities nor mortalities were observed on the oral treated mice with 2000 mg/kg of the two investigated exacts. Conclusion. The methanolic extracts of A. baetica and A. paucinervis possess several phytochemicals that exhibited promising free radical scavenging activity and antiproliferative effects.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Dec 2019 14:05:06 +000
  • Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Pregnant Women
           with Noncephalic Presentation: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    • Abstract: Background. Breech presentation at the time of delivery is 3.8–4%. Fetuses that maintain a noncephalic presentation beyond 32 weeks will have a lower probability of spontaneous version before labor. Given the increasing interest in exploring the use of complementary medicine during pregnancy and childbirth, the moxibustion technique, a type of traditional Chinese medicine, could be another option to try turning a breech baby into a cephalic presentation. Objectives. To review the evidence from systematic reviews (SR) on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture and moxibustion in pregnant women with noncephalic presentation. Main Results. Our SR synthesizes the results from five clinical trials on pregnant women with a singleton noncephalic presentation. There is evidence that moxibustion reduces the number of noncephalic presentations at the time of birth compared with no treatment. The adverse effects that acupuncture and moxibustion can cause seem to be irrelevant. Most SRs agree that there are no adverse effects directly related to acupuncture and moxibustion. Conclusions. Even though the results obtained are positive and the five reviews conclude that moxibustion reduces the number of noncephalic presentations at birth (alone or combined with postural techniques or acupuncture), there is considerable heterogeneity between them. Better methodologically designed studies are required in the future to reaffirm this conclusion.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Dec 2019 13:05:02 +000
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine-Guided Dietary Intervention for Male Youth
           Undergoing Drug Detoxification: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine- (TCM-) guided dietary interventions in improving yang-qi deficiency and yin-blood deficiency TCM syndromes according to the principles of TCM syndrome differentiation theory in male youths undergoing drug detoxification during the rehabilitation period who stayed in a compulsory isolation detoxification center. Methods. Male youths undergoing drug detoxification who met the criteria to be included in the study were randomly divided into the intervention group (n = 62) and the control group (n = 61) according to a random number table in a 1 : 1 ratio. The intervention group received a TCM-guided diet, and the control group received routine food support. Over an intervention period of 3 months, we observed changes in the TCM syndrome element scores in the two groups before and after intervention. Results. After 3 months, the qi deficiency, yin deficiency, blood deficiency, and yin-blood deficiency syndrome in the intervention group improved significantly ( values 0.009, 0.000, 0.005, and 0.001, respectively). In the control group, yang deficiency, qi deficiency, and yang-qi deficiency syndromes worsened significantly ( values 0.003, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively). The differences (post-pre) in yang deficiency, qi deficiency, yang-qi deficiency, yin deficiency, blood deficiency, and yin-blood deficiency syndromes between the two groups were statistically significant ( values 0.003, 0.003, 0.003, 0.001, 0.005, and 0.002, respectively). Conclusion. A TCM-guided diet can delay the worsening of yang-qi deficiency syndrome symptoms and improve yin-blood deficiency syndrome and the prognosis of male youth undergoing drug detoxification during the rehabilitation period.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Dec 2019 11:05:04 +000
  • Effects of Traditional Kampo Drugs and Their Constituent Crude Drugs on
           Influenza Virus Replication In Vitro: Suppression of Viral Protein
           Synthesis by Glycyrrhizae Radix

    • Abstract: An influenza virus epidemic is an important issue in public hygiene, and continuous development on an effective drug is required. Kampo medicine is a traditional medicine that is used clinically for treatment of various diseases in Japan and other East Asian countries. We evaluated the effects of the Kampo drugs maoto, kakkonto, senkyuchachosan, jinkokato, and bakumondoto, which are prescribed for treatment of respiratory symptoms including symptoms caused by influenza, on influenza virus replication in cultured cells. Culture media of influenza virus-infected MDCK(+) cells were tested for hemagglutination and infectivity at 24 h after the addition of Kampo drugs at various concentrations, and four of the five Kampo drugs were found to inhibit virus release to the culture media. These drugs inactivated virus infectivity not by acting on virus particles but by acting on virus-infected cells. In addition, when six crude drugs (Atractylodis lanceae rhizome, Citri unshiu pericarpium, Cnidii rhizome, Glycyrrhizae radix, Rehmanniae radix, and Saposhnikoviae radix) that constitute the effective Kampo drugs were examined, the strongest activity was found for Glycyrrhizae radix (IC50 = 0.27 mg/ml), which selectively suppressed viral protein synthesis. Since Glycyrrhizae radix is contained in many Kampo drugs, it may give anti-influenza virus activity to a broad range of Kampo drugs.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Dec 2019 11:05:02 +000
  • The Role of Adenosine A2b Receptor in Mediating the Cardioprotection of
           Electroacupuncture Pretreatment via Influencing Ca2+ Key Regulators

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the roles played by A2b receptor and the key Ca2+ signaling components in the mediation of the cardioprotection of electroacupuncture pretreatment in the rats subjected to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Methods. SD rats were randomly divided into a normal control (NC) group, ischemia/reperfusion model (M) group, electroacupuncture pretreatment (EA) group, and electroacupuncture pretreatment plus A2b antagonist (EAG) group. The ischemia/reperfusion model was made by ligation and loosening of the left descending branch of the coronary artery in all groups except the NC group. The EA group was pretreated with electroacupuncture at the Neiguan (PC6) point once a day for three consecutive days before the modeling. The elevation of the ST segment, arrhythmia scores, and myocardial infarction size of each group was measured. The relative expression levels of A2b, RyR2, SERCA2a, NCX1, P-PLB(S16)/PLB, and Troponin C/Troponin I proteins in the injured myocardium were detected by multiple fluorescence western blot. Results. The level of ST segment, arrhythmia scores, and infarct size in the M group was significantly higher/larger than that in the NC group after ischemia and reperfusion, while all the three indices mentioned above in the EA group were significantly lower/smaller than those in the M group after reperfusion. The expression of the proteins of adenosine receptor 2b(A2b), ryanodine receptor 2(RyR2), and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) in the EA group was significantly enhanced as compared with the M group, while in the EAG group, the contents of A2b were significantly lower than those in the EA group, and RyR2 was higher in the EAG group. In comparison with the NC group, the relative expression of NCX1 protein in M, EA, and EAG groups was not changed significantly. The ratio of phosphorylated phospholamban (P-PLB) over phospholamban (PLB) in the M group was significantly lower than that in the NC group, and the ratio in the EA group was significantly increased as compared with the M group, while the ratio of Troponin C/Troponin I in the EA group was significantly decreased in comparison with that in other groups. Conclusion. Electroacupuncture pretreatment could reduce ischemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury via possibly increasing the A2b content and regulating the key Ca2+ signaling components, namely inhibiting RyR2 and enhancing P-PLB(S16)/PLB ratio and SERCA2a proteins, so as to diminish the intracellular Ca2+ overload and consequently lessen the myocardial injury.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 16:05:00 +000
  • Schinus terebinthifolius Essential Oil Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced
           Memory Deficits via Cholinergic Modulation and Antioxidant Properties in a
           Zebrafish Model

    • Abstract: Schinus terebinthifolius is a plant well recognized for its therapeutic profile such as anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, promoting antibacterial activity and antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. This study aimed at examining whether Schinus terebinthifolius memory-enhancing activities are mediated by cholinergic and brain antioxidant systems in a scopolamine zebrafish model. Schinus terebinthifolius essential oil (10, 25, and 50 μL/L) was delivered to zebrafish by immersion in water for 8 days. Memory deficits were induced by scopolamine (100 μM) administration. Zebrafish were divided into seven groups (n = 15/group): vehicle group, scopolamine (100 μM) group, Schinus terebinthifolius essential oil groups (STF; 10, 25, and 50 μL/L), the imipramine group (IMP; 20 mg/L, as the positive control in the NTT test), and the donepezil group (DP; 10 mg/L, as the positive control in the Y-maze test). Memory status was estimated by the novel tank diving test (NTT) and the Y-maze test and finally was validated by comparison with imipramine (20 mg/L) and donepezil (10 mg/L). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to detect oil compounds. Brain levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant enzymes were measured. After being exposed to Schinus terebinthifolius essential oil, the scopolamine zebrafish exhibited an improvement of memory processes in the NTT and Y-maze tests. The essential oil attenuated the elevated level of AChE and brain oxidative stress. Schinus terebinthifolius essential oil was found to support memory formation through the inhibition of the AChE activity and decreasing oxidative stress in the scopolamine-treated zebrafish brains.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 14:05:04 +000
  • Stingless Bee Honey Improves Spatial Memory in Mice, Probably Associated
           with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Inositol
           1,4,5-Triphosphate Receptor Type 1 (Itpr1) Genes

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of stingless bee honey (SBH) supplementation on memory and learning in mice. Despite many studies that show the benefits of honey on memory, reports on the nootropic effects of SBH are still lacking, and their underlying mechanism is still unclear. SBH is a honey produced by the bees in the tribe of Meliponini that exist in tropical countries. It features unique storage of honey collected in cerumen pots made of propolis. This SBH may offer a better prospect for therapeutic performance as the previous report identifies the presence of antioxidants that were greater than other honey produced by Apis sp. In this study, SBH was tested on Swiss albino mice following acute (7 days) and semichronic (35 days) supplementation. Experiments were then conducted using Morris water maze (MWM) behaviour analysis, RT-PCR for gene expression of mice striatum, and NMR for metabolomics analysis of the honey. Results indicate spatial working memory and spatial reference memory of mice were significantly improved in the honey-treated group compared with the control group. Improved memory consolidations were also observed in prolonged supplementation. Gene expression analyses of acutely treated mice demonstrated significant upregulation of BDNF and Itpr1 genes that involve in synaptic function. NMR analysis also identified phenylalanine, an essential precursor for tyrosine that plays a role at the BDNF receptor. In conclusion, SBH supplementation for seven days at 2000 mg/kg, which is equivalent to a human dose of 162 mg/kg, showed strong capabilities to improve spatial working memory. And prolonged intake up to 35 days increased spatial reference memory in the mice model. The phenylalanine in SBH may have triggered the upregulation of BDNF genes in honey-treated mice and improved their spatial memory performance.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 12:05:02 +000
  • Comparative Study of Crude and Wine-Processing Corni Fructus on Chemical
           Composition and Antidiabetic Effects

    • Abstract: Wine processing is a specialized technology which involves sautéing crude herbal medicine using Chinese rice wine. Herein, we identified the changes in chemical profiles and antidiabetic effects of Corni Fructus (CF) after wine processing in high-fat diet (HFD) streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. A novel high-efficiency method for simultaneously quantifying gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, sweroside, and cornuside by UPLC was developed, and validating crude and wine-processing CF was done for the first time. Mice were randomly divided into the following groups and orally given different solutions for 4 weeks: normal group (NC, 0.4% (w/v) CMC-Na), model group (DM, 0.4% (w/v) CMC-Na), crude CF group (CP, 3.87 g/kg), and wine-processing CF group (PP, 3.87 g/kg) followed by HFD and multiple subcutaneous injection of STZ (40 mg/kg) to induce the diabetes model except the NC group. Biochemical indexes (body weight, fasting blood glucose level, lipid level, insulin, and free fatty acid) and other parameters involving liver toxicity were measured with commercial kits and immunohistochemical method. Comparative studies on pharmacology showed that the crude extracts possess higher efficacy on hypoglycemia and hypolipidemia, while wine-processing products exhibit better effects on liver preservation. Our data suggested that wine processing was recommended when CF was used for protecting the liver; however, crude products should be used as antidiabetic drugs.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 10:05:01 +000
  • The Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interaction of Fluoxetine and Its Metabolite
           Norfluoxetine with a Traditional Chinese Medicine in Rats by LC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Background. Fluoxetine (FLU) is the first-line and widely used medication for depression. The combination of Chaihu Shugan san (CSGS) and FLU is commonly used to enhance antidepressant effects and reduce side effects. Objective. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the potential pharmacokinetic effect of CSGS on FLU. Materials and Methods. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups, the fluoxetine group and multiple dose groups A, B, and C. The rats in the different groups were orally administered with a combination of FLU and different doses of CSGS for 14 d. On the fifteenth day, serial blood samples were taken from the caudal vein before the administration and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after the administration. A liquid-liquid extraction method was applied to extract the analytes from serum. Then, the concentrations of FLU and its metabolite, norfluoxetine (NOF), were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 3.2.8 program and compared by statistic analysis. Results. Compared with the FLU group, the FLU and NOF area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) (0–∞) in multiple dose group C was significantly increased, while the NOF AUCs (0–∞) in multiple dose group A and multiple dose group B were decreased. Compared with the FLU group, the NOF clearance (CL) in multiple dose group C was decreased, while the CL in multiple dose groups A and B was increased. Discussion and Conclusion. There were some differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the FLU group and multiple dose groups, and CSGS can affect the pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Nov 2019 07:05:00 +000
  • In Vitro Antifungal and Antivirulence Activities of Biologically
           Synthesized Ethanolic Extract of Propolis-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles
           against Candida albicans

    • Abstract: Propolis is a natural substance and consists of bioactive compounds, which gives it antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the use of propolis is limited by the low solubility in aqueous solutions. Thus, nanoparticles may be likely to accomplish enhanced delivery of poorly water-soluble phytomedicine. The aim of the present study was to fabricate and evaluate the biological activity of ethanolic extract of propolis-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (EEP-NPs). The EEP-NPs were prepared using the oil-in-water (o/w) single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical properties of EEP-NPs were characterized and tested on their cytotoxicity, antifungal activity, and impact on key virulence factors that contribute to pathogenesis of C. albicans. EEP-NPs were successfully synthesized and demonstrated higher antifungal activity than EEP in free form. Moreover, EEP-NPs exhibited less cytotoxicity on Vero cells and suppressed the virulence factors of C. albicans, including adhesion, hyphal germination, biofilm formation, and invasion. Importantly, EEP-NPs exhibited a statistical decrease in the expression of hyphal adhesion-related genes, ALS3 and HWP1, of C. albicans. The results of this study revealed that EEP-NPs mediates a potent anticandidal activity and key virulence factors by reducing the gene-encoding virulence-associated hyphal- adhesion proteins of C. albicans and, thereby, disrupting the morphologic presence and attenuating their virulence.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Nov 2019 06:05:00 +000
  • The Status of the Acupuncture Mechanism Study Based on PET/PET-CT
           Technique: Design and Quality Control

    • Abstract: PET/PET-CT is an important technique to investigate the central mechanism of acupuncture in vivo. This article collected original research papers with keywords of “Acupuncture,” “PET,” “PET/CT,” and “Positron emission tomography” in PubMed and CNKI databases from January 2003 to December 2018. As a result, a total of 43 articles were included. Based on the literature analyses, we found that (1) reasonable arrangement of the operation process and the choice of appropriate acupuncture intervention time is conducive to a better interpretation of acupuncture-PET/PET-CT mechanism and (2) the selection of participants, sample size, acupuncture intervention, and experimental conditions would affect study results. Therefore, effective quality control is an important way to ensure the repeatability of research results.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 08:05:02 +000
  • Migration and Proliferation Effects of Thymoquinone-Loaded Nanostructured
           Lipid Carrier (TQ-NLC) and Thymoquinone (TQ) on In Vitro Wound Healing

    • Abstract: Wound healing is a regulated biological event that involves several processes including infiltrating leukocyte subtypes and resident cells. Impaired wound healing is one of the major problems in diabetic patients due to the abnormal physiological changes of tissues and cells in major processes. Thymoquinone, a bioactive compound found in Nigella sativa has been demonstrated to possess antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Today, the rapidly progressing nanotechnology sets a new alternative carrier to enhance and favour the speed of healing process. In order to overcome its low bioavailability, TQ is loaded into a colloidal drug carrier known as a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). This study aimed to determine the effect of TQ-NLC and TQ on cell proliferation and migration, mode of cell death, and the antioxidant levels in normal and diabetic cell models, 3T3 and 3T3-L1. Cytotoxicity of TQ-NLC and TQ was determined by MTT assay. The IC10 values obtained for 3T3-L1 treated with TQ-NLC and TQ for 24 hours were 4.7 ± 3.3 and 5.3 ± 0.6 μM, respectively. As for 3T3, the IC10 values obtained for TQ-NLC and TQ at 24 hours were 4.3 ± 0.17 and 3.9 ± 2.05 μM, respectively. TQ-NLC was observed to increase the number of 3T3 and 3T3-L1 healthy cells (87–95%) and gradually decrease early apoptotic cells in time- and dose-dependant manner compared with TQ. In the proliferation and migration assay, 3T3-L1 treated with TQ-NLC showed higher proliferation and migration rate () compared with TQ. TQ-NLC also acted as an antioxidant by reducing the ROS levels in both cells after injury at concentration as low as 3 μM. Thus, this study demonstrated that TQ-NLC has better proliferation and migration as well as antioxidant effect compared with TQ especially on 3T3-L1 which confirms its ability as a good antidiabetic and antioxidant agent.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 07:05:02 +000
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 Attenuates Angiotensin II-Mediated Renal Injury in Rats
           and Mice by Upregulating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 in the Renal

    • Abstract: Angiotensin II- (Ang II-) mediated renal injury represents a major pathogenetic mechanism in most chronic kidney diseases. Our previous research demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3) attenuates Ang II elevation in the myocardium in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). It is possible that Rg3 has similar effects in the renal tissue. In this research, we first demonstrated that Rg3 could attenuate Ang II increase in the kidney of SHR and reduce hypertensive nephropathy progression. Then, we found that Rg3 attenuated Ang II increase by upregulating angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the renal tissue. We confirmed this finding in an exogenous Ang II-infused mice model of renal injury, and two models showed consistent results. In conclusion, Rg3 attenuates Ang II-mediated renal injury in rats and mice by upregulating ACE2 in the renal tissue. This research is the first to demonstrate that Rg3 increases tissue ACE2 levels in vivo.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 07:05:00 +000
  • Exploring the Pharmacological Mechanism of the Herb Pair
           “HuangLian-GanJiang” against Colorectal Cancer Based on Network

    • Abstract: Since the herb pair Huang Lian-Gan Jiang (HL-GJ) was put forward as conventional compatibility for cold-heat regulation in the middle energizer in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), their therapeutic effects were observed on the prevention and treatment of intestinal inflammation and tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the active compounds, crucial targets, and related pathways of HL-GJ against CRC remained unclear. The purpose of this research was to establish a comprehensive and systemic approach that could identify the active compounds, excavate crucial targets, and reveal anti-CRC mechanisms of HL-GJ against CRC based on network pharmacology. We used methods including chemical compound screening based on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME), compound target prediction, CRC target collection, network construction and analysis, Gene Ontology (GO), and pathway analysis. In this study, eight main active compounds of HL-GJ were identified, including Gingerenone C, Isogingerenone B, 5,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl) Chromone, 2,3,4-trihydroxy-benzenepropanoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl Alcohol Glucoside, 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy-phenoxy Glucoside, Moupinamide, and Obaculactone. HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, PDE5A, PPARG, TGFBR1, and TGFBR2 were identified as crucial targets of HL-GJ against CRC. There were mainly 500 biological processes and 70 molecular functions regulated during HL-GJ against CRC (). There were mainly 162 signaling pathways contributing to therapeutic effects (), the top 10 of which included DAP12 signaling, signaling by PDGF, signaling by EGFR, NGF signaling via TRKA from the plasma membrane, signaling by NGF, downstream signal transduction, DAP12 interactions, signaling by VEGF, signaling by FGFR3, and signaling by FGFR4. The study established a comprehensive and systematic paradigm to understand the pharmacological mechanisms of multiherb compatibility such as an herb pair, which might accelerate the development and modernization of TCM.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 05:05:00 +000
  • A Comparison of Characterization and Its Actions on Immunocompetent Cells
           of Polysaccharides from Sijunzi Decoction

    • Abstract: Sijunzi decoction (SJZD) is a classic recipe in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with strong immune-enhancement activity. To further understand the characterization and immunomodulatory effect of polysaccharides from SJZD, the monosaccharide compositions of crude polysaccharide (SJZDP), polysaccharide fraction (S-3), and homogeneous polysaccharide (S-3-AG) from SJZD were compared by GC analysis, as well as their immunomodulatory effects on Peyer’s patch cells, splenocytes, and macrophages which are related to intestinal immunity, specific immunity, and nonspecific immunity. The results showed that S-3-AG mainly contained Ara with a proportion of 38.9%, while Glc accounted for the largest proportion in S-3 (55.6%) and SJZDP (87.6%). The SJZDP, S-3, and S-3-AG all showed strong capability to stimulate Peyer’s patch cells to proliferate and produce IgA and promoted the proliferation and IFN-γ production of splenocytes and increased the NO production and TNF-α production of macrophages. However, S-3 and S-3-AG were able to stimulate splenocytes to secret IL-4, SJZDP had no effect on IL-4 production of splenocytes in the tested concentrations. In addition, S-3 could stimulate the phagocytic activity of macrophages, and S-3-AG restrained the proliferation of macrophages at the concentration of 50–200 µg/mL. These results suggested that SJZDP, S-3, and S-3-AG might have different immunomodulatory effects on intestinal immunity, specific immunity, and nonspecific immunity due to their different monosaccharide compositions. It will provide references for the material basis and mechanism of SJZD immunomodulation activity.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 04:05:05 +000
  • Phellinus linteus Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Inhibits IgE-Mediated
           Allergic Activity through the Suppression of FcεRI-Dependent Signaling
           Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo

    • Abstract: Phellinus linteus (PL) has been used as a traditional herbal medicine owing to its immune regulatory activity. Previous studies reported that PL grown on germinated brown rice (PBR) exerted immunomodulatory, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, role of PBR on type I hypersensitive reactions has not been studied yet. We found that PBR contained more polyphenolic compounds than PL extract. Among fractions, PBR butanol fraction (PBR-BuOH) significantly contained the most amounts of total polyphenolic contents compared with all extracts or fractions. In this study, anti-allergic activity of PBR-BuOH was examined using in vitro and in vivo models of immunoglobulin E/antigen- (IgE/Ag-) stimulated allergy. The inhibitory activity of degranulation was higher in PBR-BuOH (IC50 41.31 ± 0.14 μg/mL) than in PL-BuOH (IC50 108.07 ± 8.98 μg/mL). We observed that PBR-BuOH suppressed calcium influx and the level of TNF-α and IL-4 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of Fyn, Gab2, PI3K, Syk, and IκB protein is reduced by PBR-BuOH. Oral administration of PBR-BuOH inhibited allergic reactions including the extravasation of Evans blue dye, ear swelling, and infiltration of immune cells in mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). These findings suggest that PBR-BuOH might be used as a functional food, a health supplement, or a drug for preventing type I hypersensitive allergic disease.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 03:05:05 +000
  • The Effect of Acupoint Application of Sinomenine for Rheumatoid Arthritis
           Measured by Microdialysis and UPLC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Objective. This study aimed to investigate the treatment effects of acupoint application of sinomenine in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA models were constructed using male New Zealand rabbits. Methods. The rabbits were randomly divided into a blank control group and four experimental groups as follows: ST 36 group (acupoint application of sinomenine at Zusanli); GB 34 group (acupoint application of sinomenine at Yanglingquan); knee-joint group (application directly at the site of the knee joint); and oral administration group (sinomenine administered by gavage). In all rabbits, microdialysis was applied at the knee joint to obtain samples. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters were measured by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and the PK/PD models were established according to the parameters derived. Results. Sinomenine concentration was in the range of 0.832–208 ng/mL, and the peak area showed a good linear relationship with the regression equation of y = 539.64x + 953.81; r = 0.9998. Moreover, good specificity and precision were obtained for the LC-MS/MS method of sinomenine evaluation in the microdialysate samples. The PK analysis showed that the sinomenine effect time was longer in the ST 36 group (area under the time-concentration curve (AUC): 12683.81 h·ng/ml and Tmax: 6.21 h) than in the other groups. Arginine and citrulline were selected as the indices for PD, and in the analysis of parameters for PK/PD, the highest value of Emax and the lowest value of ke0 were obtained in the ST 36 group. Conclusion. Acupoint application of sinomenine at ST 36 has potential for use in patients with RA by enabling enhanced and prolonged treatment effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2019 08:05:03 +000
  • Chinese Medicine Jiedu Huayu Granules Reduce Liver Injury in Rats by
           Regulating T-Cell Immunity

    • Abstract: Liver injury, one of the causes of liver failure, is mainly due to T-cell-mediated immunity. Traditional Chinese medicine Jiedu Huayu granules are often used to suppress liver damage and improve liver function. The specific regulatory mechanism of Jiedu Huayu granules has not been fully studied, and its function in the immune system remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, the mechanism of Jiedu Huayu granules in the prevention of hepatic injury was studied in a rat model of hepatic injury induced by D-galactoside and lipopolysaccharide. The cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the peripheral blood were examined. Perforin, granule B, and PD1 expression in CTL increased after the induction of hepatic injury and could be reduced by Jiedu Huayu granules. Hepatic apoptotic factors OX62, FAS, and TNFR1 associated with CTL function were also reduced by Jiedu Huayu granules. These results suggested that Jiedu Huayu granules could inhibit the inflammatory response to relieve liver damage by mediating the T-cell immunity. Therefore, the discovery of the mechanism of action of Jiedu Huayu granules in the immune system could allow their use more effectively in clinical practice.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 09:05:04 +000
  • Fourier Series Analysis for Novel Spatiotemporal Pulse Waves: Normal,
           Taut, and Slippery Pulse Images

    • Abstract: In this article, a three-dimensional pulse image (3DPI) instead of a one-dimensional temporal pulse wave is studied to elucidate its spatiotemporal characteristics. To check the spatial and temporal properties of 3DPI, adopted is Fourier series, in which a ratio (r) is defined as one amplitude divided by the sum of the first three amplitudes of harmonics. A ratio sequence is constituted from 70 to 90 ratios in a heartbeat with 70–90 3DPIs by sampling. Twenty-four subjects (14 males and 10 females with age of 22.2 ± 3.7 years, 20.4 ± 1.4 BMI, and 112.1 ± 4.7 mmHg systolic blood pressure) are involved in this research. There are significant statistical differences in the groups of the normal, taut, and slippery 3DPIs by the first harmonic ratio average () and ratio difference () produced from the ratio sequence. The proposed method of this study gives us a novel viewpoint to clarify the spatiotemporal characteristics of pulse images, which can translate and quantize the pulse feeling in Chinese medicine texts.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 07:05:04 +000
  • Safety Assessment of Methanol Extract of Melastoma malabathricum L. Leaves
           following the Subacute and Subchronic Oral Consumptions in Rats and Its
           Cytotoxic Effect against the HT29 Cancer Cell Line

    • Abstract: Methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (MEMM) has been traditionally used by the Malay to treat various ailments. In an attempt to develop the plant as an herbal product, MEMM was subjected to the subacute and subchronic toxicity and cytotoxicity studies. On the one hand, the subacute study was performed on three groups of male and three groups of female rats (n = 6), which were orally administered with 8% Tween 80 (vehicle control group) or MEMM (500 and 1000 mg/kg) daily for 28 days, respectively. On the other hand, the subchronic study was performed on four groups of rats (n = 6), which were orally administered with 8% Tween 80 (vehicle control group) or MEMM (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg) daily for 90 days, respectively. In the in vitro study, the cytotoxic effect of MEMM against the HT29 colon cancer cell line was assessed using the MTT assay. MEMM was also subjected to the UHPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis. The results demonstrated that MEMM administration did not cause any mortality, irregularity of behaviour, modification in body weight, as well as food and water intake following the subacute and subchronic oral treatment. There were no significant differences observed in haematological parameters between treatment and control groups in both studies, respectively. The in vitro study demonstrated that MEMM exerts a cytotoxic effect against the HT29 colon cancer cell line when observed under the inverted and phase-contrast microscope and confirmed by the acridine orange/propidium iodide (AOPI) staining. The UHPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis of MEMM demonstrated the occurrence of several compounds including quercetin, p-coumaric acid, procyanidin A, and epigallocatechin. In conclusion, M. malabathricum leaves are safe for oral consumption either at the subacute or subchronic levels and possess cytotoxic action against the HT29 colon cancer cells possibly due to the synergistic action of several flavonoid-based compounds.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 08:05:00 +000
  • Various Parts of Helianthus annuus Plants as New Sources of Antimalarial

    • Abstract: Background. Each part of H. annuus plants is traditionally used as medicinal remedies for several diseases, including malaria. Antimalarial activity of the leaf and the seed has already been observed; however, there is no report about antimalarial activity of the other parts of H. annuus plants. In this study, we assess in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity of each part of the plants and its mechanism as antimalarial agent against inhibition of heme detoxification. Objective. To investigate the antimalarial activity of various parts of H. annuus. Methods. Various parts of the H. annuus plant were tested for in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strain (chloroquine-sensitive), in vivo antimalarial activity against P. berghei using Peters’ 4-day suppressive test in BALB/c mice, curative and prophylaxis assay, and inhibition of heme detoxification by evaluating β-hematin level. Results. Ethanol extract of the roots showed the highest antimalarial activity, followed by ethanol extract of leaves, with IC50 values of 2.3 ± 1.4 and 4.3 ± 2.2 μg/mL, respectively and the percentage inhibition of P. berghei of 63.6 ± 8.0 and 59.3 ± 13.2 at a dose of 100 mg/kg, respectively. Ethanol extract of roots produced an ED50 value of 10.6 ± 0.2 mg/kg in the curative test and showed an inhibition of 79.2% at a dose of 400 mg/kg in the prophylactic assay. In inhibition of heme detoxification assay, root and leaf ethanol extracts yielded a lower IC50 value than positive (chloroquine) control with a value of 0.4 ± 0.0 and 0.5 ± 0.0 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. There were promising results of the ethanol extracts of root of H. annuus as a new source for the development of a new plant-based antimalarial agent.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 06:05:02 +000
  • Development of a Diagnostic Questionnaire for Damp Phlegm Pattern and
           Blood Stasis Pattern in Coronary Heart Disease Patients (CHD-DPBSPQ)

    • Abstract: Background. The aim was to develop a diagnostic questionnaire for damp phlegm pattern and blood stasis pattern in coronary heart disease patients (CHD-DPBSPQ). Methods. The standard procedures of questionnaire development were carried out to develop and assess CHD-DPBSPQ. The patients were assessed using the CHD-DPBSPQ, CHD-DPPQ, and CHD-BSPQ. Four methods were used to select the items on the CHD-DPBSPQ in a pilot study based on data from a Guizhou tertiary grade A hospital. Cronbach’s alpha and the split-half reliability, test-retest reliability, content validity, criterion validity, construct validity, and convergent validity were determined in a validation study using a nationwide sample. Results. After item selection, the CHD-DPBSPQ contained 15 items in two domains: the phlegm domain (9 items) and the blood stasis domain (6 items). For the CHD-DPBSPQ, the alpha coefficient was 0.88, the split-half coefficient was 0.90, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83. The range of the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) was 0.71 to 1.0 and that of the scale-level content validity index/average (Scale-CVI/Ave) was 0.97. The domain scores on the CHD-DPBSPQ were in close relation to the scores on a questionnaire for damp phlegm pattern in coronary heart disease patients (CHD-DPPQ) and a questionnaire for blood stasis pattern in coronary heart disease patient (CHD-BSPQ) (). The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was equal to 0.05 (90% CI: 0.044, 0.059). Convergent validity was demonstrated with a moderate correlation. Conclusion. The CHD-DPBSPQ is a reliable and valid instrument.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 05:05:00 +000
  • Study on the Multitarget Mechanism and Key Active Ingredients of Herba
           Siegesbeckiae and Volatile Oil against Rheumatoid Arthritis Based on
           Network Pharmacology

    • Abstract: Background. Herba Siegesbeckiae (HS, Xixiancao in Chinese) is widely used to treat inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis, and its molecular mechanisms and active ingredients have not been completely elucidated. Methods. In this study, the small molecule ligand library of HS was built based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP). The essential oil from HS was extracted through hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The target of RA was screened based on Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). The key genes were output by the four algorithms’ maximum neighborhood component (MNC), degree, maximal clique centrality (MCC), and stress in cytoHubba in Cytoscape, while biological functions and pathways were also analyzed. The key active ingredients and mechanism of HS and essential oil against RA were verified by molecular docking technology (Sybyl 2.1.1) in treating RA. The interaction between 6 active ingredients (degree ≥ 5) and CSF2, IL1β, TNF, and IL6 was researched based on the software Ligplot. Results. There were 31 small molecule constituents of HS and 16 main chemical components of essential oil (relative content >1%) of HS. There were 47 chemical components in HS. Networks showed that 9 core targets (TNF, IL1β, CSF2, IFNG, CTLA4, IL18, CD26, CXCL8, and IL6) of RA were based on Venn diagrams. In addition, molecular docking simulation indicated that CSF2, IL1β, TNF, and IL6 had good binding activity with the corresponding compounds (degree > 10).The 6 compounds (degree ≥ 5) of HS and essential oil had good interaction with 5 or more targets. Conclusion. This study validated and predicted the mechanism and key active ingredients of HS and volatile oil in treating RA. Additionally, this study provided a good foundation for further experimental studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 04:05:00 +000
  • Sesamin, a Naturally Occurring Lignan, Inhibits Ligand-Induced Lipogenesis
           through Interaction with Liver X Receptor Alpha (LXRα) and Pregnane X
           Receptor (PXR)

    • Abstract: Liver X receptor (LXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates various biological processes, including de novo lipogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, and inflammation. Selective inhibition of LXR may aid the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Sesamin is a naturally occurring lignan in many dietary plants and has a wide range of beneficial effects on metabolism. The mechanism underlying sesamin action especially on the regulation of LXR remains elusive. Reporter assays, mRNA and protein expression, and in silico modeling were used to identify sesamin as an antagonist of LXRα. Sesamin was applied to the hepatic HepaRG and intestinal LS174T cells and showed that it markedly ameliorated lipid accumulation in the HepaRG cells, by reducing LXRα transactivation, inhibiting the expression of downstream target genes. This effect was associated with the stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, followed by decreased T0901317-LXRα-induced expression of SREBP-1c and its downstream target genes. Mechanistically, sesamin reduced the recruitment of SRC-1 but enhanced that of SMILE to the SREBP-1c promoter region under T0901317 treatment. It regulated the transcriptional control exerted by LXRα by influencing its interaction with coregulators and thus decreased mRNA and protein levels of genes downstream of LXRα and reduced lipid accumulation in hepatic cells. Additionally, sesamin reduced valproate- and rifampin-induced LXRα and pregnane X receptor (PXR) transactivation. This was associated with reduced expression of target genes and decreased lipid accumulation. Thus, sesamin is an antagonist of LXRα and PXR and suggests that it may alleviate drug-induced lipogenesis via the suppression of LXRα and PXR signaling.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Nov 2019 08:05:00 +000
  • Are Kidney-Tonifying and Blood-Activating Medicinal Herbs Better than

    • Abstract: Objective. To compare the efficacy and safety of kidney-tonifying and blood-activating medicinal herbs (KTBAMs) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from online databases that compared the efficacy of KTBAMs and NSAIDs in the treatment of KOA were retrieved. The main outcomes included the evaluation of functional outcomes, pain, and adverse effects. The Cochrane risk-of-bias (ROB) tool was used to assess methodological quality. Results. A total of 38 RCTs (3994 participants) were included in our meta-analysis. We found that KTBAMs had a significantly higher total effective rate (, risk ratio (RR) = 1.08, confidence interval (CI) = 1.05 to 1.11, I2 = 4%) and a lower gastrointestinal adverse reaction rate (, RR = 0.36, CI = 0.24 to 0.53, I2 = 33%) than NSAIDs. KTBAMs showed greater improvements in the Knee Society Scale (KSS) scores (mean difference (MD) = 7.17, 95% CI 0.71 to 13.64, ). Regarding the visual analog scale (VAS) scores, WOMAC scores, and Lequence scores, there were no significant differences between the KTBAM group and the NSAID group. The GRADE quality level of this systematic review indicated that the very low-quality evidence showed that KTBAMs had a higher total effective rate, while the moderate-quality evidence showed that the adverse reactions of KTBAMs were lower and the KSS scores were higher. Low-quality evidence showed no significant differences in improving VAS scores, WOMAC scores, or Lequence scores. Conclusion. KTBAMs were superior to NSAIDs in terms of a higher total effective rate, a lower adverse reaction rate, and a higher KSS score. There were no significant differences between KTBAMs and NSAIDs in improving VAS scores, WOMAC scores, and Lequence scores of patients with KOA. Therefore, KTBAMs may be an alternative effective method for treating KOA. However, high-quality, well-designed RCTs with long-term follow-up are still required.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Nov 2019 07:05:01 +000
  • Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb761 on Hippocampal Neuronal Injury and
           Carbonyl Stress of D-Gal-Induced Aging Rats

    • Abstract: Background. Ginkgo biloba extract is widely studied for antiaging activities, but little is known about its antiaging mechanism of protein carbonylation. In order to verify carbonyl toxification (stress) hypothesis of aging, we have investigated the effects of EGb761 on hippocampal neuronal injury and carbonyl stress of aging rats. Methods. Seventy-two Wister male rats were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 12), normal control (NC), model control (MC), vitamin E (VE, 60 mg/kg) group, EGb761 low doses (GBEL, 8.75 mg/kg), EGb761 moderate doses (GBEM, 17.5 mg/kg), and EGb761 high doses (GBEH, 35 mg/kg). Except the NC, the other groups were subject to subcutaneous administration of 0.5% D-gal (10 ml/kg/day) for 6 weeks to induce aging model. The study detected cognitive impairment in rats by Morris water maze test and the contents of superoxidase dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) by the related kits. The level of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) protein adducts in rat brain was detected, and the ultrastructure of hippocampus was observed. Results. The EGb761 treatment groups significantly improved the spatial learning and memory of rats. Moreover, EGb761 treatment could reduce hippocampal neuronal damage based on histopathological and ultrastructural observation. Further studies have proved that these activities are remarkably related with the reducing level of MDA, protein carbonyl and lipofuscin, and 4-HNE protein expression, as well as the increasing of SOD and T-AOC content. Furthermore, EGb761 improves telomerase activity by detecting telomerase activity in the brain of aging rats. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EGb761 is an effective agent against D-gal-induced hippocampal neuronal loss owing to its antioxidative as well as carbonyl stress properties. Meanwhile, the carbonylation hypothesis is confirmed that the high level of 4-HNE may cause age-related neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 16:05:00 +000
  • Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Release Procedures in the Lumbar Ligamentum
           Flavum by Acupotomy: A Cadaveric study

    • Abstract: Objective. This study aims to determine the methods of percutaneous release procedures in the lumbar ligamentum flavum (LF) under ultrasound guidance by acupotomy and provide an anatomical basis for intrusive treatment of lumbar disc herniation and lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Methods. Twelve cadavers including 4 females and 8 males aged 60 to 90 years (73.42 ± 14.57 years), without formalin fixation, were selected. Guided by an ultrasound transducer, we punctured acupotomy to release lumbar LF in L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1 segments. In the transverse-axis approach, the probe was placed transversely, while in the longitudinal-axis approach, the probe was placed longitudinally. The depth of needle penetration (A), the distance between the puncture point and spinous process (B), and the distance between the puncture point and sacral cornu (C) were measured on cadavers, and the depth of needle penetration (U-A), the distance between the puncture point and spinous process (U-B), and the angle for acupotomy (D) on ultrasound images were also measured. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS. Paired sample t-tests and homogeneity of variance tests and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. The Pearson correlation coefficients and linear correlation coefficients were calculated for the data obtained from ultrasound and cadaver measurements. Results. No obvious blood vessels and nerves were observed in the puncture path, and the spinal dura was intact. There was no statistical difference between the left and right side measurements obtained from the ultrasound images and the cadavers. The penetration depth in the transverse-axis approach was less than that in the longitudinal-axis approach, and the angle of the needle in the transverse-axis approach was greater than that in the longitudinal-axis approach. The measured data for the transverse-axis approach for L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1 segments showed that there were no differences in the needle angle, the depth of needle penetration, and the distance from the spinous process to the puncture point among the three segments. There was a strong correlation between the depth of needle penetration and the distance from the spinous process to the puncture point on the ultrasonic images and the cadavers on the path of acupotomy. Linear equation A = 2.02 + 0.83  U-A, R2 = 0.352; B = 1.37 + 0.71  U-B, R2 = 0.252, where A/B refers to the data measured on the cadavers and U-A/U-B refers to the data measured on the ultrasound images. Conclusion. In this study, ultrasound guidance was applied, which better guaranteed the safety and feasibility of acupotomy therapy. Before performing the treatment, the depth of needle penetration in the human body can be determined by measuring the distance between the needle point and the target position on the ultrasound image. Under ultrasound guidance, the transverse-axis approach has a smaller puncture depth and greater puncture angle than the longitudinal-axis approach. Hence, this study believes that the transverse-axis approach is safer for the clinical application of ultrasound-guided LF acupotomy lysis.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 11:05:04 +000
  • DNA Markers to Discriminate Cannabis sativa L. ‘Cheungsam’ with Low
           Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Content from Other South Korea Cultivars Based
           on the Nucleotide Sequences of Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid Synthase and
           Putative 3-Ketoacyl-CoA Synthase Genes

    • Abstract: Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for a long time as a traditional herbal medicine in Korea. Dry fruits, achenes, each containing a single seed of Cannabis, are currently prescribed as Ma In (Cannabis Semen), a laxative. As each achene is enclosed by a bract, in which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychological active compound in Cannabis is synthesized; achene is easily contaminated by THC from bract remnants. Therefore, it is safer to harvest achenes from Cannabis with a low THC content. Seeds of hemp, a low THC Cannabis, were recently classified as possible sources of new pharmacologically active compounds. Thus, a proper method to select appropriate Cannabis plants with low THC among cultivars in South Korea for medicinal purpose is necessary. As a result of cross-selection, Cannabis L. cultivar “Cheungsam” (CH) with the lowest THC content among cultivars cultivated in South Korea has been developed. In this study, we developed two DNA markers to reliably discriminate CH from other local cultivars with higher THC contents. We developed primer sets CHF3/CHR2 to amplify the 642 bp DNA marker of CH based on differences in the nucleotide sequences of the THCA synthase gene, which encodes a key enzyme in THC synthesis. We then developed a CHF1/CHR3 primer set to amplify the 401 bp DNA marker of CH based on the differences in both the content of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFs) and the sequence of the putative 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) gene encoding enzymes synthesizing VLCFs among local cultivars.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 15:05:00 +000
  • Nephroprotective Role of Beta vulgaris L. Root Extract against
           Chlorpyrifos-Induced Renal Injury in Rats

    • Abstract: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are widely used for agricultural and housekeeping purposes. Exposure to OPs is associated with the progression of several health issues. Antioxidant agents may be powerful candidates to minimise adverse reactions caused by OPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective effects of red beetroot extract (RBR) against chlorpyrifos- (CPF-) induced renal impairments. CPF induced kidney dysfunction, as demonstrated by changes in serum creatinine and urea levels. Moreover, CPF exposure induced oxidative stress in the kidneys as determined by increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels, decreased glutathione content, decreased catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities, and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like-2 factor expression. In addition, CPF induced inflammation in renal tissue as evidenced by increased release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β and upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, CPF promoted cell death as demonstrated by decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 levels. Treatment with RBR one hour prior to CPF treatment blocked the effects observed in response to CPF alone. Our results suggest that RBR could be used to alleviate CPF-induced nephrotoxicity through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic activities.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 11:05:03 +000
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