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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.683
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 18  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • The Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Silymarin SMEDDS Formulation
           Study in Healthy Thai Volunteers

    • Abstract: The present study aimed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters and bioavailability of silymarin 140 mg SMEDDS formulation. An open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study was conducted. Twelve healthy volunteers were included in the study. After the volunteers had fasted overnight for 10 h, a single-dose generic silymarin 140 mg SMEDDS soft capsule was administered. Then 10 ml blood samples were taken at 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.33, 1.67, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, and 12.0 h. The plasma silybin concentrations were analyzed using validated LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed and calculated. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after silymarin had been administered as a single capsule. The mean (range) was 812.43 (259.47–1505.47) ng/ml at 0.80 (0.25–1.67) h (). The mean (range) and were 658.80 (268.29–1045.01) ng.h/ml and 676.98 (274.10–1050.96) ng.h/ml, respectively. The mean and t1/2 were 0.5386  and 1.91 h, respectively. The silymarin SMEDDS formulation soft capsule showed rapid absorption and high oral bioavailability.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 07:26:32 +000
  • Subinhibitory Concentrations of Prim-O-Glucosylcimifugin Decrease the
           Expression of Alpha-Hemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus (USA300)

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), an important opportunistic pathogen in human and animal, causes a series of diseases in the impairing of immunity of host and even then death. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a primary virulence factor, plays a major role in the pathogenic progress of S. aureus, especially in pneumonia. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin (POG), a nature chromone compound, is an active ingredient in many Chinese Medicines. In this study, POG investigated the inhibitory effect of the secretion of Hla in S. aureus strain USA300 at the subinhibitory concentrations. The hemolysis assays and western blotting assays showed that POG can decrease the production of Hla in the USA300 growth cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. The results of RT-PCR revealed that reduction of Hla was related to inhibit the transcription of hla and RNAIII. In the cells experiment, POG was proved to protect A549 cells from Hla-medicated injury. In conclusion, POG was shown the capacity of decreased the production of S. aureus Hla. POG can be developed as a candidate agent to treat S. aureus infections against Hla.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Ethanol Extract of Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth Inhibits Metastasis by
           Downregulation of Runx-2 in Mouse Colon Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Lycopus lucidus Turcz. ex Benth (LT) has been broadly used as a traditional medicinal herb in Asia including Korea, China, and Japan due to its noted ability to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis. However, its anticancer mechanism is not understood. This study aims to elucidate the effects of ethanol extracts of LT (ELT) relative to the role of Runt-related transcription factor- (Runx-) 2 in the invasive and metastatic potentials of mouse colon cancer to determine the underlying mechanisms involved. ELT was evaluated for the antimetastasis activity using CT-26 colon cancer using wound healing, transwell matrigel, and western blot analysis. We used Runx-2-specific siRNA to further determine the relationship between Runx-2 and matrix metalloprotease- (MMP-) 9 in the migration and invasion of CT-26 cells. Runx-2 was first demonstrated to be a transcription factor that plays a remarkable role in diverse biological processes of chondrocytes and osteoblasts, but recently, Runx-2 has been reported to be associated with the progression of certain human cancers. ELT was not altered in its effects on growth inhibition. However, ELT significantly inhibited wound closure and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner. ELT decreased the metastasis by regulating the activity of MMP-9 and Runx-2 at the translational levels. Our results demonstrate that ELT decreases metastasis by inhibiting the Runx-2–MMP-9 axis. We suggest that it can be used as a novel agent in therapeutic strategies for combating colon cancer.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A New Strategy to Uncover the Anticancer Mechanism of Chinese Compound
           Formula by Integrating Systems Pharmacology and Bioinformatics

    • Abstract: Currently, cancer has become one of the major refractory diseases threatening human health. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gradually become an alternative choice for patients, which can be attributed to the high cost of leading cancer treatments (including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) and the severe related adverse effects. As a critical component of CAM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has increasing application in preventing and treating cancer over the past few decades. Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD), a classical Chinese compound formula, has been recognized to exert a beneficial effect on cancer treatment, with few adverse effects reported. Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear yet. In this study, we had integrated systems pharmacology and bioinformatics to explore the major active ingredients against cancer, targets for cancer treatment, and the related mechanisms of action. These targets were scrutinized using web-based Gene SeT Analysis Toolkit (WebGestalt), and 10 KEGG pathways were identified by enrichment analysis. Refined analysis of the KEGG pathways indicated that the anticancer effect of HJD showed a functional correlation with the p53 signaling pathway; moreover, HJD had potential therapeutic effect on prostate cancer (PCa) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Afterwards, genetic alterations and survival analysis of key targets for cancer treatment were examined in both PCa and SCLC. Our results suggested that such integrated research strategy might serve as a new paradigm to guide future research on Chinese compound formula. Importantly, such strategy contributes to studying the anticancer effect and the mechanisms of action of Chinese compound formula, which has also laid down the foundation for clinical application.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Retracted: Mechanism of Hepatoprotective Effect of Boesenbergia rotunda in
           Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Damage in Rats

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Relationship between Compound Danshen Dripping Pills with Isosorbide
           Mononitrate in the Treatment of Elderly Patients with Unstable Angina

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Compound Danshen Dripping Pill (CDDP) and Isosorbide Mononitrate (ISMN) in the treatment of unstable angina pectoris (UAP) in the elderly. Materials and Methods. CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, and PubMed databases were searched for appropriate articles without language limitations on keywords. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Results. This analysis compared CDDP with ISMN of 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved a total of 2356 patients with UAP. When the treatment lasted for four weeks, the clinical effective rate was OR = 3.97, 95% CI = 2.97, 5.30, and P < 0.00001, the ECG efficiency was OR = 3.43, 95% CI = 2.13, 5.53, and P < 0.00001, and incidence of adverse reactions was OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52, 1.04, and P = 0.08 > 0.05. When the treatment lasted for eight weeks, clinical efficiency rate was OR = 4.22, 95% CI = 2.37, 3.79, and P < 0.00001, incidence of adverse reactions was OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.26, 1.27, and P = 0.17 > 0.05, whole blood low-cut blood viscosity was SMD = -0.61 and 95% CI -1.60, 0.38, whole blood high-cut blood viscosity was SMD = -0.38 and 95% CI -0.97, 0.21, and blood cells specific volume was SMD = -0.80 and 95% CI -2.61, 1.01. Conclusion. Based on this meta-analysis, the CDDP was superior to ISMN with UAP in the elderly. However, there is still a need to further verify the clinical efficacy and safety of CDDP with more strictly designed RCTs with large sample and multiple centers in the future.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Modified Zhisou Powder on Airway Mucus Production in Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Model Rats with Cold-Dryness Syndrome

    • Abstract: Objective. In China, the Chinese medicine formula modified zhisou powder (MZP) is commonly used to treat COPD with cold-dryness syndrome (CDSCOPD) to relieve cough and sputum. However, the underlying mechanisms of MZP on treating CDSCOPD remain to be elucidated. Methods. COPD and CDSCOPD rat models were established; MZP was given to CDSCOPD rats in the last 7 days of the 97-day model establishment. Then the rats were subjected to lung function measurement. Pathological changes in lungs were observed through paraffin section and H&E staining. The mRNA and protein levels of AQP1, 4, and 5 and Muc5AC and Muc5B in lung were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. NE levels was determined by ELISA. Results. The impaired lung functions were observed in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Among all parameters evaluating lung functions, only tidal volume demonstrates a further decrease in CDSCOPD when compared with COPD, indicating further impaired pulmonary ventilation functions upon cold-dryness stimulation. The intervention of MZP effectively improved lung functions parameters, prevented the inflammations, and eliminated the increases of AQP4 and 5 and the decrease of Muc5AC in lung. Conclusion. MZP probably improves pulmonary functions in CDSCOPD through inhibiting lung inflammation, increasing expressions of AQPs, and decreasing Muc5AC expression in lung.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Annona muricata Leaf Extract Triggered Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway to
           Attenuate Cancerous Features of Triple Negative Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231

    • Abstract: Annona muricata L., known as graviola, is an evergreen plant of the tropical regions and is a rich source of natural products. Graviola has various biological activities, and it is best known for its anticancer activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of crude graviola extract in vitro on breast cancer cells; in particular, we aimed to identify an agent against triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). We used the TNBC MDA-MB-231 cell line as the experimental model and the ER(+) non-TNBC MCF-7 breast cancer cell line as the control. We identified annonaceous acetogenins, including annonacin isomers, characteristic to this plant by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). We observed a significant decrease in the cell viability in both cell lines within 48 h, whereas impaired cell motility and invasiveness were observed only in the MDA-MB-231 cell line. While the MCF-7 cells showed an ER-dependent mechanism of apoptosis, the apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was governed by an intrinsic apoptotic pathway triggered by graviola leaf extract (GLE).
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Human Diseases in

    • Abstract: This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human diseases. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out from June 25 to September 5, 2015, in Berbere district of Oromia region, Ethiopia. The study focused on documentation of medicinal plants used to treat various human diseases in the study area. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semistructured interviews, group discussion, guided field walks, and observations with participants. Preference ranking, paired comparison, direct matrix ranking, and informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. A total of 70 medicinal plants, distributed in 56 genera and 46 families, were collected and identified. Plant family with the highest medicinal plants in the study area used for various diseases treatment was Euphorbiaceae (11.4%). The result of growth form analysis showed that shrubs constituted the highest proportion of medicinal plants (48.6%). Roots, 43 (44.8%), were the most frequently utilized plant parts for preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Crushing was a widely used mode of preparation of traditional remedies where oral administration (37.5%) was the dominant route. The highest informants consensus factor (ICF) values were linked to gonorrhea and syphilis disease (0.95); the lowest was linked with external parasites and wound (0.69). Local people in the study area possess traditional knowledge of medicinal plants to treat various human ailments; however, agricultural expansion and disinterest of young generation became the major threat to medicinal plants. It is, therefore, necessary to preserve this indigenous knowledge on traditional medicines by proper documentation, identification of plant species used, and herbal preparation. To save medicinal plants from further loss, involving local communities in cultivation of the most utilized medicinal plants is recommended.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Neuronal Specificity of Acupuncture in Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild
           Cognitive Impairment Patients: A Functional MRI Study

    • Abstract: Although acupuncture is considered to be effective and safe for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the mechanism underlying its therapeutic effect is still unknown. Most studies clarifying the neuronal pathway produced by acupuncture were still applied to healthy subjects with limited single acupuncture point stimulation, which was inconsistency with clinical practice. Thus, in our present study, we investigate the differences between brain activity changes in AD and MCI patients caused by multi-acupuncture point Siguan (four gates), in order to provide visualized evidence for neuronal specificity of clinical acupuncture. Forty-nine subjects were recruited, including 21 AD patients, 14 MCI patients, and 14 healthy controls (HC). AD and MCI patients were randomly divided into two groups, respectively: real acupuncture point group (14 AD and 8 MCI) and sham acupuncture point group (7 AD and 6 MCI). We adopted a 16-minute, single-block, experimental design for acquiring functional MRI images. We found, in AD and MCI patients, Siguan (four gates) elicited extensive activations and deactivations in cognitive-related areas, visual-related areas, the sensorimotor-related area, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Compared with HC, AD and MCI patients showed similar activations in cognitive-related brain areas (inferior frontal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and rolandic operculum) as well as deactivations in cognitive-related areas, visual-related areas, basal ganglia, and cerebellum, which were not found in HC. Compared with sham acupuncture points, real acupuncture points produced more specific brain changes with both activated and deactivated brain activities in AD and MCI. The preliminary results in our study verified the objective evidence for neuronal specificity of acupuncture in AD and MCI patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Laser Speckle Imaging of Sensitized Acupoints

    • Abstract: Acupoints microcirculatory dynamics vary depending on the body’s health status. However, the functional changes observed during acupoint sensitization, that is, the disease-induced change from a “silenced” to an “activated” status, remain elusive. In this study, the microcirculatory changes at acupoints during sensitization were characterized. Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control group (N), sham osteoarthritis group (S), light osteoarthritis group (A), mild osteoarthritis group (B), and heavy osteoarthritis group (C). The obtained results showed that the blood perfusion levels at the acupoints Yanglingquan (GB34), Zusanli (ST36), and Heding (EX-LE2) in groups A, B, and C were higher than those in groups N and S on days 14, 21, and 28 (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). A significant difference in the blood perfusion was also observed at the acupoint Weizhong (BL40) in groups B and C on days 21 and 28 (p < 0.01). In addition, remarkable differences in the level of blood perfusion at the GB34, ST36, and EX-LE2 acupoints were observed on day 28 (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) among groups A, B, and C. No marked differences in blood perfusion levels were observed at the nonacupoint site among all groups. In conclusion, acupoint sensitization is associated with an increase in the level of local blood perfusion at specific acupoints, and this increase is positively correlated with the severity of the disease. The functional changes in microcirculation at acupoints during sensitization reflect the different physiological and pathological conditions imposed by the disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparative Efficacy of Chinese Herbal Injections for Treating Acute
           Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Bayesian Network
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Introduction. Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) imposes a huge economic burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Chinese herbal injections (CHIs) are widely used to treat AECOPD. In this study, we examined the efficacy of CHIs in the treatment of AECOPD using a network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods. Literature search was conducted from electronic databases of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on CHIs plus Western medicine (WM) versus WM. WinBUGS 1.4.3 and STATA 12.0 were adopted to compute calculations and prepare graphs, respectively. Results. We included 155 RCTs with 13,218 patients. The results revealed that Danhong injection (DH) + WM had the greatest therapeutic potential in terms of rate of clinical efficacy (RCE). In addition, in comprehensively improving RCE and FEV1%, and RCE and C-reactive protein, Huangqi injection (HQ) +WM was associated with preferable effects. Similarly, Xixinnao injection + WM, Reduning injection (RDN) +WM, and HQ+WM had a favorable effect on RCE and PaO2. The effect of RDN+WM was favorable in all outcomes except RCE. The safety of CHIs needs to be further assessed. Conclusions. Based on this NMA, DH+WM, HQ+WM, and RDN+WM were potential optimal therapies in AECOPD and their safety should be strictly monitored.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen Formula Regulates Inflammatory Cytokines Production in 5/6
           Nephrectomized Rats via Suppression of NF-B Activation

    • Abstract: Jian-Pi-Yi-Shen formula (JPYSF) is a Chinese herbal decoction used for treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) for over 20 years with good efficiency. However, the mechanism lacks solid evidence. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that JPYSF may retard CKD progression via inhibition of inflammation in 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx) rat model. The 5/6 Nx rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: 5/6 Nx group and JPYSF group. Sham-operated rats served as control. JPYSF (2.06 g/kg/d) were administrated by gavage to 5/6 Nx rats daily for 6 weeks. Results showed that JPYSF treatment significantly improved kidney function and pathological injury in 5/6 Nx rats. Multiplex analysis of cytokines revealed that JPYSF reduced proinflammatory cytokines and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, JPYSF inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that JPYSF remarkably retards development and progression of CKD in a 5/6 Nx rat model, which may be associated with inhibition of inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • In Vitro Inhibition of -Amylase and -Glucosidase by Extracts from Psiadia
           punctulata and Meriandra bengalensis

    • Abstract: Background. This research assessed the in vitro antidiabetic activity and phytochemical constituents of the traditionally used medicinal plants, Psiadia punctulata and Meriandra bengalensis. Method. The leaves of both plants were subjected to cold extraction method using 70% ethanol and hot Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane, chloroform, methanol, and distilled water. The extracts were studied for their effect on glucose transport across yeast cells and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme activities. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of ethanol extract was also undertaken. Results. The results of yeast glucose uptake assay revealed that extracts from both plants had a maximum increase in glucose uptake at the 25mM glucose concentration with a maximum dose of 2000μg/ml plant extract. The ethanol extract of P. punctulata and aqueous extract of M. bengalensis showed a high activity of 68% and 96%, respectively, at 25mM and 2000μg/ml of glucose and extract concentration. P. punctulata exerted peak inhibition activity of α-amylase of 37.5 ± 3% mg/dl (IC50 = 0.523 mg/dl) for methanol and distilled water extract at 0.5 mg/dl, respectively. M. bengalensis methanol extract exhibited the highest inhibition activity of 38 ± 8 % mg/dl (IC50 = 0.543 mg/dl) at 0.5 mg/dl. In the α-glucosidase inhibition assay, the methanolic extract of P. punctulata exhibited the highest inhibitory activity of 17.29 ± 9% mg/dl (IC50 = 0.761 mg/dl) at 0.5mg/dl. The chloroform extract of M. bengalensis had the highest inhibitory activity of 30 ± 5% mg/dl (mg/dl) at 0.5 mg/dL. Phytochemical analysis of the different extracts of P. punctulata and M. bengalensis revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, phytosterols, and carbohydrates. Thin-layer chromatography analysis of ethanolic extract of both plants indicated presence of 15 and 17 spots for P. punctulata and M. bengalensis respectively. Conclusion. P. punctulata and M. bengalensis extracts have moderate inhibitory activity against pancreatic α-amylase and relatively low inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase. The observed effects may be associated with the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and alkaloids. Additional in vivo analysis, toxicological studies, isolation, and structural characterization of the phytomolecules identified in this study and molecular docking studies should be undertaken.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Identification of Digestive Enzyme Inhibitors from Ludwigia octovalvis
           (Jacq.) P.H.Raven

    • Abstract: Current antiobesity and antidiabetic tools have been insufficient to curb these diseases and frequently cause side effects; therefore, new pancreatic lipase and α–glucosidase inhibitors could be excellent aids for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to identify, quantify, and characterize the chemical compounds with the highest degree of inhibitory activity of these enzymes, contained in a Ludwigia octovalvis hydroalcoholic extract. Chemical purification was performed by liquid–liquid separation and column chromatography. Inhibitory activities were measured in vitro, employing acarbose, orlistat, and a Camellia sinensis hydroalcoholic extract as references. For structural elucidation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was carried out, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography was used to quantify the compounds. For α–glucosidases, L. octovalvis hydroalcoholic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction showed half–maximal Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) values of 700 and 250 μg/mL, for lipase, 480 and 718 μg/mL, while C. sinensis showed 260 and 587 μg/mL. The most active compounds were identified as ethyl gallate (1, IC50 832 μM) and gallic acid (2, IC50 969 μM); both displayed competitive inhibition of α–glucosidases and isoorientin (3, IC50 201 μM), which displayed uncompetitive inhibition of lipase. These data could be useful in the development of a novel phytopharmaceutical drug.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Natural Products as a Source for New Leads in Cancer Research and

    • PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 09:03:26 +000
  • Antiulcer Effect of Honey in Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Induced
           Gastric Ulcer Model in Rats: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Peptic ulcer is a basic term for ulcers on the lower oesophagus, stomach, or jejunum. The specific term for ulcer in the stomach is gastric ulcer. The extensive use of honey around the globe helps researchers to study the usefulness of honey. Many studies had already been conducted and proved the effectiveness of honey in treating gastric ulcer. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify relevant studies on honey used as an alternative treatment of gastric ulcer cause by NSAIDs. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline, SCOPUS, and Ebscohost. The main criteria used were articles published in English and using NSAIDs-induced gastric ulcer in rat’s model and those reporting the effectiveness of honey. Results. Articles published between 2001 and 2014 were identified to be relevant in studies related to the inclusion criteria. The literature search found 30 potential and closely related articles in this review, but only 5 articles were taken which meet the criteria needed to be fulfilled. Conclusions. All studies in this review reported the efficacy of honey for gastric ulcer based on its antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. Most of the studies conducted used different types of honey at various doses on rats. Future studies should be conducted to identify the appropriate dose for humans to achieve similar gastroprotective effects.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 08:21:20 +000
  • Tualang Honey Reduced Neuroinflammation and Caspase-3 Activity in Rat
           Brain after Kainic Acid-Induced Status Epilepticus

    • Abstract: The protective effect of tualang honey (TH) on neuroinflammation and caspase-3 activity in rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem after kainic acid- (KA-) induced status epilepticus was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated orally with TH (1.0 g/kg body weight) five times at 12 h intervals. KA (15 mg/kg body weight) was injected subcutaneously 30 min after last oral treatment. Rats were sacrificed at 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after KA administration. Neuroinflammation markers and caspase-3 activity were analyzed in different brain regions 2 h, 24 h, and 48 h after KA administration. Administration of KA induced epileptic seizures. KA caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in the level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), allograft inflammatory factor 1 (AIF-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and increase in the caspase-3 activity in the rat cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brainstem at multiple time points. Pretreatment with TH significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevation of TNF-α, IL-1β, GFAP, AIF-1, and COX-2 level in those brain regions at multiple time points and attenuated the increased caspase-3 activity in the cerebral cortex. In conclusion, TH reduced neuroinflammation and caspase-3 activity after kainic acid- (KA-) induced status epilepticus.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 07:07:06 +000
  • Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic via Consumption of
           Herbs Collected in Thailand

    • Abstract: Total and inorganic arsenic contents in ten commonly consumed Thai herbs, namely, bird’s eye chili, cayenne pepper, celery, garlic, holy basil, kitchen mint, lemongrass, pepper, shallot, and sweet basil, were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with a hydride generation system (HG-AAS). Total arsenic contents in fresh herbs and lyophilized herbs ranged from 3.39 to 119 ng/g wet weight (wet wt) and from 41.0 to 156 ng/g dry weight (dry wt), respectively. Inorganic arsenic contents in fresh herbs and lyophilized herbs ranged from 2.09 to 26.9 ng/g (wet wt) and from 23.5 to 55.5 ng/g (dry wt), respectively. Percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic in herbs ranged from 22.7 to 62.0%. High percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic were found in celery, lemongrass and sweet basil. Total arsenic contents in the studied herbs were lower than the maximum limits of Thai and Chinese regulatory standards, set at 2,000 ng/g in foods (excluding aquatic animals and seafood) and 500 ng/g in fresh vegetables, respectively. Total and inorganic arsenic contents in the studied herbs were comparable to or lower than the levels found in other studies in the EU and China. Lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and cancer risk (CR) of inorganic arsenic exposure to commonly consumed herbs were evaluated using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) by @RISK software version 6.0 of Palisade cooperation. All calculated LADD and CR values from all herbs did not exceed the acceptable levels. It can be concluded that there were very low cancer risks of inorganic arsenic exposure from the consumption of the studied herbs.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Development of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome-Specific Scale for
           Ulcerative Colitis: The Large Intestine Dampness-Heat Syndrome

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop and validate the large intestine dampness-heat syndrome questionnaire (LIDHSQ) for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The domains and items of the LIDHSQ were developed according to standard procedures, namely, construct definition, item generation, language testing, content validity, pilot study, and validation study. At first, a total of 20 items in 3 domains were generated based on literature review and expert consultation. After the item selection, the LIDHSQ contains 11 items in three domains: disease-related domain (diarrhoea, abdominal pain, bloody purulent stool, and mucus stool), heat domain (fever, dry mouth, red tongue, yellow fur, and anal burning), and dampness domain (greasy fur and defecation disorder). The Cronbach's alphas of all domains were greater than 0.6. All of the intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than 0.8. The LIDHSQ and domain scores of the patients with LIDHS were higher than those of the patients with other syndromes (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the LIDHSQ was 0.900, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.872–0.928. When the cut-off value of the LIDHSQ was ≥ 7, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.867 and 0.854, respectively. The LIDHSQ is valid and reliable for measuring LIDHS in UC patients with good diagnostic efficacy. We recommend the use of the LIDHSQ in Chinese UC patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 09:27:00 +000
  • Electroacupuncture Could Influence the Expression of IL-1β and NLRP3
           Inflammasome in Hippocampus of Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Model

    • Abstract: Background. Effective therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are still being explored. Electroacupuncture with traditional Chinese medicine theory may improve spatial learning and memory abilities and glucose metabolism rates in an animal model of AD. However, the mechanism of electroacupuncture in intervention of AD is still unclear. According to recent studies of AD mechanisms, the NLRP3 inflammasome regulated the expression of IL-1β in the brain which may mediate AD related processes. Therefore, in our study, we intend to explore the possible relation between electroacupuncture and the expression of NLRP 3 inflammasome in the hippocampus of an AD animal model. Method. In this study, 7.5-month-old male senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used as an AD animal model, which were randomly divided into two groups: Alzheimer’s disease model group (AD group) and electroacupuncture group (EA group). In the control paradigm, 7.5-month-old male SAMR1 mice were used as the normal control group (N group). DU20, DU26, and EX-HN3 were selected as the acupuncture points, and after a 15-day treatment of electroacupuncture, we used immunohistochemistry and Western blotting to examine the expression of IL-1β and NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 in the hippocampus of the AD animal model. Results. Compared with N group, IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 positive cells in AD group were increased, and the relative expression of all above proteins significantly increased (P < 0.01). Compared with AD group, the expression of IL-1β, NLRP3, ASC, and Caspase-1 in EA group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Conclusion. Electroacupuncture treatment could inhibit the inflammation reaction in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. What is more, the possible mechanism of electroacupuncture reduced the expression of IL-1β and NLRP3 inflammasome relative protein.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 08:47:00 +000
  • The Effect of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Tea on Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1
           Adipocytes and Lipase Activity

    • Abstract: Obesity and hyperlipidemia are a major problem in the world. Pluchea indica (L.) Less. tea (PIT) is a beverage that has various indications. This study focused on the effect of the PIT on inhibiting adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and pancreatic lipase enzyme activity. The viability of 3T3-L1 cells was not significantly decreased after exposure to 200 to 1000 μg mL−1 PIT compared to controls (). The PIT at 750 to 1000 μg mL−1 exhibited a significantly reduced lipid accumulation compared to the control (). The inhibitory effects of the PIT at 250 to 1000 μg mL−1 on lipase activity were significantly increased compared to control (). The FTIR results showed that the integrated areas of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, glycogen, and carbohydrates of the PIT-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were significantly lower than the untreated 3T3-L1 adipocytes (). These findings may indicate that the PIT is not only capable of inhibiting lipids and carbohydrate accumulation in adipocytes but also has a potential to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity. So, the PIT may be further developed to the novel lipid-lowering herbal supplement for the management of overweight or obesity.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 07:24:28 +000
  • Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine Improves Chemotherapy-Induced
           Thrombocytopenia among Gynecological Cancer Patients: An Observational

    • Abstract: Background. Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is a serious complication among patients with gynecological malignancies, yet management options are limited. This study aimed at reporting the potential of the Chang Gung platelet elevating formula (CGPEF), a prescription with a fixed proportion of Chinese herbs, for improving CIT among gynecologic cancer patients. Materials. From 1/1/2007 to 31/12/2009, a total of 23 patients with two consecutive CIT episodes (≤ 100×103 /μL) (last cycle: C0; index cycle: C1) received the CGPEF from the nadir of platelet count of C1 and through the subsequent chemotherapy cycles (C2 and beyond). The CGPEF was taken orally four times a day. The evolution of platelet counts of 18 patients after administration of CGPEF was analyzed (2 patients had different chemotherapy regimens after CGPEF, two patients discontinued CGPEF due to the flavor and the amount of CGPEF, and one patient had no further chemotherapy). Results. Most of the patients had recurrent ovarian cancer (11/18, 61%) with a median of 2.5 previous chemotherapy regimens, and carboplatin-based regimens were the most commonly used for these patients (13/18, 72%). The trend of successive CIT could be reversed after taking CGPEF. Also, the platelet nadir was higher after CGPEF treatment (16.5×103/μL versus 32×103/μL, before and after CGPEF treatment, resp., p = 0.002). Moreover, the chemotherapy interval decreased from 30.5 days to 24 days. No thrombocytosis, clinical bleeding, thromboembolism, or other adverse events were found among these patients. Conclusions. The CGPEF is worthy of further large-scale, well-designed clinical trials for CIT among gynecological cancer patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Tiaozhi Granule on Regulation of Autophagy Levels in HUVECs

    • Abstract: Sera from the rats with Tiaozhi granule treatment were collected. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with different dosage of sera with Tiaozhi granule for 48 hours. Rapamycin or angiotensin II was applied to activate autophagy in HUVECs with or without different dosages of sera of Tiaozhi granule. The mRNA expressions of Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1, and mammal target of rapamycin (mTOR) were detected by real-time PCR. Autophagic flux markers (protein expression of LC3, Beclin-1, and p62) were examined by western blot analyses. The number of autophagosomes was visualized by immunofluorescence analysis with LC3-II labelling. Results showed that Tiaozhi granule sera increase cell autophagic levels by increase of mRNA of Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1, and mTOR and increase of autophagic flux and also number of autophagosomes. However, in response to rapamycin or Ang II stimulation, activated autophagic levels were alleviated by Tiaozhi granule sera by reduction of mRNA of Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1, mTOR, autophagic flux, and also number of autophagosomes. Our present data demonstrate that Tiaozhi granule plays a dual role in response to different cell conditions, which is to increase cell autophagy under physiological condition and to suppress cell excessive autophagy under pathological condition.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Gypenosides Altered Hepatic Bile Acids Homeostasis in Mice Treated with
           High Fat Diet

    • Abstract: Gypenosides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino have significant role in reducing serum lipid level and treating fatty liver diseases, however, without clear mechanism. As gypenosides share the similar core structures with bile acids (the endogenous ligands of nuclear receptor FXR), we hypothesize that gypenosides may improve hypercholesterolemia via FXR-mediated bile acids signaling. The present study was designed to validate the role of gypenosides in reducing levels of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), as well as in regulating bile acids homeostasis and related gene expression levels. The C57BL/6 male mice were divided into four groups. Mice in groups ND and HFD were fed with normal diet and high fat diet for 38 weeks, respectively. In groups HFD+GP and HFD+ST, mice were fed with high fat diet for 38 weeks and treated with gypenosides and simvastatin (positive control) from weeks 16 to 38, respectively. Serum TC and LDL-C levels were assayed by commercially available kits. Expression levels of genes were tested by the quantitative real-time PCR. The LC-MS/MS was applied to quantify major bile acids in mice livers. Our results showed that gypenosides significantly decreased serum TC and LDL-C levels. The gene expression level of Shp was downregulated while the levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, Fxr, Lrh1, Jnk1/2, and Erk1/2 were upregulated by gypenosides. Indicated by LC-MS/MS technology, gypenosides increased the hepatic levels of several free bile acids and most taurine-conjugated bile acids while decreasing glycine-conjugated bile acids levels. In addition, gypenosides decreased the CA/CDCA ratio. Gypenosides may improve the abnormal lipid profile of HFD-fed mice via two pathways: (1) enhancing the bile acids biosynthesis from cholesterol; (2) decreasing the CA/CDCA ratio which is positively related to cholesterol absorption.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Bufadienolides from Venenum Bufonis Inhibit mTOR-Mediated Cyclin D1 and
           Retinoblastoma Protein Leading to Arrest of Cell Cycle in Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Objective. Bufadienolides, the main components in Venenum Bufonis secreted from toads, have been proved to be with significant anticancer activity aside from the positive inotropic action as cardenolides. Here an underlying anticancer mechanism was further elucidated for an injection made from Venenum Bufonis containing nine bufadienolides. Methods. One solution reagent and cell cycle analyses were for determining effect of bufadienolides on cancer cells. Western blotting was used for protein expression. Results. Bufadienolides inhibit cell proliferation and arrest cells in G1 phase. Bufadienolides also inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, which is evidenced by the data that bufadienolides inhibit type I insulin-like growth factor- (IGF-1-) activated phosphorylation of mTOR by a concentration- and time-dependent way, as well as phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Subsequent results indicated that cyclin D1 expression and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb)—two characterized regulators in cell cycle of G1—are also inhibited and the process is dependent on mTOR pathway. Conclusion. Bufadienolides inhibit proliferation partially due to arresting cell cycle in G1 phase, which is mediated by inhibiting mTOR-cyclin D1/Rb signal pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 09:47:49 +000
  • Combination of Epicatechin 3-Gallate from Euphorbia hirta and Cefepime
           Promotes Potential Synergistic Eradication Action against Resistant
           Clinical Isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is naturally resistant to many classes of antipseudomonal antibiotics due to the species ability to easily acquire resistance. Plant-based antibacterial agent in combination with the existing antibiotic proposes an alternative treatment regimen for the eradication of resistant bacterial infections. The antibacterial effects of the isolated epicatechin 3-gallate compound from Euphorbia hirta in combination with cefepime were investigated in vitro against resistant P. aeruginosa. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of the combination was determined using checkerboard broth microdilution method. Epicatechin 3-gallate combined with cefepime had produced synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa (with average FIC index of 0.24). The MIC of epicatechin 3-gallate was effectively reduced to MIC/4, MIC/8, MIC/16, and MIC/32 in the presence of cefepime. Time-kill study of epicatechin 3-gallate combined with cefepime exhibited remarkable bactericidal activity where the eradication of P. aeruginosa occurred within 4 h of treatment. Scanning electron micrographs revealed apparent cell membrane damage and leakage of cytoplasmic contents from P. aeruginosa cells which eventually led to the cell lysis after the combination treatment of epicatechin 3-gallate and cefepime. The potential of epicatechin 3-gallate to act synergistically with cefepime against clinically resistant P. aeruginosa strain possibly will maximize the successful outcomes when choosing empirical antibiotic treatment in hospitals or health care institutions.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 09:35:52 +000
  • Exploring the Therapeutic Ability of Fenugreek against Type 2 Diabetes and
           Breast Cancer Employing Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics

    • Abstract: Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is used as a spice throughout the world. It is known for its medicinal properties such as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, and immunological activities. The present study shows the properties and the nutritional quality of fenugreek seed extract and focuses on screening of active compounds in drug designing for type 2 diabetes and breast cancer. Quantitative analysis was used to calculate the percentages of protein, carbohydrates moisture, fatty acid, galactomannan, oil, and amino acid. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, phenols, proteins, saponins, and tannins in fenugreek seed extracts. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation-based computational drug discovery methods were employed to address the role of fenugreek seed constituents against type 2 diabetes and breast cancer. The computational results reveal that the compound galactomannan can be ascribed as potential drug candidate against breast cancer and type 2 diabetes rendered by higher molecular dock scores, stable molecular dynamics (MD) simulations results, and lower binding energy calculations.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 08:49:06 +000
  • Abyssinone V-4’ Methyl Ether Isolated from Erythrina droogmansiana
           (Leguminosae) Inhibits Cell Growth and Mammary Glands Hyperplasia Induced
           in Swiss Mice by the 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    • Abstract: There is a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative effects of Abyssinone V-4’ methyl ether (AVME) on breast tissue of mice. The cytotoxicity of AVME was evaluated using MTT assay in four cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, HepG2, and MCF-7). Further, a protective effect of AVME was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- (DMBA-) induced breast tumor in Swiss mice. Incidence, burden, volume, and histological analysis of mammary tumors were measured. As a result, AVME inhibits DU145, PC3, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells growth. In vivo, no tumor was detected in mice from the normal group as compared to those of DMBA group. Moreover, AVME inhibits the DMBA-induced mammary glands hyperplasia in mice at the dose of 10 mg/kg, evidenced by a decrease of tumor incidence, tumor weight, and volume as well as a protective effect against the lobular alveolar hyperplasia. Taken all together, these results suggest that Abyssinone V-4’ methyl ether is endowed with antitumor properties and could be a source of traditional medicine which deserves to be more elucidated and explored in the foreseeable future.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 08:43:03 +000
  • Comparative Studies of Different Extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
           against Rheumatoid Arthritis in CIA Rats

    • Abstract: To compare efficacy of different extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. with both immune inflammation and joint destruction in collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Rats were divided into normal group (Nor), control group (CIA), TG group (treated with tripterygium glycoside), E70 group (treated with 70% ethanol extract from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.), EA group (treated with ethyl acetate fraction from E70), and EN group (treated with n-butyl alcohol fraction from E70). All extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. could significantly inhibit ankle swelling, pathological manifestations, and cytokine levels in serum and spleen, by using foot volume measurement, H&E staining, ELISA, and RT-QPCR methods, respectively. All extracts could significantly inhibit rough joint surface and marginal osteophytes, improve RANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease MMP-9 expression, by using micro-CT and immunohistochemical staining. The activation of IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway was also inhibited by all extracts. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction from E70 presented better effect on RANKL/OPG system. This study identified effective extracts from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. relieving immune inflammation and maintaining structural integrity of joints in CIA rats.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
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