Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 233)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.683
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 29  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Triple-Negative Breast
           Cancer Cell Lines and Prevents Carcinogen-Induced Breast Tumorigenesis in
           Sprague Dawley Rats

    • Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of ginsenoside Rg1 using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rg1 induces cytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in the triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-MD-231 cell lines). We found that ginsenoside Rg1 induces the formation of gamma H2AX foci, an indication of DNA damage, and subsequent TUNEL positive apoptotic nuclei in the MDA-MB-MD-231 cell lines. Further, we found that ginsenoside Rg1 prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA; 20 mg/rat) induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in experimental rats. We observed oral administration of ginsenoside Rg1 inhibited the DMBA-mediated tumor incidence, prevented the elevation of oxidative damage markers, and restored antioxidant enzymes near to normal. Furthermore, qRT-PCR gene expression studies revealed that ginsenoside Rg1 prevents the expression of markers associated with cell proliferation and survival, modulates apoptosis markers, downregulates invasion and angiogenesis markers, and regulates the EMT markers. Therefore, the present results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 shows significant anticancer properties against breast cancer in experimental models.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 08:05:01 +000
  • Characteristic of Clinical Studies on Baduanjin during 2000–2019: A
           Comprehensive Review

    • Abstract: To date, a growing number of clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and health benefits from Baduanjin intervention. Based on this, our objective is to systematically retrieve and summarize the clinical studies on Baduanjin, with a view to providing more evidence-based evidence in support of the application of Baduanjin for healthcare, and to identify the shortcomings of existing research and provide feasibility suggest for further clinical research. Both four English language and four Chinese language electronic databases were used to search articles related to Baduanjin during 2000–2019. SPSS 22.0 software was used to analyze the data, and the risk of bias tool in the RevMan 5.3.5 software was used to evaluate the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials. A total of 810 publications were identified, including 43 (5.3%) systematic reviews, 614 (75.8%) randomized controlled trials, 66 (8.1%) nonrandomized controlled clinical studies, 84 (10.4%) case series, and 3 (0.4%) case reports. The top 10 diseases/conditions included diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, low back pain, neck pain, stroke, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, insomnia, and osteoporosis or osteopenia. The style of State General Administration of Sport of China in 2003 was the most commonly used version of Baduanjin, and Baduanjin was practiced with an average of 35 minutes, 1 or 2 times a day, 3–5 days per week, and a 18-week average duration. It is also worth noting that there were no serious adverse events related to Baduanjin intervention. Most studies were small sample size research, and the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials is generally low. The clinical studies of Baduanjin have a substantial quantity and evidence base. However, there are significant differences among different studies in the specific intervention measures such as style, intensity, duration, learning, and practice methods, which need to be further standardized and unified. Further high-quality designed and reporting studies are recommended to further validate the clinical benefits of Baduanjin.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 06:35:00 +000
  • Dendrobium officinale Flower Extraction Mitigates Alcohol-Induced Liver
           Injury in Mice: Role of Antisteatosis, Antioxidative, and

    • Abstract: The study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Dendrobium officinale flower extraction (DOFE) on alcohol-induced liver injury and its probable mechanisms in mice. The chemical composition of DOFE was performed via UPLC/MS. Male Kunming mice were used to establish alcohol-induced liver injury models by oral gavage of 56% alcohol. Results showed that DOFE dramatically attenuated the increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), and triacylglycerol (TG). Meanwhile, hematoxylin and eosin and Oil Red O staining showed that DOFE attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lipid droplet accumulation. DOFE was also found to suppress the activity of malonaldehyde (MDA) and enhanced the level of glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in the liver. The protection of DOFE against oxidative stress was associated with the downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and upregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase l (NQO1). Additionally, DOFE suppressed inflammation via downregulating Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and nuclear factor kappa-B P65 (NF-κB P65). Thus, DOFE exhibited a significant protective effect against alcohol-induced liver injury through its antisteatosis, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effect.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 06:05:00 +000
  • Therapeutic Benefit in Allergic Dermatitis Derived from the Inhibitory
           Effect of Byakkokaninjinto on the Migration of Plasmacytoid Dendritic

    • Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs) are well known to be essential immunocytes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. DCs are classified as conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Recently, the accumulation of pDCs in inflamed tissues and lymphoid tissues has been considered to be a possible contributing factor in the development of immunological diseases, but little is known about the pathophysiological roles of pDCs in immunological diseases. To date, many studies have demonstrated that many kinds of Kampo formulas can regulate immunological reactions in human immune diseases. Thus, we screened Kampo formulas to identify an agent that inhibits pDC migration. Furthermore, we investigated the therapeutic effects of these formulas on a murine DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis model. Bone marrow-derived pDCs (BMpDCs) were derived from the bone marrow cells of BALB/c mice in a culture medium with Flt3 ligand. The effects of Kampo formulas on BMpDC migration were evaluated by assessing the number, velocity, and directionality of BMpDCs chemotaxing toward the more concentrated side of a chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) gradient. The Kampo formulas that exerted inhibitory effects on pDC migration were orally administered to DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis model mice. Byakkokaninjinto reduced the number of migrated BMpDCs and suppressed the velocity and directionality of BMpDC migration in a chemotaxis assay. Gypsum Fibrosum and Ginseng Radix, which are components of byakkokaninjinto, obviously suppressed the velocity of BMpDC migration. Furthermore, Gypsum Fibrosum significantly suppressed the directionality of BMpDC migration. In DNFB-induced allergic contact dermatitis model mice, byakkokaninjinto markedly abrogated ear swelling in late-phase allergic reactions. In conclusions, byakkokaninjinto, which has an inhibitory effect on pDC migration, was able to prevent the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis, suggesting that pDCs were involved in the onset of allergic contact dermatitis in the mouse model. Therefore, byakkokaninjinto is anticipated to be a therapeutic agent for disorders related to pDC migration.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 05:05:00 +000
  • Cardiac CaMKIIδ and Wenxin Keli Prevents Ang II-Induced Cardiomyocyte
           Hypertrophy by Modulating CnA-NFATc4 and Inflammatory Signaling Pathways
           in H9c2 Cells

    • Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated that calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin A-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (CnA-NFAT) signaling pathways play key roles in cardiac hypertrophy (CH). However, the interaction between CaMKII and CnA-NFAT signaling remains unclear. H9c2 cells were cultured and treated with angiotensin II (Ang II) with or without silenced CaMKIIδ (siCaMKII) and cyclosporine A (CsA, a calcineurin inhibitor) and subsequently treated with Wenxin Keli (WXKL). Patch clamp recording was conducted to assess L-type Ca2+ current (ICa-L), and the expression of proteins involved in signaling pathways was measured by western blotting. Myocardial cytoskeletal protein and nuclear translocation of target proteins were assessed by immunofluorescence. The results indicated that siCaMKII suppressed Ang II-induced CH, as evidenced by reduced cell surface area and ICa-L. Notably, siCaMKII inhibited Ang II-induced activation of CnA and NFATc4 nuclear transfer. Inflammatory signaling was inhibited by siCaMKII and WXKL. Interestingly, CsA inhibited CnA-NFAT pathway expression but activated CaMKII signaling. In conclusion, siCaMKII may improve CH, possibly by blocking CnA-NFAT and MyD88 signaling, and WXKL has a similar effect. These data suggest that inhibiting CaMKII, but not CnA, may be a promising approach to attenuate CH and arrhythmia progression.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 05:05:00 +000
  • Deciphering of Key Pharmacological Pathways of Poria Cocos Intervention in
           Breast Cancer Based on Integrated Pharmacological Method

    • Abstract: Objective. Poria cocos (Fuling), a natural plant, has recently emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms of Poria cocos action in breast cancer remain poorly understood. Methods. TCMSP database was used to screen the potential active ingredients in Poria cocos. GEO database was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Network pharmacology was used to identify the specific pathways and key target proteins related to breast cancer. Finally, molecular docking was used to validate the results. Results. In our study, 237 targets were predicted for 15 potential active ingredients found in Poria cocos. An interaction network of predicted targets and genes differentially regulated in breast cancers was constructed. Based on the constructed network and further analysis including network topology, KEGG, survival analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis, 3 primary nodes were identified as key potential targets that were significantly enriched in the PPAR signaling pathway. Conclusion. The results showed that potential active ingredients of Poria cocos might interfere with breast cancer through synergistic regulation of PTGS2, ESR1, and FOS.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 05:05:00 +000
  • Development, Reliability, and Validity of
           the“Knowledge-Attitude-Practice” Questionnaire of Foreigners on
           Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment

    • Abstract: Objective. To develop a “knowledge-attitude-practice” questionnaire as an evaluating tool of foreigners’ cognition on TCM treatment, so as to promote the internationalization of TCM. Methods. The questionnaire was based on the “knowledge-attitude-practice” model and adjusted by expert consultation using the Delphi method. After conducting a survey among foreigners, Cronbach’s and exploratory factor analysis were used to test the internal consistency reliability and structural validity of the questionnaire, respectively. Results. A total of 10 experts participated in two rounds of expert consultation. The recovery rates of two rounds of expert consultation form were 100.0%. The coefficient authority in two rounds of expert consultation was 0.87 and 0.88, respectively. The concentration of expert opinions in the knowledge, attitude, and practice dimensions was 3.80 to 4.70 points, 3.70 to 4.50 points, and 3.60 to 4.40 points, respectively, in the first round and 4.30 to 4.80 points, 4.10 to 4.60 points, and 4.00 to 4.50 points, respectively, in the second round. The coefficient of variation in the knowledge, attitude, and practice dimensions was 0.10–0.32, 0.16–0.29, and 0.19–0.35, respectively, in the first round and 0.09–0.19, 0.15–0.25, and 0.16–0.31, respectively, in the second round. The W value and significance test in the first round were 0.657 and 218.620 while those in the second round were 0.671 and 181.181. 8 items were deleted and 1 item was added, and other reserved items were modified according to the statistical analysis results of evaluation items and expert suggestions after the first round and there were no changes after the second round. The revised questionnaire includes three dimensions of knowledge, attitude, and practice, with a total of 30 items. After translating the questionnaire into English, it was conducted in 176 foreigners. Cronbach’s coefficient of the total questionnaire, knowledge dimension, attitude dimension, and practice dimension was 0.908, 0.781, 0.823, and 0.918, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis extracted 3 factors with a cumulative contribution of 54.090%. After testing reliability and validity, 1 item was deleted, leaving 29 items. Conclusions. After two rounds of expert consultation based on the Delphi method, the results of expert authority, expert coordination, and expert opinions’ concentration were promising, and the expert consultation results were reliable. The “knowledge-attitude-practice” questionnaire of foreigners on TCM treatment in English had good reliability and validity and can evaluate foreigners’ cognition on TCM treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 15:35:01 +000
  • Kang-Xian Pills Inhibit Inflammatory Response and Decrease Gut
           Permeability to Treat Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Chronic Hepatic Injury
           through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    • Abstract: Kang-Xian (KX) pills have been clinically used for the treatment of chronic hepatic injury (CHI). However, the mechanisms of KX on CHI remain unknown. The aim of this study mainly focused on the anti-inflammatory effects of KX in a CHI mouse model based on modulating gut microbiota and gut permeability. We first established a CHI model using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and treated it with KX. The anti-inflammatory effects of KX on CHI model mice and the changes in gut permeability after KX treatment were also investigated. 16S rRNA analysis was used to study the changes of gut microbiota composition after KX treatment. In addition, gut microbiota was depleted using a combination of antibiotics in order to further confirm that KX could inhibit the inflammatory response and decrease gut permeability to treat CHI by modulating the gut microbiota. Results showed that KX treatment significantly improved liver function in CHI model mice. KX could also increase the levels of tight junction proteins in the colon and decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver. 16S rRNA analysis indicated that KX treatment affected the alpha and beta diversities in CHI model mice. Further analysis of 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that KX treatment increased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes at the phylum level. At the genus level, KX treatment increased the relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, and Akkermansia and decreased the relative abundance of Ralstonia, Alloprevotella, and Lachnoclostridium. However, KX could not alleviate CHI after depleting the gut microbiota. The effects of KX on gut permeability and inflammatory response in the liver were also decreased following the depletion of gut microbiota. In conclusion, our current study demonstrated that gut microbiota was significantly affected during CHI progression. KX could inhibit the inflammatory response and decrease the gut permeability in CHI model mice through modulating the gut microbiota.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 15:35:01 +000
  • Herbal Formula Gegen-Qinlian Decoction for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A
           Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Background. Herbal formula Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD) has been widely used in China for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but its efficacy and safety are unclear. Method. The studies were identified from the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Wanfang database, and VIP database using the keywords “Gegenqinlian” or “Gegen-Qinlian” or “Gegen-Qin-Lian” or “Ge Gen Qin Lian.” Relevant studies were selected according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study selection, data extraction, and validation were carried out by, at least, two reviewers with disagreements being settled by discussion. Results. After literature search, a total of 26 randomized controlled trials were included with a total of 2553 patients. There was evidence that compared with metformin, the combination of GQD and metformin significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose levels (MD −1.79, 95% CI (−2.31, −1.27), ); 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose levels (MD −1.72, 95% CI (−2.12, −1.31), ); and glycosylated hemoglobin levels (MD −1.26, 95% CI (−1.80, −0.72), ), and no serious side effects were identified. Conclusion. These data suggest that GQD may be an effective herbal formula in treating T2DM without serious side effects. The addition of GQD also enhances the hypoglycemic effects of metformin. However, the evidence remains weak due to methodological flaws, which may amplify the therapeutic benefit of GQD.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 11:35:01 +000
  • Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Formula Granules in Treating Chronic
           Kidney Disease Stage 3: A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled,
           Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. It is generally considered that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy postpones the progression of some chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Chinese medicine herbs are widely applied in TCM therapy. We aimed to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal formula granules in patients with CKD stage 3 through a prospective randomized controlled study. Methods. A total of 343 participants with CKD stage 3 were recruited from 9 hospitals in Jiangsu Province between April 2014 and October 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Patients in the treatment group orally took Chinese herbal formula granules twice a day, while controls received placebo granules. The duration of intervention was 24 weeks. Primary outcomes were 24-hour proteinuria, serum creatinine, and eGFR, which were measured every 4 weeks. Results. There was no statistical difference in 24-hour proteinuria between the two groups (0.97 ± 1.14 g/d vs. 0.97 ± 1.25 g/d). Patients in the treatment group had significantly lower serum creatinine level (130.78 ± 32.55 μmol/L versus 149.12 ± 41.27 μmol/L) and significantly higher eGFR level (55.74 ± 50.82 ml/min/1.73·m2 versus 44.46 ± 12.60 ml/min/1.73·m2) than those in the control group ( 
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:50:01 +000
  • Tianma Gouteng Decoction Exerts Cardiovascular Protection by Upregulating
           OPG and TRAIL in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    • Abstract: Tianma Gouteng Decoction (TGD) is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of hypertension and its related complications, but its mechanisms remain incompletely defined. We now aim to assess the protective effect of TGD against cardiovascular damage and to investigate its characteristics and underlying mechanisms. Blood pressure was determined in TGD-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by noninvasive measurements. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function and structure and sirius red staining to evaluate cardiac fibrosis, and the degree of vascular remodeling was evaluated. Additionally, vasoconstriction and relaxation factor expression changes were examined by means of ELISA. Protein expression changes were verified by western blot. Compared with untreated SHR, TGD-treated SHR exhibited cardiovascular traits more akin to those of the normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. That is, they had lower diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure and mean BP, and increased expression of vasodilation factor. We also found that TGD reduces ventricular and vascular remodeling and improves cardiac function in SHR. Finally, we tested the antiapoptosis effect TGD exerts in SHR, ostensibly by upregulating the expression of OPG, TRAIL, and death receptor 5 (DR5) and downregulating caspases 8, 7, and 3. TRAIL may also exert antiapoptotic and prosurvival effects by upregulating AKT expression. Therefore, TGD may reverse cardiovascular remodeling in SHR by upregulating the expression of OPG and TRAIL, upregulating AKT, and inhibiting apoptosis, at least in part. For the first time, we have shown that OPG and TRAIL play complimentary cardioprotective roles in SHR.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Constitutions of Deficiency and Stasis of Traditional Chinese Medicine and
           Related Factors among Middle-Aged Women in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Background. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) appears to be the common therapy in middle-aged women. The constitution serves as a guide for TCM treatment. However, little is known about the constitution and related factors in middle-aged women. The objectives of this study were to describe the yang-deficiency, yin-deficiency, and stasis constitutions in middle-aged women. Demographic and health factors related to yang deficiency, yin deficiency, and stasis were also examined. Methods. A total of 1,000 women aged 40–65 years were selected from 2009 through 2018 using random sampling from the Taiwan Biobank Research Database in Taiwan. Yang-deficiency, yin-deficiency, and stasis were assessed using the body constitution questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with constitution in deficiency or stasis. Results. The proportions of middle-aged women who had the constitution in yang-deficiency, yin-deficiency, and stasis were 29.7%, 21.7%, and 17.7%, respectively. The result of binary logistic regression showed that current menstruation, abnormal spirometry, and education level were predictive factors of yang deficiency. Women with younger age, abnormal spirometry, or a vegetarian diet had a significantly associated yin deficiency. Younger age, abnormal spirometry, and coffee habit were predictors of stasis. Conclusions. Middle-aged women in Taiwan with abnormal spirometry had a higher risk for deficiency or stasis constitutions, especially for those younger than 56 years. Healthcare providers should learn patients’ constitutions and provide appropriate advice, referring them to safe providers of their desired method.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 14:50:02 +000
  • A Network Pharmacology-Based Identification Study on the Mechanism of
           Xiao-Xu-Ming Decoction for Cerebral Ischemic Stroke

    • Abstract: Objective. We used the network pharmacological analysis method to explore the mechanism of multicomponent, multitarget, and multiway actions of Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction (XXMD) for cerebral ischemic stroke (CIS), which provided a basis on the research of innovative drugs. Method. We used the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) to retrieve the active ingredients and targets of 12 herbs of XXMD; we used the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) to screen for differentially expressed genes in CIS to obtain the disease targets of CIS and to intersect it with the action targets of XXMD, and then the target drug efficacy is obtained. We used Cytoscape 3.6 software to construct the drug-active ingredient-action target interaction network of XXMD to treat CIS and conduct protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and topology analysis. The action target Gene Ontology (GO) biological processes and metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) of XXMD to treat CIS were enrichment analyzed with R software. Result. We screened out 226 active ingredients and 3646 action targets for XXMD. Among them, XXMD to treat CIS has 144 active ingredients, 12 targets, and proteins in the core network of PPI having STAT3, HIF1A, etc. Pathway enrichment analysis was based on the GO and KEGG biological processes involved in active oxygen metabolism, smooth muscle cell proliferation, cytokine production, angiogenesis, redox coenzyme metabolism, and oxidative stress. The main action processes are significantly associated with CIS signal pathways involved in microRNAs, ovarian steroid hormones, NF-кB signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, folic acid synthesis pathway, galactose metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. Conclusion. This study initially clarified the main targets and pathways of XXMD in the treatment of CIS, which can lay the foundation for further research on its pharmacological effects.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 14:50:02 +000
  • Network Pharmacology-Based Study on the Mechanism of Pinellia ternata in
           Asthma Treatment

    • Abstract: Background. Pinellia ternata (PT), a medicinal plant, has had an extensive application in the treatment of asthma in China, whereas its underlying pharmacological mechanisms remain unclear. Methods. Firstly, a network pharmacology method was adopted to collect activated components of PT from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). Targets of PT were assessed by exploiting the PharmMapper website; asthma-related targets were collected from the OMIM website, and target-target interaction networks were built. Secondly, critical nodes exhibiting high possibility were identified as the hub nodes in the network, which were employed to conduct Gene Ontology (GO) comment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, the tissue expression profiles of key candidate genes were identified by the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and the therapeutic effect of PT was verified by an animal experiment. Results. 57 achievable targets of PT on asthma were confirmed as hub nodes through using the network pharmacology method. As revealed from the KEGG enrichment analysis, the signaling pathways were notably enriched in pathways of the T-cell receptor signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. The expression profiles of candidate genes including Mmp2, Nr3c1, il-10, il-4, il-13, il-17a, il-2, tlr4, tlr9, ccl2, csf2, and vefgα were identified. Moreover, according to transcriptome RNA sequencing data from lung tissues of allergic mice compared to normal mice, the mRNA level of Mmp2 and il-4 was upregulated (). In animal experiments, PT could alleviate the allergic response of mice by inhibiting the activation of T-helper type 2 (TH2) cells and the expression of Mmp2 and il-4. Conclusions. Our study provides candidate genes that may be either used for future studies related to diagnosis/prognosis or as targets for asthma management. Besides, animal experiments showed that PT could treat asthma by regulating the expression of Mmp2 and il-4.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 14:05:02 +000
  • Guiqi Baizhu Decoction Alleviates Radiation Inflammation in Rats by
           Modulating the Composition of the Gut Microbiota

    • Abstract: The gut microbiota is important in metabolism and immune modulation, and compositional disruption of the gut microbiota population is closely associated with inflammation caused by ionizing radiation (IR). Guiqi Baizhu decoction (GQBZD) is a medicinal compound used in traditional Chinese medicine with anti-inflammatory and antioxidation effects, especially in the process of radiotherapy. However, the effect of GQBZD on reducing the damage to the normal immune system in radiotherapy remains unclear. Here, we show that GQBZD reduces body weights, water intake, food intake, diarrhea level and quality of life score, and inflammation and enhances immunity function in rats treated with X-ray radiation. Meanwhile, our data indicate that GQBZD not only reverses IR-induced gut dysbiosis as indicated change of α-diversity and β-diversity of microbiota, the composition of Desulfovibrio, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, except for Roseburia and Lachnoclostridium, but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and promoting the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). GQBZD can also reduce the level of phosphorylation P65 (p-P65). Our results demonstrate that GQBZD can significantly alleviate the inflammatory responses and improve the immune damage against IR, and may be used as prebiotic agents to prevent gut dysbiosis and radiation-related metabolic disorders in radiotherapy.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 11:20:00 +000
  • The Isolation of Hypoglycaemic Compounds from Desmodium canum and Their
           Synergistic Effect on Blood Glucose Levels in Euglycaemic Sprague Dawley

    • Abstract: Desmodium canum (Strong back) commonly consumed as a tea or tonic is believed to possess hypoglycaemic activity. This paper sets out to isolate potential hypoglycaemic compounds present within the plant and investigate their synergistic effects on blood glucose levels in euglycaemic Sprague Dawley rats. The milled plant was sequentially extracted using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography yielding seven major fractions and were subsequently bioassayed using the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Further chromatographic separation and analysis using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy enabled the identification of two hypoglycaemic compounds, oleic acid (OA) and succinic acid (SA). These were bioassayed individually and as a cocktail to determine the synergistic effects using OGTT. Intravenous administration of these compounds individually indicated both are very potent in retarding blood glucose levels. However, the most significant activity was observed on synergistic administration. The cocktail (1 : 1) displayed significant hypoglycaemic activity throughout the entire study. It also significantly differed from OA at the 120 min interval (3.43 ± 0.22 mmol/L vs. 4.98 ± 0.19 mmol/L, resp., ) and significantly differed from SA at 30 min (3.95 ± 0.43 mmol/L vs. 5.17 ± 0.32 mmol/L, resp., ), 90 min (4.35 ± 0.36 mmol/L vs. 5.49 ± 0.69 mmol/L, resp., ), and 120 min intervals (3.43 ± 0.22 mmol/L vs. 4.94 ± 0.31, resp., ). Oral administration of the cocktail showed comparable potency to that of metformin () throughout the OGTT curve. The synergistic effects of the naturally isolated compounds yielded higher potency levels than individual administration and when administered orally, the hypoglycaemic effect was similar to that of metformin. This may assist in paving a way to attempt a novel method in approaching antidiabetic therapy.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • The Protective Effects and Potential Mechanisms of Ligusticum chuanxiong:
           Focus on Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antiapoptotic Activities

    • Abstract: Ligusticum chuanxiong (LC) is a Chinese materia medica which is widely used in clinical settings to treat headaches, blood extravasation, and arthritis. Recent studies demonstrate that LC possesses versatile pharmacological functions, including antiatherosclerosis, antimigraine, antiaging, and anticancer properties. Moreover, LC also shows protective effects in the progression of different diseases that damage somatic cells. Oxidative stress and inflammation, which can induce somatic cell apoptosis, are the main factors associated with an abundance of diseases, whose progresses can be reversed by LC. In order to comprehensively review the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective effects of LC, we collected and integrated all its related studies on the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. The results show that LC could exhibit the mentioned biological activities by modulating several signaling pathways, specifically the NF-κB, Nrf2, protein kinase, and caspase-3 pathways. In future investigations, the pharmacokinetic properties of bioactive compounds in LC and the signaling pathway modulation of LC could be focused.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 13:05:00 +000
  • Extraction, Purification, Characterization, and Antiangiogenic Activity of
           Acidic Polysaccharide from Buddleja officinalis

    • Abstract: Firstly, optimal parameters of crude polysaccharide from Buddleja officinalis were obtained as follows: ratio of water to raw material of 26 : 1, ultrasonic power of 240 W, ultrasonic time of 45 min, and ultrasonic temperature of 62°C. Secondly, acidic polysaccharide (APBOM) from Buddleja officinalis was successfully acquired with the yield of 9.57% by using DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 gel column chromatography. Then, we found that total polysaccharide content of APBOM was 94.37% with a sulfuric acid group of 1.68%, uronic acid content of 17.41%, and average molecular weight of 165.4 kDa. Finally, APBOM was confirmed to have significant antiangiogenic effects.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Oct 2020 14:35:01 +000
  • The Therapeutic Prospects of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Indole
           Alkaloids for Depression and Anxiety Disorders

    • Abstract: Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders among all age groups. Several antidepressant drugs including benzodiazepine, antidepressant tricyclics, azapirone, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, serotonin, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors have been used to treat these psychiatric disorders. However, these antidepressants are generally synthetic agents and can cause a wide range of side effects. The potential efficacy of plant-derived alkaloids has been reviewed against various neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington disease, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and epilepsy. However, data correlating the indole alkaloids and antidepressant activity are limited. Natural products, especially plants and the marine environment, are rich sources of potential new drugs. Plants possess a variety of indole alkaloids, and compounds that have an indole moiety are related to serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates brain function and cognition, which in turn alleviates anxiety, and ensures a good mood and happiness. The present review is a summary of the bioactive compounds from plants and marine sources that contain the indole moiety, which can serve as potent antidepressants. The prospects of naturally occurring as well as synthetic indole alkaloids for the amelioration of anxiety and depression-related disorders, structure-activity relationship, and their therapeutic prospects have been discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2020 15:35:01 +000
  • Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture Therapy for Patients with Acute Ankle
           Sprain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled

    • Abstract: Background. The efficacy of acupuncture for acute ankle sprain (AAS) is controversial. This study aimed to critically assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for AAS. Methods. Parallel-group randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included regardless of language or publication date. Participants with AAS were included regardless of age, sex, race, nationality, or diagnostic criteria for AAS. Experimental interventions included acupuncture alone or in combination with traditional therapies. Control interventions included no treatment, placebo, or traditional therapies. The primary outcome was the Kofoed ankle score. The secondary outcomes included visual analogue scale, duration of pain, use of painkiller, ankle circumference, effective rate, cure rate, and adverse events. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Digital Periodicals, and Chinese Science and Technology Periodicals database were searched to identify potentially eligible studies from inception to September 10, 2020. World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP),, Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), and the reference list of eligible RCTs were checked to identify ongoing or unpublished studies. Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Statistical analyses were performed by RevMan 5.3 software. indicated statistical significance. Results. Seventeen eligible studies were included for the statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference of Kofoed ankle score between acupuncture and Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation (RICE) group (). However, acupuncture could significantly relieve pain () and increase cure rate () compared with RICE. Moreover, acupuncture plus RICE could also significantly relieve pain () and increase cure rate () compared with RICE alone. Acupuncture combined with massage could significantly relieve pain () compared with massage alone. Acupuncture plus Chinese medicine might be more effective for relieving pain (), reducing the duration of pain (), and increasing cure rate () compared with Chinese medicine alone. Two studies reported no adverse reactions. One study reported that a participant suffered from mild drug-related allergic reaction and was healed without treatment. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that acupuncture may be beneficial for AAS. However, more large-scale and well-designed RCTs are warranted.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2020 15:35:01 +000
  • Antioxidant Effect of Standardized Extract of Propolis (EPP-AF®) in
           Healthy Volunteers: A “Before and After” Clinical Study

    • Abstract: Background. Propolis is rich in polyphenols, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, and has significant antioxidant activity, shown mainly in “in vitro” studies. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant efficacy and safety of a standardized propolis extract in healthy volunteers. Design. A two-phase sequential, open-label, nonrandomized, before and after clinical trial. Methods. Healthy participants received two EPP-AF® doses (375 and 750 mg/d, P.O, tid) during 7 ± 2 days, starting with the lower doses. Immediately before starting EPP-AF® administration and at the end of each 7-day dosing schedule, blood and urine samples were collected for quantification of 8-OHDG (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) and 8-ISO (8-isoprostanes) in urine and GSH (reduced glutathione), GSSG (oxidized glutathione), SOD (superoxide dismutase), FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), vitamin E, and MDA (malondialdehyde) in plasma. Results. In our study, we had 34 healthy participants (67.7% women, 30 ± 8 years old, 97% white). The 8-ISO, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, decreased with both doses of EPP-AF® compared to baseline (8-ISO, 1.1 (0.9–1.3) versus 0.85 (0.75–0.95) and 0.89 (0.74–1.0), ng/mg creatinine, , for 375 and 750 mg/d EPP-AF® doses versus baseline, mean and CI 95%, respectively). 8-OHDG, a biomarker of DNA oxidation, was also reduced compared to baseline with 750 mg/d doses (8-OHDG, 15.7 (13.2–18.1) versus 11.6 (10.2–13.0), baseline versus 750 mg/d, respectively, ng/mg creatinine, ). Reduction of biomarkers of oxidative stress damage was accompanied by increased plasma SOD activity (68.8 (66.1–73.3) versus 78.2 (72.2–80.5) and 77.7 (74.1–82.6), %inhibition, , 375 and 750 mg/d versus baseline, median and interquartile range 25–75%, respectively) and by increased GSH for 375 mg/d EPP-AF® doses (1.23 (1.06–1.34) versus 1.33 (1.06–1.47), μmol/L, ).Conclusion. EPP-AF® reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress cell damage in healthy humans, with increased antioxidant enzymatic capacity, especially of SOD. This trial is registered with the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC, RBR-9zmfs9).
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Shaoyao-Gancao Decoction Relieves Visceral Hyperalgesia in TNBS-Induced
           Postinflammatory Irritable Bowel Syndrome via Inactivating Transient
           Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type 1 and Reducing Serotonin Synthesis

    • Abstract: Postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, which is characterized by abdominal pain, low-grade inflammation, and visceral hypersensitivity. Shaoyao-Gancao decoction (SGD) has been used to improve the clinical symptoms of abdominal spasmodic pain accompanying acute gastroenteritis, but the underlying therapeutic mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a rat model of PI-IBS was established via rectal administration of TNBS. Rats were scored daily for 28 days using disease activity index (DAI). Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was used to measure the pain threshold. After SGD (6.25, 12.5, and 25 g/kg/d) treatment for 14 days, rat colonic tissue was collected for histopathological grading, enterochromaffin (EC) cell count, and 5-HT content measurement. RT-qPCR and western blot analyses were employed to detect the gene and protein level of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). To further validate the effect of SGD on TRPV1, another experiment was performed in cells. The results revealed that visceral hyperalgesia, reflected by increased DAI, AWR, pathological injury score, 5-HT content, and EC cell count in PI-IBS rats, was significantly ameliorated by SGD. In cells, SGD markedly inhibited the expression and function of TRPV1. Moreover, the expression levels of TPH were also repressed by SGD. The findings of the present study indicated that the therapeutic effect of SGD on visceral hyperalgesia may be closely associated with the regulatory role of TRPV1 and 5-HT signaling pathways.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2020 08:20:00 +000
  • Screening for Anti-Influenza Actives of Prefractionated Traditional
           Chinese Medicines

    • Abstract: Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have proven to possess advantages in counteracting virus infections according to clinical practices. It’s therefore of great value to discover novel antivirals from TCMs. In this paper, One hundred medicinal plants which have been included in TCM prescriptions for antiviral treatment were selected and prefractionated into 5 fractions each by sequentially using cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. 500 TCM-simplified extracts were then subjected to a phenotypic screening using a recombinant IAV expressing Gaussia luciferase. Ten TCM fractions were identified to possess antiviral activities against influenza virus. The IC50’s of the hit fractions range from 1.08 to 6.45 μg/mL, while the SIs, from 7.52 to 98.40. Furthermore, all the ten hit fractions inhibited the propagation of progeny influenza virus significantly at 20 μg/mL. The hit TCM fractions deserve further isolation for responsible constituents leading towards anti-influenza drugs. Moreover, a library consisting of 500 simplified TCM extracts was established, facilitating antiviral screening in quick response to emerging and re-emerging viruses such as Ebola virus and current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2020 08:20:00 +000
  • Efficiency and Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of
           Prediabetes: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the efficiency and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of prediabetes. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) to treat prediabetes were searched in the following databases from their inception date onwards until 2 May 2020: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO, CINAHL, CNKI, VIP database, CBM, and Wanfang database. Quality assessment of included trials was accessed according to the guidance in Cochrane. Researchers independently assessed the validity of included trials and extracted outcome data for synthesis. RevMan 5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Twenty-two RCTs including 3923 participants were included in the study. Our findings upon the 22 RCTs showed CHM is effective in the treatment of prediabetes, which can statistically reduce the incidence of diabetes (RR = 0.48; 95% CI = (0.41, 0.57); ), increase the incidence of normalization of prediabetes (RR = 1.76; 95% CI = (1.57, 1.96); ), and lower FPG (MD = −0.38; 95% CI = (−0.60, −0.16); ), 2hPG (MD = −1.13; 95% CI = (−1.60, −0.67); ), TG (MD = −0.23; 95% CI = (−0.33, −0.13); ), TC (MD = −0.34; 95% CI = (−0.52, −0.16); ), and BMI (MD = −0.48; 95% CI = (−0.78, −0.18); ) after treatment, and there was no difference of HbA1c ().Conclusion. CHM is effective for the treatment of prediabetes. CHM can statistically reduce the incidence of diabetes, increase the incidence of normalization of prediabetes, and lower the FPG, 2hPG, TG, TC, and BMI levels, but with no significant difference in HbA1c. In addition, CHM was relatively safe in clinical practice. More high-quality RCTs should be conducted to strengthen the finding.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2020 03:35:01 +000
  • A20-Binding Inhibitor of NF-κB 1 Ameliorates Neuroinflammation and
           Mediates Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Electroacupuncture in Cerebral
           Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats

    • Abstract: A20-binding inhibitor of NF-κB 1 (ABIN1) is an inhibitor of NF-κB and exerts anti-inflammatory effect. Electroacupuncture (EA) is considered as a neuroprotective strategy by inhibiting neuroinflammatory damage after cerebral ischemia. This study was performed to explore the role of ABIN1 and investigate whether the ABIN1 is involved in the mechanism of EA in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rats. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) and received EA after reperfusion once a day. Lentivirus-mediated ABIN1 gene knockdown was used to detect the role of ABIN1 in neuroinflammation after I/R. ABIN1 expression, proinflammatory cytokine levels, microglial activation, neurological function, infarct volumes, and NF-κB activation were assessed. ABIN1 expression was elevated in the peri-infarct cortex and was further upregulated by EA. ABIN1 knockdown increased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of microglia, worsened neurological deficits, and enlarged the infarct volume. Moreover, ABIN1 was blocked to partially reverse the neuroprotective effect of EA, and this treatment weakened the ability of EA to suppress NF-κB activity. Based on these findings, ABIN1 is a potential suppressor of neuroinflammation and ABIN1 mediates the antineuroinflammatory effect of EA in cerebral I/R rats.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Oct 2020 07:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Different-Volume Fluid Resuscitation on Organ Functions in
           Severe Acute Pancreatitis and Therapeutic Effect of Poria cocos

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the effect of different-volume fluid resuscitation (FR) on organ functions in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and to elucidate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Poria cocos on organ injuries caused by high-volume FR. Methods. 1. Clinical study: retrospective analysis of thirty-one patients about the effect of titrated fluid resuscitation protocol (TFR) on the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to SAP. 2. Experimental study: rats (N = 30) were randomly divided into five groups: sham, model, low-volume FR (1.5 ml/kg/h), high-volume FR (10 ml/kg/h), and Poria cocos combined with high-volume FR (10 ml/kg/h + intraintestinal administration Poria cocos 5 g/kg); serum or plasma indicators and histopathologic scores were compared to explore the effect and mechanism of different fluid volumes and Poria cocos on organ function in SAP. Results. The occurrence of AKI, fluid volume, and fluid velocity in TFR group was lower than that in the control group. Logistic regression analysis showed that increased Marshall scores and fluid velocity were risk factors for predicting occurrence of AKI in SAP. Low-volume FR decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and pathologic scores of the pancreas and kidney. High-volume FR increased ascites, MMPs, and kidney pathologic scores. Poria cocos decreased the levels of BUN, Cr, MMPs, and pathologic scores of the pancreas and kidney and increased the arterial oxygen saturation. Conclusion. TFR-associated lower fluid volume and velocity reduced the occurrence of AKI secondary to SAP. High volume might aggravate AKI via increased MMP release leading to endothelial glycocalyx damage and vascular endothelial dysfunction. Poria cocos reduced MMP release, relieved glycocalyx damage, and alleviated the pancreas and kidney injury aggravated by high fluid volume in SAP. Therefore, endothelial glycocalyx protection might be a new strategy in the treatment of SAP.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Oct 2020 06:05:00 +000
  • Investigating Prescriptions and Mechanisms of Acupuncture for Chronic
           Stable Angina Pectoris: An Association Rule Mining and Network Analysis

    • Abstract: Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a worldwide cardiovascular disease that severely affects people’s quality of life and causes serious cardiovascular accidents. Although acupuncture had been confirmed as a potential adjunctive treatment for CSAP, the basic rules and mechanisms of acupoints were little understood. We conducted a systematic search of the China Biology Medicine (CBM), VIP database, Wangfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Web of Science to identify eligible clinical controlled trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), from their inception to 18th February 2020. The acupoint prescriptions in the treatment of CSAP were extracted and analyzed based on the association rule mining (ARM) and network analysis. In addition, potential mechanisms of acupuncture for treating CSAP were summarized by data mining. A total of 27 eligible trials were included. Analysis of acupoint prescriptions covered 36 conventional acupoints and 1 experience acupoint, distributing in 10 meridians. The top three frequently used acupoints were PC6, LU9, and ST36. The top three frequently used meridians were the pericardial meridian, lung meridian, and heart meridian. The most frequently used acupoint combinations were LU9 combined with PC6. Besides, network analysis indicated that the core acupoints included PC6, BL15, ST40, and RN17. Moreover, potential mechanisms of acupuncture for treating CSAP involved the regulation of autonomic nerve function, the content of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), volume and the equivalent block of coronary artery calcified plaque (CACP), endothelin (ET), and nitric oxide (NO), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the content of C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In conclusion, our findings concerning acupoint prescriptions and potential mechanisms in the acupuncture treatment of CSAP could provide an optimized acupuncture treatment plan for clinical treatment of CSAP and promote further mechanism research and network research of CSAP.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Oct 2020 14:35:00 +000
  • Combined Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using Shenyi Capsule and
           Platinum-Based Chemotherapy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background.The efficacy and safety of combined treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using Shenyi capsules and platinum-based chemotherapy were comprehensively evaluated. Methods. A computer-based search was used to identify reports on clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this combined treatment for NSCLC from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, China Biomedical (CBM), and Wanfang Data electronic databases. The databases were searched from their start to February 2020. The quality of the included studies was evaluated and then crosschecked by two independent evaluators. A meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan5.3. Results. A total of 27 RCTs involving 2,663 patients were included in the meta-analysis, including 1,380 and 1,283 patients in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The results of the meta-analysis showed that, compared to platinum-based chemotherapy alone, the 1-year survival rate (relative risk (RR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.10, 1.47], ), 2-year survival rate (RR = 1.35, 95% CI [1.10, 1.65], ), objective tumour remission rate (RR = 1.52, 95% CI [1.35, 1.71], ), and body CD4+/CD8+ ratio (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.12, 95% CI [0.07, 0.17], ) were increased for the combined treatment of NSCLC using Shenyi capsules and platinum-based chemotherapy; moreover, quality of life was also improved (RR = 2.09, 95%CI [1.75, 2.50], ) and it reduced leukocyte toxicity (RR = 0.49, 95%CI [0.39, 0.63], ), haemoglobin toxicity (RR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.28, 0.81], ), platelet toxicity (RR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.28, 0.70], ), vomiting reaction (RR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.45, 0.78], ), and serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (SMD = −63.67, 95% CI [−67.59, −59.75], ).Conclusions. The treatment of NSCLC using Shenyi capsules together with routine platinum-based chemotherapy could enhance short- and long-term efficacy, improve patient quality of life, alleviate toxicity and side-effects of platinum-based chemotherapeutic drugs, boost body immune function, and inhibit tumour neovascularisation. These findings require further validation in large-sample, high-quality RCTs.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Oct 2020 14:35:00 +000
  • The Effect of High-Frequency Electrical Stimulation of Bilateral Nucleus
           Accumbens on the Behavior of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference
           Rats at Extinction and Reinstatement Phases

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the optimal time points for deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the treatment of morphine addiction and its possible mechanisms by investigating how high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in bilateral nucleus accumbens (NAc) at different time points influences the addictive behaviors of rats with drug addiction. Methods. The rats were randomly divided into extinction stimulation group (n = 20) and postextinction stimulation group (n = 20). Ten rats in the extinction stimulation group were treated using 120 Hz HFS during extinction stage while another 10 rats with pseudostimulation were served as control group. The CPP scores were evaluated at the second day after intervention, with total 9 sections accomplished. The CPP scores were evaluated at the second day of the intervention. In the postextinction stimulation group, 120 Hz HFS was intervened during the postextinction stage in 10 experimental rats and pseudostimulation was performed in 10 control rats. Stimulation was performed for 7 days continuously, and a small dose of morphine was administrated to induce relapse after the postextinction period. Results. During the extinction phase, CPP scores after HFS were significantly higher. During the postextinction phase, relapse CPP scores after HFS were dramatically lower. Conclusion. HFS of bilateral NAc inhibits the extinction of addictive behavior during the extinction phase, and HFS during the postextinction period suppresses relapse of drug seeking behavior.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Oct 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Effects of Qingshen Granules on Immune Function in Patients with Comorbid
           Chronic Renal Failure and Damp-Heat Syndrome: A Multicenter, Randomized,
           Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Objective. The current study sought to compare the effects of the addition of Qingshen granules to conventional Western medicine on immune function in patients with comorbid chronic renal failure and damp-heat syndrome and to explore the possible mechanisms responsible for any differences observed. Methods. Through a multicenter, randomized, controlled study, a total of 282 eligible patients were divided into experimental (n = 136) and control groups (n = 146). All of the patients were treated with conventional Western medical therapy. The experimental group also received Qingshen granules three times daily for 12 weeks. Clinical efficacy was observed in the two groups. Peripheral blood levels of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Th17 cells, nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) activity, serum interleukin-17 (IL-17), serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), fibronectin (FN), and type IV collagen (Col-IV) were detected in both groups. Results. The total clinical curative effective rate was significantly higher in the experimental group (79.41%) than in the control group (67.12%). Before treatment, there were no significant differences in CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, Th17 cell level, NF-κB p65 activity, serum IL-17, IL-6, TNF-α, TRAF6, FN, and Col-IV between the experimental and control groups ; however, all of the measures were significantly higher than those observed in a healthy comparison group ( or ). After treatment, the above indexes in the experimental group were significantly lower than those before treatment ( or ). Similarly, NF-κB p65 activity, serum IL-17, TNF-α, TRAF6, FN, and Col-IV in the control group were significantly lower than the levels observed prior to treatment ( or ); however, while all of the other indexes were lower than those observed before treatment, the differences were not statistically significant .Conclusion. Qingshen granules adjust immune dysfunction, improve immunity mediated inflammatory response, and attenuate renal fibrosis in patients with comorbid chronic renal failure and damp-heat syndrome.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Oct 2020 15:20:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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