Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Chai-Qin-Cheng-Qi Decoction and Carbachol Improve Intestinal Motility by
Regulating Protein Kinase C-Mediated Ca2+ Release in Colonic Smooth Muscle
Cells in Rats with Acute Necrotising Pancreatitis
Abstract: Chai-Qin-Cheng-Qi decoction (CQCQD) improves intestinal motility in acute pancreatitis (AP), but the mechanism(s) require elucidation. We investigated the effects of CQCQD and carbachol, a prokinetic agent, on colonic smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in L-arginine-induced necrotising AP model in rats. In treatment groups, intragastric CQCQD (20 g/kg, 2 hourly × 3 doses) or intraperitoneal carbachol (60 μg/kg) was given 24 hours after induction of AP. Both CQCQD and carbachol decreased the severity of pancreatic and colonic histopathology (all ). Both CQCQD and carbachol reduced serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and substance P and increased motility levels. CQCQD upregulated SMC phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC-β1) mRNA and PLC protein (both ), while both treatments upregulated protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) mRNA and PKC protein and downregulated adenylate cyclase (AC) mRNA and protein compared with no treatment (all ). Neither treatment significantly altered L-arginine-induced PKC-β1 and PKC-ε mRNA reduction. Both treatments significantly increased fluorescence intensity of SMC intracellular calcium concentration (3563.5 and 3046.9 versus 1086.9, both ). These data suggest CQCQD and carbachol improve intestinal motility in AP by increasing in colonic SMCs via upregulating PLC, PKC and downregulating AC.
PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 10:12:18 +000
- The Protective Effect of Lavender Essential Oil and Its Main Component
Linalool against the Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-Galactose and
Aluminum Trichloride in Mice
Abstract: Lavender essential oil (LO) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. This study was designed to investigate the effects of lavender essential oil (LO) and its active component, linalool (LI), against cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and AlCl3 in mice and to explore the related mechanisms. Our results revealed that LO (100 mg/kg) or LI (100 mg/kg) significantly protected the cognitive impairments as assessed by the Morris water maze test and step-though test. The mechanisms study demonstrated that LO and LI significantly protected the decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and protected the increased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Besides, they protected the suppressed nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression significantly. Moreover, the decreased expression of synapse plasticity-related proteins, calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), p-CaMKII, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and TrkB in the hippocampus were increased with drug treatment. In conclusion, LO and its active component LI have protected the oxidative stress, activity of cholinergic function and expression of proteins of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, and synaptic plasticity. It suggest that LO, especially LI, could be a potential agent for improving cognitive impairment in AD.
PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 09:03:59 +000
- The Effect of Three Different Meditation Exercises on Hypertension: A
Abstract: We aimed to use the pairwise and network meta-analysis to estimate the effects of different meditation exercises on the control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from PubMed and Embase up to June 2016, which are published in English and reported on meditation exercise for hypertensive patients. Risks of bias assessment of the included studies were assessed by Cochrane Collaboration Recommendations and network meta-analysis was performed by ADDIS. Mean difference (MD) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as the effect size. A number of 19 RCTs were included in this study. Results of pairwise comparisons indicated that meditation exercise could significantly decrease the SBP and DBP, compared with other interventions (MD = −7.10, 95% CI: −10.82 to −3.39; MD = −4.02, 95% CI: −6.12 to −1.92). With good consistence and convergence, network meta-analysis showed that there were no significant differences between meditation and other interventions on SBP. For DBP, Qigong was significantly lower than “no intervention” (MD = −11.73, 95% CI: −19.85 to −3.69). Qigong may be the optimal exercise way in lowering SBP and DBP of hypertensive patients, but a detailed long-term clinical research should be needed in the future.
PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 07:43:59 +000
- Disclosure of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Use and Its
Associated Factors to Medical Doctor in Primary Care Clinics in Kuching
Division, Sarawak, Malaysia
Abstract: The decision by the patients to disclose traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) use to their doctor is an important area to be explored. This study aimed to determine the disclosure of TCM use and its associated factors to medical doctor among primary care clinic attendees in Kuching Division, Sarawak. It was a cross-sectional study using questionnaire, interviewer administered questionnaire. A total of 1130 patients were screened with 80.2% reporting using TCM. Logistic regression analysis revealed that being female (AOR = 3.219, 95% CI: 1.385, 7.481), perceived benefits that TCM can prevent complication of illness (AOR = 3.999, 95% CI: 1.850, 8.644) and that TCM is more gentle and safer (AOR = 4.537, 95% CI: 2.332, 8.828), perceived barriers of not having enough knowledge about TCM (AOR = 0.530, 95% CI: 0.309, 0.910), patient dissatisfaction towards healthcare providers being too business-like and impersonal (AOR = 0.365, 95% CI: 0.199, 0.669) and paying more for healthcare than one can afford (AOR = 0.413, 95% CI: 0.250, 0.680), and accessibility of doctors (AOR = 3.971, 95% CI: 2.245, 7.023) are the predictors of disclosure of TCM use. An open communication between patients and doctor is important to ensure safe implementation and integration of both TCM and medical treatment.
PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 06:17:34 +000
- The Effect of Chunghyul-Dan on Hyperventilation-Induced Carbon Dioxide
Reactivity of the Middle Cerebral Artery in Normal Subjects: A
Abstract: Background. This study was conducted to show the prompt effect of chunghyul-dan (CHD) on cerebral hemodynamics in order to provide evidence for its use in stroke prevention. Methods. Hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the middle cerebral artery was measured in 12 healthy male volunteers (mean age: years) using transcranial Doppler sonography. All subjects were examined before and for 3 hours after administration, with an interval of 1 week between measurements. Results. Compared to baseline, the CO2 reactivity of the middle cerebral artery increased significantly at 2 and 3 hours after the administration of CHD (600 mg and 1200 mg). The mean blood pressure and heart rate did not vary from the baseline values in all groups. Conclusion. These data suggest that CHD administration (especially 600 mg) immediately improves cerebral blood flow.
PubDate: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 07:19:18 +000
- Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine Product, QiangGuYin, on Bone
Mineral Density and Bone Turnover in Chinese Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of herbal formula QiangGuYin (QGY) in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods. A total of 240 participants from six clinical centers were randomly to receive alendronate 70 mg/week, QGY granules 20 g/day, and placebo. Primary end points were BMD changes over 6 and 12 months; secondary end points were bone turnover markers changes at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Safety was monitored by clinical adverse events reported during the follow-up. Results. Of 240 women recruited, 218 completed the study. Significant BMD increases from baseline were observed over 6 and 12 months at each observed part both in QGY and alendronate compared with placebo (). Alendronate-treated subjects had significant decreases in β-CTX compared to QGY-treated subjects at each time point assessed (). Reduction in t-P1NP was only observed in the QGY group at 3 and 6 months (−23.81% and −3.07%, resp.). No significant difference was observed in the overall incidence of clinical adverse events among the alendronate group and the QGY group (5.0% versus 7.5%, ). Conclusion. 1-Year treatment with QGY demonstrated a safe statistical increase in BMD and new balance may be rebuilt after 9 months. This trail is registered with ChiCTR-POC-16008026.
PubDate: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 07:02:00 +000
- Neuroprotective Effect of Fagopyrum dibotrys Extract against
Abstract: Accumulated evidence suggests that polyphenolic antioxidants present in herbs play important roles in prevention of AD; the molecular mechanisms behind neuroprotective actions rely on the phenols through different effects on the amyloid-aggregation pathway. Fagopyrum dibotrys is a traditional herbal medicine which contains high quantity phenols. In present study, we investigate the beneficial pharmacological actions of Fagopyrum dibotrys extract in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse mode; meanwhile, effects of the FDE on the fibrillation and cytotoxicity of Aβ peptide were evaluated in vitro. After 9-month treatment, FDE exhibited multifunctional properties on Aβ-related pathologies, which cleaned Aβ deposits in the brain and decreased Aβ burden in the plasma, inhibited microhaemorrhage, and reduced reactive microglia in APP/PS1 transgenic mice and also promoted Aβ fibrils disaggregation and inhibited neurotoxicity induced by Aβ in SH-SY5Y cells. These results highlighted that FDE is an AD type pathology modulator with therapeutic potential against AD.
PubDate: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Chinese Medicine Formula “Xian-Jia-Tang” for Treating Bladder Outlet
Obstruction by Improving Urodynamics and Inhibiting Oxidative Stress
through Potassium Channels
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (named Xian-Jia-Tang, XJT) on bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in rats and explore its mechanisms. Total 80 BOO model rats were established and randomly divided into 4 groups: physiological saline, XJT, Cesium Chloride (CC), and XJT and CC groups. Meanwhile, 12 rats were used as normal control. Bladder weight and urodynamics were measured. Oxidative stress level and mRNA expressions of potassium channels gene were detected in detrusor. The mRNA and protein levels of hypoxia inducible factor-α (HIF-α) in detrusor were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. BOO model rats showed significantly higher bladder weight and abnormal urodynamics. XJT significantly improved the abnormal urodynamics and inhibited the oxidative stress and changes of mRNA levels of potassium channels genes in detrusor of BOO model rats. Moreover, KATP and SK2/3 mRNA were overexpressed in BOO model rats treated by XJT. Besides, the significantly increased levels of HIF-α mRNA and protein were also inhibited by XJT. However, these inhibition effects of XJT were weakened by CC. XJT could effectively improve the urodynamics and inhibit the oxidative stress caused by hypoxia through suppressing the role of potassium channels in BOO model rats.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 06:46:57 +000
- Pingmu Decoction Induces Orbital Preadipocytes Apoptosis In Vitro
Abstract: Pingmu Decoction is the Traditional Chinese Medicine which has treated Graves’ Ophthalmopathy (GO) in the inactive stage for more than ten years. This study was to explore the mechanism of Pingmu Decoction of inhibiting preadipocytes in GO patients from differentiating into mature adipocytes. Human orbital preadipocytes were isolated and cultured through tissue explant method. Orbital preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes. The medicinal serum was prepared from rats. The cells were treated with medicinal serum which were divided into three groups, low dose group (5%), medium dose group (10%), and high dose group (20%). The cells viabilities were observed by Oil Red O staining, MTT method, and Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Effect of Pingmu Decoction on cell apoptosis rate of orbital matured adipocytes was measured by flow cytometry. The genes Fas and Fas L from cell groups were tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The expression of master adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor (PPAR) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) , was tested by Western blotting. Pingmu Decoction could reduce orbital preadipocytes viability and induce apoptosis of mature adipocyte via Fas/Fas L signaling pathway. Pingmu Decoction reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α. Pingmu Decoction may play a therapeutic effect by reducing the accumulation of orbital adipocytes.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 09:34:12 +000
- Effect of QSKL on MAPK and RhoA Pathways in a Rat Model of Heart Failure
Abstract: Qishenkeli (QSKL) is one of the Chinese medicine formulae for treating heart failure and has been shown to have an antifibrotic effect. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic effects remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore whether QSKL could exert an antifibrotic effect by attenuating ras homolog family member A (RhoA) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, QSKL group, and positive control group. Heart failure was induced by ligation of the left ventricle anterior descending artery. Cardiac functions were measured by echocardiography and collagen deposition was assessed by Masson staining. Expressions of the key molecules involved in the RhoA and MAPK pathways were also measured. Twenty-one days after surgery, cardiac functions were severely impaired and collagen deposition was remarkable, while QSKL treatment could improve heart functions and alleviate collagen deposition. Further results demonstrated that the effects may be mediated by suppressing expressions of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, expressions of RhoA, Rho-associated protein kinase 1/2 (ROCK1/2), and phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC) were also downregulated by QSKL compared with the model group. The cardioprotective mechanism of QSKL on heart failure is probably mediated by regulating both the MAPK and RhoA signaling pathways.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 09:29:14 +000
- Quantitative Evaluation of Chinese Herb Medicine in the Treatment of
Sialorrhea and Frequent Nighttime Urination in Patients with Parkinson’s
Abstract: Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of Lian-Se formula (LSF), one Chinese herb formulation for treating sialorrhea and frequent overnight urination in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods. 96 PD patients suffering from sialorrhea and/or frequent nighttime urination were divided into two groups: an LSF group (n = 48) treated with LSF for 6 weeks and a placebo group (n = 48) treated with a placebo formula whose appearance and taste were the same as LSF for 6 weeks. All patients were treated by standard antiparkinsonism medicine according to the PD guideline of China. The changes of the quantity of saliva (QS) (mL), frequency of nighttime urination (FNU) and early sleep activity (ESA), and nocturnal activity (NA) by analyzing actigraphic records as the primary results and the total score of unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) as the secondary results were used to evaluate the clinical efficacy in both groups. Results. There were no significant differences in the baseline values of QS, FNU, NA, ESA, UPDRS total score, and ESS between the two groups. At the end of week 6, the QS, FNU, NA, and ESA in the LSF group showed superior results to those of the placebo group with no differences in the total UPDRS score between the two groups during the investigation. The ESS was significantly improved at the end of week 6 compared with the baseline and the placebo group. Laboratory test results indicated there were no side effects in either group. Conclusion. The findings of LSF treatment have clear clinical effects in patients with sialorrhea and frequent overnight urination. LSF thus appears to be a potential choice as an additional drug that can improve the sialorrhea and frequent overnight urination symptoms of PD patients.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 07:41:32 +000
- Investigations of a Possible Chemical Effect of Salvadora persica Chewing
Abstract: Salvadora persica is commonly used chewing sticks in many parts of the world as an oral hygiene tool. This study measured the amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) released into the mouth and assessed its retention time in saliva. The study also tested if the released amount of BITC could potentially be antibacterial or cytotoxic. Twelve subjects brushed their teeth with fresh Miswak once, twice, and four times. The amount of BITC in the saliva and in the used brushes was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial effect of BITC and Miswak essential oil (MEO) was tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cytotoxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and keratinocytes was tested using MTT. The highest amount of the active compounds was detected in saliva after using the Miswak tip for once and immediately. It significantly decreased when the Miswak tip was used more than once and thus after 10 min. The growth of the tested bacteria was inhibited by MEO and BITC in a dose dependent manner, P. gingivalis being the most sensitive. MTT assay showed that BITC and MEO were cytotoxic towards gingival fibroblasts while oral keratinocytes showed resistance. This study suggests that the Miswak tip should be cut before each use to ensure the maximum effect.
PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Oleuropein Protects Cardiomyocyte against Apoptosis via Activating the
Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase Pathway In Vitro
Abstract: Oleuropein, the main glycoside present in olives, has been reported to have cardioprotective effect, but the exact mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. This study attempted to clarify the cardioprotective effect of oleuropein against simulated ischemia/reperfusion- (SI/R-) induced cardiomyocyte injury in vitro and further explore the underlying mechanism. Here we confirmed that oleuropein reduced the cell injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte induced by SI/R evidenced by decreasing MTT dye reduction and LDH activity in the culture medium. Meanwhile, the compound also inhibited reactive oxygen species excessive generation and stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential after SI/R. The flow cytometry assessment results indicated the inhibition of cellular apoptosis with oleuropein treatment. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that oleuropein attenuated the expression of Cyt-C, c-caspase-3, and c-caspase-9, increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt after SI/R. However, the phosphorylation enhancement was partially abolished in the presence of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK inhibitor). All these findings indicate that oleuropein has the protective potential against SI/R-induced injury and its protective effect may be partly due to the attenuation of apoptosis via the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 07:36:50 +000
- Tai-Chi-Chuan Exercise Improves Pulmonary Function and Decreases Exhaled
Nitric Oxide Level in Both Asthmatic and Nonasthmatic Children and
Improves Quality of Life in Children with Asthma
Abstract: Tai-Chi-Chuan (TCC) is an exercise of low-to-moderate intensity which is suitable for asthmatic patients. The aim of our study is to investigate improvements of the lung function, airway inflammation, and quality of life of asthmatic children after TCC. Participants included sixty-one elementary school students and they were divided into asthmatic () and nonasthmatic () groups by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Among them, 20 asthmatic and 18 nonasthmatic children volunteered to participate in a 60-minute TCC exercise weekly for 12 weeks. Baseline and postintervention assessments included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level, and Standardised Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ(S)). After intervention, the level of FeNO decreased significantly; PEFR and the FEV1/FVC also improved significantly in both asthmatic group and nonasthmatic group after TCC. The asthmatic children also had improved quality of life after TCC. The results indicated that TCC could improve the pulmonary function and decrease airway inflammation in both children with mild asthma and those without asthma. It also improves quality of life in mild asthmatic children. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine the effect of TCC on children with moderate-to-severe asthma.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing the Effectiveness of
Electroacupuncture versus Medium-Frequency Electrotherapy for Discogenic
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the short- and long-term effects of electroacupuncture (EA) compared with medium-frequency electrotherapy (MFE) on chronic discogenic sciatica. Methods. One hundred participants were randomized into two groups to receive EA () or MFE () for 4 weeks. A 28-week follow-up of the two groups was performed. The primary outcome measure was the average leg pain intensity. The secondary outcome measures were the low back pain intensity, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), patient global impression (PGI), drug use frequency, and EA acceptance. Results. The mean changes in the average leg pain numerical rating scale (NRS) scores were 2.30 (1.86–2.57) and 1.06 (0.62–1.51) in the EA and MFE groups at week 4, respectively. The difference was significant (). The long-term follow-up resulted in significant differences. The average leg pain NRS scores decreased by 2.12 (1.70–2.53) and 0.36 (−0.05–0.78) from baseline in the EA and MFE groups, respectively, at week 28. However, low back pain intensity and PGI did not differ significantly at week 4. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions. EA showed greater short-term and long-term benefits for chronic discogenic sciatica than MFE, and the effect of EA was superior to that of MFE. The study findings warrant verification. This trial was registered under identifier ChiCTR-IPR-15006370.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 08:21:15 +000
- Ficus hispida Bark Extract Prevents Nociception, Inflammation, and CNS
Stimulation in Experimental Animal Model
Abstract: Background. Ficus hispida is traditionally used in the ailment of pain, inflammation, and neurological disorders. The present study set out to evaluate the in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and sedative activity of the ethanol extract of Ficus hispida bark (EFHB). Methods. The antinociceptive activity of EFHB was evaluated by using acetic acid induced writhing, formalin, hot plate, and tail immersion methods in Swiss albino mice. Its anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by using carrageenan and histamine induced rat paw oedema test in Wister rats. The central stimulating activity was studied by using pentobarbital induced hypnosis, hole cross, and open field tests in Swiss albino mice. Results. EFHB demonstrated antinociceptive activity both centrally and peripherally. It showed 62.24% of writhing inhibition. It significantly inhibited licking responses in early (59.29%) and late phase (71.61%). It increased the reaction time to the thermal stimulus in both hot plate and tail immersion. It inhibited the inflammation to the extent of 59.49%. A substantial increase in duration of sleep up to 60.80 min and decrease of locomotion up to 21.70 at 400 mg/kg were also observed. Conclusion. We found significant dose dependent antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and sedative properties of EFHB in experimental animal models.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 06:48:48 +000
- Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine on Atherosclerosis and SCAP/SREBP-1c
Signaling Pathway in ApoE−/− Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet
Abstract: Lipid metabolism dysregulation plays a crucial role in the occurrence of atherosclerosis (As). SCAP/SREBP signaling is the main pathway for regulating lipid metabolism. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating angina pectoris, has antiatherosclerotic effects and ameliorates blood lipids disturbance. However, its precise mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the mechanism of TMP in ameliorating As in mice model. After six weeks of high-fat diet, 30 ApoE−/− mice were randomized () and treated with Lipitor, TMP, or distilled water for six weeks. The serum blood lipids and insulin levels were measured. The expressions of PAQR3, Insig-1, SCAP, SREBP-1c, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and mTORC-1 in the adipose tissues were determined. The results showed that TMP could significantly decrease blood lipids levels, insulin, and corrected plaque area of the ApoE−/− mice as compared to the untreated mice (, ). Moreover, TMP could significantly downregulate the expressions of SCAP, SREBP-1c, PAQR3, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and mTORC1 (). Thus, TMP may ameliorate lipid metabolism disorder and As by downregulating PAQR3 and inhibiting SCAP/SREBP-1c signaling pathway. In addition, PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling pathway may be involved in this process.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- In Vitro Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ephedra gerardiana
(Root and Stem) Crude Extract and Fractions
Abstract: The utilization of medicinal plants to treat infectious disease is a common practice in developing countries worldwide. The present study was aimed at evaluating the crude extracts of Ephedra gerardiana (root and stem) with different chemicals for antioxidant and antimicrobial (fungal and bacterial) potential. The results revealed that the ethyl acetate fractions of E. gerardiana (root and stem) have significant free radical scavenging potential with values and while -butanol and aqueous fractions showed and µg/ml in stem. Furthermore, crude extract and fractions also revealed promising antibacterial activities against all tested microbial strains while aqueous fraction showed no activities against Bacillus subtilis, Kleibsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interestingly, all crude extracts and fractions were nonactive against fungal strain, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, as compare to control. In summary, the Ephedra gerardiana (root and stem) extract and fraction possess antioxidant activities, which might be helpful in preventing or slowing the progress of various oxidative stresses, suggested to be a strong pharmaceutical agent.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Agrimonia
eupatoria L. Infusion
Abstract: Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) (Ae) is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and oxidative related diseases. Therefore, this study focuses on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Ae infusion (AeI). Phenolic compounds characterization was achieved by HPLC-PDA-ESI/. To evaluate antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and SNAP assays were used. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of AeI was investigated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by measuring the NO production. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was validated using the mouse carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Peripheral and central analgesic potential was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, respectively, as well as the formalin assay to assess both activities. The safety profile was disclosed in vitro and in vivo, using MTT and hematoxylin assays, respectively. Vitexin, quercetin O-galloyl-hexoside, and kaempferol O-acetyl-hexosyl-rhamnoside were referred to in this species for the first time. AeI and mainly AePF (Ae polyphenolic fraction) showed a significant antiradical activity against all tested radicals. Both AeI and AePF decreased NO levels in vitro, AePF being more active than AeI. In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were verified for both samples at concentrations devoid of toxicity. Agrimony infusion and, mainly, AePF are potential sources of antiradical and anti-inflammatory polyphenols.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Therapeutic Risk and Benefits of Concomitantly Using Herbal Medicines and
Conventional Medicines: From the Perspectives of Evidence Based on
Randomized Controlled Trials and Clinical Risk Management
Abstract: Despite increased awareness of the potential of herb-drug interactions (HDIs), the lack of rigorous clinical evidence regarding the significance provides a challenge for clinicians and consumers to make rational decisions about the safe combination of herbal and conventional medicines. This review addressed HDIs based on evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by performing a PubMed search till January 2017. Risk description and clinical risk management were described. Among 74 finally included RCTs, 17 RCTs (22.97%) simply addressed pharmacodynamic HDIs. Fifty-seven RCTs (77.03%) investigated pharmacokinetic HDIs and twenty-eight of them showed potential or actual clinical relevance. The extent of an HDI may be associated with the factors such as pharmacogenomics, dose of active ingredients in herbs, time course of interaction, characteristics of the object drugs (e.g., administration routes and pharmacokinetic profiles), modification of herbal prescription compositions, and coexistence of inducers and inhibitors. Clinical professionals should enhance risk management on HDIs such as increasing awareness of potential changes in therapeutic risk and benefits, inquiring patients about all currently used conventional medicines and herbal medicines and supplements, automatically detecting highly substantial significant HDI by computerized reminder system, selecting the alternatives, adjusting dose, reviewing the appropriateness of physician orders, educating patients to monitor for drug-interaction symptoms, and paying attention to follow-up visit and consultation.
PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 07:42:45 +000
- Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in
South Korea: A Survey Study
Abstract: Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 08:55:35 +000
- Electroacupuncture Improves Cognitive Deficits through Increasing Regional
Cerebral Blood Flow and Alleviating Inflammation in CCI Rats
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the effect of EA on regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive deficits, inflammation, and its probable mechanisms in chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) rats. Methods. Rats were assigned randomly into sham operation group (sham group) and operation group. For operation group, CCI model was performed using the permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) method, and then rats were further randomly divided into model group and electroacupuncture (EA) group. 2/15 Hz low-frequency pulse electric intervention was applied at “Baihui” and “Dazhui” acupoints in EA group. Four weeks later, Morris water maze test was adopted to assess the cognitive function, using laser Doppler flowmetry to test changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF); double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) to measure proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β); western blot to test the protein expression quantities of proinflammatory cytokines, JAK2, and STAT3; and RT-PCR to test JAK2 mRNA and STAT3 mRNA in the hippocampus in each group. Results. Compared with the model group, learning and memory abilities and rCBF and IL-6 expression of the EA group enhanced markedly; IL-1β and JAK2 significantly decreased; TNF-α and STAT3 also declined, but the difference was not apparent. Conclusion. Our research suggests that EA can improve cognitive deficits which may be induced by increasing rCBF and anti-inflammatory effect.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:12:57 +000
- The Impacts of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract on Oxidative Stress and
Inflammatory Responses in Adjuvant-Induced Arthritic Rats
Abstract: Chrysanthemum indicum has been used as a therapeutic agent against inflammation, hypertension, and respiratory conditions for many years. This research’s aim has been to examine the antioxidant impacts that Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) has on the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in adjuvant-induced arthritic (AA) rats. 40 rats were categorised into 4 groups according to a completely randomized approach: Group I involved normal control rats (CTRL) that received a basal diet; Group II involved arthritic control rats (CTRL-AA) that received the same diet; Group III involved rats that received a basal diet and 30 mg/kg CIE; and Group IV involved arthritic rats with the same diet as Group III rats (CIE-AA). After injection with complete Freund’s adjuvant, body weight, arthritis score, and the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were assessed. The results demonstrated that CIE delayed the onset time of arthritis and decreased the clinical arthritis severity score (). Observations of CIE-AA and CTRL-AA rats demonstrated that CIE alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in CIE-AA group. In conclusion, CIE alleviated oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, thereby highlighting its potential use as a candidate for clinical treatments of rheumatoid arthritis.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:06:47 +000
- Optimal Solubility of Diclofenac β-Cyclodextrin in Combination with Local
Anaesthetics for Mesotherapy Applications
Abstract: Because of low injection volume, the recently marketed injectable solution of diclofenac in complex with β-cyclodextrin (Akis®, IBSA Farmaceutici Italia) is an ideal candidate for mesotherapy applications. In this study, we investigated the solubility of Akis, 25 and 50 mg/kg, in combination with various local anaesthetics (lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine) at different concentrations in aqueous vehicles (normal saline, sterile water, or bicarbonate). Final injection mixtures were classified as limpid, turbid, or milky at visual analysis under standardized conditions. We found that (i) the use of sterile water for injections or normal saline as vehicles to dilute Akis in combination with whatever local anaesthetic normally results in milky solutions and therefore is not recommended; (ii) using bicarbonate, optimal solubility was obtained combining Akis with lidocaine, both 1 and 2%, or mepivacaine, both 1 and 2%, whereas solutions were turbid in combination with bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, or ropivacaine. Thus, we recommend that Akis is used in combination with lidocaine or mepivacaine in a bicarbonate vehicle.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Medicinal Plants and Natural Active Compounds for Cancer
PubDate: Sun, 09 Apr 2017 06:25:56 +000
- Retracted: Expression Profiling of Transcriptome and Its Associated
Disease Risk in Yang Deficiency Constitution of Healthy Subjects
PubDate: Sun, 09 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Deqi Induction by HT7 Acupuncture Alters Theta and Alpha Band Coherence in
Human Healthy Subjects
Abstract: The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the changes in phase synchronization in the theta and alpha bands before and during the performance of classical acupuncture on the Sinmun (HT7). The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals from nine healthy young subjects were recorded before and during acupuncture in the “closed-eye” state. The EEG signals were acquired from 19 surface scalp electrodes (FP1, FP2, F7, F3, Fz F4, F8, T3, C3, Cz, C4, T4, T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1, and O2). Needles were inserted into the HT7 bilaterally and were then manipulated to induce deqi and retained for 15 minutes. Phase synchronization was measured by phase coherence. In the theta band, coherence significantly increased between the temporal (T5, T6) and occipital areas (O1, O2) during the acupuncture stimulation. In the alpha band, coherence significantly increased between the left temporal area (T5) and other areas (frontal, parietal, and occipital). Phase coherence in the theta and alpha bands tended to increase during the retention of the acupuncture needles after deqi. Therefore, it can be concluded that acupuncture stimulation with deqi is clinically effective via the central nervous system (CNS).
PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 07:48:47 +000
- Improved Lipid Profile Associated with Daily Consumption of Tri-Sura-Phon
in Healthy Overweight Volunteers: An Open-Label, Randomized Controlled
Abstract: Tri-Sura-Phon (TSP), a traditional Thai polyherbal formula renowned for its rejuvenating properties, is commonly used as a blood tonic. It comprises Cinnamomum bejolghota, Cinnamomum parthenoxylon, and Aquilaria crassna. The aim of this study is to evaluate the beneficial properties of TSP tea consumption on blood glucose regulation and serum lipid profiles of healthy overweight volunteers. This open-label, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 70 healthy overweight adults. Two groups of 35 subjects took a TSP infusion or a placebo (cornstarch) twice daily for 8 weeks. The blood glucose regulation, serum lipid profiles, BMI, and liver function tests of the subjects were determined at the baseline, 4th week, and endpoint (8th week). Significant decreases in the average fasting levels of total cholesterol (), triglyceride (), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, ) were observed in the TSP group at the 8th week compared to those at the baseline. The average HDL level in the TSP group at the beginning of the study was 65.2 mg/dL, and it increased significantly () to 72.4 mg/dL after 8 weeks of TSP intake. This study showed that the intake of TSP tea as an antioxidant-rich beverage might be safe and improve lipid profiles in overweight adults.
PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 06:54:06 +000
- Sulphurous Mineral Waters: New Applications for Health
Abstract: Sulphurous mineral waters have been traditionally used in medical hydrology as treatment for skin, respiratory, and musculoskeletal disorders. However, driven by recent intense research efforts, topical treatments are starting to show benefits for pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, peptic ulcer, and acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. The beneficial effects of sulphurous mineral waters, sulphurous mud, or peloids made from sulphurous mineral water have been attributed to the presence of sulphur mainly in the form of hydrogen sulphide. This form is largely available in conditions of low pH when oxygen concentrations are also low. In the organism, small amounts of hydrogen sulphide are produced by some cells where they have numerous biological signalling functions. While high levels of hydrogen sulphide are extremely toxic, enzymes in the body are capable of detoxifying it by oxidation to harmless sulphate. Hence, low levels of hydrogen sulphide may be tolerated indefinitely. In this paper, we review the chemistry and actions of hydrogen sulphide in sulphurous mineral waters and its natural role in body physiology. This is followed by an update of available data on the impacts of exogenous hydrogen sulphide on the skin and internal cells and organs including new therapeutic possibilities of sulphurous mineral waters and their peloids.
PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Effect of Taichi Softball on Function-Related Outcomes in Older Adults: A
Randomized Control Trial
Abstract: The purpose of this present study was to examine the effect of Taichi softball (TCSB) on physical function in Chinese older adults. Eighty Chinese older adults were randomly assigned into either an experimental group experiencing four 90-minute TCSB sessions weekly for seven consecutive weeks or a control group. At baseline and 7 weeks later, all participants were asked to perform physical functional tests for both lower and upper limbs. Multiple separate Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures were applied to evaluate the effects of TCSB on function-related outcomes between baseline and postintervention in the two groups. The findings indicate that a short-term and intensive TCSB training program does not only improve low limb-related physical function such as dynamic balance and leg strength, but also strengthen upper limb-related physical function (e.g., arm and forearm strength, shoulder mobility, fine motor control, handgrip strength, and fine motor function). Health professionals could take into account TCSB exercise as an alternative method to help maintain or alleviate the inevitable age-related physical function degeneration in healthy older adults. In addition, researchers could investigate the effect of TCSB exercise on physical function in special populations such as patients with different chronic diseases or neurological disorder (e.g., Parkinson’s disease).
PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000