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Showing 1 - 200 of 334 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epidemiology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  [SJR: 0.615]   [H-I: 50]   [18 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1741-427X - ISSN (Online) 1741-4288
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [334 journals]
  • Astragalus Extract Mixture HT042 Increases Longitudinal Bone Growth Rate
           by Upregulating Circulatory IGF-1 in Rats

    • Abstract: Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized ingredient of health functional food approved by Korean FDA with a claim of “height growth of children.” HT042 stimulates bone growth rate and increases local IGF-1 expression in growth plate of rats which can be considered as direct stimulation of GH and its paracrine/autocrine actions. However, it remains unclear whether HT042 stimulates circulatory IGF-1 which also plays a major role to stimulate bone growth. To determine the effects on circulatory IGF-1, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 expressions and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5 were evaluated in the liver after 10 days of HT042 administration. HT042 upregulated liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA expression, IGF-1 protein expression, and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5. HT042 also increased bone growth rate and proliferative zonal height in growth plate. In conclusion, HT042 stimulates bone growth rate via increment of proliferative rate by upregulation of liver IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 mRNA followed by IGF-1 protein expression through phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT5, which can be regarded as normal functioning of GH-dependent endocrine pathway.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 07:18:54 +000
  • Insights into the Roles of Midazolam in Cancer Therapy

    • Abstract: With its high worldwide mortality and morbidity, cancer has gained increasing attention and novel anticancer drugs have become the focus for cancer research. Recently, studies have shown that most anesthetic agents can influence the activity of tumor cells. Midazolam is a γ-aminobutyric acid A () receptor agonist, used widely for preoperative sedation and as an adjuvant during neuraxial blockade. Some studies have indicated the potential for midazolam as a novel therapeutic cancer drug; however, the mechanism by which midazolam affects cancer cells needs to be clarified. This systematic review aims to summarize the progress in assessing the molecular mechanism of midazolam as an anticancer agent.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:10:45 +000
  • Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Three Ephedrines in
           Rat after Oral Administration of Unprocessed and Honey-Fried Ephedra
           Extract by Response Surface Experimental Design

    • Abstract: Ephedra have been used as a common traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. However, the perspiration effect of the unprocessed ephedra was too strong. Clinical trials have shown that processing methods play a critical role in moderating the perspiration property of ephedra according to the needs. A LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of the three ephedrines after oral administration of unprocessed and honey-fried ephedra extract. The contents of honey, frying temperature, and frying time were set at 20%, 116°C, and 7 min by the Box-Behnken response surface method, respectively. In the pharmacokinetics study, the biosamples were pretreated and extracted by protein precipitation method with acetonitrile and separated on an Agilent TC-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid methanol and 5 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution (5 : 95, v/v). All calibration curves were linear () with lower limits of quantitation (LLOQs) < 12 ng/mL. The mean recoveries of the three analytes were higher than 75%. The pharmacokinetics study indicated that the reduced absorption of ephedrine hydrochloride (EH) and pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH) in honey-fried ephedra group might be the main reason for the moderation of the diaphoretic property.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Qiliqiangxin Enhances Cardiac Glucose Metabolism and Improves Diastolic
           Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    • Abstract: Cardiac diastolic dysfunction has emerged as a growing type of heart failure. The present study aims to explore whether Qiliqiangxin (QL) can benefit cardiac diastolic function in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) through enhancement of cardiac glucose metabolism. Fifteen 12-month-old male SHRs were randomly divided into QL-treated, olmesartan-treated, and saline-treated groups. Age-matched WKY rats served as normal controls. Echocardiography and histological analysis were performed. Myocardial glucose uptake was determined by 18F-FDG using small-animal PET imaging. Expressions of several crucial proteins and key enzymes related to glucose metabolism were also evaluated. As a result, QL improved cardiac diastolic function in SHRs, as evidenced by increased and decreased (). Meanwhile, QL alleviated myocardial hypertrophy, collagen deposits, and apoptosis (). An even higher myocardial glucose uptake was illustrated in QL-treated SHR group (). Moreover, an increased CS activity and ATP production was observed in QL-treated SHRs (). QL enhanced cardiac glucose utilization and oxidative phosphorylation in SHRs by upregulating AMPK/PGC-1α axis, promoting GLUT-4 expression, and regulating key enzymes related to glucose aerobic oxidation such as HK2, PDK4, and CS (). Our data suggests that QL improves cardiac diastolic function in SHRs, which may be associated with enhancement of myocardial glucose metabolism.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Methods of Biotyping of Streptococcus mutans Species with the Routine Test
           as a Prognostic Value in Early Childhood Caries

    • Abstract: Purpose. In order to investigate the suitability of Streptococcus mutans species biotyping by measuring the activity of selected enzymes from a commercial test, criteria were established for biotyping clinical strains from children with dental caries. In addition, the relationships between the selected biotypes, sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics, and early childhood caries were determined. Methods. A total of 142 S. mutans isolates from dental plaque of children with caries were divided into different biotypes. Patients were divided into two groups: noncavitated (1-2 in ICDAS) and cavitated (5-6 in ICDAS) lesions. Biotyping criteria were determined based on both the arbitrary method and the clusterization method. The susceptibility of the strains to amoxicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, and teicoplanin was studied by diluting a solid medium. Results. Biotype I was the most common. Mean MIC values showed that the strains belonging to biotypes II and IV were the most sensitive to amoxicillin. For predetermined biotypes, observed differences were dependent on the severity of dental caries. Conclusions. The proposed method of S. mutans strains biotyping is relatively quick and simple to use, provided the application of suitable biotyping criteria, and may contribute to the effective prevention of dental caries induced by S. mutans.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Cardioprotection against Heart Failure by Shenfu Injection via
           TGF-β/Smads Signaling Pathway

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the potential cardioprotective mechanism of Shenfu injection (SFI) against heart failure (HF) by attenuating myocardial fibrosis and cardiac remodeling. Methods and Results. Four weeks after myocardial infarction (MI), adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized for 4-week treatment with Valsartan, SFI, or vehicle. Echocardiography and hemodynamics were applied to evaluate cardiac functions. Myocardia of coronary artery ligated (CAD) rats were observed to investigate changes in cardiac structure and function. Our findings suggest that treatment with SFI could inhibit progression of myocardial fibrosis and attenuate cardiac remodeling. In addition, SFI decreased expression of Smad2 and Smad3, while increasing the expression of Smad7 through regulation of TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway. Conclusion. Treatment with SFI in Sprague Dawley rats improves ventricular structure and function and reduces cardiac fibrosis by ameliorating TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway after ventricular remodeling.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang Extract Ameliorates Depression-Like Behaviors
           through BDNF-TrkB-CREB Pathway in Rats with Chronic Unpredictable Stress

    • Abstract: Neuroinflammation is considered as one of the common pathogeneses of depression. Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HJDT) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula. The present study investigates the antidepressant-like effect of HJDT and its possible mechanism in rats. Rats were given HJDT (2, 4, and 8 g/kg, intragastrically), paroxetine (1.8 mg/kg, intragastrically), or an equivalent volume of saline for 42 days. The depression-related behaviors, including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), novel objective recognition task (NORT), and forced swimming test (FST), were detected. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) contents, microglial activation, proinflammatory cytokines, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin receptor kinases B (TrkB), and cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) expression were investigated. The results indicated HJDT (2 and 4 g/kg) dramatically ameliorated the depression-like behaviors. Also HJDT decreased the number of microglia and the proinflammatory cytokines in hippocampus. Western-blotting analysis displayed HJDT upregulated BDNF, TrkB, and pCREB/CREB expression in hippocampus. Particularly, pCREB DNA activity enhanced with HJDT treatment in hippocampus. But there was no difference in the 5-HT and DA contents with HJDT treatment. In conclusion, it was supposed that HJDT might be a potential Chinese medicine decoction for treating or alleviating complex symptoms of depression through BDNF-TrkB-CREB pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Use of Integrative Medicine in the United States Military Health System

    • Abstract: Integrative medicine (IM) is a model of care which uses both conventional and nonconventional therapies in a “whole person” approach to achieve optimum mental, physical, emotional, spiritual, and environmental health, and is increasingly popular among patients and providers seeking to relieve chronic or multifactorial conditions. The US Department of Defense (DoD) shows particular interest in and usage of IM for managing chronic conditions including the signature “polytrauma triad” of chronic pain, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among its beneficiaries in the Military Health System (MHS). These modalities range from conventional nondrug, nonsurgical options such as cognitive-behavioral therapy to nonconventional options such as acupuncture, chiropractic, and mind-body techniques. These are of particular interest for their potential to relieve symptoms without relying on opiates, which impair performance and show high potential for abuse while often failing to provide full relief. This review describes the use of IM in the MHS, including definitions of the model, common therapies and potential for use, and controversy surrounding the practice. More research is needed to build a comprehensive usage analysis, which in turn will inform sound clinical and financial practice for the MHS and its beneficiaries.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Parasite Killing of Leishmania (V) braziliensis by Standardized Propolis

    • Abstract: Treatments based on antimonials to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) entail a range of toxic side effects. Propolis, a natural compound widely used in traditional medical applications, exhibits a range of biological effects, including activity against infectious agents. The aim of this study was to test the potential leishmanicidal effects of different propolis extracts against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in vitro. Stationary-phase L. (V) braziliensis promastigotes were incubated with medium alone or treated with dry, alcoholic, or glycolic propolis extract (10, 50, or 100 μg/mL) for 96 h. Our data showed that all extracts exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the viability of L. (V) braziliensis promastigotes, while controlling the parasite burden inside infected macrophages. Dry propolis extract significantly modified the inflammatory profile of murine macrophages by downmodulating TGF-β and IL-10 production, while upmodulating TNF-α. All three types of propolis extract were found to reduce nitric oxide and superoxide levels in activated L. braziliensis-infected macrophages. Altogether, our results showed that propolis extracts exhibited a leishmanicidal effect against both stages of L. (V) braziliensis. The low cell toxicity and efficient microbicidal effect of alcoholic or glycolic propolis extracts make them candidates to an additive treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Huangqin-Tang and Ingredients in Modulating the Pathogenesis of Ulcerative

    • Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common inflammatory bowel disease worldwide. Current therapies in UC cause limitations, and herb medicine provides an important choice for UC treatment. Huangqin-Tang (HQT) is a well-known classical traditional Chinese herbal formula and has been used in China for thousands of years. A large number of pharmacological studies demonstrated HQT and its ingredients to be effective in treating UC. Though the therapeutic effect has been evaluated, comprehensive up-to-date reviews in this field are not yet available. Here we aim to review our current understanding of HQT and its ingredients in treating UC and how the agents modulate the main pathogenesis of the disease, including the intestinal environment, immune imbalance, inflammatory pathways, and oxidative stress. The summary on this issue may provide better understanding of HQT and its ingredients in treating UC and possibly help in promoting its clinical application.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 10:18:21 +000
  • Reliability of the NICMAN Scale: An Instrument to Assess the Quality of
           Acupuncture Administered in Clinical Trials

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a scale to assess the methodological quality of acupuncture administered in clinical research. Methods. We invited 36 acupuncture researchers and postgraduate students to participate in the study. Firstly, participants rated two articles using the scale. Following this initial stage, modifications were made to scale items and the exercise was repeated. Interrater reliability was assessed for individual items using the Fleiss kappa statistic, whilst the overall scale used the intraclass correlation coefficient statistic. A threshold agreement of ≥0.61 was acceptable. Results. We received 26 responses and a 72% response rate. The first phase of testing found moderate reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.46 and 0.55 for the articles. The interrater reliability of the scales varied between and within the researchers (0.35, 0.60) and was more consistent with the postgraduate students (0.54, 0.54). Five items on the scale scored below the threshold and were revised for further testing. In this phase the intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated variability between articles but improved to achieve reliability above the agreed threshold. Conclusion. This study provides evidence of the reliability of the NICMAN scale although improvements to a small number of items remain.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 06:48:04 +000
  • Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A
           Computational Perspective

    • Abstract: With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 06:43:34 +000
  • Antihypercholesterolemic Effects of Fruit Aqueous Extract of Copernicia
           prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore in Mice Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia

    • Abstract: The present objective of the investigation is to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic activity of the aqueous fruit pulp extract (APE) of Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore (Arecaceae family). Various chemical characterization methods like thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H and 13C NMR, and molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography have been employed to characterize the extracted pectin. The present study demonstrated that hypercholesterolemic diet (HD) created hypercholesterolemia, caused significant increases in body weight, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein, and caused decreases in high-density lipoprotein in serum compared with SD group. Two doses (APE 150 and 300 mg/Kg b.w./day) were administered to hyperlipidemic mice for 90 days. APE reversed body weight changes, changed serum lipids to normal values, and significantly inhibited the changes of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the liver tissues. The renal parameters analyzed (urea and creatinine) altered by diet were reverted to normal values. Our results revealed that aqueous fruit pulp extracts of carnauba reduced hypercholesterolemia showing a potential preventive effect against cardiovascular diseases without side effects cause.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Ijinskaja Aqueous Extract (CPAE) Ameliorates
           Obesity by Improving Insulin Signaling in the Hypothalamus of a Metabolic
           Syndrome Rat Model

    • Abstract: Background. Antiobesity drugs may not be optimal for treating obesity. However novel antiobesity agents, especially those derived from natural products, may be suitable. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Cyclocarya paliurus (CP) aqueous extract (CPAE) on obesity. Methods. SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr (SHR/cp) rats were used as a model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Experimental animals were allocated into two groups—control and CPAE (0.5 g/kg)—for a 7-week treatment period. Examinations were performed, including general physiological characteristics, obesity-related biochemical parameters, and insulin-signaling pathway-related proteins in the hypothalamus. Results. Treatment with CPAE reduced food intake, body weight, organ weight, fat mass, and body mass index (BMI) in SHR/cp rats. Meanwhile, CPAE also decreased the levels of fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, HOMA-IR, serum free fatty acids, serum malondialdehyde, serum superoxide dismutase, and serum total-glutathione. The levels of phosphorylation of target proteins—including InsR, IRS1, PI3Kp85, Akt, and FoXO1 as well as protein expression of POMC—were significantly upregulated in the hypothalamus, but NPY expression remarkably decreased. Conclusions. CPAE has antiobesity, antihypoglycemic, antihypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties. The mechanism responsible for the antiobesity effect of CPAE may be related to suppression of energy intake via regulation of insulin-signaling pathway in the hypothalamus.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 10:50:53 +000
  • Electroacupuncture Alleviates Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged
           Rats by Inhibiting Hippocampal Neuroinflammation Activated via
           Microglia/TLRs Pathway

    • Abstract: Neuroinflammation has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Electroacupuncture (EA) is an irreplaceable method in traditional Chinese medicine that is used for treating neurodegenerative diseases in clinical and experimental studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether EA improves cognitive dysfunction caused by surgery and to investigate the pathological mechanism of TLR2 and TLR4 in the hippocampus of aged rats. A rat model of POCD was established and treated with EA or minocycline. Both EA- and minocycline-treated rats performed significantly better than untreated operated rats in spatial memory tasks of the Morris water maze (MWM) test, spending comparatively greater amounts of time in the target zone during the probe test. Additionally, decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and HMGB1) and decreased TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression in the hippocampus of EA- and minocycline-treated rats were detected. Our data suggested that EA treatment alleviated the cognition performance deficit and neuroinflammation in aged rats following surgery, which may be mediated by inhibiting the expression of hippocampal neuroinflammatory cytokines through the microglia/TLR2/4 pathway.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 10:36:17 +000
  • Effects of Total Flavone from Rhododendron simsii Planch. Flower on
           Postischemic Cardiac Dysfunction and Cardiac Remodeling in Rats

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effect of total flavone from Rhododendron simsii Planch. flower (TFR) on postischemic cardiac dysfunction and ventricular remodeling and was to test the hypothesis that TFR has an antiventricular remodeling effect through inhibition of urotensin-II receptor- (UTR-) mediated activation of RhoA-ROCK pathways. Twenty-four hours after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive 4-week treatment with saline (model group) or TFR. Compared to the model group, TFR treatment restored cardiac function, attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and reduced interstitial fibrosis. Expression levels of several fibrosis-related factors, including alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-beta 1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and collagen type I, were increased after MI. TFR treatment attenuated the upregulation of these factors, downregulated UTR expression, and markedly diminished the expression of RhoA and ROCK1/2. These results suggested that TFR could improve cardiac function and ameliorate ventricular remodeling through blocking UTR-mediated activation of RhoA-ROCK pathways in myocardial infarction rats.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 08:14:59 +000
  • Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of
           Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana

    • Abstract: Traditional medicine is an important component of the health care system of most developing countries. However, indigenous knowledge about herbal medicines of many Ghanaian cultures has not yet been investigated. The aim of the present study was to document herbal medicines used by traditional healers to treat and manage human diseases and ailments by some communities living in Ghana. The study was conducted in eight communities in southern Ghana. Data were collected from 45 healers using ethnobotanical questionnaire and voucher specimens were collected. A total of 52 species of plants belonging to 28 plant families were reportedly used for treatment and management of 42 diseases and ailments. Medicinal plants were commonly harvested from the wild and degraded lowland areas in the morning from loamy soil. Herbal medicines were prepared in the form of decoctions (67%) and infusions (33%). Oral administration of the herbals was most (77%) common route of administration whereas the least used routes were nasal (1%) and rectal (2%). The results of the study show that herbal medicines are used for treatment and management of both common and specialized human diseases and that factors of place and time are considered important during harvesting of plants for treatments.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 07:07:30 +000
  • The Effects of Chunghyul-Dan, an Agent of Korean Medicine, on a Mouse
           Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    • Abstract: Chunghyul-Dan (CHD) is the first choice agent for the prevention and treatment of stroke at the Kyung Hee Medical Hospital. To date, CHD has been reported to have beneficial effects on brain disease in animals and humans, along with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological effects of CHD on a traumatic brain injury (TBI) mouse model to explore the possibility of CHD use in patients with TBI. The TBI mouse model was induced using the controlled cortical impact method. CHD was orally administered twice a day for 5 d after TBI induction; mice were assessed for brain damage, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, motor deficits, and cognitive impairment. Treatment with CHD reduced brain damage seen on histological examination and improved motor and cognitive functions. However, CHD did not reduce brain edema and BBB damage. In conclusion, CHD could be a candidate agent in the treatment of patients with TBI. Further studies are needed to assess the exact mechanisms of the effects during the acute-subacute phase and pharmacological activity during the chronic-convalescent phase of TBI.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 06:25:23 +000
  • In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Morus alba L. Stem Extract in
           LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    • Abstract: Morus alba L., also known as white mulberry or Mhon, has long been used in traditional medicines. This study was aimed to investigate anti-inflammatory activities of mulberry stem ethanolic extract (MSE) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. The MSE was first prepared and then investigated for cell viability using the MTT assay. The anti-inflammatory activities were investigated through the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2 mRNA expression, and iNOS protein expression using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and immunoblotting analysis, respectively. The inhibition of nitric oxide production of the MSE was also investigated using the Griess reaction assay. The MSE concentration ranging from 10 to 40 µg/ml yielded cell viability higher than 80%. The MSE at concentrations of 20 and 40 µg/ml demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of nitric oxide production via suppression of both the iNOS mRNA and protein. It was also found to inhibit the expression of COX-2 mRNA in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. This study is the first to report the anti-inflammatory potential of the extract prepared from the stem of mulberry.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Apigenin Attenuates Adriamycin-Induced Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis via the
           PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway

    • Abstract: Treatment with Adriamycin (ADR) is one of the major causes of chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and therefore is the principal limiting factor in the effectiveness of chemotherapy for cancer patients. Apigenin (API) has been shown to play a cardioprotective role. The present study examined the effect of API on ADR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Sixty male Kunming mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: a control group, ADR model group, low-dose API treatment group (125 mg·kg−1), and high-dose API treatment group (250 mg·kg−1). Blood samples were taken to evaluate a spectrum of myocardial enzymes. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was measured using a TUNEL assay, and cardiomyocyte autophagy was observed using electron microscopy. Moreover, apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bax and Bcl-2, autophagy-related proteins, including Beclin1 and LC3B, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway-related proteins were examined with western blot. Our results demonstrate that ADR caused an increase in the serum levels of cardiac injury markers and enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and autophagy. API administration prevented the effects associated with ADR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and inhibited ADR-induced apoptosis and autophagy. API also promoted PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway activity in ADR-treated mice. In conclusion, API may have a protective effect against ADR-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy via activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Proliferation Enhancing Effects of Salidroside on Schwann Cells In

    • Abstract: Derived from Rhodiola rosea L., which is a popular plant in Eastern Europe and Asia, salidroside has pharmacological properties including antiviral, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, and antioxidative effects. Recent studies show that salidroside has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. However, the effect of salidroside on Schwann cells (SCs) and the underlying mechanisms of the salidroside-induced neurotrophin secretion have seldom been studied. In this study, the effect of salidroside on the survival, proliferation, and gene expression of Schwann cells lineage (RSC96) was studied through the examinations of the cell viability, proliferation, morphology, and expression of neurotrophic factor related genes including BDNF, GDNF, and CDNF at 2, 4, and 6 days, respectively. These results showed that salidroside significantly enhanced survival and proliferation of SCs. The underlying mechanism might involve that salidroside affected SCs growth through the modulation of several neurotrophic factors including BDNF, GDNF, and CDNF. As for the concentration, 0.4 mM, 0.2 mM, and 0.1 mM of salidroside were recommended, especially 0.2 mM. This investigation indicates that salidroside is capable of enhancing SCs survival and function in vitro, which highlights the possibility that salidroside as a drug agent to promote nerve regeneration in cellular nerve scaffold through salidroside-induced neurotrophin secretion in SCs.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 08:20:06 +000
  • Protective Effects of Wogonin against Alzheimer’s Disease by Inhibition
           of Amyloidogenic Pathway

    • Abstract: One of the pathogenic systems of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the formation of β-amyloid plaques in the brains of patients, and amyloidogenic activity becomes one of the therapeutic targets. Here, we report wogonin, one of the major active constituting components in Scutellaria baicalensis, which has the neuroprotective effects on amyloid-β peptides- (Aβ-) induced toxicity. Oral wogonin treatment improved the performance of triple transgenic AD mice (h-APPswe, h-Tau P301L, and h-PS1 M146V) on the Morris water maze, Y-maze, and novel object recognition. Furthermore, wogonin activated the neurite outgrowth of AD cells by increasing neurite length and complexity of Tet-On Aβ42-GFP SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells (AD cells) and attenuated amyloidogenic pathway by decreasing the levels of β-secretase, APP β-C-terminal fragment, Aβ-aggregation, and phosphorylated Tau. Wogonin also increased mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψm) and protected against apoptosis by reducing the expression of Bax and cleaved PARP. Collectively, these results conclude that wogonin may be a promising multifunctional drug candidate for AD.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 07:50:52 +000
  • An ErChen and YinChen Decoction Ameliorates High-Fat-Induced Nonalcoholic
           Steatohepatitis in Rats by Regulating JNK1 Signaling Pathway

    • Abstract: ErChen and YinChen decoction (ECYCD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with good curative effects. However, the specific mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. In this study, we determined the efficacy of ECYCD in a high-fat diet-induced NASH rat model, established by 8-week administration of a high-fat diet. ECYCD was administered daily for 4 weeks, after which the rats were euthanized. The results demonstrated that ECYCD ameliorated high-fat diet-induced NASH, as evidenced by decreased liver indexes, reduced hepatic lipid deposition and liver injury, lower serum biochemistry markers (including low-density lipoprotein), and reduced HOMA-IR scores. Moreover, levels of free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor, and malondialdehyde were decreased, whereas glutathione was increased in the liver. Serum high-density lipoprotein was also increased in the liver, and ECYCD regulated the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) signaling pathway by decreasing the levels of JNK1 protein, JNK1 mRNA, activator protein- (AP-) 1 protein, AP-1 mRNA, and phospho-insulin receptor substrate- (IRS-) and increasing phopsho- levels. These results suggested that ECYCD could ameliorate high-fat diet-induced NASH in rats through JNK1 signaling. ECYCD may be a safe therapeutic option for the treatment of NASH.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 06:53:19 +000
  • Add-On Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine Improves Outcomes and
           Reduces Adverse Events in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of
           Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TCM regimens in HCC treatment. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to June 1, 2016, of the TCM treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were systematically identified in PubMed, CNKI, Ovid, Embase, Web of Science, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, AMED, and Cochrane Library databases. Results. A total of 1010 and 931 patients in 20 RCTs were randomly treated with add-on TCM therapy and conventional therapy, respectively. The additional use of TCM significantly improved six-month, one-year, two-year, and three-year overall survival rates in HCC cases (RR = 1.3, ; RR = 1.38, ; RR = 1.44, ; RR = 1.31, , resp.). Add-on TCM therapy significantly increased PR rate and total response rate (tRR) and reduced PD rate compared to those in control group (34.4% versus 26.3%, RR = 1.30, ; 41.6% versus 31.0%, RR = 1.30, ; and 16.6% versus 26.5%, RR = 0.64, , resp.). Additionally, TCM combination therapy significantly increased the quality of life (QOL) improvement rate and reduced adverse events including leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia or erythropenia, liver injury, and gastrointestinal discomfort in HCC patients (all ). Conclusion. Add-on therapy with TCM could improve overall survival, increase clinical tumor responses, lead to better QOL, and reduce adverse events in hepatocellular carcinoma.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 06:42:05 +000
  • A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube): Developing Health Food
           Supplements for Brain Protection

    • Abstract: The fruits of Ziziphus jujuba, known as jujube or Chinese date, are being consumed all around the world because of their health benefits, as both food and herbal medicine. Traditionally, one of the main functions of jujube, as described in herbal medicine, is to benefit our brain by calming down the mind and improving quality of sleep. Here, the activities of jujubes on nervous system are summarized and discussed. Jujube possesses neuroprotective activities, including protecting neuronal cells against neurotoxin stress, stimulating neuronal differentiation, increasing expression of neurotrophic factors, and promoting memory and learning. Flavonoid, cAMP, and jujuboside could be the potential bioactive ingredients to account for the aforesaid biological activities. These findings imply that jujube is a potential candidate for development of health supplements for prevention and/or treatment of neurological diseases.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Acupuncture Effect on Median Nerve Morphology in Patients with Carpal
           Tunnel Syndrome: An Ultrasonographic Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to explore the acupuncture effect on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and, additionally, to identify whether clinical, electrophysiological, and ultrasonographic changes show any association. Methods. Forty-five limbs of 27 female patients were randomly divided into two groups (acupuncture and control). All patients used night wrist splint. The patients in the acupuncture group received additional acupuncture therapy. Visual analog scale (VAS), Duruöz Hand Index (DHI), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire scores, electrophysiologic measurements, and median nerve CSAs were noted before and after the treatment in both groups. Results. VAS, DHI, Quick DASH scores, and electrophysiological measurements were improved in both groups. The median nerve CSA significantly decreased in the acupuncture group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Conclusion. After acupuncture therapy, the patients with CTS might have both clinical and morphological improvement.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 10:50:55 +000
  • Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Ameliorated FCA-Induced Experimental Arthritis: A
           Comparative Study among Different Extracts

    • Abstract: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (NAT) is commonly used traditionally for the treatment of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases. Current study evaluates the antiarthritic potential of NAT using Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritic rat model. Treatments with methanolic, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts were continued for consecutive 20 days. Macroscopic arthritic scoring and water displacement plethysmometry were used to evaluate arthritic development. Hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated and ankle joints were processed for histopathological evaluation. Qualitative phytochemical analysis and GC-MS analysis were conducted for identification of constituents. NAT extracts suppressed arthritic scoring, paw edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells, pannus formation, and bone erosion. The plant extracts ameliorated total leukocytes and platelet counts and nearly normalized red blood cells (RBC) counts and hemoglobin (Hb) content. The extracts were found safe in terms of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity as determined by aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and urea levels. Comparative analysis showed that ethyl acetate extract produced the highest inhibition of paw edema. The major constituents found in ethyl acetate extract can be classified into three major classes, that is, terpenes, terpenoids, fatty acids, and iridoid glycosides. Current study showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis ameliorated experimental rheumatoid arthritis and ethyl acetate extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 09:45:17 +000
  • The Japanese Version of the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture
           Sensation Scale: A Validation Study

    • Abstract: Acupuncture sensations are considered essential in producing the treatment effect of acupuncture. The Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) is a frequently used scale in acupuncture research to measure acupuncture sensations. We translated the MASS into Japanese (Japanese MASS) based on Beaton’s guidelines. 30 acupuncturists evaluated the relevancy and meaning of the 12 descriptors included in the Japanese MASS. The content validity ratios for 10 of the 12 descriptors were 0.33 or greater. 42 healthy subjects then evaluated acupuncture sensations evoked by manual acupuncture at LI4 using the Japanese MASS. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.86. The correlation coefficient of total MASS scores and total Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire scores and MASS indices and sensory visual analogue scores were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Factor analysis loaded the 12 descriptors onto two meaningful factors. This study demonstrated that the Japanese MASS has good reliability, content validity, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. Therefore, the Japanese MASS is a valid and reliable instrument for use with Japanese populations.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 08:39:53 +000
  • Changes in Body Water Caused by Sleep Deprivation in Taeeum and Soyang
           Types in Sasang Medicine: Prospective Intervention Study

    • Abstract: Background. There is a negative relationship between sleep deprivation and health. However, no study has investigated the effect of sleep deprivation on individuals with different body composition. The aim of this study was to determine the differential effect of sleep deprivation in individuals with different body compositions (fluid) according to Soyang type (SY) and Taeeum type (TE). Methods. Sixty-two cognitively normal, middle-aged people with normal sleep patterns were recruited from the local population. The duration of participants’ sleep was restricted to 4 h/day during the intervention phase. To examine the physiological changes brought on by sleep deprivation and recovery, 10 ml of venous blood was obtained. Results. Total Body Water (TBW) and Extracellular Water (ECW) were significantly different between the groups in the intervention phase. Physiological parameters also varied from the beginning of the resting phase to the end of the experiment. Potassium levels changed more in SY than TE individuals. Conclusion. Participants responded differently to the same amount of sleep deprivation depending on their Sasang constitution types. This study indicated that SY individuals were more sensitive to sleep deprivation and were slower to recover from the effects of sleep deprivation than TE individuals.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Andrographolide Inhibits Inflammatory Cytokines Secretion in
           LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells through Suppression of NF-κB/MAPK Signaling

    • Abstract: Andrographolide, the main active component extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, exerts anti-inflammatory effects; however, the principal molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Andrographolide in modifying lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells. An in vitro model of inflammation was induced by LPS in mouse RAW264.7 cells in the presence of Andrographolide. The concentration and expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), respectively. The nuclear level of NF-κB was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The expression levels of NF-κB, p38, ERK, and JNK were determined by western blot. Andrographolide dose-dependently inhibited the release and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The nuclear level of p65 protein was decreased in Andrographolide treatment group. Western blot analysis showed that Andrographolide suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation and the phosphorylation of IkBa, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. These results suggest that Andrographolide exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
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