Advances in Endocrinology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2356-668X - ISSN (Online) 2314-7903
Published by Hindawi [334 journals]
- Evaluation of Prepubertal Patients with Suspected Neurosecretory
Dysfunction of Growth Hormone Secretion: Diagnostic Steps and Treatment
Abstract: Background and Aims. Existence and diagnostic procedures of neurosecretory dysfunction of growth hormone (NSD) are still a matter of debate. The aim of our study was (a) to find out if prediagnostic auxological and laboratory data could serve as an indicator for pathologic and normal spontaneous GH-secretion and (b) to evaluate the response to GH-therapy in NSD-patients. Methods. Of 90 children (unicentric study) with normal response to GH-stimulation tests, in whom 12-hour night profiles for GH-secretion were performed, 49 were diagnosed with NSD (NSD group). Their auxologic data, IGF-I/IGFBP3-levels as well as the night profiles, were analysed and compared to those of the non-NSD group. Additionally, follow-up auxological data of the GH-treated NSD-patients were collected. Results. Prediagnostic auxologic and laboratory data did not differ between the two groups. Instead, for all analysed criteria of spontaneous GH-secretion (number of peaks, maximal and mean secretion) a significant difference was found. Children with NSD showed a good response to GH-treatment after 1 (H-SDS +0,77 ± 0,48) as well as 4 years (+1,51 ± 0,75). Conclusion. According to our results, analysing spontaneous GH-secretion remains the only method to identify NSD. Yet, as response to GH-treatment is comparable to results in idiopathic GHD, it is worth to consider this diagnosis.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:19:04 +000
- The Protective Effect of Testosterone on Indomethacin Induced Gastric
Ulcer in Female Sprague Dawley Rats
Abstract: Gastric ulcer has shown association with changes in sex hormones, with impact exacerbated in males. Also, males are known to be more exposed to ulcer risk factors. This study investigates the effect of testosterone on indomethacin induced gastric ulcers in adult female rats. Eighteen female rats (225 ± 25 g body weight) were randomly assigned to 3 groups under standard laboratory condition. After acclimatization, animals fasted for 40 hrs but were given water ad libitum. Group A served as control while group B served as the ulcer control, in which ulcer was induced without treatment using indomethacin (40 mg/kg single orally dose). Group C was pretreated with testosterone (1 mg/kg IM) eight hours before ulcer induction. Eight hours after ulcer induction, animals were sacrificed and the stomach was harvested for analysis. Results showed a significant reduction in mucus content in groups C ( g) and B ( g) compared to A ( g). Gastric mucus pH was significantly acidic in group B () compared to C () and A (). There was a significantly higher ulcer index in group B ( mm) compared to C ( mm) and testosterone pretreatment resulted in a 21.74% ulcer inhibition. Although weak, the findings suggest that testosterone might protect the gastric mucosa against NSAIDs in females.
PubDate: Thu, 10 Nov 2016 14:47:12 +000
- Predictors of Erectile Dysfunction in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Referred to a Tertiary Healthcare Centre
Abstract: Background. The frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED) complicating diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly high. However, its risk factors have not been well studied. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 160 male type 2 DM adults, aged 30–70 years, attending a tertiary healthcare clinic. Demographic and relevant clinical information was documented. Erectile function was assessed using an abridged version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). All subjects were evaluated for central obesity, glycemic control, peripheral arterial disease (PAD), autonomic neuropathy, dyslipidemia, and testosterone deficiency. Results. 152 (95%) patients with a mean age of 60.3 ± 8.8 years completed the study. 71.1% had varying degrees of ED, while 58.3% suffered from a moderate-to-severe form. Independent predictors of ED [presented as adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] were longer duration of DM, 1.14 (1.02–1.28), PAD, 3.87 (1.28–11.67), autonomic neuropathy, 3.51 (1.82–6.79), poor glycemic control, 7.12 (2.49–20.37), and testosterone deficiency, 6.63 (2.61–16.83). Conclusion. The prevalence of ED and its severe forms was high in this patient population. Poor glycemic control and testosterone deficiency were the strongest risk factors for ED, making it possibly a preventable condition.
PubDate: Sun, 13 Mar 2016 07:00:24 +000
- Thyroid Diseases in Omani Type 2 Diabetics: A Retrospective
Abstract: Background. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid diseases are common endocrine disorders in the general population and found to exist simultaneously. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among Omani type 2 diabetics and its association with glycemic control. Methodology. A retrospective cross-sectional randomized primary and secondary care based study of 285 Omani type 2 diabetics, ≥ 30 years of age with known thyroid function. The following parameters were examined: age, sex, duration of diabetes, duration of thyroid disease, thyroid morphology, thyroid function, thyroid antibodies, and the mean glycated hemoglobin (mean HbA1C). The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was compared to an independent control group of randomly selected healthy individuals with known thyroid function. Results. Thyroid dysfunction was found in 12.6% of the diabetic patients compared to 4.9% in the control group. The prevalence was higher among the diabetic females (86%) compared to diabetic males (14%). The commonest thyroid dysfunction among diabetics was overt hypothyroidism (4.6%). Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest thyroid dysfunction seen in less controlled diabetics at a mean HbA1c of 7.8 (± 0.7). Conclusion. Screening for thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus should be routinely performed considering the higher prevalence of thyroid diseases in this group compared to the general population.
PubDate: Thu, 17 Dec 2015 13:48:16 +000
- Mean Platelet Volume in Hyperthyroid Toxic Adenoma Patients after
Radioactive 131I Treatment
Abstract: This study demonstrates that mean platelet volume (MPV) levels decrease after radioiodine (RAI) ablation therapy in hyperthyroid patients. Regarding the fact that large platelets are hemostatically more active, we suggest that hyperthyroid patients are at risk of cardiovascular disease despite all other cardiovascular risk factors. After RAI ablation therapy as MPV levels return to normal, cardiovascular risk for hyperthyroid patients reduces.
PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2015 09:07:19 +000
- Congenital Hypothyroidism: An Audit and Study of Different Cord Blood
Screening TSH Values in a Tertiary Medical Centre in Malaysia
Abstract: Mothers are often discharged within 24 hours in most Asian countries. Therefore, our screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) must consider the value of cord blood TSH. Our objectives were to compare the incidence of CH, positive predictive values, and recall rates using different cord blood TSH values. We also reviewed the results of the second-screening program for premature babies. 99.7% () of all newborns were screened from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2013. Babies with cord blood TSH > 25 mIU/L or 20–25 mIU/L and pmol/L were recalled for a repeat venous TSH and FT4 on days 3–5 of life to confirm CH. Twenty-two babies were confirmed to have CH, an incidence of 1:1170. Five were premature. Eleven term babies had cord blood mIU/L and six had values 25.1–30 mIU/L. Lowering the recall cut-off value to 20 mIU/L would double the recall rate from 0.63% () to 1.3% () with no additional cases detected, whereas using 30 mIU/L would have missed 35% of cases. The incidence of CH was similar, 1:1515, when using either cut-off 20 mIU/L or cut-off 25 mIU/L but lower, 1:2380, when using 30 mIU/L. We recommend the screening cord blood TSH cut-off should be 25 mIU/L and screening for premature babies should be continued.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Oct 2015 11:27:23 +000
- Effects of Low-Dose Pioglitazone on Serum Levels of Adiponectin,
Dehydroepiandrosterone, Amyloid Beta Peptide, and Lipid Profile in Elderly
Japanese People with Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract: This study was performed to see how pioglitazone at low doses could affect blood biomarkers related to atherosclerosis and aging. The effects of an add-on treatment with pioglitazone (15 mg for males and 7.5 mg for females) for 6 months were assessed in 24 outpatients (12 males, 12 females) with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 70 years. As doses of sulfonylurea were reduced in 10 patients, no significant differences in HbA1c and glucose levels were seen. After the treatment, serum levels of HDL cholesterol, arachidonic acid (predominant in males), and high-molecular-weight adiponectin significantly increased. The level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate significantly decreased. No significant changes were seen in those of small dense LDL cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and amyloid beta peptides 1–40 and 1–42. There was a slight but significant increase in body weight, but apparent adverse effects were not observed. In conclusion, pioglitazone at low doses increased serum adiponectin, HDL cholesterol, and arachidonic acid levels but decreased serum dehydroepiandrosterone level, not associated with glycemia, in elderly Japanese people with type 2 diabetes. An optimal dose of pioglitazone should be sought for to minimize its adverse effects and to fully exert its pleiotropic effects such as antiatherosclerotic and antiaging effects.
PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:17:45 +000
- Overview of Cellular Transplantation in Diabetes Mellitus: Focus on the
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease possible to treat via several different therapeutic approaches. Since the advent of insulin in 1922, type 1 diabetes mellitus has become a chronic treatable disease. Nonetheless, type 1 diabetes mellitus can be a devastating disease when the macro- and microangiopathic complications take place after several years of illness. Starting from the eighties, pancreas/islet transplantation has become a potential innovative treatment of diabetes mellitus. The major advantage of pancreas/islet transplantation is the restoration of c-peptide cosecretion along with insulin; the major disadvantage is the need to administer immunosuppressive drugs which are diabetogenic themselves. Islet transplantation is the progenitor of more recent forms of cellular and stem cell therapies which will be reviewed herein. Cellular therapies for diabetes mellitus are still an experimental procedure. Herein we present the actual current achievements and an outlook of close future possible advancements in the area of cellular transplantation for the cure of diabetes mellitus.
PubDate: Tue, 10 Feb 2015 06:18:39 +000
- Cystatin C and Its Role in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of CKD. It is the leading cause of new patients requiring renal replacement therapy, accounting for 40%, 34%, and 30% of cases in United States, Germany, and Australia, respectively. Recent studies have shown that a low-molecular weight protein, cystatin C, freely filtered by the kidneys is a novel biomarker that may be used for detection of early renal dysfunction in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Cystatin C has also been shown to detect cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes and it may also be linked with incident type 2 diabetes in obese patients. We aim to review current evidence based literature on use of cystatin C for early detection of diabetic nephropathy due to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in comparison to conventional methods and explore its association with other comorbidities.
PubDate: Mon, 05 Jan 2015 08:44:40 +000
- The Cost of Prolonged Hospitalization due to Postthyroidectomy
Hypocalcemia: A Case-Control Study
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the additional costs associated with calcium monitoring and treatment as well as evaluate the incidence and predictors of postthyroidectomy hypocalcemia. Methods. This case-control study involved thyroidectomy and completion thyroidectomy patients operated on between January 2012 and August 2013. Cases were defined as requiring calcitriol supplementation, and controls did not require supplementation. Patient (age, sex), nodule (cytology, pathology), surgical data (neck dissection, parathyroid identification, and reimplantation), and hospital stay (days hospitalized in total and after drain removal) were compared. Comparisons were made using -tests and chi-square tests with an alpha of 0.05. The estimated cost associated with the extended stay was then compared with the cost of supplementation. Results. A total of 191 patients were evaluated (61 cases and 130 controls). Predictors of hypocalcemia include female age, neck dissection, and parathyroid reimplantation. Hypocalcemic patients were hospitalized for a longer period of time after drain removal (2.5 versus 0.8 days, ), and hospitalization costs after neck drain removal were higher in this group as well (8,367.32$ versus 2,534.32$, ). Conclusion. Postoperative hypocalcemia incurs significant additional health care costs at both the local and health care system levels.
PubDate: Sun, 28 Dec 2014 07:42:12 +000
- Recent Developments in Diagnosis and Care for Girls in Turner Syndrome
Abstract: The past decade produced important advances in molecular genetic techniques potentially supplanting the traditional cytogenetic diagnosis of Turner syndrome (TS). Rapidly evolving genomic technology is used to screen 1st trimester pregnancies for sex chromosomal anomalies including TS, and genomic approaches are suggested for the postnatal diagnosis of TS. Understanding the interpretation and limitations of new molecular tests is essential for clinicians to provide effective counseling to parents or patients impacted by these tests. Recent studies have advanced the concept that X chromosome genomic imprinting influences expression of the Turner phenotype and contributes to gender differences in brain size and coronary disease. Progress in cardiovascular MRI over the past decade has dramatically changed our view of the scope and criticality of congenital heart disease in TS. Cardiac MRI is far more effective than transthoracic echocardiography in detecting aortic valve abnormalities, descending aortic aneurysm, and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return; recent technical advances allow adequate imaging in girls as young as seven without breath holding or sedation. Finally, important developments in the area of gynecological management of girls and young women with TS are reviewed, including prognostic factors that predict spontaneous puberty and potential fertility and recent practice guidelines aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk for oocyte donation pregnancies in TS.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Nov 2014 06:48:45 +000
- Angiotensin II, Vasopressin, and Collagen-IV Expression in the Subfornical
Organ in a Case of Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH
Abstract: The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a disease characterized by hyponatremia and hyperosmolarity of urine where vasopressin and angiotensin II are implicated in the alteration of salt water balance and cardiovascular and blood pressure regulation. The aim of this study is to analyse the expression of substances related with cardiovascular and salt water regulation in the subfornical organ in a case of SIADH. Two brains, one taken from a 66-year-old man with SIADH and the other from a 63-year-old man without SIADH, were used. Immunohistochemical study was performed using anti-angiotensin II, anti-vasopressin, and anti-collagen-VI as primary antibodies. Angiotensin and vasopressin immunoreaction were found in neurons, in perivascular spaces, and in the ependymal layer in the subfornical organ in both cases. However, in the SIADH case, the angiotensin II and collagen-IV expression in the SFO were different suggesting this organ’s possible participation in the physiopathology of SIADH.
PubDate: Thu, 06 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +000
- Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and further to correlate whether their significant association is putatively associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM. A number of 102 nonobese T2DM subjects and 95 nondiabetic subjects as healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum samples were collected in cryovials for malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiol assays. Total thiol or sulfhydryl (–SH) groups in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and sera, as well as level of MDA, a marker for lipid peroxidation in serum, were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum MDA level was found significantly higher whereas serum and PBMC total thiol levels were diminished significantly among nonobese T2DM subjects compared to HC subjects. Moreover, serum MDA level is found to have a significant inverse correlation with serum total thiol and PBMC thiol levels among DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in HC individuals. A significant inverse correlation between serum MDA and serum total thiol levels among nonobese T2DM subjects suggests a close association of increased oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant status in nonobese T2DM.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:17:24 +000
- Endogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as a Potential Mediator of the
Resolution of Diabetic Kidney Disease following Roux en Y Gastric Bypass:
Evidence and Perspectives
Abstract: Diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes strongly correlates with the incidence of major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Pharmacological and lifestyle based management focusing on glycaemic, lipid, and blood pressure control is the mainstay of treatment but efficacy remains limited. Roux en Y gastric bypass is an efficacious intervention in diabetes. Emerging evidence also supports a role for bypass as an intervention for early diabetic kidney disease. This paper firstly presents level 1 evidence of the effects of bypass on hyperglycaemia and hypertension and then summarises emerging data on its effects on diabetic kidney disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is implicated as a central mediator of diabetes resolution following bypass through the incretin effect. It has been ascribed vasodilatory, pronatriuretic, and antioxidant properties and its exogenous administration or optimisation of its endogenous levels via dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition results in antioxidant and antiproteinuric effects in preclinical models of DKD. Some evidence is emerging of translation of coherent effects in the clinical setting. These findings raise the question of whether pharmacotherapy targeted at optimising circulating hormone levels may be capable of recapitulating some of the effects of bypass surgery on renal injury.
PubDate: Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +000
- Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Patients Submitted to Kidney
Transplantation Is Related to Age, Body Mass Index, Time on Dialysis, and
Abstract: Background. Renal transplantation (Tx) influences bone mineral density (BMD) by several mechanisms. The main objective of this study was to correlate BMD and risk factors associated with bone loss in patients submitted to kidney Tx. Methods. We evaluated 88 individuals after renal Tx (median time = 31.5 months since Tx). All of them sustained glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Prodigy-GE). Calcium, phosphate, albumin, creatinine, and intact parathormone (PTH) were measured at the same time. All statistical tests were two-sided and value less than 0.05 were accepted as significant for all analyses in this study. Results. Serum PTH was raised in 42% patients, but corrected calcium was normal in 83 patients. No fragility fracture was reported, but the overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 27.6% and lower than expected BMD (Z-score ≤ −2.0 SD) was observed in 28.4%. Patients with lower than expected BMD had higher PTH levels. Conclusions. Older age, lower body mass index (BMI), longer time on dialysis, and elevated PTH levels were identified as the main factors associated with lower BMD.
PubDate: Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:13:24 +000
- Mechanisms of Action of Indigenous Antidiabetic Plants from the Boreal
Forest of Northeastern Canada
Abstract: Indigenous populations in Canada possess a wealth of native traditional knowledge. However, their rates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease that was unheard of in their midst 50 years ago, are the highest in the country. In an effort to cut the impact of T2DM epidemic on Indigenous health, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded the “CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines (CIHR-TAAM).” The goal was to explore Boreal forest medicinal plants stemming from Indigenous Traditional Medicine to be included in T2DM care. Six out of nine communities of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI) participated in ethnobotanical studies that resulted in the identification of 17 potential antidiabetic plant species. These species were screened for antidiabetic activities using a platform of in vitro bioassays and in vivo models of T2DM. This paper summarizes results on the 10 most promising plant species, their active constituents, and the mechanisms behind their antidiabetic activities. In addition, potential herb-drug interactions were examined at the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes, notably the cytochrome P450 family. This review serves as a canvas onto which is discussed the value of Indigenous medicinal plants, future avenues of research, and the ethical approach required in this field.
PubDate: Sun, 10 Aug 2014 13:33:11 +000
- Bone Health in Type 1 Diabetes: Where We Are Now and How We Should Proceed
Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is autoimmune disease with chronic hyperglycaemic state. Besides diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, T1D is characterized by poor bone health. The reduced bone mineralization and quality/strength, due to hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, autoimmune inflammation, low levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vitamin D, lead to vertebral/hip fractures. Young age of T1D manifestation, chronic poor glycemic control, high daily insulin dose, low BMI, reduced renal function, and the presence of complications can be helpful in identifying T1D patients at risk of reduced bone mineral density. Although risk factors for fracture risk are still unknown, chronic poor glycemic control and presence of diabetic complications might raise the suspicion of elevated fracture risk in T1D. In the presence of the risk factors, the assessment of bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the search of asymptomatic vertebral fracture by lateral X-ray radiography of thorax-lumbar spine should be recommended. The improvement of glycemic control may have a beneficial effect on bone in T1D. Several experiments showed promising results on using anabolic pharmacological agents (recombinant IGF-1 and parathyroid hormone) in diabetic rodents with bone disorder. Randomized clinical trials are needed in order to test the possible use of bone anabolic therapies in humans with T1D.
PubDate: Wed, 25 Jun 2014 06:10:51 +000
- Is Dopamine an Iatrogenic Disruptor of Thyroid and Cortisol Function in
the Extremely Premature Infant'
Abstract: Background. Dopamine is frequently used as an inotropic and vasoactive agent in neonatal intensive care units. Recent studies have reported that treatment with dopamine is associated with hypothyroxinaemia of prematurity. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine if dopamine treatment in extremely premature infants altered thyroid and cortisol function. Methods. We prospectively measured plasma cortisol, TSH, free T4, total T4, and free triiodothyronine concentrations in babies born below 28 weeks’ gestation within 5 days of birth, who were either treated with dopamine (D+) or who did not receive any dopamine (D−) within 12 hours of birth. Clinical Risk Index for Babies scores, lowest mean arterial pressure and highest plasma lactate concentrations in the first 12 hours, were recorded. Results. There were 78 babies included in the study (43 males). Mean gestational age was 25 weeks and 3 days (SD 1.3 weeks). Univariate analyses showed significant differences in cortisol and thyroid function between D+ and D−. Multivariable analyses showed that dopamine, gestation, and CRIB were independent factors affecting FT4 concentrations. No independent factors were shown to affect cortisol or TSH concentrations. Conclusion. Dopamine administration appeared to affect FT4 concentrations but not cortisol concentrations. The mechanisms are unclear but the effect does not appear to be related to hypotension or tissue underperfusion.
PubDate: Wed, 04 Jun 2014 12:25:15 +000
- Measuring Quality in Thyroid Cancer Surgery
Abstract: Many of the surgical quality measures currently in use are not disease specific. For thyroid cancer, mortality and even recurrence are difficult to measure since mortality is rare and recurrence can take decades to occur. Therefore, there is a critical need for quality indicators in thyroid cancer surgery that are easily measured and disease specific. Here we will review recent research on two potential quality indicators in thyroid cancer surgery. The uptake percentage on postoperative radioactive iodine scans indicates the completeness of resection. Another measure, the lymph node ratio, is the proportion of metastatic nodes to the total number of nodes dissected. This serves as a more global measure of quality since it indicates not only the completeness of lymph node dissection but also the preoperative lymph node evaluation and decision-making. Together, these two quality measures offer a more accurate, disease-specific oncologic indicator of quality that can help guide quality assurance and improvement.
PubDate: Thu, 22 May 2014 15:50:58 +000
- Persistent Comorbidities in Cushing’s Syndrome after Endocrine Cure
Abstract: It was assumed that resolution of hypercortisolism in Cushing syndrome (CS) was followed by normalization of morbidity; however, in the last decade evidence is accumulating that patients with cured CS still have increased morbidity and mortality after the biochemical control of hypercortisolism. Patients with CS have an increased cardiovascular and metabolic risk and persistent accumulation of central fat, with an unfavorable adipokine profile, not only during the active phase of the disease but also long after biochemical remission. Clinical management should be particularly careful in identifying global cardiovascular risk, as a primary goal during the followup of these patients, aimed at improving global vascular morbidity. Moreover bone mass is reduced not only due to the endogenous hypercortisolism but also due to duration and dose of exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) replacement therapy after surgery. Thus, therapy in operated patients with inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis should be reduced to the lowest dose and duration possible. Specific treatments should be considered in patients with decreased bone mass, aimed at reducing the increased fracture incidence. Finally, cognitive and health related quality of life impairments, described in active disease, are still abnormal after endocrine cure. Thus, residual morbidity persists in cured CS, suggesting irreversibility of GC-induced phenomena, typical of chronic hypercortisolism.
PubDate: Sun, 04 May 2014 07:01:59 +000
- The Emerging Roles of Thyroglobulin
Abstract: Thyroglobulin (Tg), the most important and abundant protein in thyroid follicles, is well known for its essential role in thyroid hormone synthesis. In addition to its conventional role as the precursor of thyroid hormones, we have uncovered a novel function of Tg as an endogenous regulator of follicular function over the past decade. The newly discovered negative feedback effect of Tg on follicular function observed in the rat and human thyroid provides an alternative explanation for the observation of follicle heterogeneity. Given the essential role of the regulatory effects of Tg, we consider that dysregulation of normal Tg function is associated with multiple human thyroid diseases including autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. Additionally, extrathyroid Tg may serve a regulatory function in other organs. Further exploration of Tg action, especially at the molecular level, is needed to obtain a better understanding of both the physiological and pathological roles of Tg.
PubDate: Thu, 10 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +000