Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Epidemiology
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2356-6701 - ISSN (Online) 2314-7628
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Adolescent Light Cigarette Smoking Patterns and Adult Cigarette Smoking

    • Abstract: Purpose. Light cigarette smoking has had limited research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between light smoking in adolescence with smoking in adulthood. Methods. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, Waves I and IV, were analyzed. Previous month adolescent smoking of 1–5 cigarettes/day (cpd) (light smoking); 6–16 cpd (average smoking); 17 or more cpd (heavy smoking); and nonsmoking were compared with the outcome of adult smoking. Results. At baseline, 15.9% of adolescents were light smokers, 6.8% were average smokers, and 3.6% were heavy smokers. The smoking patterns were significantly related to adult smoking. In logistic regression analyses, adolescent light smokers had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.00) of adult smoking; adolescent average or heavy smokers had AOR of 5.57 (95% CI: 4.17, 7.43) and 5.23 (95% CI: 3.29, 8.31), respectively. Conclusion. Individuals who initiate light cigarette smoking during adolescence are more likely to smoke as young adults. Practical Implications. When screening for tobacco use by adolescents, there is a need to verify that the adolescents understand that light smoking constitutes smoking. There is a need for healthcare providers to initiate interventions for adolescent light smoking.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2016 07:34:35 +000
  • Association between Perceived Built Environment and Prevalent Hypertension
           among South African Adults

    • Abstract: Introduction. The association between perceived built environmental attributes and hypertension among adults has received little attention in an African context. We investigated the association between the perceived built environment and prevalent hypertension in adult South Africans. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2008-2009 Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology data among South African () adults aged 35 years. Perceived built environment was assessed using the neighborhood environment walkability scale questionnaire. Prevalent hypertension was defined as previously diagnosed by a physician, screen-detected hypertension as 140/90 mmHg, and a combination of both as any hypertension. Logistic regressions were applied for analyses. Results. In crude logistic regressions, self-reported hypertension was associated with land use mix-diversity, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking/cycling, aesthetics, traffic, and crime. In adjusted model, land use mix-diversity was significantly associated with self-reported hypertension. In similar multivariable models, the direction and magnitude of the effects were mostly similar to the outcomes of “screen-detected hypertension” which was further predicted by perceived lack of safety from traffic. Conclusion. Perceived built environment attributes were significantly associated with hypertension. This has relevance to population-based approaches to hypertension prevention and control.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2016 13:44:44 +000
  • Smoking and Heberden Nodes: Analysis of Data from the Osteoarthritis

    • Abstract: Purpose. Dental hygienists, dentists, and other workforce providers who depend upon their hands for employment are acutely aware of the need to protect their hands to ensure a successful career. Recent research has suggested that smoking may be protective of hand osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between smoking and Heberden’s nodes. Methods. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used in a cross-sectional, secondary data analysis of self-reported current smoking/never smoking and the presence/absence of Heberden’s nodes, the hard enlargements of the joints nearest the fingertips (distal interphalangeal joints). Analyses included descriptive statistics, Chi-square associations with Heberden’s nodes, and logistic regressions. Results. In adjusted analysis, smoking had an adjusted odds ratio for Heberden’s nodes of 0.832 [95% confidence interval: 0.60, 1.14] which failed to reach significance (). In the selected model, females were more likely than males to have Heberden’s nodes; non-Hispanic Blacks were less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to have Heberden’s nodes; and older age groups were more likely than the youngest age group to have Heberden’s nodes. Conclusion. Smoking did not provide protection against Heberden’s nodes in this study of US participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Apr 2016 11:50:40 +000
  • Trajectories of Body Mass Index from Young Adulthood to Middle Age among
           Canadian Men and Women

    • Abstract: Knowledge regarding the heterogeneity of BMI trajectories is limited for the Canadian population. Using latent class growth modelling, four distinct BMI trajectories of individuals from young adulthood to middle age were identified for both women and men from the longitudinal data of the National Population Health Survey. The associations between BMI trajectories and the individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics and behavioural factors were also examined. Aboriginal women were found more likely to be in the long-term overweight or obese groups. It reveals that increased years of smoking, drinking, and being physically active were associated with lowering the BMI trajectory in all groups for both women and men, with some exceptions in the long-term normal weight group for men. Increased years of rural living, being employed, and living with low income were associated with raising the BMI trajectory in all groups for women and in some groups for men. Food insecurity was associated with raising the BMI trajectory in each group for both women and men.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Dec 2015 13:00:31 +000
  • Survival of Preterm Singleton Deliveries: A Population-Based Retrospective

    • Abstract: Aim. To identify sociodemographic and medical characteristics associated with preterm birth survival. Methods. A retrospective study of singleton births was performed using Missouri linked data for the years 1978 to 2005. We computed hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards model. Results. High rates of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality were observed among preterm as compared to term births. White are at low risk for postneonatal (HR = 0.77, CI: 0.65, 0.90) and infant mortality (HR = 0.90, CI: 0.81, 0.99) compared to blacks. We observed increased risks of all mortality types for preterm deliveries by caesarean section (neonatal HR = 1.53, CI: 1.40, 1.68; postneonatal HR = 1.39, CI: 1.22, 1.58; infant HR = 1.37, CI: 1.27, 1.48). As compared to nonsmokers, preterm singletons born to smoking mothers are 69% more likely to experience postneonatal mortality and have a 17% increased risk for infant death. Conclusions. Caesarean section is associated with increased risk of all types of mortality. Racial disparity is still a concern. Further research is required to identify the detailed differences in structure and procedures that result in the disadvantage associated with preterm birth especially with respect to caesarean section and race.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Sep 2015 13:59:29 +000
  • Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor
           of Subsequent Stillbirth

    • Abstract: Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997). The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56), respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76). In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02). Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12), but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00). Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins). Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2015 06:53:01 +000
  • Using the Negative Exponential Model to Describe Changes in Risk of
           Smoking-Related Diseases following Changes in Exposure to Tobacco

    • Abstract: Recently published analyses for four smoking-related diseases show that the declining excess relative risk by time quit is well fitted by the negative exponential model. These analyses estimated the half-life of this excess, that is, the time after quitting when the excess relative risk reaches half that for continuing smokers. We describe extensions of the simple model. One quantifies the decline following an exposure reduction. We show that this extension satisfactorily predicts results from studies investigating the effect of reducing cigarette consumption. It may also be relevant to exposure reductions following product-switching. Another extension predicts changes in excess relative risk occurring following multiple exposure changes over time. Suitable published epidemiological data are unavailable to test this, and we recommend its validity to be investigated using large studies with data recorded on smoking habits at multiple time points in life. The basic formulae described assume that the excess relative risk for a continuing smoker is linearly related to exposure and that the half-life is invariant of age. We describe model adaptations to allow for nonlinear dose-response and for age-dependence of the half-life. The negative exponential model, though relatively simple, appears to have many potential uses in epidemiological research for summarizing variations in risk with exposure changes.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2015 11:44:27 +000
  • Prevalence of Out-of-Hospital Sudden Cardiac Death in Moscow in

    • Abstract: Background. The sudden out-of-hospital cardiac death (SOHCD) in Russia is poorly investigated. The aim of study was to determine structure of SOHCD in Moscow. Methods. SOHCD were analyzed according to data for 2005–2009 from the 2nd Thanatology Department of Forensic Medicine of Moscow that serves 2502836 citizens in Moscow. Results. Prevalence of SOHCD was 49.1% of autopsies for all age groups and in 8.9% in the group aged 1–45 (22.3 cases per 100000 population/year). The frequency of SOHCD progressively increased with age. Most SOHCD victims (82%) were males. The diagnosis of cardiomyopathy was prevalent (80–96%) in the age 1–45 group; in 11–15 more 30% had normal heart; after 35 years of age, the role of ischaemic heart disease increased. In 67% of the people aged 19–25 SOHCD was associated with traces of alcohol (0.3–3.0 promile). Conclusion. The proportion of SOHCD in the Moscow population over all age groups has reached 123.2 per 100000 citizens annually. In the age group 1–45, the prevalence of SOHCD was 22.3 cases per 100000 citizens per year. The risk of SOHCD was greater in males. Possibly the role of alcohol in SOHCD in people older than 20 increased.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2015 12:46:27 +000
  • Epidemiological Investigations on Cystic Echinococcosis in North-West
           (Sidi Kacem Province) Morocco: Infection in Ruminants

    • Abstract: Despite alarming statistics on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans and the importance of dog and ruminant populations, no epidemiological investigations have been performed on CE in Sidi Kacem Province (North-West of Morocco). A part of large research project was devoted to determine the status of CE in ruminants. This paper reports the results of the investigations carried out in the 10 abattoirs of this region, over four successive years (April 2009–March 2013). A total of 1,302 sheep, 652 head of cattle, and 136 goats were postmortem examined and hydatid cysts were collected and examined. The overall CE prevalence of infection was 42.9% in cattle, 11.0% in sheep, and 1.5% in goats. The prevalence shows significant association with age in sheep and cattle; sheep above 3 years and cattle above 5 years are highly infected (64.0% and 72.2%, resp.). Only liver and lungs are found to be infected. Molecular analyses identified G1, G2, and G3 of E. granulosus sensu stricto in liver and lung samples. Cyst fertility was significantly higher in sheep (54.9%) than in cattle (50.3%). These findings suggest that control measures should target not only sheep but also cattle.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Apr 2015 10:11:04 +000
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Undiagnosed Hypertension in an Apparently
           Healthy Western Indian Population

    • Abstract: This epidemiological study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of undetected hypertension in an apparently healthy western Indian population having no history of major illness. 3629 individuals of 18 years of age were included in the study. Hypertension (HTN) was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg and prehypertension (PHTN) as SBP ≥ 120–139 mmHg or DBP ≥ 80–89 mmHg, but without HTN. The prevalence of undiagnosed HTN in the total population was 26% and was 11% and 40% in the young (40-year) and old (40-year) populations, respectively. The prevalence of PHTN, 40% in the overall population, was nearly the same in the young (39%) and the old population (42%). The risk factor most strongly associated with PHTN and HTN was obesity, showing the highest odds ratio in the overall (PHTN 2.14; 95% CI 1.20–3.81; HTN 2.72; 95% CI 1.53–4.85), the young (PHTN 2.29; 95% CI 1.25–4.21; HTN 2.92; 95% CI 1.59–5.35), and the old (PHTN 1.13; 95% CI 0.65–1.96; HTN 1.38; 95% CI 0.79–2.4) populations. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases which must not be ignored, especially in the western Indian population.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:06:27 +000
  • Forecasting Age-Specific Brain Cancer Mortality Rates Using Functional
           Data Analysis Models

    • Abstract: Incidence and mortality rates are considered as a guideline for planning public health strategies and allocating resources. We apply functional data analysis techniques to model age-specific brain cancer mortality trend and forecast entire age-specific functions using exponential smoothing state-space models. The age-specific mortality curves are decomposed using principal component analysis and fit functional time series model with basis functions. Nonparametric smoothing methods are used to mitigate the existing randomness in the observed data. We use functional time series model on age-specific brain cancer mortality rates and forecast mortality curves with prediction intervals using exponential smoothing state-space model. We also present a disparity of brain cancer mortality rates among the age groups together with the rate of change of mortality rates. The data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the United States. The brain cancer mortality rates, classified under International Classification Disease code ICD-O-3, were extracted from SEERStat software.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Feb 2015 11:40:09 +000
  • Association between Obesity and Cancer: An Analysis Using the Competing
           Risk Regression Approach

    • Abstract: Cox model has been the commonly used method in past analyses of association between obesity and the risk estimates of cancer in situations where the subjects have also died (or could die) of noncancer events (competing events). The Cox model does not address the presence of competing events convincingly. The competing risk approach accommodates the fact that individuals who died of other causes (competing events) will never die of cancer and thus provides more realistic estimates. This study uses the competing risk approach to study the association of obesity and cancer mortality and compare the analysis results with those based on the traditional Cox model. It was seen that while the cause-specific hazard rate of cancer is significantly higher for obese population compared to normal weight population, the difference is not significant using competing risk approach. We demonstrated that higher cause-specific hazard rate does not necessarily imply higher incidence rate and in situations involving competing events we recommend using competing risk approach in addition to the Cox regression model.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jan 2015 11:20:43 +000
  • Epidemiological Transition in Urban Population of Maharashtra

    • Abstract: Our objective is to assess epidemiological transition in urban Maharashtra in India in past two decades. We used the medically certified causes of death (MCCD) data from urban areas of Maharashtra, 1990–2006. Cause-specific death rate was estimated, standardized for age groups, and projected by using an exponential linear regression model. The results indicate that the burden of mortality due to noncommunicable conditions increased by 25% between 1990 and 2006 and will add 20% more by 2020. Among specific causes, the “diseases of the circulatory system” were consistently the leading CoD between 1990 and 2006. The “infectious and parasitic disease” and “diseases related to respiratory system” were the second and third leading causes of death, respectively. For children and young population, the leading cause of death was the “certain conditions originating in the prenatal period” and “injury and poisoning,” respectively, among both sexes. Among adults, the leading cause of death was “infectious and parasitic diseases.” In case of the adult female and elderly population, “diseases of circulatory system” caused the most deaths. Overall the findings foster that socioeconomically developed and demographically advanced urban Maharashtra bears the double burden of disease-specific mortality.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Nov 2014 07:17:23 +000
  • Prevalence and Determinants of Appropriate Health Seeking Behaviour among
           Known Diabetics: Results from a Community-Based Survey

    • Abstract: Introduction. Living with diabetes requires patients to have good self-monitoring of their disease and treatment. Appropriate health seeking behavior is important to minimize complications and improve quality of life. Methodology. A community-based, cross-sectional study of disease events and experiences from diagnosis to the time of study was conducted among 460 known diabetics in Tanjong Karang district. The aim of this study was to describe the current pattern of health seeking behavior and its determinants among rural communities. Appropriate diabetic health services utilization was defined as using modern treatment either through oral hypoglycemics or insulin injections, obtained from either a public or private health facility. Result. 85.9% of respondents reported having appropriate health seeking behaviour at the time of the house-to-house community survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that appropriate health seeking behaviour was significantly associated with age of respondent, presence of comorbidity, family history of diabetes, distance from health facilities, perceived family support, and history of early treatment seeking at diagnosis and duration of disease. Conclusion. The present population has better appropriate health seeking behavior and provision of knowledge with strong family support in diabetic care which are important in control and prevention of diabetic complication that need to be emphasized.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 06:49:38 +000
  • The Effect of Early Initiation of Breastfeeding on Neonatal Mortality
           among Low Birth Weight in Aceh Province, Indonesia: An Unmatched Case
           Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Early initiation of breastfeeding is the breastfeed that is received by the baby within the first hour of birth. It is recommended to reduce infant mortality and illness. Objective. To assess the effect of early initiation of breastfeeding on neonatal mortality for low birth weight in Aceh province, Indonesia. Method. In this qualitative study unmatched case controls were used as the design. Data was collected in 8 districts in Aceh province, Indonesia, between January and December 2012. The total sample for this study was 500 LBW who were born between 2010 and 2012, subdivided into 250 LBW who died in neonatal period and 250 LBW who survived during neonatal period. Result. Thermal care and hygienic practice were not significantly associated with neonatal mortality among LBW. Feeding and early initiation of breastfeeding were associated. Discussion. Early initiation of breastfeeding had an effect on neonatal mortality for the low birth weight in Aceh province, Indonesia. The risk of mortality was decreased for those neonates who accepted breast milk within the first hour after birth. Therefore it is concluded that a new strategy to promote and improve the coverage of the initiation of breastfeeding is needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 06:43:33 +000
  • Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Cattle Slaughtered in Sokoto Metropolitan
           Abattoir, Sokoto, Nigeria

    • Abstract: The prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle slaughtered in the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir was investigated. Faeces and bile samples were collected and processed using formal ether concentration technique. Gross lesions from 224 out of 1,313 slaughtered cattle were randomly selected and examined. Out of the 224 cattle examined, 95 (42.41%) were males and 129 (57.59%) were females. Out of 95 male cattle examined, 27 (28.42%) were infected and out of 129 females 35 (27.13%) were infected. Based on breed, infection rates were 31 (31.0%), and 31 (25.2%) for breeds of Sokoto Gudali and Red Bororo respectively. No infection was recorded in White Fulani breed. Lesions observed were more in males than in females and more in Red Bororo than in Sokoto Gudali. Overall, prevalence of infection with Fasciola was 27.68%. There was no statistically significant association between infection and breed and between infection and sex of the animals sampled . Regular treatment of all animals with an effective flukicide, as well as snail habitat control, tracing source of animals, public enlightenment about the disease, proper abattoir inspection, adequate and clean water supply to animals, and payment of compensation of condemned tissues and organs infested with the parasite by government were suggested.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Nov 2014 11:17:51 +000
  • Epidemiological Investigation of Canine Leishmaniasis in Southern Morocco

    • Abstract: Dogs are the major reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is usually believed to be widespread mainly, if not only, in the northern regions and few data are available about the situation in southern parts of the country. Here, we report the results of a preliminary, clinical, and serological study carried out in 2004–2007, in four provinces of southern Morocco. Serological analyses were processed using two different Elisa techniques, a homemade Elisa test and IDVET commercial kit, and confirmed by two different western blot (WB) tests, homemade and LDBIO commercial kits. We highlighted the presence of CanL infection in southern regions, known until then as free of the disease: 19.8% (48/243) of examined dogs displayed clinical signs compatible with CanL and the seroprevalence was particularly high, respectively, 81.8% and 87.8% by Elisa and western blot tests. Our current developed and validated homemade (Elisa and WB) tools will be cost-effective and useful for next large-scale epidemiological studies on Moroccan leishmaniasis animal reservoir.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Sep 2014 07:28:01 +000
  • Estimating Cancer Latency Times Using a Weibull Model

    • Abstract: Mathematical models can be useful tools in exploring population disease trends over time and can be used to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison between the exact and the approximate solutions for estimating the length of time between the biological initiation of cancer and diagnosis through the development of a Weibull-like survival model. A total of 1,608,484 malignant primary cancers were used in the analysis using cancer incidence data obtained from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. We find that the approximate solution provides a reliable comparison of the latency periods for different types of cancer and has no significant effect on the estimation accuracy, which differs from the exact solution by 0% to 11.3%. Thirty-five of the 44 cancers in this analysis were found to progress silently for 10 years or longer prior to detection representing 89% of the patients in this analysis. The results of this analysis differentiate cancer types that progress undetected over a period of years to identify new opportunities for early detection which increases the likelihood of successful treatment and alleviates the ever-growing cancer burden.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:21:56 +000
  • Predictors of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Commercial
           Minibus Drivers in Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and predictors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among a sample of commercial minibus drivers in the Accra Metropolis of Ghana. Methods. The participating drivers () were recruited from various lorry terminals and assessed by using a semistructured questionnaire that included the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results. Of the 148 drivers, 116 (78.4%) reported having WMSDs during the previous 12 months. The prevalence of the various WMSD domains was low back pain (58.8%), neck pain (25%), upper back pain (22.3%), shoulder pain (18.2%), knee pain (14.9%), ankle pain (9.5%), wrist pain (7.4%), elbow pain (4.7%), and hip/thigh pain (2.7%). Multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for possible confounders showed that less physical activity (OR = 4.9; 95% CI = 1.5–16.5; ), driving more than 12 hours per day (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.1–7.8; ), and driving at least 5 days per week (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.4–9.4; ) were significantly associated with WMSDs among this cohort of drivers. Conclusion. These modifiable factors may be targets for preventive strategies to reduce the incidence of WMSDs among occupational minibus drivers in Ghana.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Aug 2014 09:39:43 +000
  • Metabolic Syndrome according to Three Definitions in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul
           Heart Study: A City Based Tunisian Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major risk factor of CVD. The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of the MetS, its components, and its different profiles according to NCEP-ATP III 2001, IDF 2005, and JIS 2009 definitions in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul Heart Study (HSHS). Study Design. The study involved 1121 participants (364 men and 757 women; sex-ratio  =  0.48; mean age  =  47.49 ± 16.24 years) living in Hammam Sousse city, located in the east of Tunisia. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipids levels, glycemia, insulinemia, and body mass index were measured. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS16.0. Results. The percentage of participants who had MetS defined according to NCEP ATP III, IDF 2005, and JIS 2009 definitions was respectively, 29.5%, 38.4%, and 39.6%. With regard to gender, the prevalence of MetS is higher in men than in women according to IDF 2005 definition (38.5% men versus 38.3% women, ) and according to JIS 2009 definition (41.8% men versus 38.6% women, ), whereas, according to NCEP ATP III definition, the prevalence of MetS is higher in women than in men (30% versus 28.6%, ). The prevalence of MetS increased with increasing age according to the three definitions () and peaked in the oldest age group (≥70 years) according to IDF 2005 and JIS 2009. Furthermore, a significant difference in the prevalence of MetS components according to gender was observed. Indeed, the abdominal obesity is the most frequent MetS compound in women group, but hypertension and low HDL-C are the most frequent in men. In addition, according to the three definitions, the most frequent MetS profile in our study is “higher waist circumference, hypertension, and low HDL-C.” Conclusion. The high prevalence of MetS is a serious public health problem in Hammam-Sousse Sahloul community. Higher waist circumference, hypertension, and low HDL-C were the most frequent profile in our study.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +000
  • Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Adherence and Associated Factors among HIV
           Positive Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Tuberculosis coinfected with HIV constitutes a large proportion of patients in Ethiopia. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is recommended for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. However, the level of IPT adherence and associated factors among people living with HIV (PLHIV) have not been well explored. This study aimed to assess adherence to IPT and associated factors among PLHIV in Addis Ababa. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted. The study was conducted in 10 health centers and 2 hospitals. Patients were consecutively recruited till the required sample size was obtained. From 406 PLHIV approached, a total of 381 patients on IPT were interviewed. Data were entered and analyzed using Epi-Info version 3.5 and SPSS version 16. The level of adherence to IPT was 89.5%. Patients who have taken isoniazid for ≥5 months were more likely to be adherent than those who took it for 1-2 months [AOR (95%CI) = 5.09 (1.41–18.36)]. Patients whose friends decide for them to start IPT were less likely to be adherent than others [AOR (95%CI) = 0.10 (0.01–0.82)]. The level of adherence to IPT in PLHIV was high. Counseling of patients who are in their first two months of therapy should be more strengthened. Strong Information Education Communication is essential to further enhance adherence.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:27:37 +000
  • Malarial Infection in HIV Infected Pregnant Women Attending a Rural
           Antenatal Clinic in Nigeria

    • Abstract: Malaria still remains a challenging infection affecting the lives of several HIV infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was undertaken to determine malarial infection in HIV infected pregnant women in relation to sociodemographic and obstetrical factors. The study also assessed relationship between malarial infection and haemoglobin level, counts, and ART regimen, as well as predisposing risk factors that influenced occurrence of malarial infection in the women. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa. Haemoglobin level was determined using a hematology analyzer, while the flow cytometry was used to measure counts. Sociodemographic and obstetrical parameters were obtained through the administration of questionnaires. Of the 159 HIV infected pregnant women examined, 33.3% (59/159) had malarial infection. Malarial infection was significantly higher in pregnant women who were divorced, 40.24% (33/82) , were at their first trimester (4–12 weeks), 54.8% (17/31) , had  = [201–500 cells/μL], 42.42% (42/99) , and those that had severe anaemia (
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Jul 2014 07:50:33 +000
  • Paternal Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals as a Risk
           Factor for Leukaemia in Children: A Case-Control Study from the North of

    • Abstract: Occupations with exposures to a variety of chemicals, including those thought to be potential endocrine disruptors, have been associated with an increased risk of leukaemia in offspring. We investigated whether an association exists between paternal occupations at birth involving such exposures and risk of leukaemia in offspring. Cases () were matched, on sex and year of birth, to controls from two independent sources, one other cancers, one cancer-free live births. Paternal occupations at birth were classified, using an occupational exposure matrix, as having “very unlikely,” “possible,” or “likely” exposure to six groups of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals. There was a significantly increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL) for polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08–3.54) only in comparison with cancer-free controls, and for phthalates (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.61) only with registry controls. A number of other, including inverse, associations were seen, but limited to one control group only. No associations were seen with likely paternal exposure to heavy metals. The associations identified in this study require further investigation, with better exposure and potential confounding (for example maternal variables) information, to evaluate the likelihood of true associations to assess whether they are real or due to chance.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jul 2014 12:20:47 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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