for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 335 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover
Advances in Toxicology
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2356-6906 - ISSN (Online) 2314-7822
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Higher Blood Lead Levels among Childbearing Women in Nearby Addis
           Ababa-Adama Highway, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this research was to compare blood lead level of childbearing women near Addis Ababa-Adama highway with those who live far from it. Study Design. A comparative cross-sectional study design was used to compare blood lead levels of 40 childbearing women (study group) who lived relatively near Addis Ababa-Adama highway and other 36 childbearing women (comparative group) who lived relatively far (10 km) from the highway. Methods. In the study, women having a fertile age within 15–49 years were considered as “childbearing women.” Blood samples were collected from each group and analyzed for blood lead level comparison. Result. The study indicated significant blood lead level difference () between the groups. The study group had higher blood lead level (34.32 ± 6.39 μg/dL) than the comparative group (8.47 ± 3.01 μg/dL). The mean blood lead level of both groups was higher than the advised blood lead concentration for a woman to avoid occupational or vocational lead exposure. Conclusion. This study concluded that blood lead level of women who lived relatively near Addis Ababa-Adama highway was significantly higher than those who lived relatively far from the road.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 10:54:57 +000
       
  • Dramatic Increase in Cerebral Blood Flow following Soman Intoxication If
           Signs of Symptoms Can Be Seen

    • Abstract: Organophosphate poisoning is associated with adverse effects on the central nervous system such as seizure/convulsive activity and long term changes in neuronal networks. This study report an investigation designed to assess the consequences of Soman, a highly toxic organophosphorus compound, exposure on regional blood flow in the rat brain and peripheral organs. We performed repeated blood flow measurements in the same animal, using the microspheres technique, to characterize changes in regional blood flow at different times after Soman intoxication. In addition, the cardiopulmonary effects of Soman were followed during the intoxication. Administration of Soman (1 LD50; 90 µg/kg, s.c.) to anaesthetized rats produced a decrease in blood acetylcholinesterase activity in all animals tested. Although, only six out of ten rats showed signs of poisoning like a decrease in respiratory rate, the results show that only animals with significant signs of poisoning demonstrated an increase in cerebral blood flow. We conclude that it is of great importance to treat all data individually. An overall mean can easily be misinterpreted and conceal important effects. We also conclude that the increase in cerebral blood flow has an important role in the effect on respiration and that this effect is independent of the blood acetylcholinesterase activity.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Oct 2015 06:47:15 +000
       
  • Cytotoxicity Induced by Tetracyclines via Protein Photooxidation

    • Abstract: Background. Bacterial ribosomes have been considered the principal targets of tetracyclines. Recently, new clinical data has shown how other biomacromolecules are involved in the cellular damage of bacteria. Researchers are now reconsidering the pharmacological classification of tetracyclines, not only based on their semisynthetic or synthetic generations but also following the new mechanisms of action that are progressively being discovered. Materials and Methods. The toxicity properties of seven tetracycline derivatives (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and meclocycline) were investigated in vitro using a cell line of human keratinocytes. Cells were irradiated in the presence of tetracyclines for different durations and at three different intensities of light. The investigation of protein oxidation was set up using model proteins to quantify the formation of carbonyl groups. Results. After incubation and irradiation with UV light, the viability of keratinocytes was assessed with half the maximal inhibitory concentration for doxycycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, and tetracycline. No phototoxicity was observed for oxytetracycline, meclocycline, and minocycline. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that tetracycline’s derivatives show different photobehaviour according to their chemical properties due to different reactive groups on the same molecular skeleton.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Mar 2015 06:56:12 +000
       
  • Bisphenol A Induces Apoptosis in Liver Cells through Induction of ROS

    • Abstract: Oxidative stress mechanisms are involved in hepatotoxicity. The liver is reported to be affected by bisphenol A (BPA) in animals studies and has been also reported to possess hepatic toxicity. This study aimed to examine association between liver health status and the effects of BPA on the antioxidant defense systems and liver biomarkers. BPA (0, 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg) body weight was mixed in corn oil and intraperitoneally administered every forty-eight hours for 30 days in dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference between the body weight and weight of rat liver in BPA-treated groups and control groups. The study results show that the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increased after exposure to BPA. However, the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were significantly (, , and , resp.) decreased at 50 mg/kg dosage. Liver markers activities such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were significantly increased, while γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity was decreased. BPA exposure increased activity of liver biomarkers indicating liver hyperactivity. Analysis of the liver section provided essential evidence of liver apoptosis. Moreover, BPA may lead to induced toxic response of liver oxidative system.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Feb 2015 10:01:47 +000
       
  • Systems Biology and Synthetic Biology: A New Epoch for Toxicology Research

    • Abstract: Systems biology and synthetic biology are emerging disciplines which are becoming increasingly utilised in several areas of bioscience. Toxicology is beginning to benefit from systems biology and we suggest in the future that is will also benefit from synthetic biology. Thus, a new era is on the horizon. This review illustrates how a suite of innovative techniques and tools can be applied to understanding complex health and toxicology issues. We review limitations confronted by the traditional computational approaches to toxicology and epidemiology research, using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their effects on adverse birth outcomes as an illustrative example. We introduce how systems toxicology (and their subdisciplines, genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic toxicology) will help to overcome such limitations. In particular, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mathematical frameworks that computationally represent biological systems. Finally, we discuss the nascent discipline of synthetic biology and highlight relevant toxicological centred applications of this technique, including improvements in personalised medicine. We conclude this review by presenting a number of opportunities and challenges that could shape the future of these rapidly evolving disciplines.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jan 2015 12:42:30 +000
       
  • Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Imported Frozen Fish Scomber scombrus
           Species Sold in Nigeria: A Case Study in Zaria Metropolis

    • Abstract: This study assesses the likely health risks to human contamination of heavy metals from fish consumption. The analysis of the idea of fish destination and status (fishing area) for heavy metals was determined by the assessment of its risk limits (daily intake of metal and health risk index). Variations in the accumulation of heavy metals concentrations were between various tissues/organs (skin, muscle, gills, liver, intestine, kidneys, brain, and bones) across the batches of two fishing origins. Post hoc (Duncan) multicomparison shows that there are significant differences () across batches. The concentrations of heavy metals analyzed, in the investigated tissues of Scomber scombrus, showed higher levels of heavy metals accumulations in the order: and were above the recommended safety limits outlined by FAO/WHO. However, the consumer’s health risk with the consumption of fish muscles tissues shows that there are greater tendencies for cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure. Also consumption of Scomber scombrus species above the recommended daily intake (stated in this study) might lead to ingestion of heavy metals at unacceptable concentrations.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jan 2015 10:03:39 +000
       
  • Influence of Different Doses of Levofloxacin on Antioxidant Defense
           Systems and Markers of Renal and Hepatic Dysfunctions in Rats

    • Abstract: Levofloxacin (LFX) is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in the treatment of infections such as pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, and sinusitis. The present study assessed the likely toxic effect of LFX on hepatic and renal tissues in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four treatment groups: A: control, B: 5 mg/kg bw LFX (half therapeutic dose), C: 10 mg/kg bw LFX (therapeutic dose), and D: 20 mg/kg bw LFX (double therapeutic dose). After seven days of administration, result indicated significant increase in plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities in the treated groups compared to control. Also, there was a significant increase in plasma creatinine, urea, and total bilirubin in the treated groups relative to control. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides also increased significantly in the treated groups relative to control. Also, hepatic MDA level increased significantly in all the treated groups. However, hepatic SOD, catalase, and GST activities were significantly reduced in the LFX-treated animals. Moreover, GSH and ascorbic acid levels were significantly decreased in the LFX-treated groups relative to control. In conclusion, three doses of levofloxacin depleted antioxidant defense system and induced oxidative stress and hepatic and renal dysfunctions in rats.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jan 2015 11:04:27 +000
       
  • Chemical Exposure Generates DNA Copy Number Variants and Impacts Gene
           Expression

    • Abstract: DNA copy number variation is long associated with highly penetrant genomic disorders, but it was not until recently that the widespread occurrence of copy number variation among phenotypically normal individuals was realized as a considerable source of genetic variation. It is also now appreciated that copy number variants (CNVs) play a role in the onset of complex diseases. Many of the complex diseases in which CNVs are associated are reported to be influenced by yet to be identified environmental factors. It is hypothesized that exposure to environmental chemicals generates CNVs and influences disease onset and pathogenesis. In this study a proof of principle experiment was completed with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) to investigate the generation of CNVs using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the zebrafish vertebrate model system. Exposure to both chemicals resulted in CNVs. CNVs were detected in similar genomic regions among multiple exposure concentrations with EMS and five CNVs were common among both chemicals. Furthermore, CNVs were correlated to altered gene expression. This study suggests that chemical exposure generates CNVs with impacts on gene expression warranting further investigation of this phenomenon with environmental chemicals.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Dec 2014 08:24:33 +000
       
  • Indium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Hepatic Damage:
           Hepatoprotective Role of Novel 2-Imino-4-methyl-1, 2-Dihydropyrimido [5,
           4C] Quinoline-5(6H)-one

    • Abstract: Protective role of 2-imino-4-methyl-1, 2-dihydropyrimido [5, 4C] quinoline-5(6H)-one (IMDHPQ) in indium titanium oxide nanoparticles (InTiO NPs) induced hepatotoxicity was analyzed. InTiO NPs were synthesized and given orally to albino rats to assess their hepatotoxicity. NPs mediated oxidative stress and liver tissue pathology were analyzed. Altered antioxidants (GSH, GPx, and catalase) and, biochemical (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, total protein, and total bilirubin) and histopathological changes were observed due to the oxidative stress caused by InTiO NPs. Varying effects of IMDHPQ on each parameter were observed in the present study. The altered parameters of InTiO NPs exposed rats might be due to the oxidative stress caused by NPs and hepatoprotective or ameliorative efficacy of quinoline compound IMDHPQ on signaling and molecular mechanism needs further study.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Dec 2014 11:01:20 +000
       
  • Genotoxicity Study with Special Reference to Comet Test in the Blood Cells
           of Workers Exposed to Sewage Water

    • Abstract: Awareness among sewage workers to occupational exposure is growing slowly in many developing countries. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are present in sewage water and workers are exposed to these metals as a result of unprotected handling. These heavy metals exposures are responsible for DNA damage and lowering blood total iron (Fe) concentration. Zinc (Zn) is an element for promoting metallothionine expression and binds the free Cd. The total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), Pb, and Cd were estimated in sewage water. The whole blood Zn and Fe concentration and Pd and Cd were also estimated. Genotoxicity as indicated by DNA damage was studied by comet assay. It was observed that there were significant differences () of Pb and Cd concentration in blood for the sewage workers when compared with control population. DNA damage was also observed to be significantly () higher in the exposed groups but their blood Fe concentration was significantly lower, which may be the reason for their tendency for retention of blood Cd and make them more susceptible. This study also indicated that aged workers had higher blood Zn concentrations as compared to the younger (working < 20 years) workers. This may indicate a possible adaptive response. The present study proposes that younger (working < 20 years) group is more susceptible as compared to aged group (working > 20 years).
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Nov 2014 09:08:55 +000
       
  • Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and Zinc Salt on DNA Damage in
           Quinoline-Induced Genotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Male Albino Mice

    • Abstract: Tinospora rumphii (T. rumphii) is a folkloric medicinal plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Africa. It has been widely used by locals to treat many diseases including jaundice, which is a manifestation of liver damage. We investigated the action of T. rumphii crude extract together with zinc sulphate, a known tumor modulator, on hepatic injuries induced by intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of quinoline on albino mice. The hepatotoxic effect was assessed by bilirubin concentration in the blood serum, while the genotoxic effect was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The mice orally fed with the crude extracts, following quinoline exposure, had reduced serum bilirubin concentration and DNA damage. Mice treated with Zinc sulphate, on the other hand, had remarkably reduced DNA damage on hepatocytes. Our findings showed that hepatoprotective potential of T. rumphii extract is dose-dependent and that utilization of the extract as medicinal remedy must be strictly monitored, while zinc was proven to reverse genotoxic effect of quinoline. This study unraveled the potential of T. rumphii extract and zinc as important hepatoprotective agents for future treatment of hepatic damage caused by chemotherapeutic agents used in cancer treatment.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:15:03 +000
       
  • Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to
           Irritant Chemicals

    • Abstract: Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide) for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:47:39 +000
       
  • Investigations of the Biological Effects of Airborne and Inhalable
           Substances by Cell-Based In Vitro Methods: Fundamental Improvements to the
           ALI Concept

    • Abstract: The state of the art for cell-based in vitro investigations of airborne and inhalable material is “air-liquid interface” (ALI) technology. Cell lines, primary cells, complex 3D models, or precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) are used to represent the lung or skin by way of an in vitro barrier model. These models have been applied in toxicity or pharmacological testing. However, contrasting with a clear demand for alternative methods, there is still no widely accepted procedure for cell-based in vitro testing of inhalable substances. In the light of this, an analysis was undertaken of common drawbacks of current approaches. Hence, the pivotal improvements aimed at were the cellular exposure environment, overall performance and applicability, operability of online investigations during exposure and routine setup. It resulted in an improved device (P.R.I.T. ExpoCube) based on an “all-in-one-plate” concept including all phases of the experiment (cell culture, exposure, and read-out) and all experimental groups (two test gas groups, controls) in one single commercial multiwell plate. Verification of the concept was demonstrated in a first experimental series using reference substances (formaldehyde, ozone, and clean air). The resulting ALI procedure enables the application of inhalable substances and mixtures under highly effective exposure conditions in routine utilization.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Nov 2014 11:08:30 +000
       
  • Differential Effect of Isooctane Doses on HaCaT and HeLa: A Multimodal
           Analysis

    • Abstract: A multimodal approach is effective in analyzing biological problems critically and thus also useful in assessing cytotoxicity under chemicals assaults. In this study effects of isooctane, an organic solvent and component of gasoline produced in petroleum industries, have been explored on normal (HaCaT) and cancerous (HeLa) epithelial cells. Besides morphological alterations, impacts on viability, prime molecular expressions, and bioelectrical properties on exposure to different doses of isooctane were noted. Scanning electron microscopy and viability assay demonstrated remarkable structural alterations and cell death, respectively, in HaCaT but not in HeLa. Transcriptomic and immunocytochemical studies on E-cadherin expression also elucidated pronounced toxic effects on HaCaT. Remarkable changes on the bioelectrical properties (e.g., impedance and phase angle) of the HaCaT, in contrast to HeLa, at different temporal points on isooctane exposure also indicated cytotoxic effects in the former. Hence this study illustrated cytotoxicity of isooctane on HaCaT multidimensionally which was evaded by HeLa.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Oct 2014 10:12:11 +000
       
  • Dual Role of Hydrogen Peroxide in Arabidopsis Guard Cells in Response to
           Sulfur Dioxide

    • Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts on plant physiology. Plant can adapt to SO2 stress by controlling stomatal movement, gene expression, and metabolic changes. Here we show clear evidences that SO2-triggered hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production mediated stomatal closure and cell death in Arabidopsis leaves. High levels of SO2 caused irreversible stomatal closure and decline in guard cell viability, but low levels of SO2 caused reversible stomatal closure. Exogenous antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and catalase (CAT) or Ca2+ antagonists EGTA and LaCl3 blocked SO2-induced stomatal closure and decline in viability. AsA and CAT also blocked SO2-induced H2O2 and elevation. However, EGTA and LaCl3 inhibited SO2-induced increase but did not suppress SO2-induced H2O2 elevation. These results indicate that H2O2 elevation triggered stomatal closure and cell death via signaling in SO2-stimulated Arabidopsis guard cells. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI blocked SO2-induced cell death but not the stomatal closure triggered by low levels of SO2, indicating that NADPH oxidase-dependent H2O2 production plays critical role in SO2 toxicity but is not necessary for SO2-induced stomatal closure. Our results suggest that H2O2 production and accumulation in SO2-stimulated plants trigger plant adaptation and toxicity via reactive oxygen species mediating Ca2+ signaling.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Sep 2014 12:55:55 +000
       
  • Compound-Specific Toxicities Detected in CFU-GM, Rat Kidney NRK Cells, Rat
           Bladder RBLAK Cells, and Rat Liver Slices following Batracylin or N-Acetyl
           Batracylin Exposure

    • Abstract: The investigational anticancer agent batracylin (BAT; 8-aminoisoindolo [1,2-b]quinazolin-10(12H)-one; NSC320846) causes γ-H2AX foci development in exposed tumor cells and has demonstrated activity against solid tumors and adriamycin-resistant leukemia. Reports indicate BAT has wide interspecies variation of adverse effects, including myelosuppression, kidney, bladder, and liver damage, including biliary hyperplasia. The effects of BAT and its metabolite N-acetyl batracylin (NAB) were evaluated in the CFU-GM bone marrow toxicity assay, rat kidney (NRK) cells, bladder epithelial (RBLAK) cells, and rat precision cut liver slices (PCLS). Exposure effects were evaluated biochemically and histologically. Human, dog, and rat exhibited similar CFU-GM IC90 values for BAT (21–29 μM). The ATP assay and γ-H2AX staining showed time- and concentration-dependent toxicity in RBLAK (more severe than NRK at
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Extraction of Parquat from Blood by Clinoptilolite

    • Abstract: Paraquat is a bipyridyl herbicide and organic divalent cation which due to its high polarity and water solubility cannot be readily extracted by common organic solvents from body fluids. Dithionite color test for qualitative and quantitative determination of paraquat in urine has been proposed and used for many years. Although some methods were proposed for solvent extraction of paraquat from blood, they are less practical in clinical laboratories and lack high extraction recovery. Clinoptilolite is a highly porous natural zeolite with cation-exchange property and high surface area. In the present work, extraction of paraquat from human blood by clinoptilolite was investigated and compared with Amberlite CG-50 I, a well-known weak cation-exchanger. Blood paraquat was adsorbed by adsorbents (clinoptilolite or Amberlite) and extracted from them by saturated sodium chloride solution. Extracted paraquat was spectrophotometrically measured by means of sodium dithionite reagent at 394.5 nm. Recovery, limit of detection, considering signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3, and limit of quantification, regarding S/N of 10, of paraquat extraction by clinoptilolite and Amberlite CG-50 were 81.7% ± 3.4%, 0.58 μg, and 1.93 μg and 83.6% ± 3.2%, 0.49 μg, and 1.63 μg, respectively. Repeatabilities (within-laboratory error) of paraquat extraction by clinoptilolite and Amberlite CG-50 I were 7.1% and 6.3%, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:38:48 +000
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.198.170.159
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-