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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 339 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Public Health
Number of Followers: 25  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2356-6868 - ISSN (Online) 2314-7784
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Universal Health Coverage in Bangladesh: Activities, Challenges, and

    • Abstract: Catastrophic health expenditure forces 5.7 million Bangladeshis into poverty. Inequity is present in most of health indicators across social, economic, and demographic parameters. This study explores the existing health policy environment and current activities to further the progress towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the challenges faced in these endeavors. This qualitative study involved document reviews (n=22) and key informant interviews (KII, n=15). Thematic analysis of texts (themes: activities around UHC, implementation barriers, suggestions) was done using the manual coding technique. We found that Bangladesh has a comprehensive set of policies for UHC, e.g., a health-financing strategy and staged recommendations for pooling of funds to create a national health insurance scheme and expand financial protection for health. Progress has been made in a number of areas including the roll out of the essential package of health services for all, expansion of access to primary health care services (support by donors), and the piloting of health insurance which has been piloted in three subdistricts. Political commitment for these areas is strong. However, there are barriers pertaining to the larger policy level which includes a rigid public financing structure dating from the colonial era. While others pertain to the health sector’s implementation shortfalls including issues of human resources, political interference, monitoring, and supervision, most key informants discussed demand-side barriers too, such as sociocultural disinclination, historical mistrust, and lack of empowerment. To overcome these, several policies have been recommended, e.g., redesigning the public finance structure, improving governance and regulatory mechanism, specifying code of conduct for service providers, introducing health-financing reform, and collaborating with different sectors. To address the implementation barriers, recommendations include improving service quality, strengthening overall health systems, improving health service management, and improving monitoring and supervision. Addressing demand-side barriers, such as patient education and community empowerment, is also needed. Research and advocacy are required to address crosscutting barriers such as the lack of common understanding of UHC.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 13:05:08 +000
  • Sociocultural Determinants of the Utilization of Maternal Health Care
           Services in the Tallensi District in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    • Abstract: Introduction. The quality maternal health care that women receive during pregnancy and delivery is important for the health of both the mother and the baby. However, most pregnant women do not receive the minimum number of antenatal care (ANC) services (at least 4 times during pregnancy) as recommended by the WHO. This article sought to identify the types of maternal health care services (MHCS) received by women during pregnancy and delivery and after childbirth and women’s reasons for use and nonuse of MHCS. Methods. The study adopted the social survey design where 366 women were sampled using probability sampling technique. The data was collected through the use of questionnaire. Results. The study results revealed that some sociocultural factors such as age, religion, traditional belief system, education, and marital status influence women’s use of MHCS in the Talensi District. In addition, factors such as women’s National Health Insurance Scheme status, distance to health center, and attitude of health care professional determine their utilization of MHCS. To a large extent, these factors influence choice for traditional birth attendants over biomedically-based maternal health care services. Conclusion. The study recommended that there should be education for women on the need for them to utilize MHCS during pregnancy and delivery and after childbirth. Government should organize skill training for traditional birth attendants in the Talensi District.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Feb 2019 13:05:06 +000
  • Detection of Antibiotics in Drinking Water Treatment Plants in Baghdad
           City, Iraq

    • Abstract: Persistence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment has raised concerns regarding their potential influence on potable water quality and human health. This study analyzes the presence of antibiotics in potable water from two treatment plants in Baghdad City. The collected samples were separated using a solid-phase extraction method with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridge before being analyzed. The detected antibiotics in the raw and finished drinking water were analyzed and assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with fluorometric detector and UV detector. The results confirmed that different antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and B-lactams were detected in the raw and finished water. The most frequently detected antibiotics were ciprofloxacin with highest concentration of 1.270 μg L−1 in the raw water of Al-Wihda plant, whereas the highest concentration of levofloxacin was 0.177 μg L−1, while amoxicillin was not detected in this plant. In contrast, ciprofloxacin was found in both raw water and finished water of Al-Rasheed plant and recorded highest concentration of 1.344 and 1.312 μg L−1, respectively. Moreover, the residual amount of levofloxacin in the raw water was up to 0.414 μg L−1, whereas amoxicillin was shown to be the most detectable drug in the raw water of Al-Rasheed plant, with a concentration of 1.50 μg L−1. The results of this study revealed the existence of antibiotic drugs in raw and finished water and should be included in the Iraqi standard for drinking water quality assessment.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 10:43:28 +000
  • Dietary Diversity and Associated Factors among HIV Positive Adult Patients
           Attending Public Health Facilities in Motta Town, East Gojjam Zone,
           Northwest Ethiopia, 2017

    • Abstract: Introduction. Dietary diversity is defined as the amount of different food groups or foods that are consumed over a specific reference time. The human immune deficiency virus problem remains one of the main public health challenges, especially in low and middle income countries. Nutrition has been linked to both the transmission of human immune deficiency virus and poor outcomes related to human immune deficiency virus. Objective. To assess dietary diversity and associated factors among human immune deficiency virus positive adult patients in Motta administrative town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2017. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study design was conducted on 410 study participants selected using a stratified sampling technique with proportional allocation. The data were collected using semi-structured and pretested questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-Data version 3.1 and analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the number and percentage of the study variables. The bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to identify the independent factors associated with dietary diversity among adult human immune virus (HIV) positive patients. Result. A total of 410 study participants were included in the analysis. Of the total, 121 (29.5%) of adult HIV positive respondents consumed diversified diet with the mean dietary diversity score of 3.2 (SD±1.88). The predominant food item consumed during the study periods was starchy staples (96.1%) and legumes (81.7%). Having means of communication cell phone (mobile phone) [(AOR= 2.13 (1.16, 3.60)], media exposure status in the household [(AOR =1.95 (1.22, 3.11)] and nutrition counselling [(AOR =2.17 (1.09, 4.67)] were significant factors associated with dietary diversified feeding at 95% CI. Conclusion. The study revealed that low dietary diversity score was significant nutritional problem among HIV positive adults in Motta town health facilities. Having mobile cell phone, media exposure status and nutritional counseling were significantly associated with dietary diversity score. Therefore efforts should be strengthened to improve the counseling service at each health institution and encourage the patients to use media for the source of information.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparison of General Practice and Pharmaceutical Dispensing Data for
           Pharmacoepidemiological Research: Assessing the Risk of Urinary-Tract
           Infections with Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background. This study compared results of a study undertaken using Australia’s general practice electronic health record database, MedicineInsight, to assess risk of urinary-tract infections with sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2) for diabetes, by undertaking the same study in a 10% random sample of data from the national Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data. Methods. Cohort studies were undertaken using deidentified data from the two national datasets. In each dataset, initiators of SGLT2 inhibitors were compared to initiators of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in the period Jan 2012 to Sep 2015. The risk of urinary-tract infections (UTI) was assessed in six-month follow-up after initiation of SGLT2 and DPP-4. Results. There were 1,977 people in the SGLT2 and 1,964 people in the DPP-4 cohort (MedicineInsight data) and 3,120 in the SGLT2 and 12,359 in the DPP-4 cohort (10% PBS data). In both datasets, the risk of UTI after initiation of SGLT2 was not significantly increased in comparison to DPP-4 cohort (MedicineInsight: 3.6% versus 4.9%; aHR=0.90, 95% CI 0.66-1.24; PBS: 3.0% versus 3.9%; aHR=0.90, 95% CI 0.72-1.13, 10%). Conclusions. Comparison of MedicineInsight data to PBS national pharmacy data demonstrated highly comparable results for the specific study question. MedicineInsight is a reliable source of data that can be used for pharmacoepidemiological studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Illegal Substance Abuse among
           Adolescents in Sri Lanka: Results from Sri Lankan Global School-Based
           Health Survey 2016

    • Abstract: Background. Adolescence is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as “the transition period from childhood to adulthood”. Increases in autonomy during this period, willingness to experiment, and peer influence create an environment of taking high-risk decisions influencing adolescent health, such as substance abuse and smoking. The current study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption, and illegal substance abuse and their determinants on in-school adolescents using data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, Sri Lanka in 2016. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3,650 students using a self-administered questionnaire in government schools. Weighted prevalence was calculated, and logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the correlates. Results. The prevalence of current alcohol, smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, and substance abuse, 30 days before the survey, was 3.4% (95% CI 2.6 - 4.3), 3.6% (95% CI 2.5-5.0), 2.3% (95% CI 1.5-3.7), and 2.7% (95% CI - 1.7-4.2%). Male sex and involvement in physical fighting were independently associated with increased risk in all four substance categories assessed. Multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression revealed that only the male sex and involvement in physical fighting were correlates for four substance categories assessed when confounding effects of other variables were accounted for. Being in the 16-17 age category, parents’ tobacco use and seeing actors consuming alcohol on TV increased the risk of alcohol consumption, smoking, and smokeless tobacco. Having ever attempted suicide was positively associated with increased risk for alcohol consumption, smoking, and illegal substance abuse. Conclusion. Alcohol use, smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and illegal substance abuse by students remain a concern in Sri Lanka and implementing life skills-based interventions at schools is recommended.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Parents’ Experiences and Sexual Topics Discussed with Adolescents in the
           Accra Metropolis, Ghana: A Qualitative Study

    • Abstract: Background. Traditionally, discussion about sexuality is subdued in proverbs and is earmarked for adults. However, adolescents also need information about their sexuality to make informed choices regarding sexual behaviours. This study, therefore, seeks to explore the experiences of parents discussing sexuality topics with adolescents in the Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Methods. This was a qualitative study that used focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) to assess parents’ experiences in discussing sexuality topics with adolescents. The FGDs, consisting of 8-12 parents each, were conducted for one “all fathers”, then another “all mothers”, and finally “fathers and mothers” groups. Parents who were not part of the FGDs were engaged in IDIs. The data was transcribed and analyzed manually. Results. Most of the parent-adolescent sexual discussions were based on physical changes, personal hygiene, abstinence, abortion, and saying “no” to forced sex. Parents discussed sexuality issues with adolescents to prevent them from premarital sex, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections. Parents sourced their knowledge about sexuality from books, television, radio, and personal experiences. Parents always seize opportunities such as television scenes to discuss sexual topics with their children. Although some parents expressed some level of comfort discussing sexual topics with adolescents, many still had difficulties explaining some terminologies related to sex. Preferentially, parents were protective of their girls than the boys when discussing issues on sexuality. Most parents received no sexuality education from their parents but a few reminisced precautionary advices on sex. Parents believed training on sexuality issues will help them to better discuss sexual topics with adolescents. Conclusions. Ghanaian parents preferentially discuss sex with their daughters as a protective tool against irresponsible sexual behaviours. Parents still have challenges discussing adolescent sexuality topics; hence equipping parents to effectively discuss such sensitive topics will improve adolescent reproductive health and sexual behaviour.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Active Case Finding for Improved Ebola Virus Disease Case Detection in
           Nimba County, Liberia, 2014/2015: Lessons Learned

    • Abstract: Objectives. Early case detection and isolation of patients infected with highly infectious diseases are crucial in the management and control of epidemics such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). In this paper, we share the lessons learned from implementation of active case finding as a strategy for improved EVD case detection in Nimba County, Liberia. Methods. We adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) active surveillance strategy to identify and report suspected EVD cases, follow up contacts of confirmed cases, and report community deaths. We identified, trained, and deployed 1060 Community Health Volunteers (CHVs) in 718 communities in Nimba County. The CHVs were supervised by 142 health workers within their catchment area. The health workers were supervised by the District Health Officers (DHOs). The DHOs reported to the County Health Team (CHT) who provided supportive supervision. Data collection was based on the EVD contact tracing and active case finding forms adopted from WHO. Data analysis was based on epi-weeks. Results. The number of EVD suspected cases increased by more than 75% following the initiation of active case finding. Average duration between symptom onset and case detection reduced from between three and five days to within 24 hours. Collection of oral swabs from dead bodies increased from two to 15 within the first week of active case finding strategy implementation. Reporting of other IDSR priority diseases and conditions also improved. Conclusion. Active case finding strategy in Nimba increased suspected EVD case detection and reduced the duration between onset of symptoms and detection of cases.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Level of Knowledge and Associated Factors of Postnatal Mothers’ towards
           Essential Newborn Care Practices at Governmental Health Centers in Addis
           Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Globally 4 million newborns die every year before they reach the age of one month and approximately 3.4 million newborns die within the first week of life. Of these deaths, 66% occur during the 24 hours. Late death, i.e., after 24 hours, still occurs 34% and may be prevented if mothers have knowledge about newborn care including dangers sign of newborn. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess level of knowledge and associated factors of postnatal mothers towards essential newborn care practices at governmental health centers in Addis Ababa. Methodology. Institutional-based cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted using multistage sampling method in AA health centers from December 5 to January 30, 2016. Result. A total of 512 mothers who came for postnatal visit were interviewed using structured pretest questionnaires. Knowledge was assessed using closed and open ended questions. Poor knowledge has strong association with women’s occupation (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI : (1.38,3.20)). Parity of the women was found as one of significant predictors for poor knowledge of essential newborn care. Women who were primiparas are 1.99 times more likely to have poor knowledge of ENC compared to women who were multiparas AOR = 1.99,95% CI: (1.25,3.20). The other significant predictors for poor knowledge of ENC were ANC visit. Women who had less than four antenatal visits were 0.63 times less likely to have poor knowledge than those who visit four times and above. AOR = 0.63, 95% CI:( 0.40,0.99). Conclusion. Maternal education programs should be given emphasis for the components of ENC for mothers’ knowledge gaps. Special emphasis needs to be placed when educating vulnerable groups including those who failed to fully attend antenatal clinic visits.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Oct 2018 07:30:08 +000
  • Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Expecting Couples Birth
           Preparedness Intentions in a Rural Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study from
           Rukwa, Southern Tanzania

    • Abstract: Background. According to the Theory of Planned Behavior, an intention to carry out a certain behavior facilitates action. In the context of planning for birth, certain preparations and planning may better ensure maternal and neonatal survival. Little is known on the predictors of birth preparedness intention among expecting couples. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of birth preparedness intentions among expecting couples. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study targeting pregnant women and their partners was performed from June until October 2017. A three-stage probability sampling technique was employed to obtain a sample of 546 couples A structured questionnaire based upon the Theory of Planned Behavior was used. The questionnaire explored three main domains of birth preparedness intentions. These three domains included (1) attitudes towards birth preparedness, (2) perceived subjective norms towards birth preparedness, and (3) perceived behavior control towards birth preparedness. Results. The vast majority of study participants had birth preparedness intentions. This included 521 (95.4%) pregnant women and 543 (99.5%) of their male partners. After adjusting for the confounders, the predictors of birth preparedness intentions among pregnant women were attitude (AOR=70.134, 95% CI=12.536-392.360, p
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Oct 2018 06:40:31 +000
  • Determinants of Food Taboos in the Pregnant Women of the Awabel District,
           East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Regional State in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Food taboos have great effect on pregnant women through prohibited essential food and/or drinks. It is transferred from generation to generation and has negative effect on pregnant mothers' health. Objective. To assess magnitude of food taboo and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health institutions in Awabel district, Northwest Ethiopia, 2016. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted. Three hundred seven pregnant women were selected for the study. All governmental health institutions in the district were included for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify independent predictors of food taboo. Results. Twenty-seven percent of pregnant mother encountered food taboos. Avoided food items by pregnant mothers were linseed, coffee, tea, cabbage, porridge, wheat bread, banana, pimento, groundnut, salty diet, nug, sugarcane, pumpkin, and coca drinks. Reasons mentioned for avoidance of this food items were plastered on the fetal head, making fatty baby which is difficult for delivery, fear of abortion, and fetal abnormality. Age of the mother AOR= 2.97 (1.71-5.16), income AOR= 0.28 (0.11-0.72), and previous antenatal care AOR= 2.33 (1.89-5.47) were significantly associated with food taboo. Conclusion. Our study revealed that considerable proportion of food taboo exists during pregnancy in the study area. This can be improved by strengthening the nutrition counseling components of antenatal care follow-up.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors among Women on
           Antiretroviral Therapy in Health Facilities of Jimma Town, Southwest

    • Abstract: Background. This study examined health-related quality of life and associated factors among HIV positive women receiving antiretroviral therapy in health facilities of Jimma town. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and consecutive sampling technique was employed to select 377 HIV positive women who were on antiretroviral therapy. Quality of life was measured using WHOQOL-BREF tool. Descriptive statistics, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. P values < 0.05 and adjusted odds ratio with 95% of confidence interval were used to determine statistical significance and report associations between the quality of life and independent variables. Results. Among the sampled participants, 344 were interviewed, yielding 91% of response rate. The mean ± standard deviation age of the respondents was 34.07 ± 8.76 years and 80.5% of them were urban dwellers. The proportion of women reporting good health-related quality of life was found to be 46.5%. Specific to each domain, the mean ± standard deviation of level of independence domain was the highest (14.08 ± 3.07) followed by physical (13.46 ± 2.95), social relationships (13.27 ± 3.91), psychological (12.97 ± 2.47), environmental (12.94 ± 3.25), and spiritual (12.39 ± 2.84) domains. Good social support (AOR: 4.99; 95% CI: [2.88, 8.34]), higher wealth status (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: [1.02, 3.39]), and being on antiretroviral therapy for shorter duration (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI [1.14, 3.03]) were independently associated with better overall health-related quality of life among the participants. Conclusions. The study demonstrated high proportion of HIV positive women on ART had poor health-related quality of life which was affected by wealth index, social support, and duration on antiretroviral therapy.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Sep 2018 07:45:17 +000
  • The Relationship between Stunting and Some Demographic and Socioeconomic
           Factors among Yemeni Children and Adolescents

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of sex, residence area, age group, school enrollment, poverty status, and income quintiles variables on the prevalence of stunting among Yemeni children and adolescents. The investigation was done on all children and adolescents (3004) aged 5-19 years and included in the last Yemeni Household Budget Survey (YHBS) data of 2005/2006. The data included a classification of the poverty status of surveyed households. The cutoff of -2 z scores of the height-for-age reference suggested by NCHS was used to calculate the prevalence rate of stunting. Descriptive, categorical testing, and logit modelling statistical analysis tools were used in the investigation. The statistical analysis shows the overall prevalence rate of stunting as 49.5% and the prevalence of stunting among males is higher than females. The prevalence of stunting among rural children and adolescents is higher than the urban children and adolescents, and it is higher among children and adolescents who were not enrolled than those enrolled. Children and adolescents of poor households were suffering from stunting (52.8%) as compared to children and adolescents of nonpoor households (47.7%). Children and adolescents living with the poorest, second, and middle-income households were 1.76, 1.73, and 1.46 times more likely to be stunted, respectively. The research provides an evidence that the childhood health situation in Yemen is chaotic and needs careful and effective cooperation and efforts both nationally and internationally to divert the foreseen danger looming.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 06:25:50 +000
  • Perceptions, Practices, and Mother’s Willingness to Provide Meconium for
           Use in the Assessment of Environmental Exposures among Children in Mukono
           and Pallisa Districts, Uganda

    • Abstract: Presence of biomarkers or metabolites is assessed in various human biospecimens including meconium in the investigation of exposures to environmental contaminants. This study gathered data on the perceptions and practices of mothers in two rural districts of Uganda concerning meconium and their willingness to provide meconium from their babies for research purposes. The study reveals a wide range of perceptions and beliefs around meconium as well as a number of associated taboos and practices. Many participants noted that meconium could be used to detect ailments among newborns based on its appearance. Practices and beliefs included using it to prevent stomach discomfort and other ailments of newborns, as a means to confirm paternity and initiate the child into the clan as well as facilitating father-child bonding that included ingestion of meconium by the fathers. Most mothers indicated scepticism in accepting to provide meconium for research purposes and had fears of unscrupulous people disguising as researchers and using meconium to harm their children. However, some were willing to provide meconium, if it helped to detect ailments among their children. These perceptions and practices may negatively influence mothers’ willingness to participate in meconium study. However, through provision of educational and behaviour change interventions, mothers’ willingness to participate in a meconium study can be improved.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Loss to Follow-Up among HIV Positive Pregnant and Lactating Mothers on
           Lifelong Antiretroviral Therapy for PMTCT in Rural Uganda

    • Abstract: Background. Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV accounts for more than 90% of all pediatric HIV infections. However, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV through provision of lifelong ART to HIV positive mothers faces various challenges which affect its success. One of such challenges is the loss to follow-up (LTFU) of mothers. Methodology. We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. We were able to trace 279 HIV positive, pregnant, and lactating mothers among mothers who were initiated on lifelong ART for PMTCT in public health facilities in Ntungamo district, Western Uganda. The proportion of those who were lost to follow-up was determined, and Log binomial regression with stepwise backward elimination method was employed to identify factors associated with LTFU. Focus group discussions (FDGs) of women on lifelong ART and key informant interviews (KIIs) of peer educators were also performed. Results. Out of the 279 mothers that were successfully traced and interviewed, 103 (37%) were identified as lost to follow-up. The prevalence of LTFU was higher among those whose transport costs were above $2.75, adj (adjusted) PR (Prevalence Ratio) 1.6 (95 CI; 1.02-2.55); those who waited beyond one hour before being attended to, adj PR 1.74 (95 CI; 1.02-2.96); and those who assumed that their infant was already infected, adj PR 1.76 (95 CI; 1.15-2.70). On interviews, LTFU in these mothers was attributed to fear of swallowing antiretroviral drugs, HIV related stigma and discrimination, inadequate facilitation of the peer educators, long patient waiting time, and transportation to the health facilities. Conclusion. More than one-third of mothers initiated on lifelong ART for PMTCT in Ntungamo district were lost to follow-up over a period of 25 months. Recommendations. Provision of regular and adequate pre-ART and ART adherence counseling and provision of routine health education would reduce LTFU.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 09:21:23 +000
  • Clinical Oral Health Recommended Care and Oral Health Self-Report, NHANES,

    • Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the concordance of self-reported responses to oral health questions versus clinically evaluated recommended need for oral healthcare by calibrated dentists to determine usefulness of the questions for epidemiological studies. We additionally examined other factors associated with concordant self-reports versus clinical evaluations. Materials and Methods. We used a cross-sectional study design with 4,205 participants, ages 30 years and above, who had complete oral health self-perception data and dental referral data in the NHANES 2013-14. Calibrated dentists completed clinical oral healthcare assessments. The assessments were dichotomized to (1) recommendation for immediate care and (2) routine oral health care. Self-reported oral health needs were measured with 6 items (an overall oral health self-perception question, oral pain within the previous year, impact on job/school, suspected periodontal disease, tooth appearance, and tooth mobility). The key item of interest was the overall oral health self-perception question. Results. Concordance with clinically evaluated recommended need for oral healthcare varied from 52.0% (oral pain) to 65.4% (overall oral health self-perception). Many subgroup differences were observed. Conclusions. The overall self-perception of oral health and the clinical evaluation of oral healthcare need were substantially concordant; other self-reported measures were moderately concordant. This is useful information and points to the need for a minimum set of measures that can provide actionable information and capture the need for clinical dental care.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • High Baseline CD4 Count and Exclusive Breastfeeding Are Associated with
           Lower Rates of Mother to Child HIV Transmission in Northwestern Uganda: A
           Two-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Under Option B plus, the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) along the Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) of HIV cascade remains unknown. We described HIV transmission along the EID cascade and determined associated factors at Arua Regional Referral Hospital, Northwestern Uganda. Methods. Data on 295 mother-baby pairs in EID care (January 2014 and April 2015) was extracted, cleaned, and analysed in STATA. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were performed. Independently associated factors were stated in adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and -values. Results. 233 (89.0%) mothers were above 30 years, 251 (85.1%) were in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stages I/II at enrolment, 170 (57.6%) attended antenatal care (ANC) visits during recent pregnancy, and 204 (69.1%) delivered in a health facility. Meanwhile, 257 (87.1%) HIV Exposed Infants (HEIs) received Nevirapine prophylaxis from birth up to 6 weeks and 245 (83.0%) were exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months. Of 295 mother-baby pairs, 25 (8.5%) HEIs turned HIV-positive along the EID cascade. Baseline maternal CD4 count of more than 500 cells/ul compared to less than 500 cells/ul (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.10–0.85; = 0.024) and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in the first 6 months of delivery in contrast to not EBF in the first 6 months (AOR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.52–0.55; = 0.003) reduced HIV transmission. Meanwhile, ANC visits, place of delivery, time of Nevirapine initiation, and maternal antiretroviral therapy use were not significantly associated with infant HIV transmission. Conclusion. HIV transmission was high. High baseline CD4 count and exclusive breastfeeding reduced HIV transmission.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 06:59:33 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice regarding HIV/AIDS among People with
           Disability in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. People with disabilities are vulnerable group to be infected with HIV/AIDS and are challenged to utilize HIV/AIDS services. Hence, this study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice about HIV/AIDS among disabled people in Hawassa city. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 disabled people. All disabled people residing in Hawassa city during the study period were included. Pretested and structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the associated factors. Results. A high percentage (197 (79.8%)) of disabled people were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS. Similarly, 190 (76%) of the respondents had a favorable attitude towards HIV/AIDS. In addition, being married (AOR = 2.20; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.27) and being employed (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.19, 6.81) were positively associated with knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Moreover, being a male (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.61, 2.90) and being married (AOR = 2.13; 95% CI: 2.25, 3.26) were also positively associated with having a favorable attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Conclusions. Significant numbers of disabled people were knowledgeable and had a favorable attitude towards HIV/AIDS.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Predictors of Neonatal Deaths in Ashanti Region of Ghana: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal mortality continues to be a public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to assess the maternal, neonatal, and health system related factors that influence neonatal deaths in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. Methods. 222 mothers and their babies who were within the first 28 days of life on admission at Mother and Baby unit (MBU) at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) in Kumasi, Ashanti Region of Ghana, were recruited through systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interviewing using open and closed ended questions. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of proximal and facility related factors on the odds of neonatal death. Results. Out of the 222 mothers, there were 115 (51.8%) whose babies did not survive. Majority, 53.9%, of babies died within 1–4 days, 31.3% within 5–14 days, and 14.8% within 15–28 days. The cause of death included asphyxia, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, infections, and respiratory distress syndrome. Neonatal deaths were influenced by proximal factors (parity, duration of pregnancy, and disease of the mother such as HIV/AIDS), neonatal factors (birth weight, gestational period, sex of baby, and Apgar score), and health related factors (health staff attitude, supervision of delivery, and hours spent at labour ward). Conclusion. This study shows a high level of neonatal deaths in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. This finding suggests the need for health education programmes to improve on awareness of the dangers that can militate against neonatal survival as well as strengthening the health system to support mothers and their babies through pregnancy and delivery and postpartum to help improve child survival.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Households Sociodemographic Profile as Predictors of Health Insurance
           Uptake and Service Utilization: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Municipality
           of Ghana

    • Abstract: Introduction. Attempts to use health insurance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) are recognized as a powerful tool in achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, continuous enrolment onto health insurance schemes and utilization of healthcare in these countries remain problematic due to varying factors. Empirical evidence on the influence of household sociodemographic factors on enrolment and subsequent utilization of healthcare is rare. This paper sought to examine how household profile influences the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) status and use of healthcare in a municipality of Ghana. Methods. A cross-sectional design with quantitative methods was conducted among a total of 380 respondents, selected through a multistage cluster sampling. Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive and multiple logistics regression at 95% CI using STATA 14. Results. Overall, 57.9% of respondents were males, and average age was 34 years. Households’ profiles such as age, gender, education, marital status, ethnicity, and religion were key predictors of NHIS active membership. Compared with other age groups, 38–47 years (AOR 0.06) and 58 years and above (AOR = 0.01), widow, divorced families, Muslims, and minority ethnic groups were less likely to have NHIS active membership. However, females (AOR = 3.92), married couples (AOR = 48.9), and people educated at tertiary level consistently had their NHIS active. Proximate factors such as education, marital status, place of residence, and NHIS status were predictors of healthcare utilization. Conclusion. The study concludes that households’ proximate factors influence the uptake of NHIS policy and subsequent utilization of healthcare. Vulnerable population such as elderly, minority ethnic, and religious groups were less likely to renew their NHIS policy. The NHIS policy should revise the exemption bracket to wholly cover vulnerable groups such as minority ethnic and religious groups and elderly people at retiring age of 60 years.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • IPV Screening and Readiness to Respond to IPV in Ob-Gyn Settings: A
           Patient-Physician Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, preventable public health concern that largely affects women of reproductive age. Obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) have a unique opportunity to identify and support women experiencing IPV to improve women’s health. Considering recent efforts to increase IPV awareness and intervention, the present study aimed to provide a current evaluation of nationally representative samples to assess ob-gyn readiness to respond to IPV as well as patient IPV-related experiences. Methods. 400 ob-gyns were randomly selected from American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ (ACOG) Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. Each physician was mailed one physician survey and 25 patient surveys. Results. IPV training/education and IPV screening practices were associated with most measures of ob-gyn readiness to respond to IPV. Among respondents, 36.8% endorsed screening all patients at annual exams; however, 36.8% felt they did not have sufficient training to assist individuals in addressing IPV. Workplace encouragement of IPV response was associated with training, screening, detection, preparation/knowledge, response practices, and resources. Thirty-one percent of patients indicated their ob-gyn had asked about possible IPV experiences during their medical visit. Conclusion. Findings highlight specific gaps in ob-gyns’ IPV knowledge and response practices to be further addressed by IPV training.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Household Food Insecurity, Low Dietary Diversity, and Early Marriage Were
           Predictors for Undernutrition among Pregnant Women Residing in Gambella,

    • Abstract: Background. Maternal undernutrition affects the health of both mothers and children and, as a result, has broad impacts on economic and social development. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess magnitude of undernutrition and associated factors among pregnant women in Gambella town, 2014. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted on 338 randomly selected pregnant women from March to April 2014. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used for data analysis. Result. The prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in Gambella town was 28.6%. Pregnant women who were married before their age of eighteen, who were from food insecure households, and who had low dietary diversity score were nearly four (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.2–6.9), two (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI : 1.2–3.6), and two (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3–4.16) times more likely to be undernourished as compared to their counterparts, respectively. Conclusion. Prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in Gambella town was unacceptably high. Stake holders should give due consideration to health education to delay age at first marriage and mainstreaming and strengthening nutritional activities that contribute to reduction of food insecurity and consumption of unbalanced nutrients.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jan 2018 08:51:58 +000
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