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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Canadian Respiratory Journal
  [SJR: 0.503]   [H-I: 42]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1198-2241 - ISSN (Online) 1916-7245
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Approach to Hemoptysis in the Modern Era

    • Abstract: Hemoptysis is a frequent manifestation of a wide variety of diseases, with mild to life-threatening presentations. The diagnostic workup and the management of severe hemoptysis are often challenging. Advances in endoscopic techniques have led to different new therapeutic approaches. Cold saline, vasoconstrictive and antifibrinolytic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose, biocompatible glue, laser photocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and endobronchial stents and valves are amongst the tools available to the bronchoscopist. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the definition, etiology, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of severe hemoptysis in the modern era with emphasis on bronchoscopic techniques.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation on Risk Factors of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute
           Cerebral Hemorrhage Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a predominant factor of pulmonary infection. We analyzed the risk factors of VAP with acute cerebral hemorrhage in intensive care unit (ICU) by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. After comparison of 197 cases of the VAP and non-VAP patients, we found that age > 65 years (), smoke (), coronary heart disease (), diabetes (), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (), ICU and hospital stay (), and days on mechanical ventilation () were significantly different, indicating that they are risk factors of VAP. All the age > 65 years (OR = 3.350, 95% CI = 1.936–5.796, ), smoke (OR = 3.206, 95% CI = 1.909–5.385, ), coronary heart disease (OR = 3.179, 95% CI = 1.015–4.130, ), diabetes (OR = 5.042, 95% CI = 3.518–7.342, ), COPD (OR = 1.942, 95% CI = 1.258–2.843, ), ICU and hospital stay (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.145–3.892, ), and days on mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.992, 95% CI = 1.107–3.287, ) are independent risk factors of VAP. After observation of patients with 6 months of follow-up, the BI score was significantly lower in VAP than that in non-VAP, and the rebleeding rate and mortality rate were significantly higher in VAP than those in non-VAP. Thus, the prognosis of the patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and VAP in ICU is poor.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Metabolomics in COPD Acute Respiratory Failure Requiring Noninvasive
           Positive Pressure Ventilation

    • Abstract: We aimed to investigate whether metabolomic analysis can discriminate acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbation from respiratory failure due to heart failure and pneumonia. Since COPD exacerbation is often overdiagnosed, we focused on those COPD exacerbations that were severe enough to require noninvasive mechanical ventilation. We enrolled stable COPD subjects and patients with acute respiratory failure requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation due to COPD, heart failure, and pneumonia. We excluded subjects with history of both COPD and heart failure and patients with obstructive sleep apnea and obstructive lung disease other than COPD. We performed metabolomics analysis using NMR. We constructed partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models to distinguish metabolic profiles. Serum (,R2 = 0.397, Q2 = 0.058) and urine metabolic profiles (,R2 = 0.419, Q2 = 0.142) were significantly different between the four diagnosis groups by PLS-DA. After excluding stable COPD patients, the metabolomes of the various respiratory failure groups did not cluster separately in serum (,R2 = 0.631, Q2 = 0.246) or urine (,R2 = 0.602, Q2 = −0.134). However, several metabolites in the serum were reduced in patients with COPD exacerbation and pneumonia. We did not find a metabolic profile unique to COPD exacerbation, but we were able to clearly and reliably distinguish stable COPD patients from patients with respiratory failure in both serum and urine.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Feasibility of Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Bronchoscopic
           Cryobiopsy without Fluoroscopy for Lung Parenchymal Lesions

    • Abstract: Background. Cryobiopsy is used to biopsy peripheral lung lesions through flexible bronchoscopy with fluoroscopic guidance. However, fluoroscopy is not available at some institutions. This study evaluated the feasibility of radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopic cryobiopsy without fluoroscopy. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou branch, in Taiwan. This study enrolled patients who received bronchoscopy examinations with cryotechnology between July 2014 and June 2016. The data were collected through medical chart review. Results. During the study period, 101 patients underwent bronchoscopy examinations with cryotechnology. Ninety patients with endobronchial tumors were excluded from this study. Eleven patients who underwent radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for lung parenchymal lesions were enrolled into this study. The mean age was 61.1 ± 13.8 years. Five patients were men, and the other six were women. The number of cryobiopsies ranged from 1 to 3. In the histological biopsies, the mean specimen diameter was 0.53 ± 0.23 cm, and the mean biopsy area was 0.20 ± 0.19 cm2. Nine of 11 patients had pathological diagnoses. No complications, including pneumothorax, respiratory failure, or major bleeding, were recorded after the procedure. Conclusions. Endobronchial ultrasound is used to ensure biopsy location, and endobronchial ultrasound-guided cryobiopsy is a feasible technique to biopsy peripheral lung lesions in selected cases at institutions without fluoroscopy equipment. This study provided some rationale for further studies examining the impact of fluoroscopy.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 05:26:39 +000
       
  • Is There a Correlation between New Scoring Systems and Systemic
           Inflammation in Stable Bronchiectasis'

    • Abstract: Aim. The present study aimed to investigate the relation between FACED and BSI scores, which were developed to measure the severity of bronchiectasis, and systemic inflammation in patients with stable bronchiectasis. Methods. FACED and BSI scores of 117 patients with stable bronchiectasis were calculated. The correlations between mean scores and CRP levels, leukocyte count, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were investigated. Findings. Mean BSI and FACED scores were 7.2 ± 5.2 and 2.1 ± 1.8, respectively. The severity of bronchiectasis as determined based on BSI and FACED increased significantly with increasing levels of CRP in patients with stable bronchiectasis ( and , resp.). No significant changes were found in leukocyte count ( and , resp.) and N/L ratio ( and , resp.). BSI and FACED scores were significantly correlated with CRP but not with leukocyte count or N/L ratio. Conclusion. In patients with stable bronchiectasis who are evaluated based on FACED and BSI scores, CRP can be a useful biomarker as a direct indicator of the severity of systemic inflammation.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Galactomannan in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of Invasive
           Pulmonary Aspergillosis with Nonneutropenic Patients

    • Abstract: Background. We evaluated the utility of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in nonneutropenic patients. Methods. A total of 183 patients were included in the final analysis. Bronchoscopies and the detection of GM in BALF were all performed on them. Results. Ten cases of IPA were diagnosed. ROC data demonstrated that, for diagnosing IPA, an optimal cutoff value for GM in BALF of 0.76 yielded a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 76.2%. Symptoms and radiological findings had no significant difference between proven or probable IPA group and non-IPA group. In our case-control analysis, although nine patients with false-positive results received treatment with Piperacillin/tazobactam, there was no significant difference between case and control group. Conclusions. BALF GM detection is a valuable adjunctive diagnostic tool. Our retrospective study suggests that the optimal value of GM detection in BALF is 0.76 in nonneutropenic patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Canada

    • Abstract: Objective. To examine the socioeconomic burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease for Canadian infants hospitalized for the condition. Data and Methods. The descriptive study used data collected in Alberta, Canada, during 2 consecutive RSV seasons. Infants (
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Erratum to “Prevalence of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
           Disease in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies”

    • PubDate: Sun, 05 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypercapnic Ventilatory Response in the Weaning of Patients with Prolonged
           Mechanical Ventilation

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate whether hypercapnic ventilatory response (defined as the ratio of the change in minute ventilation [] to the change in end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide []) is a predictor of successful weaning in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and to determine a reference value for clinical use. Methods. A hypercapnic challenge test was performed on 32 PMV subjects (average age: 74.3 years ± 14.9 years). The subjects were divided into two groups (i.e., weaning successes and weaning failures) and their hypercapnic ventilatory responses were compared. Results. PMV subjects had an overall weaning rate of 68.8%. The weaning-success and weaning-failure groups had hypercapnic ventilatory responses () of and  L/min/mmHg, respectively (). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.716 of the hypercapnic ventilatory response, and the practical hypercapnic ventilatory response cut-off point for successful weaning was 0.265 with 86.4% sensitivity and 50% specificity. Conclusions. PMV subjects who failed weaning had a lower hypercapnic ventilatory response than successfully weaned subjects. However, the prediction capacity of this test, assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, poorly predicted weaning outcome.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2017 07:44:43 +000
       
  • Circulating Clusterin and Osteopontin Levels in Asthma and Asthmatic
           Pregnancy

    • Abstract: Asthma in pregnancy poses a risk of adverse outcomes. Osteopontin and clusterin emerged as asthma biomarkers; however, their circulating levels during pregnancy are unknown yet. This cross-sectional study investigated peripheral osteopontin and clusterin levels and their relationship to disease control in 26 asthmatic pregnant (AP), 22 asthmatic nonpregnant (ANP), and 25 healthy pregnant (HP) women and 12 healthy controls (HNP). Osteopontin levels of ANP and HNP were similar (2.142 versus 2.075  ng/mL, ). Pregnancy caused a marked elevation in both healthy (HP: 3.037  ng/ml, versus HNP) and asthmatic (AP: 2.693  ng/ml) patients; thus the pregnant groups did not differ (). Circulating clusterin levels were comparable in ANP and HNP (109.2 versus 108.8  µg/mL, ) and the level was lower in HP (98.80  µg/mL, versus HNP). In contrast, the level was higher in AP (111.7  µg/mL, versus HP). In ANP, a positive correlation of PEF (; ) and a negative correlation of (; ) to clusterin level were detected. Circulating osteopontin level increases in pregnancy regardless of concomitant well-controlled asthma, indicating its gestational role. Clusterin level decreases in healthy but not in asthmatic pregnancy and correlates directly with lung function.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Future Directions and Molecular Basis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    • Abstract: Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving treatment and has complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) that lead to high morbidity and mortality. Moreover VAP is the second most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric intensive care units. Although it is still not well understood, understanding molecular pathogenesis is essential for preventing and treating pneumonia. A lot of microbes are detected as a causative agent of VAP. The most common isolated VAP pathogens in pediatric patients are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram negative bacteria. All of the bacteria have different pathogenesis due to their different virulence factors and host reactions. This review article focused on mechanisms of VAP with molecular pathogenesis of the causative bacteria one by one from the literature. We hope that we know more about molecular pathogenesis of VAP and we can investigate and focus on the management of the disease in near future.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Mechanical Ventilation on TASK-1 Expression in the Brain in
           a Rat Model

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 1 (TASK-1) is closely related to respiratory central control and neuronal injury. We investigated the effect of MV on TASK-1’s functions and explored the mechanism using a rat model. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: high tidal volume (HVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 10 mL/kg; low Vt (LVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 5 mL/kg; basal (BAS): anesthetized and unventilated animals. We measured lung histology and plasma and brain levels of proteins (IL-6, TNF-α, and S-100B) and determined TASK-1 levels in rat brainstems as a marker of respiratory centre activity. Results. The LISs (lung injury scores) were significantly higher in the HVt group. Brain inflammatory cytokines levels were different to those in serum. TASK-1 levels were significantly lower in the MV groups () and the HVt group tended to have a lower level of TASK-1 than the LVt group. Conclusion. MV causes not only lung injury, but also brain injury. MV affects the regulation of the respiratory centre, perhaps causing damage to it. Inflammation is probably not the main mechanism of ventilator-related brain injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Impaired Hemorheology in Exacerbations of COPD

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Cardiovascular-related comorbidities are established to contribute to morbidity and mortality especially during exacerbations. The aim of the current study was to determine alterations in hemorheology (erythrocyte aggregation, deformability) in newly diagnosed COPD patients and their response to medical treatment and to compare with values of COPD patients with exacerbations. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 13 COPD patients, 12 controls, and 16 COPD patients with exacerbations. The severity of COPD was determined according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation were measured by an ektacytometer. Results. RBC deformability of COPD patients with exacerbations was decreased compared to the other groups. Erythrocyte aggregation and plasma fibrinogen of COPD patients determined during exacerbations were higher than control. Conclusion. Decreased RBC deformability and increased aggregation associated with exacerbations of COPD may serve as unfavorable mechanisms to worsen oxygenation and thus clinical symptoms of the patient. Treatment modalities that modify rheological parameters might be beneficial.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 07:10:31 +000
       
  • Rainfall-Associated Bronchospasm Epidemics: The Epidemiological Effects of
           Air Pollutants and Weather Variables

    • Abstract: Background. This study compares different risk factors in patients visiting a hospital during five rainfall-associated bronchospasm epidemics in Ahvaz and those visiting on other occasions. Methods. This case-control study was conducted on 5307 patients with bronchospasm admitted to the Emergency Department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz (Iran) from late October to December (as the epidemic) and 916 patients admitted from late January to March (as the nonepidemic) in 2011 to 2015. Results. A total of the 41.7% of the cases and 48.8% of the controls had episodes of bronchospasm, suggesting a significant difference between the two groups (). The mean concentrations of PM10, NO, NO2, and NOx pollutants (except O3) were significantly higher in the nonepidemic periods (). The adjusted analysis showed a direct significant relationship between emergency respiratory admissions and each unit of increase in NO and SO2 concentration during the epidemic periods and NO2 concentration during the nonepidemic periods. During the epidemic periods, a direct and significant relationship was also observed between respiratory admissions and each unit of increase in relative humidity and evaporation. Conclusion. The results suggest that certain pollutants and weather variables are associated with the risk of emergency respiratory admissions during epidemic periods.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Occupational Exposure to Talc Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer: A
           Meta-Analysis of Occupational Cohort Studies

    • Abstract: Objective. Talc is widely used in industrial applications. Previous meta-analyses of carcinogenic effects associated with inhaled talc included publications before 2004, with a lack of data in China, the largest talc-producing country. The safety of workers exposed to talc was unclear due to limited evidence. The objective of this study was to reevaluate the association between inhaled talc and lung cancer. Setting, Participants, and Outcome Measures. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the meta-SMR of lung cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wanfang Data databases through March 2017. Data from observational studies were pooled using meta-analysis with random effects models. Results. Fourteen observational cohort studies (13 publications) were located via literature search. The heterogeneity of the included data was high (-squared = 72.9%). Pooling all the cohorts yielded a meta-SMR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.22–1.72, ) for lung cancer among the study subjects exposed to talc. Subgroup analysis for asbestos contamination showed no significant difference in lung cancer death between subjects exposed to talc with and without asbestos , indicating that this confounding factor may have no significance. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that nonasbestiform talc might still increase the risk of lung cancer. Further epidemiological studies are required to evaluate the safety of workers with occupational talc exposure.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Safety and Performance Characteristics of Outpatient Medical Thoracoscopy
           and Indwelling Pleural Catheter Insertion for Evaluation and Diagnosis of
           Pleural Disease at a Tertiary Center in Canada

    • Abstract: Background. Many centers performing medical thoracoscopy (MT) to diagnose pleural disease will insert a chest tube and admit patients to hospital after the procedure, which is inconvenient for patients and contributes to healthcare costs. We report the data on the safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of outpatient MT with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion in a large Canadian cohort. Methods. This retrospective cohort study reviewed patients who underwent outpatient MT and IPC insertion under conscious sedation. Patients without complications were discharged the same day. We report the data on safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of our program. Results. Outpatient MT and IPC insertion was performed on 218 patients. 99.1% of patients were safely discharged the same day. There was no procedure associated mortality. Pleural malignancy (59.6%) and nonspecific pleuritis (29.4%) were the most common pathologies. Pleural nodularity detected endoscopically was excellent at predicting malignancy with a positive predictive value of 92.5% and is more frequently detected endoscopically when compared to CT scan (). Conclusions. In the setting of a comprehensive pleural disease program, outpatient MT can be safely performed and is an alternative to an inpatient surgical approach for undiagnosed pleural effusions.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2017 07:18:43 +000
       
  • Readability and Suitability of COPD Consumer Information

    • Abstract: Background. Information leaflets have been shown to positively or negatively impact adherence, depending on their content. The objective of this study was to perform an appraisal of the consumer information provided in COPD inhaler monographs. Methods. COPD inhalers were identified from the Health Canada Drug Product Database. Medication information and instructions for inhaler use were analyzed for readability by seven formulas, with an acceptability threshold of grades 6–8. Three researchers rated suitability using a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool and assessed leaflets for explicit warnings. Results. Twenty-six inhalers with a COPD indication were evaluated. Medication information sections were rated as “difficult to read” or “hard,” and 85% (22/26) had a reading level above grade 8. The instructions for inhaler use were rated as “easy” or “fairly easy” to read and 63% (16/26) met the threshold by all formulas. While all leaflets achieved superior suitability ratings, extreme warnings included risk of premature death (), risks of serious injury (), serious interactions (), and statements that convey a serious consequence to therapy (). Conclusion. While COPD information leaflets in Canada performed well in terms of readability and suitability, overemphasis on side effects, warnings, and precautions may contribute to patient fear and nonadherence.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 07:21:43 +000
       
  • Mechanical Circulatory Support as a Bridge to Lung Transplantation: A
           Single Canadian Institution Review

    • Abstract: Background. Lung transplant (LTx) waitlists continue to grow internationally. Consequently, more patients are progressing to require mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to transplantation (BTT). MCS strategies include interventional lung assist (iLA) and venovenous (VV) and venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We review our series of patients bridged with MCS while listed for LTx. Methods. All consecutive patients, listed for LTx requiring MCS as a BTT at the University of Alberta from 2004 to 2015, were included. Patient demographics and outcomes were compared for the 3 groups (iLA, VV-ECMO, and VA-ECMO). Results. Of the 24 patients supported with MCS devices, 17 were successfully transplanted and 7 died waiting. In total, 25% () were bridged with VA-ECMO, 54% () with VV-ECMO, and 21% () with iLA. Overall, 71% of patients were bridged successfully to LTx. The 1-year survival posttransplantation was 88%. Conclusion. We have demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing the MCS modalities of VA-ECMO, VV-ECMO, and most recently iLA, as a BTT. MCS is a viable strategy for BTT, offering improved survival outcomes for decompensating adult patients awaiting LTx, resulting in excellent survival posttransplantation.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pulmonary Hypertension due to Lung Diseases and/or Hypoxia: What Do We
           Actually Know'

    • PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 10:07:49 +000
       
  • Preliminary Results of the Adoption and Application of the Integrated
           Comprehensive Care Bundle Care Program When Treating Patients with Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    • Abstract: Background. St. Joseph’s Health System has implemented an integrated comprehensive care bundle care (ICC) program with the hopes that it would improve patients’ care while reducing overall costs. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the performance of the ICC program within patients admitted with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Methods. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study comparing ICC patients to non-ICC patients admitted to St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton for COPD being discharged with support services between June 2012 and March 2015, using administrative data. Confounding adjustment was achieved through the use of propensity score matching. Medical resource utilizations during the initial hospitalization and within the 60 days following discharge were compared using regression models. Results. All 76 patients who entered the ICC program (100.0%) were matched 1 : 1 to 76 eligible non-ICC patients (28.4%). Length of stay (6.47 [7.29] versus 9.55 [10.21] days) and resource intensity weights (1.16 [0.80] versus 1.64 [1.69]) were lower in the ICC group within the initial hospitalization but, while favoring the ICC program, healthcare resource use tended not to differ statistically following discharge. Interpretation. The ICC program was able to reduce initial medical resource utilization without increasing subsequent medical resource use.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Right Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A
           Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Recent studies have reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients present alterations in right ventricular (RV) structure and function. However, large randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of OSA on the right ventricle are lacking. Methods. A comprehensive electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and reference search up to October 30, 2016, was performed. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess RV structure and function in OSA patients based on conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Results. Twenty-five studies with 1,503 OSA patients and 796 controls were included in this study. OSA patients exhibited an increase in RV internal diameter (weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) 2.49 (1.62 to 3.37); ) and RV wall thickness (WMD (95% CIs) 0.82 (0.51 to 1.13); ). Furthermore, OSA patients had a significantly elevated RV myocardial performance index (WMD (95% CI) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.10); ), decreased RV S’ (WMD (95% CI) −0.95 (−1.59 to −0.32); ), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (WMD (95% CI) −1.76 (−2.73 to −0.78); ), and RV fractional area change (WMD (95% CI) −3.16 (−5.60 to −0.73); ). Conclusion. OSA patients display RV dilatation, increased wall thickening, and altered RV function.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 09:42:24 +000
       
  • Body Height of Children with Bronchial Asthma of Various Severities

    • Abstract: Influence of bronchial asthma (BA) severity on physical development in children patients was evaluated in comparison with healthy population. Materials and Methods. 1042 children and adolescents (768 boys) with atopic BA were evaluated. All children underwent standard examination in a clinical setting, including anthropometry. The control group included 875 healthy children of a comparable age (423 boys). Results. The fraction of patients with the normal, lower, and increased height among the whole group of patients with BA is close to the corresponding values in the healthy population (, ). The fraction of BA patients with the reduced physical development is increased monotonically and significantly when the BA severity increases: healthy group, 8.2% (72/875), BA intermittent, 4.2% (6/144), BA mild persistent 9% (47/520), BA moderate persistent, 11.7% (36/308), and BA severe persistent, 24.3% (17/70) (, ). Conclusion. The fraction of the children with the reduced height is increased monotonically and significantly in the groups of increasing BA severities. At the same time, the fraction of such children in groups of intermittent and mild persistent BA practically does not differ from the conditionally healthy peers.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 06:04:24 +000
       
  • Investigating Cost Implications of Incorporating Level III At-Home Testing
           into a Polysomnography Based Sleep Medicine Program Using Administrative
           Data

    • Abstract: Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common problem, requiring expensive in-lab polysomnography for proper diagnosis. Home monitoring can provide an alternative to in-lab testing for a subset of OSA patients. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of incorporating home testing into an OSA program at a large, tertiary sleep disorders centre. Methods. The Sleep Disorders Centre in Saskatoon, Canada, has been incorporating at-home testing into their diagnostic pathways since 2006. Administrative data from 2007 to 2013 were extracted (10030 patients) and the flow of patients through the program was followed from diagnosis to treatment. Costs were estimated using 2014 pricing and were stratified by disease attributes and sensitivity analysis was applied. Results. The overall costs per patient were $627.40, with $419.20 for at-home testing and $746.20 for in-lab testing. The cost of home management would rise to $515 if all negative tests were required to be confirmed by an in-lab PSG. Discussion. Our review suggests that at-home testing can be cost-effective alternative to in-lab testing when applied to the correct population, specifically, those with a high pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea and an absence of significant comorbidities.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 07:28:28 +000
       
  • Geographical Variation and Factors Associated with Non-Small Cell Lung
           Cancer in Manitoba

    • Abstract: Background. Screening decreases non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) deaths and is recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. We investigated risk factor prevalence and NSCLC incidence at a small region level to inform resource allocation for lung cancer screening. Methods. NSCLC diagnoses were obtained from the Canadian Cancer Registry, then geocoded to 283 small geographic areas (SGAs) in Manitoba. Sociodemographic characteristics of SGAs were obtained from the 2006 Canadian Census and Canadian Community Health Survey. Geographical variation was modelled using a Bayesian spatial Poisson model. Results. NSCLC incidence in SGAs ranged from 1 to 343 cases per 100,000 population per year. The highest incidence rates were in the Southeastern, Southwestern, and Central regions of Manitoba, while most of Northern Manitoba had lower rates. Poisson regression suggested areas with higher proportions of Aboriginal people and higher average income, and immigrants had lower NSCLC incidence whereas areas with higher proportions of smokers had higher incidence. Conclusion. On an SGA level, smoking rates remain the most significant factor driving NSCLC incidence. Socioeconomic status and proportions of immigrants or Aboriginal peoples independently impact NSCLC rates. We have identified SGAs in Manitoba to target in policy and infrastructure planning for lung cancer screening.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Burden of Illness Related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
           Exacerbations in Québec, Canada

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU) in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. Methods. This retrospective observational cohort study used patient data from the Québec provincial health insurance databases. Eligible patients with a new HCU claim with a diagnostic billing for COPD during 2001–2010 were followed until March 31, 2011. Exacerbation rates and time to first exacerbation were assessed. Unadjusted analyses and multivariable models compared the rate of HCU by exacerbation classification (any [moderate/severe], moderate, or severe). Results. The exacerbation event rate in patients with an exacerbation was 34.3 events/100 patient-years (22.7 for moderate exacerbations and 11.6 for severe exacerbations). Median time to first exacerbation of any classification was 37 months. In unadjusted analyses, COPD-related HCU significantly increased with exacerbation severity. In the multivariable, HCU rates were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation () for patients with an exacerbation or moderate exacerbations. For severe exacerbations, general practitioner, respiratory specialist, emergency room, and hospital visits were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation (). Conclusions. Exacerbations were associated with increased HCU, which was more pronounced for patients with severe exacerbations. Interventions to reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with COPD may reduce disease burden.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Algorithmic Approach for Assessment of Mediastinal Lesions Using
           Conventional Transbronchial Needle Aspiration and Endoscopic
           Ultrasonography in a Single Procedure

    • Abstract: Background. In the era of endobronchial/esophageal ultrasound (EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA), many centers forgo conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in favour of EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA despite no conclusive evidence showing better yields with EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA. Objectives. Assess the feasibility of an algorithmic approach for mediastinal sampling beginning with C-TBNA utilizing rapid onsite cytologic evaluation. Methods. Descriptive analysis of 92 consecutive patients referred for adenopathy that underwent C-TBNA and subsequent EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA if C-TBNA was negative or nondiagnostic. Results. 92 procedures were analyzed. In 50 (54.3%) of cases, C-TBNA alone was sufficient. EBUS-TBNA was performed after C-TBNA in 27 (29.3%) of cases and EUS-FNA in 33 (35.9%) of cases. The yield was 92.9% for C-TBNA, 92.5% for EBUS-TBNA, and 89.7% for EUS-FNA. There were no statistically significant differences in yields by LN station (), the relationship between yield and LN size (), or time difference in procedures following the algorithm compared to EBUS/EUS only procedures (33.7 minutes versus 32.4 minutes on average [95% CI for difference: −9.1 to 11.7], ). Conclusions. An algorithmic approach to assess the mediastinum using C-TBNA initially is feasible without sacrificing yield or procedure times. C-TBNA was sufficient for diagnosis in 54.3% of cases and can be efficiently taught in an IP training program.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 07:47:33 +000
       
  • Risk Factors of Mortality from All Asbestos-Related Diseases: A Competing
           Risk Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The mortality from all malignant and nonmalignant asbestos-related diseases remains unknown. The authors assessed the incidence and risk factors for all asbestos-related deaths. Methods. The sample included 544 patients from an asbestos-exposed community in the area of Barcelona (Spain), between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 2006. Competing risk regression through a subdistribution hazard analysis was used to estimate risk factors for the outcomes. Results. Asbestos-related deaths were observed in 167 (30.7%) patients and 57.5% of these deaths were caused by some type of mesothelioma. The incidence rate after diagnosis was 3,600 per 100,000 person-years. In 7.5% of patients death was non-asbestos-related, while pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma were identified in 87 (16.0%) and 18 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Conclusions. Age, sex, household exposure, cumulative nonmalignant asbestos-related disease, and single malignant pathology were identified as risk factors for asbestos-related death. These findings suggest the need to develop a preventive approach to the community and to improve the clinical follow-up process of these patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 Equations Are as Well-Suited as
           Local Population Derived Equations to a Sample of Healthy Professional
           Firefighters

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. We aimed to assess the validity of using the Global Lung Function Initiative’s (GLI) 2012 equations to interpret lung function data in a healthy workforce of South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) personnel. Methods. Spirometry data from 212 healthy, nonsmoking SAMFS firefighters were collected and predicted normal values were calculated using both the GLI and local population derived (Gore) equations for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. Two-tailed paired sample Student’s -tests, Bland-Altman assessments of agreement, and -scores were used to compare the two prediction methods. Results. The equations showed good agreement for mean predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. Mean -scores were similar for FEV1 and FVC, although not FEV1/FVC, but greater than 0.5. Differences between the calculated lower limits of normal (LLN) were significant (), clinically meaningful, and resulted in an 8% difference in classification of abnormality using the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusions. The GLI equations predicted similar lung function as population-specific equations and resulted in a lower incidence of obstruction in this sample of healthy SAMFS firefighters. Further, interpretation of spirometry data as abnormal should be based on both an FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio < LLN.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 08:42:24 +000
       
  • Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival
           Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive
           Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    • Abstract: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients) and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients). Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age ( for all). With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (). Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 07:14:29 +000
       
  • Comparison of Different Disease-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life
           Measurements in Patients with Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilation

    • Abstract: Background. Two disease-specific questionnaires have been developed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory failure: the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) Questionnaire and the Maugeri Respiratory Failure (MRF) Questionnaire. We aimed to compare the characteristics of the SRI, MRF-26, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for use in patients with home noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods. Fifty-six outpatients receiving long-term NIV were recruited and underwent assessments of pulmonary function, arterial blood gas, HRQL, dyspnea, and psychological status. Results. Correlations of the SRI and MRF-26 with the SGRQ were modest. While pulmonary function was weakly related to only some domains of the SRI and MRF-26, the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were significantly related to all domains of the SRI and MRF-26. Multiple regression analyses showed that HADS depression and mMRC accounted for 34% and 27% of the variance in the SRI, 24% and 37% in the MRF-26, and 17% and 46% in the SGRQ, respectively. Conclusions. The SRI and MRF-26 were reliable questionnaires for patients receiving long-term NIV. Dyspnea and psychological status were their main common determinants. The SRI covers more psychological health impairments than the MRF. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00905476.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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