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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Canadian Respiratory Journal
  [SJR: 0.503]   [H-I: 42]   [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1198-2241 - ISSN (Online) 1916-7245
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Future Directions and Molecular Basis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    • Abstract: Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving treatment and has complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) that lead to high morbidity and mortality. Moreover VAP is the second most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric intensive care units. Although it is still not well understood, understanding molecular pathogenesis is essential for preventing and treating pneumonia. A lot of microbes are detected as a causative agent of VAP. The most common isolated VAP pathogens in pediatric patients are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram negative bacteria. All of the bacteria have different pathogenesis due to their different virulence factors and host reactions. This review article focused on mechanisms of VAP with molecular pathogenesis of the causative bacteria one by one from the literature. We hope that we know more about molecular pathogenesis of VAP and we can investigate and focus on the management of the disease in near future.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Mechanical Ventilation on TASK-1 Expression in the Brain in
           a Rat Model

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 1 (TASK-1) is closely related to respiratory central control and neuronal injury. We investigated the effect of MV on TASK-1’s functions and explored the mechanism using a rat model. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: high tidal volume (HVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 10 mL/kg; low Vt (LVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 5 mL/kg; basal (BAS): anesthetized and unventilated animals. We measured lung histology and plasma and brain levels of proteins (IL-6, TNF-α, and S-100B) and determined TASK-1 levels in rat brainstems as a marker of respiratory centre activity. Results. The LISs (lung injury scores) were significantly higher in the HVt group. Brain inflammatory cytokines levels were different to those in serum. TASK-1 levels were significantly lower in the MV groups () and the HVt group tended to have a lower level of TASK-1 than the LVt group. Conclusion. MV causes not only lung injury, but also brain injury. MV affects the regulation of the respiratory centre, perhaps causing damage to it. Inflammation is probably not the main mechanism of ventilator-related brain injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Impaired Hemorheology in Exacerbations of COPD

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Cardiovascular-related comorbidities are established to contribute to morbidity and mortality especially during exacerbations. The aim of the current study was to determine alterations in hemorheology (erythrocyte aggregation, deformability) in newly diagnosed COPD patients and their response to medical treatment and to compare with values of COPD patients with exacerbations. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 13 COPD patients, 12 controls, and 16 COPD patients with exacerbations. The severity of COPD was determined according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation were measured by an ektacytometer. Results. RBC deformability of COPD patients with exacerbations was decreased compared to the other groups. Erythrocyte aggregation and plasma fibrinogen of COPD patients determined during exacerbations were higher than control. Conclusion. Decreased RBC deformability and increased aggregation associated with exacerbations of COPD may serve as unfavorable mechanisms to worsen oxygenation and thus clinical symptoms of the patient. Treatment modalities that modify rheological parameters might be beneficial.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 07:10:31 +000
  • Rainfall-Associated Bronchospasm Epidemics: The Epidemiological Effects of
           Air Pollutants and Weather Variables

    • Abstract: Background. This study compares different risk factors in patients visiting a hospital during five rainfall-associated bronchospasm epidemics in Ahvaz and those visiting on other occasions. Methods. This case-control study was conducted on 5307 patients with bronchospasm admitted to the Emergency Department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz (Iran) from late October to December (as the epidemic) and 916 patients admitted from late January to March (as the nonepidemic) in 2011 to 2015. Results. A total of the 41.7% of the cases and 48.8% of the controls had episodes of bronchospasm, suggesting a significant difference between the two groups (). The mean concentrations of PM10, NO, NO2, and NOx pollutants (except O3) were significantly higher in the nonepidemic periods (). The adjusted analysis showed a direct significant relationship between emergency respiratory admissions and each unit of increase in NO and SO2 concentration during the epidemic periods and NO2 concentration during the nonepidemic periods. During the epidemic periods, a direct and significant relationship was also observed between respiratory admissions and each unit of increase in relative humidity and evaporation. Conclusion. The results suggest that certain pollutants and weather variables are associated with the risk of emergency respiratory admissions during epidemic periods.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Occupational Exposure to Talc Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer: A
           Meta-Analysis of Occupational Cohort Studies

    • Abstract: Objective. Talc is widely used in industrial applications. Previous meta-analyses of carcinogenic effects associated with inhaled talc included publications before 2004, with a lack of data in China, the largest talc-producing country. The safety of workers exposed to talc was unclear due to limited evidence. The objective of this study was to reevaluate the association between inhaled talc and lung cancer. Setting, Participants, and Outcome Measures. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the meta-SMR of lung cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wanfang Data databases through March 2017. Data from observational studies were pooled using meta-analysis with random effects models. Results. Fourteen observational cohort studies (13 publications) were located via literature search. The heterogeneity of the included data was high (-squared = 72.9%). Pooling all the cohorts yielded a meta-SMR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.22–1.72, ) for lung cancer among the study subjects exposed to talc. Subgroup analysis for asbestos contamination showed no significant difference in lung cancer death between subjects exposed to talc with and without asbestos , indicating that this confounding factor may have no significance. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that nonasbestiform talc might still increase the risk of lung cancer. Further epidemiological studies are required to evaluate the safety of workers with occupational talc exposure.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Safety and Performance Characteristics of Outpatient Medical Thoracoscopy
           and Indwelling Pleural Catheter Insertion for Evaluation and Diagnosis of
           Pleural Disease at a Tertiary Center in Canada

    • Abstract: Background. Many centers performing medical thoracoscopy (MT) to diagnose pleural disease will insert a chest tube and admit patients to hospital after the procedure, which is inconvenient for patients and contributes to healthcare costs. We report the data on the safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of outpatient MT with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion in a large Canadian cohort. Methods. This retrospective cohort study reviewed patients who underwent outpatient MT and IPC insertion under conscious sedation. Patients without complications were discharged the same day. We report the data on safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of our program. Results. Outpatient MT and IPC insertion was performed on 218 patients. 99.1% of patients were safely discharged the same day. There was no procedure associated mortality. Pleural malignancy (59.6%) and nonspecific pleuritis (29.4%) were the most common pathologies. Pleural nodularity detected endoscopically was excellent at predicting malignancy with a positive predictive value of 92.5% and is more frequently detected endoscopically when compared to CT scan (). Conclusions. In the setting of a comprehensive pleural disease program, outpatient MT can be safely performed and is an alternative to an inpatient surgical approach for undiagnosed pleural effusions.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2017 07:18:43 +000
  • Readability and Suitability of COPD Consumer Information

    • Abstract: Background. Information leaflets have been shown to positively or negatively impact adherence, depending on their content. The objective of this study was to perform an appraisal of the consumer information provided in COPD inhaler monographs. Methods. COPD inhalers were identified from the Health Canada Drug Product Database. Medication information and instructions for inhaler use were analyzed for readability by seven formulas, with an acceptability threshold of grades 6–8. Three researchers rated suitability using a modified Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool and assessed leaflets for explicit warnings. Results. Twenty-six inhalers with a COPD indication were evaluated. Medication information sections were rated as “difficult to read” or “hard,” and 85% (22/26) had a reading level above grade 8. The instructions for inhaler use were rated as “easy” or “fairly easy” to read and 63% (16/26) met the threshold by all formulas. While all leaflets achieved superior suitability ratings, extreme warnings included risk of premature death (), risks of serious injury (), serious interactions (), and statements that convey a serious consequence to therapy (). Conclusion. While COPD information leaflets in Canada performed well in terms of readability and suitability, overemphasis on side effects, warnings, and precautions may contribute to patient fear and nonadherence.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 07:21:43 +000
  • Mechanical Circulatory Support as a Bridge to Lung Transplantation: A
           Single Canadian Institution Review

    • Abstract: Background. Lung transplant (LTx) waitlists continue to grow internationally. Consequently, more patients are progressing to require mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to transplantation (BTT). MCS strategies include interventional lung assist (iLA) and venovenous (VV) and venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We review our series of patients bridged with MCS while listed for LTx. Methods. All consecutive patients, listed for LTx requiring MCS as a BTT at the University of Alberta from 2004 to 2015, were included. Patient demographics and outcomes were compared for the 3 groups (iLA, VV-ECMO, and VA-ECMO). Results. Of the 24 patients supported with MCS devices, 17 were successfully transplanted and 7 died waiting. In total, 25% () were bridged with VA-ECMO, 54% () with VV-ECMO, and 21% () with iLA. Overall, 71% of patients were bridged successfully to LTx. The 1-year survival posttransplantation was 88%. Conclusion. We have demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing the MCS modalities of VA-ECMO, VV-ECMO, and most recently iLA, as a BTT. MCS is a viable strategy for BTT, offering improved survival outcomes for decompensating adult patients awaiting LTx, resulting in excellent survival posttransplantation.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Pulmonary Hypertension due to Lung Diseases and/or Hypoxia: What Do We
           Actually Know'

    • PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 10:07:49 +000
  • Preliminary Results of the Adoption and Application of the Integrated
           Comprehensive Care Bundle Care Program When Treating Patients with Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    • Abstract: Background. St. Joseph’s Health System has implemented an integrated comprehensive care bundle care (ICC) program with the hopes that it would improve patients’ care while reducing overall costs. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the performance of the ICC program within patients admitted with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Methods. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study comparing ICC patients to non-ICC patients admitted to St. Joseph’s Healthcare Hamilton for COPD being discharged with support services between June 2012 and March 2015, using administrative data. Confounding adjustment was achieved through the use of propensity score matching. Medical resource utilizations during the initial hospitalization and within the 60 days following discharge were compared using regression models. Results. All 76 patients who entered the ICC program (100.0%) were matched 1 : 1 to 76 eligible non-ICC patients (28.4%). Length of stay (6.47 [7.29] versus 9.55 [10.21] days) and resource intensity weights (1.16 [0.80] versus 1.64 [1.69]) were lower in the ICC group within the initial hospitalization but, while favoring the ICC program, healthcare resource use tended not to differ statistically following discharge. Interpretation. The ICC program was able to reduce initial medical resource utilization without increasing subsequent medical resource use.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Right Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A
           Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Recent studies have reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients present alterations in right ventricular (RV) structure and function. However, large randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of OSA on the right ventricle are lacking. Methods. A comprehensive electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and reference search up to October 30, 2016, was performed. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess RV structure and function in OSA patients based on conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Results. Twenty-five studies with 1,503 OSA patients and 796 controls were included in this study. OSA patients exhibited an increase in RV internal diameter (weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) 2.49 (1.62 to 3.37); ) and RV wall thickness (WMD (95% CIs) 0.82 (0.51 to 1.13); ). Furthermore, OSA patients had a significantly elevated RV myocardial performance index (WMD (95% CI) 0.08 (0.06 to 0.10); ), decreased RV S’ (WMD (95% CI) −0.95 (−1.59 to −0.32); ), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (WMD (95% CI) −1.76 (−2.73 to −0.78); ), and RV fractional area change (WMD (95% CI) −3.16 (−5.60 to −0.73); ). Conclusion. OSA patients display RV dilatation, increased wall thickening, and altered RV function.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 09:42:24 +000
  • Body Height of Children with Bronchial Asthma of Various Severities

    • Abstract: Influence of bronchial asthma (BA) severity on physical development in children patients was evaluated in comparison with healthy population. Materials and Methods. 1042 children and adolescents (768 boys) with atopic BA were evaluated. All children underwent standard examination in a clinical setting, including anthropometry. The control group included 875 healthy children of a comparable age (423 boys). Results. The fraction of patients with the normal, lower, and increased height among the whole group of patients with BA is close to the corresponding values in the healthy population (, ). The fraction of BA patients with the reduced physical development is increased monotonically and significantly when the BA severity increases: healthy group, 8.2% (72/875), BA intermittent, 4.2% (6/144), BA mild persistent 9% (47/520), BA moderate persistent, 11.7% (36/308), and BA severe persistent, 24.3% (17/70) (, ). Conclusion. The fraction of the children with the reduced height is increased monotonically and significantly in the groups of increasing BA severities. At the same time, the fraction of such children in groups of intermittent and mild persistent BA practically does not differ from the conditionally healthy peers.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 06:04:24 +000
  • Investigating Cost Implications of Incorporating Level III At-Home Testing
           into a Polysomnography Based Sleep Medicine Program Using Administrative

    • Abstract: Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea is a common problem, requiring expensive in-lab polysomnography for proper diagnosis. Home monitoring can provide an alternative to in-lab testing for a subset of OSA patients. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of incorporating home testing into an OSA program at a large, tertiary sleep disorders centre. Methods. The Sleep Disorders Centre in Saskatoon, Canada, has been incorporating at-home testing into their diagnostic pathways since 2006. Administrative data from 2007 to 2013 were extracted (10030 patients) and the flow of patients through the program was followed from diagnosis to treatment. Costs were estimated using 2014 pricing and were stratified by disease attributes and sensitivity analysis was applied. Results. The overall costs per patient were $627.40, with $419.20 for at-home testing and $746.20 for in-lab testing. The cost of home management would rise to $515 if all negative tests were required to be confirmed by an in-lab PSG. Discussion. Our review suggests that at-home testing can be cost-effective alternative to in-lab testing when applied to the correct population, specifically, those with a high pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea and an absence of significant comorbidities.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 07:28:28 +000
  • Geographical Variation and Factors Associated with Non-Small Cell Lung
           Cancer in Manitoba

    • Abstract: Background. Screening decreases non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) deaths and is recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. We investigated risk factor prevalence and NSCLC incidence at a small region level to inform resource allocation for lung cancer screening. Methods. NSCLC diagnoses were obtained from the Canadian Cancer Registry, then geocoded to 283 small geographic areas (SGAs) in Manitoba. Sociodemographic characteristics of SGAs were obtained from the 2006 Canadian Census and Canadian Community Health Survey. Geographical variation was modelled using a Bayesian spatial Poisson model. Results. NSCLC incidence in SGAs ranged from 1 to 343 cases per 100,000 population per year. The highest incidence rates were in the Southeastern, Southwestern, and Central regions of Manitoba, while most of Northern Manitoba had lower rates. Poisson regression suggested areas with higher proportions of Aboriginal people and higher average income, and immigrants had lower NSCLC incidence whereas areas with higher proportions of smokers had higher incidence. Conclusion. On an SGA level, smoking rates remain the most significant factor driving NSCLC incidence. Socioeconomic status and proportions of immigrants or Aboriginal peoples independently impact NSCLC rates. We have identified SGAs in Manitoba to target in policy and infrastructure planning for lung cancer screening.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Burden of Illness Related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
           Exacerbations in Qu├ębec, Canada

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU) in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. Methods. This retrospective observational cohort study used patient data from the Québec provincial health insurance databases. Eligible patients with a new HCU claim with a diagnostic billing for COPD during 2001–2010 were followed until March 31, 2011. Exacerbation rates and time to first exacerbation were assessed. Unadjusted analyses and multivariable models compared the rate of HCU by exacerbation classification (any [moderate/severe], moderate, or severe). Results. The exacerbation event rate in patients with an exacerbation was 34.3 events/100 patient-years (22.7 for moderate exacerbations and 11.6 for severe exacerbations). Median time to first exacerbation of any classification was 37 months. In unadjusted analyses, COPD-related HCU significantly increased with exacerbation severity. In the multivariable, HCU rates were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation () for patients with an exacerbation or moderate exacerbations. For severe exacerbations, general practitioner, respiratory specialist, emergency room, and hospital visits were significantly higher after exacerbation versus before exacerbation (). Conclusions. Exacerbations were associated with increased HCU, which was more pronounced for patients with severe exacerbations. Interventions to reduce the risk of exacerbations in patients with COPD may reduce disease burden.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Algorithmic Approach for Assessment of Mediastinal Lesions Using
           Conventional Transbronchial Needle Aspiration and Endoscopic
           Ultrasonography in a Single Procedure

    • Abstract: Background. In the era of endobronchial/esophageal ultrasound (EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA), many centers forgo conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in favour of EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA despite no conclusive evidence showing better yields with EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA. Objectives. Assess the feasibility of an algorithmic approach for mediastinal sampling beginning with C-TBNA utilizing rapid onsite cytologic evaluation. Methods. Descriptive analysis of 92 consecutive patients referred for adenopathy that underwent C-TBNA and subsequent EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA if C-TBNA was negative or nondiagnostic. Results. 92 procedures were analyzed. In 50 (54.3%) of cases, C-TBNA alone was sufficient. EBUS-TBNA was performed after C-TBNA in 27 (29.3%) of cases and EUS-FNA in 33 (35.9%) of cases. The yield was 92.9% for C-TBNA, 92.5% for EBUS-TBNA, and 89.7% for EUS-FNA. There were no statistically significant differences in yields by LN station (), the relationship between yield and LN size (), or time difference in procedures following the algorithm compared to EBUS/EUS only procedures (33.7 minutes versus 32.4 minutes on average [95% CI for difference: −9.1 to 11.7], ). Conclusions. An algorithmic approach to assess the mediastinum using C-TBNA initially is feasible without sacrificing yield or procedure times. C-TBNA was sufficient for diagnosis in 54.3% of cases and can be efficiently taught in an IP training program.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 07:47:33 +000
  • Risk Factors of Mortality from All Asbestos-Related Diseases: A Competing
           Risk Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The mortality from all malignant and nonmalignant asbestos-related diseases remains unknown. The authors assessed the incidence and risk factors for all asbestos-related deaths. Methods. The sample included 544 patients from an asbestos-exposed community in the area of Barcelona (Spain), between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 2006. Competing risk regression through a subdistribution hazard analysis was used to estimate risk factors for the outcomes. Results. Asbestos-related deaths were observed in 167 (30.7%) patients and 57.5% of these deaths were caused by some type of mesothelioma. The incidence rate after diagnosis was 3,600 per 100,000 person-years. In 7.5% of patients death was non-asbestos-related, while pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma were identified in 87 (16.0%) and 18 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Conclusions. Age, sex, household exposure, cumulative nonmalignant asbestos-related disease, and single malignant pathology were identified as risk factors for asbestos-related death. These findings suggest the need to develop a preventive approach to the community and to improve the clinical follow-up process of these patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 Equations Are as Well-Suited as
           Local Population Derived Equations to a Sample of Healthy Professional

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. We aimed to assess the validity of using the Global Lung Function Initiative’s (GLI) 2012 equations to interpret lung function data in a healthy workforce of South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) personnel. Methods. Spirometry data from 212 healthy, nonsmoking SAMFS firefighters were collected and predicted normal values were calculated using both the GLI and local population derived (Gore) equations for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. Two-tailed paired sample Student’s -tests, Bland-Altman assessments of agreement, and -scores were used to compare the two prediction methods. Results. The equations showed good agreement for mean predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. Mean -scores were similar for FEV1 and FVC, although not FEV1/FVC, but greater than 0.5. Differences between the calculated lower limits of normal (LLN) were significant (), clinically meaningful, and resulted in an 8% difference in classification of abnormality using the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusions. The GLI equations predicted similar lung function as population-specific equations and resulted in a lower incidence of obstruction in this sample of healthy SAMFS firefighters. Further, interpretation of spirometry data as abnormal should be based on both an FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio < LLN.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 08:42:24 +000
  • Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival
           Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive
           Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care

    • Abstract: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients) and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients). Compared to the survival group, the death group had a significantly higher GCS score, frequency of comorbidities including hypertension and heart failure, and age ( for all). With all four systems, scores of age, gender, renal inadequacy, hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, anemia, fracture leading to bedridden status, tumor, and the GCS were significantly higher in the death group than the survival group. The prediction efficacy of the APACHE II and SAPS II scores was 88.4%. The survival rates did not differ significantly between APACHE II and SAPS II (). Our results may guide triage for early identification of critically ill patients with AECOPD in the emergency department.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 May 2017 07:14:29 +000
  • Comparison of Different Disease-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life
           Measurements in Patients with Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilation

    • Abstract: Background. Two disease-specific questionnaires have been developed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory failure: the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) Questionnaire and the Maugeri Respiratory Failure (MRF) Questionnaire. We aimed to compare the characteristics of the SRI, MRF-26, and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for use in patients with home noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Methods. Fifty-six outpatients receiving long-term NIV were recruited and underwent assessments of pulmonary function, arterial blood gas, HRQL, dyspnea, and psychological status. Results. Correlations of the SRI and MRF-26 with the SGRQ were modest. While pulmonary function was weakly related to only some domains of the SRI and MRF-26, the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were significantly related to all domains of the SRI and MRF-26. Multiple regression analyses showed that HADS depression and mMRC accounted for 34% and 27% of the variance in the SRI, 24% and 37% in the MRF-26, and 17% and 46% in the SGRQ, respectively. Conclusions. The SRI and MRF-26 were reliable questionnaires for patients receiving long-term NIV. Dyspnea and psychological status were their main common determinants. The SRI covers more psychological health impairments than the MRF. This trial is registered with Identifier: NCT00905476.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Oxygen Therapy and Ventilatory Support

    • PubDate: Sun, 14 May 2017 07:39:50 +000
  • County Smoke-Free Laws and Asthma Discharges: Evidence from 17 US States

    • Abstract: Background. Although approximately 82 percent of the US population was covered by some form of law that restricted smoking in public establishments as of 2014, most research examining the relationship between smoke-free laws and health has been focused at the state level. Purpose. To examine the effect of county workplace smoke-free laws over and above the effect of other (restaurant or bar) smoke-free laws on adult asthma. Methods. The study estimated the effect of rates of adult asthma discharges before and after the implementation of county nonhospitality workplace smoke-free laws and county restaurant and bar smoke-free laws. Data were from 2002 to 2009, and all analyses were performed in 2011 through 2013. Results. A statistically significant relationship (−5.43, ) was found between county restaurant or bar smoke-free laws and reductions in working age adult asthma discharges. There was no statistically significant effect of nonhospitality workplace smoke-free laws over and above the effect of county restaurant or bar laws. Conclusions. This study suggests that further gains in preventable asthma-related hospitalizations in the US are more likely to be made by focusing on smoke-free laws in bars or restaurants rather than in nonhospitality workplaces.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Role of Adult Asthma Education in Improving Asthma Control and Reducing
           Emergency Room Utilization and Hospital Admissions in an Inner City

    • Abstract: Objective. Asthma education programs have been shown to decrease healthcare utilization and improve disease control and management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of an outpatient adult asthma education program in an inner city hospital caring for patients with low socioeconomic and educational status. Methods. An asthma education program was implemented in September 2014. Patients who received education from September 2014 to July 2015 were evaluated. Outcomes were compared for the same group of patients before and after education. Primary outcomes were emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions. Secondary outcomes were change in Asthma Control Test (ACT) score and number of pulmonary clinic visits. Results. Asthma education significantly decreased number of patients requiring ER visits and hospital admissions ( = 0.0005 and = 0.0015, resp.). Asthma control as per ACT score ≥ 20 improved with education ( = 0.0001) with an increase in clinic visits ( = 0.0185). Conclusions. Our study suggests that implementation of a structured asthma education program in an inner city community hospital has a positive impact on reduction of ER visits and hospital admissions with improvement in asthma control. Institutional Review Board Clinical Study registration number is 01081507.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Insufficient Humidification of Respiratory Gases in Patients Who Are
           Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia at a Paediatric and Adult Intensive
           Care Unit

    • Abstract: For cooled newborn infants, humidifier settings for normothermic condition provide excessive gas humidity because absolute humidity at saturation is temperature-dependent. To assess humidification of respiratory gases in patients who underwent moderate therapeutic hypothermia at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit, 6 patients were studied over 9 times. Three humidifier settings, 37-default (chamber-outlet, 37°C; Y-piece, 40°C), 33.5-theoretical (chamber-outlet, 33.5°C; Y-piece, 36.5°C), and 33.5-adjusted (optimised setting to achieve saturated vapour at 33.5°C using feedback from a thermohygrometer), were tested. Y-piece gas temperature/humidity and the incidence of high (>40.6 mg/L) and low (
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Apr 2017 10:07:39 +000
  • Clara Cell Protein Expression in Mechanically Ventilated Term and Preterm
           Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome and at Risk of Bronchopulmonary
           Dysplasia: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: The aim of this pilot study was to determine Clara cell protein (CC16) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) fluid from full-term and preterm (
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Differential Expression of Serum Proteins in Rats with Allergic Asthma: A
           Study Based on the Nanoliter Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the pathogenesis of allergic asthma via the nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC) technique. Method. 24 Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: the blank-control group (A), the restrained group (B), and the asthma model group (C). The nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC) technique was used to study the differential protein expressions of the serum in asthmatic rats. Results. Compared with the restrained group, the data from the asthma model group displayed a distinctive peak, that is, peak number 13 (94.731 min). The data also displayed three missing peaks in the asthma group, that is, peak number 1 (77.489 min), peak number 2 (78.418 min), and peak number 5 (80.533 min), suggesting that the corresponding peptides might be related to the pathogenesis of asthma. Compared with the blank-control group, the restrained group showed 4 new peaks, that is, peak number 2 (78.418 min), peak number 4 (79.398 min), peak number 5 (80.533 min), and peak number 7 (81.824 min). The restrained group also displayed a missing peak, that is, peak number 3 (78.804 min), indicating that those 5 polypeptides might be related to the binding-induced stress stimuli. Conclusion. The study suggests that the pathogenesis of allergic asthma is closely related to abnormal levels of proteins; however, future animal experiments should identify the specific protein expressions caused by stress factors.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax Admitted in Emergency Unit: Does First
           Episode Differ from Recurrence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) consists of immediate resolution of pleural air, or observation, and prevention of recurrence. The risk factors for recurrence remain debated. Objectives. We aimed to describe and compare the characteristics of patients presenting a first episode of PSP to those of patients presenting a recurrent PSP, in order to identify factors potentially related to recurrence. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study including all admissions for PSP in the EDs of fourteen French public hospitals from 2009 to 2013. PSP were classified as a first episode if the patient had no previous history of pneumothorax and as recurrence if a previous episode of spontaneous pneumothorax was documented in the patient’s medical records or if a recurrence was identified during the inclusion period. To identify factors potentially associated with recurrence of PSP, multilevel logistic models were fitted. Results. During the study period, 918 (61,6%) first episodes and 573 (38,4%) episodes of recurrent PSP were identified. Clinical presentation, age, gender, smoking habits, and use of cannabis were similar in both groups. No clinical factor associated with recurrence was identified by multivariate analysis. Conclusion. In this large multicenter study, no clinical factor associated with recurrence was highlighted.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 10:17:19 +000
  • Thin Air Resulting in High Pressure: Mountain Sickness and Hypoxia-Induced
           Pulmonary Hypertension

    • Abstract: With rising altitude the partial pressure of oxygen falls. This phenomenon leads to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Since more than 140 million people permanently live at heights above 2500 m and more than 35 million travel to these heights each year, understanding the mechanisms resulting in acute or chronic maladaptation of the human body to these circumstances is crucial. This review summarizes current knowledge of the body’s acute response to these circumstances, possible complications and their treatment, and health care issues resulting from long-term exposure to high altitude. It furthermore describes the characteristic mechanisms of adaptation to life in hypobaric hypoxia expressed by the three major ethnic groups permanently dwelling at high altitude. We additionally summarize current knowledge regarding possible treatment options for hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by reviewing in vitro, rodent, and human studies in this area of research.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Still Lots to Learn and a Need for
           Standardized Data Collection Instruments

    • Abstract: Background. Large studies of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are frequently lacking detailed clinical information. Methods. A population-based 15-year study of IPD in Northern Alberta. Results. 2435 patients with a mean age of 54.2 years formed the study group. Males outnumbered females and Aboriginal and homeless persons were overrepresented. High rates of smoking, excessive alcohol use, and illicit drug use were seen. Almost all (87%) had a major comorbidity and 15% had functional limitations prior to admission. Bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis were the most common major manifestations of IPD. Almost half of the patients had alteration of mental status at the time of admission and 22% required mechanical ventilation. Myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and new onset stroke occurred in 1.7, 1.3, and 1.1% of the patients, respectively; of those who had echocardiograms, 35% had impaired ventricular function. The overall in-hospital mortality was 15.6%. Conclusions. IPD remains a serious infection in adults. In addition to immunization, preventative measures need to consider the sociodemographic features more carefully. A standard set of data need to be collected so that comparisons can be made from study to study. Future investigations should target cardiac function and pulmonary embolism prevention in this population.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 07:06:24 +000
  • Primary and Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: Prevalence, Clinical
           Features, and In-Hospital Mortality

    • Abstract: Background. Optimal treatment practices and factors associated with in-hospital mortality in spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) are not fully understood. We evaluated prevalence, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital mortality among Japanese patients with primary or secondary SP (PSP/SSP). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed and stratified 938 instances of pneumothorax in 751 consecutive patients diagnosed with SP into the PSP and SSP groups. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality in SSP were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. In the SSP group (; 34.9%), patient age, requirement for emergency transport, and length of stay were greater (all, ), while the prevalence of smoking () and number of surgical interventions () were lower compared to those in the PSP group (; 65.1%). Among the 16 in-hospital deceased patients, 12 (75.0%) received emergency transportation and 10 (62.5%) exhibited performance status (PS) of 3-4. In the SSP group, emergency transportation was an independent factor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 16.37; 95% confidence interval, 4.85–55.20; ). Conclusions. The prevalence and clinical characteristics of PSP and SSP differ considerably. Patients with SSP receiving emergency transportation should receive careful attention.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
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