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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Canadian Respiratory Journal
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.474
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1198-2241 - ISSN (Online) 1916-7245
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Asthma Control and Asthma Medication Use among Swedish Elite Endurance

    • Abstract: Background. Asthma is common in elite athletes. In this study, we examined the use of asthma medication and asthma control in endurance athletes in Sweden and compared the findings with those in a reference group of patients with asthma. Methods. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) and a questionnaire on asthma, respiratory symptoms, and medication use were posted to endurance athletes and the reference group of patients with asthma . Four hundred and sixty-nine athletes (66%) responded, of whom 141 (20%) reported physician-diagnosed asthma. In the reference group, 397 (39%) responded. Results. Seventy-seven percent of the athletes with asthma reported using asthma medication during the previous year; 39% used short/long-acting β2-agonists, 31% used inhaled corticosteroids, and 31% used both daily. According to the ACT scores, 19%, 24%, and 58% of athletes with asthma had uncontrolled, partially controlled, or well-controlled asthma, respectively. After adjustment, there was no difference in ACT scores or daily use of asthma medication between the study groups. Conclusions. Many endurance athletes had uncontrolled or partially controlled asthma, and one-third used inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists daily. Their adjusted ACT scores and use of asthma medication were similar to the values in the reference population.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Chest Ultrasonography in Modern Day Extreme Settings: From Military
           Setting and Natural Disasters to Space Flights and Extreme Sports

    • Abstract: Chest ultrasonography (CU) is a noninvasive imaging technique able to provide an immediate diagnosis of the underlying aetiology of acute respiratory failure and traumatic chest injuries. Given the great technologies, it is now possible to perform accurate CU in remote and adverse environments including the combat field, extreme sport settings, and environmental disasters, as well as during space missions. Today, the usage of CU in the extreme emergency setting is more likely to occur, as this technique proved to be a fast diagnostic tool to assist resuscitation manoeuvres and interventional procedures in many cases. A scientific literature review is presented here. This was based on a systematic search of published literature, on the following online databases: PubMed and Scopus. The following words were used: “chest sonography,” “ thoracic ultrasound,” and “lung sonography,” in different combinations with “extreme sport,” “extreme environment,” “wilderness,” “catastrophe,” and “extreme conditions.” This manuscript reports the most relevant usages of CU in the extreme setting as well as technological improvements and current limitations. CU application in the extreme setting is further encouraged here.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Adrenal Insufficiency in Cystic Fibrosis: A Rare Phenomenon'

    • Abstract: Background. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in cystic fibrosis (CF) is unknown. The frequent use of glucocorticoids (inhaled or systemic) may induce the long-term suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Methods. We reviewed the results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests done over a 10-year period to evaluate adrenal function in 69 CF patients of the CHUM CF clinic. Clinical characteristics of AI patients were compared to adrenal-sufficient (AS) patients. Results. AI was confirmed in 33 of the 69 CF patients. A higher rate of dysglycemia and of Aspergillus positive culture was observed in AI patients compared to AS patients. Weight, CFTR genotype, and pulmonary function were comparable between AI and AS patients. The use of systemic corticosteroids (SC) prior to the diagnosis of AI was observed in 42.4% of patients. Compared to AI patients without SC, SC-treated AI patients were older and had a higher rate of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Conclusion. This study is the first to systematically examine the presence of AI in the largest cohort of CF patients studied to date with a prevalence of 8%. Patients treated with corticosteroids and those colonized with Aspergillus have a greater risk of AI.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Mar 2018 08:27:12 +000
  • Time to Exhale: Additional Value of Expiratory Chest CT in Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    • Abstract: Objectives. Diagnostic guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are based on spirometry and clinical criteria. However, this does not address the pathophysiological complexity of the disease sufficiently. Until now, inspiratory chest computed tomography (CT) has been considered as the preferred imaging method in these patients. We hypothesized that expiratory CT may be superior to demonstrate pathophysiological changes. The aim of this prospective study was to systematically compare lung function tests with quantified CT parameters in inspiration and expiration. Materials and Methods. Forty-six patients with diagnosed COPD underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and dose-optimized CT in maximal inspiration and expiration. Four quantified CT parameters were acquired in inspiration, expiration, and their calculated delta values. These parameters were correlated with seven established lung function parameters. Results. For inspiratory scans, a weak-to-moderate correlation with the lung function parameters was found. These correlations significantly improved when adding the expiratory scan (). Moreover, some parameters showed a significant correlation only in expiratory datasets. Calculated delta values showed even stronger correlation with lung function testing. Conclusions. Expiratory quantified CT and calculated delta values significantly improve the correlation with lung function parameters. Thus, an additional expiratory CT may improve image-based phenotyping of patients with COPD.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Endobronchial Ultrasound Transbronchial Needle Aspiration in Thoracic
           Diseases: Much More than Mediastinal Staging

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. EBUS-TBNA has revolutionized the diagnostic approach to thoracic diseases from a surgical to minimally invasive procedure. In non small-cell lung cancer (NCSLC) patients, EBUS-TBNA is able to dictate the consecutive therapy both for early and advanced stages, providing pathological diagnosis, mediastinal staging, and even adequate specimens for molecular analysis. This study reports on the ability of EBUS-TBNA to make different diagnoses and dictates the consecutive therapy in a large cohort of patients presenting different thoracic diseases. Methods. All procedures performed from January 2012 to September 2016 were reviewed. Five groups of patients were created according to the main indications for the procedure. Group 1: lung cancer staging; Group 2: pathological diagnosis in advanced stage lung cancer; Group 3: lymphadenopathy in previous malignancies; Group 4: pulmonary lesions; Group 5: unknown origin lymphadenopathy. In each group, the diagnostic yield of the procedure was analysed. Non malignant diagnosis at EBUS-TBNA was confirmed by a surgical procedure or clinical and radiological follow-up. Results. 1891 patients were included in the analysis. Sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy in each group were 90.7%, 79.4%, and 93.1% in Group 1; 98.5%, 50%, and 98.5% in Group 2; 92.4%, 85.1%, and 94.7% in Group 3; 90.9%, 51.0%, and 91.7% in Group 4; and 25%, 83.3%, and 84.2% in Group 5. Overall sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 91.7%, 78.5%, and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusions. EBUS-TBNA is the best approach for invasive mediastinal investigation, confirming its strategic role and high accuracy in thoracic oncology.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • EZH2 Inhibition Ameliorates Transverse Aortic Constriction-Induced
           Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Mice

    • Abstract: Background. EPZ005687 is a selective inhibiter of methyltransferase EZH2. In this article, we investigated the protective role and mechanism of EPZ005687 in transverse aortic constriction-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice. Methods. We assigned 15 (6–8 weeks old) male balb/c mice to 3 groups randomly: Sham control + DMSO group, TAC + DMSO group, and TAC + EPZ005687 group (10 mg kg−1, once a week for 4 weeks). On day 28 following TAC operation, the right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) was measured, and lung tissues were collected for laboratory examinations (DHE, Western blot, real-time PCR, and ChIP). Results. Murine PAH model was successfully created by TAC operation as evidenced by increased RVSBP and hypertrophic right ventricle. Compared with the sham control, TAC-induced PAH markedly upregulated the expression of EZH2 and ROS deposition in lungs in PAH mice. The inhibiter of methyltransferase EZH2, EPZ005687 significantly inhibits the development of TAC-induced PAH in an EZH2-SOD1-ROS dependent manner. Conclusion. Our data identified that EZH2 serves a fundamental role in TAC-induced PAH, and administration of EPZ005687 might represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of TAC-induced PAH.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cost Analysis of Noninvasive Helmet Ventilation Compared with Use of
           Noninvasive Face Mask in ARDS

    • Abstract: Intensive care unit (ICU) costs have doubled since 2000, totalling 108 billion dollars per year. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has a prevalence of 10.4% and a 28-day mortality of 34.8%. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is used in up to 30% of cases. A recent randomized controlled trial by Patel et al. (2016) showed lower intubation rates and 90-day mortality when comparing helmet to face mask NIV in ARDS. The population in the Patel et al. trial was used for cost analysis in this study. Projections of cost savings showed a decrease in ICU costs by $2527 and hospital costs by $3103 per patient, along with a 43.3% absolute reduction in intubation rates. Sensitivity analysis showed consistent cost reductions. Projected annual cost savings, assuming the current prevalence of ARDS, were $237538 in ICU costs and $291682 in hospital costs. At a national level, using yearly incidence of ARDS cases in American ICUs, this represents $449 million in savings. Helmet NIV, compared to face mask NIV, in nonintubated patients with ARDS, reduces ICU and hospital direct-variable costs along with intubation rates, LOS, and mortality. A large-scale cost-effectiveness analysis is needed to validate the findings.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Premature
           Ventricular Contractions and Ventricular Wall Stress in Patients with
           Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

    • Abstract: Background. We aimed to investigate the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on electrocardiography (ECG), premature ventricular contraction load on 24-hour Holter recordings, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and heart failure. Methods. Patients with heart failure and ICD and patients with newly diagnosed OSAS were divided into two groups according to CPAP treatment. To compare the impact of CPAP on ECG parameters, both baseline and 6-month ECG, 24-hour Holter ECG, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography, polysomnography, and laboratory parameters were collected. Results. CPAP treatment significantly reduced the frequency of premature ventricular contractions, T-peak to T-end, corrected QT, corrected QT dispersion, and T-peak to T-end/corrected QT ratio in the study group (p 
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparison of Mask Oxygen Therapy and High-Flow Oxygen Therapy after
           Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Obese Patients

    • Abstract: Background. To clarify the efficiency of mask O2 and high-flow O2 (HFO) treatments following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in obese patients. Methods. During follow-up, oxygenization parameters including arterial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and physical examination parameters including respiratory rate, heart rate, and arterial pressure were recorded respectively. Presence of atelectasia and dyspnea was noted. Also, comfort scores of patients were evaluated. Results. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.9 ± 1.1 days in the mask O2 group, whereas the duration was significantly shorter (6.5 ± 0.7 days) in the HFO group (). The PaO2 values and SpO2 values were significantly higher, and PaCO2 values were significantly lower in patients who received HFO after 4th, 12th, 24th, 36th, and 48th hours. In postoperative course, HFO leads patients to achieve better postoperative FVC (). Also, dyspnea scores and comfort scores were significantly better in patients who received HFO in both postoperative day 1 and day 2 (, resp.). Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that HFO following CPB in obese patients improved postoperative PaO2, SpO2, and PaCO2 values and decreased the atelectasis score, reintubation, and mortality rates when compared with mask O2.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • PM2.5 Induced the Expression of Fibrogenic Mediators via HMGB1-RAGE
           Signaling in Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of the present study was to test whether fine particulate matter (PM2.5) induces the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), PDGF-BB, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro via high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) or clean air. HBECs were either transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HMGB1 or incubated with anti-RAGE antibodies and subsequently stimulated with PM2.5. Results. The expression of HMGB1 and RAGE was elevated in MVE-treated rats compared with untreated rats, and PM2.5 increased the secretion of HMGB1 and upregulated RAGE expression and the translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) into the nucleus of HBECs. This activation was accompanied by an increase in the expression of PDGF-AB, PDGF-BB, and TGF-β1. The HMGB1 siRNA prevented these effects. Anti-RAGE antibodies attenuated the activation of NF-κB and decreased the secretion of TGF-β1, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-BB from HBECs. Conclusion. PM2.5 induces the expression of TGF-β1, PDGF-AB, and PDGF-BB in vitro via HMGB1-RAGE signaling, suggesting that this pathway may contribute to the airway remodeling observed in patients with COPD.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Digital Clubbing Is Associated with Higher Serum KL-6 Levels and Lower
           Pulmonary Function in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Although digital clubbing is a common presentation in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), little has been reported regarding its role in assessing patients with ILD. This study evaluated patients with ILD for the presence of clubbing and investigated its association with clinical data. Methods. We evaluated patients with ILD who visited the teaching hospital at which the study was conducted, between October 2014 and January 2015. Clubbing, evaluated using a Vernier caliper for individual patients, was defined as a phalangeal depth ratio > 1. We examined the association of clubbing with clinical data. Results. Of 102 patients with ILD, we identified 17 (16.7%) with clubbing. The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood was lower (65.2 ± 5.9 mmHg versus 80.2 ± 3.1 mmHg; ), serum Krebs von den Lugen-6 (KL-6) levels were higher (1495.0 ± 277.4 U/mL versus 839.1 ± 70.2 U/mL; ), and the percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide was lower (50.0 ± 6.0 versus 73.5 ± 3.1; ) in these patients with clubbing. Conclusions. Patients with clubbing had lower oxygen levels, higher serum KL-6 levels, and lower pulmonary function than those without clubbing.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 01:52:49 +000
  • Feasibility and Safety of Pleuroscopic Cryobiopsy of the Pleura: A
           Prospective Study

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the feasibility and safety of taking biopsy specimens by cryoprobe from the parietal pleura during semirigid pleuroscope. Methods. In a single-center, observational, prospective study, patients with exudative pleural effusion (EPE) were evaluated with a semirigid pleuroscope between January 2015 and July 2017. Each patient underwent pleural biopsy using flexible forceps and flexible cryoprobe through pleuroscope following diagnostic thoracentesis and closed pleural biopsy (CPB). Results. A total of 92 patients (median age 64 years) were included in the study, most of whom were men (65.2%). Cytological cell block (CCB) and CPB made definitive diagnoses in 32/92 (34.8%) and 25/92 (27.5%), respectively; flexible forceps biopsy (FFB) and cryoprobe biopsy (CB) established definitive diagnoses in 84/92 (91.3%) and 91/92 (98.9%), respectively. The sample obtained by CB (9.4 ± 4.9 mm) was significantly larger than the other two methods: FFB (4.2 ± 2.3 mm) or CPB (1.9 ± 1.0 mm) (). The immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was more easily performed with CB (98.9%) compared to either FFB (87.0%) or CPB (13.0%). There were no significant complications or procedure-related deaths. Conclusions. Based on these results, CB during semirigid pleuroscope has a high diagnostic yield, differentiating EPE of unknown etiology with satisfactory effectiveness and safety.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 07:43:54 +000
  • ADRB2 Arg16Gly Polymorphism and Pulmonary Function Response of Inhaled
           Corticosteroids plus Long-Acting Beta Agonists for Asthma Treatment: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) Arg16Gly polymorphism may alter the bronchodilation response to long-acting beta2-agonists, thereby influencing the clinical effectiveness of LABAs plus corticosteroids (ICS) treatment. But the results of individual studies are inconclusive. Methods. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Database, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and VIP databases. The meta-analysis was performed with RevMan statistical software (version 5.2), and potential publication bias was estimated by Egger’s test using STATA (version 12.0), with indicating significant publication bias. Results. We found 5 cohort studies with a total of 632 patients and included them in the meta-analysis. There are no significant differences in pulmonary function response between patients with the Arg/Arg and Arg/Gly phenotype (SMD −0.04, 95% CI −0.45 to 0.37; ). There were also no significant differences in the pulmonary function response between patients with the Arg/Arg and Gly/Gly phenotype (MD −0.03, 95% CI −0.07 to 0.02; ). Conclusions. Our systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that ADRB2 Arg16Gly polymorphism is not associated with pulmonary response to asthma treatment with ICS plus LABAs.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Tiotropium for the Treatment of Asthma: Patient Selection and Perspectives

    • Abstract: Asthma is a chronic disease of airway inflammation with a large global burden. Despite established, guideline-based stepwise therapy, a significant proportion of patients remain symptomatic and poorly controlled. As such, there is a need for additional safe, effective, convenient, and cost-effective therapies that can be broadly applied across a range of asthma phenotypes. Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) that leads to bronchodilation by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways. Tiotropium has long been approved for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and it has recently been recognized for its safety and efficacy in improving lung function and controlling asthma. Evidence from several Phase III trials in the adult and paediatric population has shown that tiotropium is well tolerated and significantly improves a range of endpoints as an add-on treatment to ICS therapy, regardless of baseline characteristics and clinical phenotypes. Consequently, regulatory authorities worldwide have recently licensed tiotropium as the only LAMA approved for the treatment of asthma. This review provides an overview of safety and efficacy data and discusses the use of tiotropium in patients across the range of asthma severities, ages, and phenotypes.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Approach to Hemoptysis in the Modern Era

    • Abstract: Hemoptysis is a frequent manifestation of a wide variety of diseases, with mild to life-threatening presentations. The diagnostic workup and the management of severe hemoptysis are often challenging. Advances in endoscopic techniques have led to different new therapeutic approaches. Cold saline, vasoconstrictive and antifibrinolytic agents, oxidized regenerated cellulose, biocompatible glue, laser photocoagulation, argon plasma coagulation, and endobronchial stents and valves are amongst the tools available to the bronchoscopist. In this article, we review the evidence regarding the definition, etiology, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of severe hemoptysis in the modern era with emphasis on bronchoscopic techniques.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigation on Risk Factors of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute
           Cerebral Hemorrhage Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a predominant factor of pulmonary infection. We analyzed the risk factors of VAP with acute cerebral hemorrhage in intensive care unit (ICU) by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. After comparison of 197 cases of the VAP and non-VAP patients, we found that age > 65 years (), smoke (), coronary heart disease (), diabetes (), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (), ICU and hospital stay (), and days on mechanical ventilation () were significantly different, indicating that they are risk factors of VAP. All the age > 65 years (OR = 3.350, 95% CI = 1.936–5.796, ), smoke (OR = 3.206, 95% CI = 1.909–5.385, ), coronary heart disease (OR = 3.179, 95% CI = 1.015–4.130, ), diabetes (OR = 5.042, 95% CI = 3.518–7.342, ), COPD (OR = 1.942, 95% CI = 1.258–2.843, ), ICU and hospital stay (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.145–3.892, ), and days on mechanical ventilation (OR = 1.992, 95% CI = 1.107–3.287, ) are independent risk factors of VAP. After observation of patients with 6 months of follow-up, the BI score was significantly lower in VAP than that in non-VAP, and the rebleeding rate and mortality rate were significantly higher in VAP than those in non-VAP. Thus, the prognosis of the patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage and VAP in ICU is poor.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Metabolomics in COPD Acute Respiratory Failure Requiring Noninvasive
           Positive Pressure Ventilation

    • Abstract: We aimed to investigate whether metabolomic analysis can discriminate acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbation from respiratory failure due to heart failure and pneumonia. Since COPD exacerbation is often overdiagnosed, we focused on those COPD exacerbations that were severe enough to require noninvasive mechanical ventilation. We enrolled stable COPD subjects and patients with acute respiratory failure requiring noninvasive mechanical ventilation due to COPD, heart failure, and pneumonia. We excluded subjects with history of both COPD and heart failure and patients with obstructive sleep apnea and obstructive lung disease other than COPD. We performed metabolomics analysis using NMR. We constructed partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models to distinguish metabolic profiles. Serum (,R2 = 0.397, Q2 = 0.058) and urine metabolic profiles (,R2 = 0.419, Q2 = 0.142) were significantly different between the four diagnosis groups by PLS-DA. After excluding stable COPD patients, the metabolomes of the various respiratory failure groups did not cluster separately in serum (,R2 = 0.631, Q2 = 0.246) or urine (,R2 = 0.602, Q2 = −0.134). However, several metabolites in the serum were reduced in patients with COPD exacerbation and pneumonia. We did not find a metabolic profile unique to COPD exacerbation, but we were able to clearly and reliably distinguish stable COPD patients from patients with respiratory failure in both serum and urine.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Feasibility of Radial Endobronchial Ultrasound-Guided Bronchoscopic
           Cryobiopsy without Fluoroscopy for Lung Parenchymal Lesions

    • Abstract: Background. Cryobiopsy is used to biopsy peripheral lung lesions through flexible bronchoscopy with fluoroscopic guidance. However, fluoroscopy is not available at some institutions. This study evaluated the feasibility of radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopic cryobiopsy without fluoroscopy. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou branch, in Taiwan. This study enrolled patients who received bronchoscopy examinations with cryotechnology between July 2014 and June 2016. The data were collected through medical chart review. Results. During the study period, 101 patients underwent bronchoscopy examinations with cryotechnology. Ninety patients with endobronchial tumors were excluded from this study. Eleven patients who underwent radial endobronchial ultrasound-guided bronchoscopic cryobiopsy for lung parenchymal lesions were enrolled into this study. The mean age was 61.1 ± 13.8 years. Five patients were men, and the other six were women. The number of cryobiopsies ranged from 1 to 3. In the histological biopsies, the mean specimen diameter was 0.53 ± 0.23 cm, and the mean biopsy area was 0.20 ± 0.19 cm2. Nine of 11 patients had pathological diagnoses. No complications, including pneumothorax, respiratory failure, or major bleeding, were recorded after the procedure. Conclusions. Endobronchial ultrasound is used to ensure biopsy location, and endobronchial ultrasound-guided cryobiopsy is a feasible technique to biopsy peripheral lung lesions in selected cases at institutions without fluoroscopy equipment. This study provided some rationale for further studies examining the impact of fluoroscopy.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 05:26:39 +000
  • Is There a Correlation between New Scoring Systems and Systemic
           Inflammation in Stable Bronchiectasis'

    • Abstract: Aim. The present study aimed to investigate the relation between FACED and BSI scores, which were developed to measure the severity of bronchiectasis, and systemic inflammation in patients with stable bronchiectasis. Methods. FACED and BSI scores of 117 patients with stable bronchiectasis were calculated. The correlations between mean scores and CRP levels, leukocyte count, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were investigated. Findings. Mean BSI and FACED scores were 7.2 ± 5.2 and 2.1 ± 1.8, respectively. The severity of bronchiectasis as determined based on BSI and FACED increased significantly with increasing levels of CRP in patients with stable bronchiectasis ( and , resp.). No significant changes were found in leukocyte count ( and , resp.) and N/L ratio ( and , resp.). BSI and FACED scores were significantly correlated with CRP but not with leukocyte count or N/L ratio. Conclusion. In patients with stable bronchiectasis who are evaluated based on FACED and BSI scores, CRP can be a useful biomarker as a direct indicator of the severity of systemic inflammation.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Galactomannan in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid for Diagnosis of Invasive
           Pulmonary Aspergillosis with Nonneutropenic Patients

    • Abstract: Background. We evaluated the utility of galactomannan (GM) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in nonneutropenic patients. Methods. A total of 183 patients were included in the final analysis. Bronchoscopies and the detection of GM in BALF were all performed on them. Results. Ten cases of IPA were diagnosed. ROC data demonstrated that, for diagnosing IPA, an optimal cutoff value for GM in BALF of 0.76 yielded a sensitivity of 100.0% and a specificity of 76.2%. Symptoms and radiological findings had no significant difference between proven or probable IPA group and non-IPA group. In our case-control analysis, although nine patients with false-positive results received treatment with Piperacillin/tazobactam, there was no significant difference between case and control group. Conclusions. BALF GM detection is a valuable adjunctive diagnostic tool. Our retrospective study suggests that the optimal value of GM detection in BALF is 0.76 in nonneutropenic patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Hospitalizations in Canada

    • Abstract: Objective. To examine the socioeconomic burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease for Canadian infants hospitalized for the condition. Data and Methods. The descriptive study used data collected in Alberta, Canada, during 2 consecutive RSV seasons. Infants (
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Erratum to “Prevalence of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
           Disease in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Studies”

    • PubDate: Sun, 05 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Hypercapnic Ventilatory Response in the Weaning of Patients with Prolonged
           Mechanical Ventilation

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate whether hypercapnic ventilatory response (defined as the ratio of the change in minute ventilation [] to the change in end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide []) is a predictor of successful weaning in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) and to determine a reference value for clinical use. Methods. A hypercapnic challenge test was performed on 32 PMV subjects (average age: 74.3 years ± 14.9 years). The subjects were divided into two groups (i.e., weaning successes and weaning failures) and their hypercapnic ventilatory responses were compared. Results. PMV subjects had an overall weaning rate of 68.8%. The weaning-success and weaning-failure groups had hypercapnic ventilatory responses () of and  L/min/mmHg, respectively (). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.716 of the hypercapnic ventilatory response, and the practical hypercapnic ventilatory response cut-off point for successful weaning was 0.265 with 86.4% sensitivity and 50% specificity. Conclusions. PMV subjects who failed weaning had a lower hypercapnic ventilatory response than successfully weaned subjects. However, the prediction capacity of this test, assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, poorly predicted weaning outcome.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2017 07:44:43 +000
  • Circulating Clusterin and Osteopontin Levels in Asthma and Asthmatic

    • Abstract: Asthma in pregnancy poses a risk of adverse outcomes. Osteopontin and clusterin emerged as asthma biomarkers; however, their circulating levels during pregnancy are unknown yet. This cross-sectional study investigated peripheral osteopontin and clusterin levels and their relationship to disease control in 26 asthmatic pregnant (AP), 22 asthmatic nonpregnant (ANP), and 25 healthy pregnant (HP) women and 12 healthy controls (HNP). Osteopontin levels of ANP and HNP were similar (2.142 versus 2.075  ng/mL, ). Pregnancy caused a marked elevation in both healthy (HP: 3.037  ng/ml, versus HNP) and asthmatic (AP: 2.693  ng/ml) patients; thus the pregnant groups did not differ (). Circulating clusterin levels were comparable in ANP and HNP (109.2 versus 108.8  µg/mL, ) and the level was lower in HP (98.80  µg/mL, versus HNP). In contrast, the level was higher in AP (111.7  µg/mL, versus HP). In ANP, a positive correlation of PEF (; ) and a negative correlation of (; ) to clusterin level were detected. Circulating osteopontin level increases in pregnancy regardless of concomitant well-controlled asthma, indicating its gestational role. Clusterin level decreases in healthy but not in asthmatic pregnancy and correlates directly with lung function.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Future Directions and Molecular Basis of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia

    • Abstract: Mechanical ventilation is a lifesaving treatment and has complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) that lead to high morbidity and mortality. Moreover VAP is the second most common hospital-acquired infection in pediatric intensive care units. Although it is still not well understood, understanding molecular pathogenesis is essential for preventing and treating pneumonia. A lot of microbes are detected as a causative agent of VAP. The most common isolated VAP pathogens in pediatric patients are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other gram negative bacteria. All of the bacteria have different pathogenesis due to their different virulence factors and host reactions. This review article focused on mechanisms of VAP with molecular pathogenesis of the causative bacteria one by one from the literature. We hope that we know more about molecular pathogenesis of VAP and we can investigate and focus on the management of the disease in near future.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Effect of Mechanical Ventilation on TASK-1 Expression in the Brain in
           a Rat Model

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 1 (TASK-1) is closely related to respiratory central control and neuronal injury. We investigated the effect of MV on TASK-1’s functions and explored the mechanism using a rat model. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: high tidal volume (HVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 10 mL/kg; low Vt (LVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 5 mL/kg; basal (BAS): anesthetized and unventilated animals. We measured lung histology and plasma and brain levels of proteins (IL-6, TNF-α, and S-100B) and determined TASK-1 levels in rat brainstems as a marker of respiratory centre activity. Results. The LISs (lung injury scores) were significantly higher in the HVt group. Brain inflammatory cytokines levels were different to those in serum. TASK-1 levels were significantly lower in the MV groups () and the HVt group tended to have a lower level of TASK-1 than the LVt group. Conclusion. MV causes not only lung injury, but also brain injury. MV affects the regulation of the respiratory centre, perhaps causing damage to it. Inflammation is probably not the main mechanism of ventilator-related brain injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Impaired Hemorheology in Exacerbations of COPD

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Cardiovascular-related comorbidities are established to contribute to morbidity and mortality especially during exacerbations. The aim of the current study was to determine alterations in hemorheology (erythrocyte aggregation, deformability) in newly diagnosed COPD patients and their response to medical treatment and to compare with values of COPD patients with exacerbations. Materials and Methods. The study comprised 13 COPD patients, 12 controls, and 16 COPD patients with exacerbations. The severity of COPD was determined according to Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation were measured by an ektacytometer. Results. RBC deformability of COPD patients with exacerbations was decreased compared to the other groups. Erythrocyte aggregation and plasma fibrinogen of COPD patients determined during exacerbations were higher than control. Conclusion. Decreased RBC deformability and increased aggregation associated with exacerbations of COPD may serve as unfavorable mechanisms to worsen oxygenation and thus clinical symptoms of the patient. Treatment modalities that modify rheological parameters might be beneficial.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 07:10:31 +000
  • Rainfall-Associated Bronchospasm Epidemics: The Epidemiological Effects of
           Air Pollutants and Weather Variables

    • Abstract: Background. This study compares different risk factors in patients visiting a hospital during five rainfall-associated bronchospasm epidemics in Ahvaz and those visiting on other occasions. Methods. This case-control study was conducted on 5307 patients with bronchospasm admitted to the Emergency Department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz (Iran) from late October to December (as the epidemic) and 916 patients admitted from late January to March (as the nonepidemic) in 2011 to 2015. Results. A total of the 41.7% of the cases and 48.8% of the controls had episodes of bronchospasm, suggesting a significant difference between the two groups (). The mean concentrations of PM10, NO, NO2, and NOx pollutants (except O3) were significantly higher in the nonepidemic periods (). The adjusted analysis showed a direct significant relationship between emergency respiratory admissions and each unit of increase in NO and SO2 concentration during the epidemic periods and NO2 concentration during the nonepidemic periods. During the epidemic periods, a direct and significant relationship was also observed between respiratory admissions and each unit of increase in relative humidity and evaporation. Conclusion. The results suggest that certain pollutants and weather variables are associated with the risk of emergency respiratory admissions during epidemic periods.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Occupational Exposure to Talc Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer: A
           Meta-Analysis of Occupational Cohort Studies

    • Abstract: Objective. Talc is widely used in industrial applications. Previous meta-analyses of carcinogenic effects associated with inhaled talc included publications before 2004, with a lack of data in China, the largest talc-producing country. The safety of workers exposed to talc was unclear due to limited evidence. The objective of this study was to reevaluate the association between inhaled talc and lung cancer. Setting, Participants, and Outcome Measures. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the meta-SMR of lung cancer. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI, and Wanfang Data databases through March 2017. Data from observational studies were pooled using meta-analysis with random effects models. Results. Fourteen observational cohort studies (13 publications) were located via literature search. The heterogeneity of the included data was high (-squared = 72.9%). Pooling all the cohorts yielded a meta-SMR of 1.45 (95% CI: 1.22–1.72, ) for lung cancer among the study subjects exposed to talc. Subgroup analysis for asbestos contamination showed no significant difference in lung cancer death between subjects exposed to talc with and without asbestos , indicating that this confounding factor may have no significance. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that nonasbestiform talc might still increase the risk of lung cancer. Further epidemiological studies are required to evaluate the safety of workers with occupational talc exposure.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Safety and Performance Characteristics of Outpatient Medical Thoracoscopy
           and Indwelling Pleural Catheter Insertion for Evaluation and Diagnosis of
           Pleural Disease at a Tertiary Center in Canada

    • Abstract: Background. Many centers performing medical thoracoscopy (MT) to diagnose pleural disease will insert a chest tube and admit patients to hospital after the procedure, which is inconvenient for patients and contributes to healthcare costs. We report the data on the safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of outpatient MT with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion in a large Canadian cohort. Methods. This retrospective cohort study reviewed patients who underwent outpatient MT and IPC insertion under conscious sedation. Patients without complications were discharged the same day. We report the data on safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of our program. Results. Outpatient MT and IPC insertion was performed on 218 patients. 99.1% of patients were safely discharged the same day. There was no procedure associated mortality. Pleural malignancy (59.6%) and nonspecific pleuritis (29.4%) were the most common pathologies. Pleural nodularity detected endoscopically was excellent at predicting malignancy with a positive predictive value of 92.5% and is more frequently detected endoscopically when compared to CT scan (). Conclusions. In the setting of a comprehensive pleural disease program, outpatient MT can be safely performed and is an alternative to an inpatient surgical approach for undiagnosed pleural effusions.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2017 07:18:43 +000
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