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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 206)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.548
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1712-9532 - ISSN (Online) 1918-1493
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Associated with Cell Phones of Healthcare
           Professionals in Selected Hospitals in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Cell phones may be an ideal habitat for colonization by bacterial pathogens, especially in hot climates, and may be a reservoir or vehicle in transmitting nosocomial infections. We investigated bacterial contamination on cell phones of healthcare workers in three hospitals in Saudi Arabia and determined antibacterial resistance of selected bacteria. A questionnaire was submitted to 285 healthcare workers in three hospitals, and information was collected on cell phone usage at the work area and in the toilet, cell phone cleaning and sharing, and awareness of cell phones being a source of infection. Screening on the Vitek 2 Compact system (bioMérieux Inc., USA) was done to characterize bacterial isolates. Of the 60 samples collected from three hospitals, 38 (63.3%) were positive with 38 bacterial isolates (4 Gram-negative and 34 Gram-positive bacteria). We found 38.3% of cell phones were contaminated with coagulase-negative staphylococci, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis (10 isolates). Other bacterial agents identified were S. aureus, S. hominis, Alloiococcus otitis, Vibrio fluvialis, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most coagulase-negative staphylococci were resistant to benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, and rifampicin. Eight isolates were resistant to oxacillin, specifically S. epidermidis (3), S. hominis (2), and S. warneri (2). A. otitis, a cause of acute otitis media showed multidrug resistance. One isolate, a confirmed hetero-vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus, was resistant to antibiotics, commonly used to treat skin infection. There was a significant correlation between the level of contamination and usage of cell phone at toilet and sharing. Our findings emphasize the importance of hygiene practices in cell phone usage among healthcare workers in preventing the transmission of multidrug-resistant microbes.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Isolation of Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) Producing Escherichia
           coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from Patients with Community-Onset Urinary
           Tract Infections in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest
           Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are the major extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms increasingly isolated as causes of complicated urinary tract infections and remain an important cause of failure of therapy with cephalosporins and have serious infection control consequence. Objective. To assess the prevalence and antibiotics resistance patterns of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from community-onset urinary tract infections in Jimma University Specialized hospital, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016. Methodology. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted, and a total of 342 urine samples were cultured on MacConkey agar for the detection of etiologic agents. Double-disk synergy (DDS) methods were used for detection of ESBL-producing strains. A disc of amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (20/10 µg) was placed in the center of the Mueller–Hinton agar plate, and cefotaxime (30 µg) and ceftazidime (30 µg) were placed at a distance of 20 mm (center to center) from the amoxicillin + clavulanic acid disc. Enhanced inhibition zone of any of the cephalosporin discs on the side facing amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was considered as ESBL producer. Results. In the current study, ESBL-producing phenotypes were detected in 23% (n = 17) of urinary isolates, of which Escherichia coli accounts for 76.5% (n = 13) and K. pneumoniae for 23.5% (n = 4). ESBL-producing phenotypes showed high resistance to cefotaxime (100%), ceftriaxone (100%), and ceftazidime (70.6%), while both ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing isolates showed low resistance to amikacin (9.5%), and no resistance was seen with imipenem. In the risk factors analysis, previous antibiotic use more than two cycles in the previous year (odds ratio (OR), 6.238; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.257–30.957; p = 0.025) and recurrent UTI more than two cycles in the last 6 months or more than three cycles in the last year (OR, 7.356; 95% CI, 1.429–37.867; p = 0.017) were found to be significantly associated with the ESBL-producing groups. Conclusion. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases- (ESBL-)producing strain was detected in urinary tract isolates. The occurrence of multidrug resistance to the third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracyclines is more common among ESBL producers. Thus, detecting and reporting of ESBL-producing organisms have paramount importance in the clinical decision-making.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bifidobacterium lactis Ameliorates the Risk of Food Allergy in Chinese
           Children by Affecting Relative Percentage of Treg and Th17 Cells

    • Abstract: We aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of Bifidobacterium lactis on food allergy by investigating the percentage of Treg and Th17 cells in Chinese children and related molecular mechanisms. A total of 256 children with food allergy were evenly assigned into two groups: BG, the children received 10 ml B. lactis (1 × 106/ml) daily, and CG, the children received the solution without B. lactis daily for three months. Allergic symptoms, serum IgE, and food antigen-specific IgE were measured. A mouse allergy model was established by using shrimp tropomyosin and treated with B. lactis. Relative mRNA levels of Treg- and Th17-associated cytokines were measured by using quantitative PCR. The percentage of Treg and Th17 cells in spleen were measured by using flow cytometry. After 3-month therapy, the allergic symptoms of the BG were remarkably reduced when compared with the CG (). Serum levels of IgE and food antigen-specific IgE were decreased too (). Similar results were also found in a mouse allergy model. After B. lactis treatment, the relative mRNA level of FoxP3 was significantly enhanced in the B. lactis therapy group when compared to positive controls. In addition, relative mRNA levels of FoxP3 and TGF-β associated with Treg cells were increased, whereas relative mRNA levels of IL-17A and IL-23 associated with Th17 were reduced. B. lactis treatment significantly increased the ratio of Treg and Th17 cells in a mouse allergy model ().B. lactis effectively alleviates allergic symptoms by increasing the ratio of Treg and Th17 cells.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Dec 2018 06:13:08 +000
       
  • Development of New Tools to Detect Colistin-Resistance among
           Enterobacteriaceae Strains

    • Abstract: The recent discovery of the plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene conferring resistance to colistin is of clinical concern. The worldwide screening of this resistance mechanism among samples of different origins has highlighted the urgent need to improve the detection of colistin-resistant isolates in clinical microbiology laboratories. Currently, phenotypic methods used to detect colistin resistance are not necessarily suitable as the main characteristic of the mcr genes is the low level of resistance that they confer, close to the clinical breakpoint recommended jointly by the CLSI and EUCAST expert systems (S ≤ 2 mg/L and R > 2 mg/L). In this context, susceptibility testing recommendations for polymyxins have evolved and are becoming difficult to implement in routine laboratory work. The large number of mechanisms and genes involved in colistin resistance limits the access to rapid detection by molecular biology. It is therefore necessary to implement well-defined protocols using specific tools to detect all colistin-resistant bacteria. This review aims to summarize the current clinical microbiology diagnosis techniques and their ability to detect all colistin resistance mechanisms and describe new tools specifically developed to assess plasmid-mediated colistin resistance. Phenotyping, susceptibility testing, and genotyping methods are presented, including an update on recent studies related to the development of specific techniques.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Nasal Colonization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus in HIV-Infected and Non-HIV Patients Attending the National Public
           Health Laboratory of Central Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Staphylococcus aureus is a cardinal source of community- and hospital-acquired infection. HIV infection is a well-recognized risk factor for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage and infection. Intrinsically developed antibiotic resistance has sharply increased the burden of MRSA which is often associated with morbidity and mortality of the patients. Moreover, nasal carriage of S. aureus plays a significant role in spread of community-associated (CA) S. aureus infections. Methods. This study was conducted from June 2016 to December 2016 at National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL), Kathmandu, with an aim to assess the rate of S. aureus nasal carriage and MRSA carriage among HIV-infected and non-HIV patients. A total of 600 nonrepeated nasal swabs were analyzed following standard microbiological procedures, where 300 swabs were from HIV-infected patients while remaining 300 were from non-HIV patients. The isolates were identified on the basis of colony characteristics and a series of biochemical tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) was performed by the modified Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Inducible clindamycin resistance in isolates was confirmed by the D-test method. Results. Overall, out of 600 nasal swabs of patients tested, 125 (20.8%) were S. aureus nasal carriers which included 80 out of 300 (26.66%) among HIV-infected patients and 45 (15%) out of 300 among non-HIV patients, and the result was statistically significant (). Among the isolated S. aureus, 11 (13.8%) MRSA were confirmed in HIV-infected while 3 (6.7%) MRSA were detected from non-HIV patients. A higher number of S. aureus carriers was detected among HIV-infected males 40 (26.49%), whereas MRSA carriage was more prevalent among HIV-infected females 7 (5.1%). Among the HIV-infected, patients of age group 31–40 years were the ones with highest carriage rate 36 (45%), while in non-HIV patients, the highest rate 13 (28.9%) of carriage was detected among the patients of age group 21–30 years. Statistically significant difference was found between S. aureus carriage and HIV infection in patients (). Higher rate 2/3 (66.7%) of inducible clindamycin resistance in MRSA was detected from non-HIV patients in comparison to HIV-infected patients 7/11 (63.63%) while the result was statistically insignificant (). All the MRSA isolates (100%) were resistant against co-trimoxazole while ciprofloxacin showed high rate of sensitivity towards both MSSA and MRSA. None of the isolates were detected as VRSA. The major factors associated with nasal colonization of S. aureus were close personal contact, current smoking habit, and working or living in a farm ().Conclusion. Regular surveillance and monitoring of MRSA nasal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility pattern are of prime importance in controlling S. aureus infections especially in high risk groups like HIV-infected patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Structure of ampG Gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Its Effect on
           Drug Resistance

    • Abstract: In order to study the relationship between the structure and function of AmpG, structure, site-specific mutation, and gene complementary experiments have been performed against the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that there are 51 nucleotide variations at 34 loci over the ampG genes from 24 of 35 P. aeruginosa strains detected, of which 7 nucleotide variations resulted in amino acid change. The ampG variants with the changed nucleotides (amino acids) could complement the function of ampG deleted PA01 (PA01ΔG). The ampicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PA01ΔG complemented with 32 ampG variants was up to 512 μg/ml, similar to the original PA01 (P. aeruginosa PA01). Furthermore, site-directed mutation of two conservative amino acids (I53 and W90) showed that when I53 was mutated to 53S or 53T (I53S or I53T), the ampicillin MIC level dropped drastically, and the activity of AmpC β-lactamase decreased as well. By contrast, the ampicillin MIC and the activity of AmpC β-lactamase remained unchanged for W90R and W90S mutants. Our studies demonstrated that although nucleotide variations occurred in most of the ampG genes, the structure of AmpG protein in clinical isolates is stable, and conservative amino acid is necessary to maintain normal function of AmpG.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Nov 2018 07:17:17 +000
       
  • Accuracy of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) in Detecting
           Antibodies against Mycobacterium leprae in Leprosy Patients: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: IgM against Mycobacterium leprae may be detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) or natural disaccharide octyl bovine serum albumin (ND-O-BSA) as antigens, and the IgG response can be detected by an ELISA based on lipid droplet protein 1 (LID-1). The titers of antibodies against these antigens vary with operational classification. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of ELISAs involving PGL-I and ND-O-BSA with that involving LID-1. We included studies that analyze multibacillary and paucibacillary leprosy cases and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ELISAs based on LID-1 and/or PGL-I or ND-O-BSA as antigens to measure antibody titers against M. leprae. Studies were found via PubMed, the Virtual Health Library Regional Portal, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol de Ciências de Saúde, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, Cochrane Library, Embase (the Elsevier database), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies served as a methodological validity tool. Quantitative data were extracted using the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, and a diagnostic odds ratio were calculated, and a hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve and forest plots were constructed. The protocol register code for this meta-analysis is PROSPERO 2017: CRD42017055983. Nineteen studies were included. ND-O-BSA showed better overall performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio when compared with PGL-I and LID-1. The multibacillary group showed better performance on these parameters (than the paucibacillary group did), at 94%, 99%, 129, 0.05, and 2293, respectively. LID-1 did not provide any advantage regarding the overall estimate of sensitivity in comparison with PGL-I or ND-O-BSA.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Characteristics of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Clinical
           Isolates from a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Thailand

    • Abstract: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are now recognized as a major cause of infectious diseases, particularly in hospitals. Molecular epidemiology is important for prevention and control of infection, but little information is available regarding staphylococcal infections in Northern Thailand. In the present study, we examined antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, detection of antimicrobial resistance genes, and SCCmec types of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolated from patients in a hospital in Northern Thailand. The species of MRSA and MR-CoNS were identified using combination methods, including PCR, MALDI-TOF-MS, and tuf gene sequencing. The susceptibility pattern of all isolates was determined by the disk diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance genes, SCCmec types, and ST239 were characterized using single and multiplex PCR. ST239 was predominant in MRSA isolates (10/23). All MR-CoNS () were identified as S. haemolyticus (),S. epidermidis (),S. cohnii (),S. capitis (), and S. hominis (). More than 70% of MRSA and MR-CoNS were resistant to cefoxitin, penicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. In MRSA isolates, the prevalence of ermA (78.3%) and ermB (73.9%) genes was high compared to that of the ermC gene (4.3%). In contrast, ermC (87.1%) and qacA/B genes (70.9%) were predominant in MR-CoNS isolates. SCCmec type III was the dominant type of MRSA (13/23), whereas SCCmec type II was more present in S. haemolyticus (10/18). Ten MRSA isolates with SCCmec type III were ST239, which is the common type of MRSA in Asia. This finding provides useful information for a preventive health strategy directed against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluating the Contribution of Nocardia spp. and Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis to Pulmonary Infections among HIV and Non-HIV Patients at the
           Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    • Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of human mortality particularly in association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nocardia spp. has emerged as an opportunistic infection especially in HIV patients. The high prevalence of TB and HIV coupled with the lack of a definitive laboratory diagnosis for Nocardia spp. could lead to misdiagnosed pulmonary TB. This study determined the prevalence of pulmonary infections due to Nocardia spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum of HIV and non-HIV patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis at KATH. A total of sixty sputum samples were obtained from HIV and non-HIV patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. Samples were examined by fluorescence based Ziehl–Neelsen staining, culture, and PCR methods. The prevalence of Nocardia spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 18.3% and 20%, respectively, with the latter having the highest rate among patients aged 21–40 years (). The prevalence of Nocardia spp. among HIV patients was 90.9% whilst 16.7% of the patients had HIV/Nocardia spp. coinfection. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by fluorescence-based Ziehl–Neelsen staining, culture, and PCR yielded 9 (15%), 11 (18.3%), and 12 (20%), respectively. There is a high prevalence of nocardiosis especially in HIV patients. PCR is a better diagnostic method that detects both Nocardia spp. and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and should be incorporated into routine diagnosis for pulmonary infections.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Relationship between Colonization by Moraxella catarrhalis and
           Tonsillar Hypertrophy

    • Abstract: We sought to investigate the prevalence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in secretions and tonsillar tissues of children with chronic adenotonsillitis hypertrophy compared to controls. Prospective case-control study comparing patients between 2 and 12 years old who underwent adenotonsillectomy due to chronic adenotonsillar hypertrophy to children without disease. We compared detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Moraxella catarrhalis by real-time PCR in palatine tonsils, adenoids, and nasopharyngeal washes obtained from 37 children with and 14 without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. We found high frequency (>50%) of Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in both groups of patients. Although different sampling sites can be infected with more than one bacterium and some bacteria can be detected in different tissues in the same patient, adenoids, palatine tonsils, and nasopharyngeal washes were not uniformly infected by the same bacteria. Adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with severe adenotonsillar hypertrophy had higher rates of bacterial coinfection. There was good correlation of detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in different sampling sites in patients with more severe tonsillar hypertrophy, suggesting that Moraxella catarrhalis may be associated with the development of more severe hypertrophy, that inflammatory conditions favor colonization by this agent. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are frequently detected in palatine tonsils, adenoids, and nasopharyngeal washes in children. Simultaneous detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in adenoids, palatine tonsils, and nasopharyngeal washes was correlated with more severe tonsillar hypertrophy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in
           Children from Soriano, Uruguay

    • Abstract: Introduction. Acute diarrheal disease still deserves worldwide attention due to its high morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. While etiologic determination is not mandatory for management of all individual cases, it is needed for generating useful epidemiologic knowledge. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) are relevant enteropathogens, and their investigation requires specific procedures to which resources and training should be dedicated in reference laboratories. Methodology. Following the hypothesis that enteric pathogens affecting children in towns located in the interior of Uruguay may be different from those found in Montevideo, we conducted a diagnostic survey on acute diarrheal disease in 83 children under 5 years of age from populations in the south of the country. Results. DEC pathotypes were the only bacterial pathogens found in diarrheal feces (20.48%), followed by rotavirus (14.45%) and enteric adenovirus (4.81%). Atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was the most frequent DEC pathotype identified, and unexpectedly, it was associated with bloody diarrheal cases. These patients were of concern and provided with early consultation, as were children who presented with vomiting, which occurred most frequently in rotavirus infections. aEPEC serotypes were diverse and different from those previously reported in Montevideo children within the same age group and different from serotypes identified in regional and international studies. Enteroinvasive (EIEC) O96 : H19, associated with large outbreaks in Europe, was also isolated from two patients. Antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic bacteria identified in this study was higher than that observed in previous national studies, which had been mainly carried out in children from Montevideo. Conclusion. The reduced number of detected species, the marked prevalence of aEPEC, the scarce resistance traits, and the diverse range of serotypes in the virulent DEC identified in this study confirm that differences exist between enteropathogens affecting children from interior towns of Uruguay and those circulating among children in Montevideo.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • “Ticking Bomb”: The Impact of Climate Change on the
           Incidence of Lyme Disease

    • Abstract: Lyme disease (LD) is the most common tick-borne disease in North America. It is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis. The life cycle of the LD vector, I. scapularis, usually takes two to three years to complete and goes through three stages, all of which are dependent on environmental factors. Increases in daily average temperatures, a manifestation of climate change, might have contributed to an increase in tick abundance via higher rates of tick survival. Additionally, these environmental changes might have contributed to better host availability, which is necessary for tick feeding and life cycle completion. In fact, it has been shown that both tick activity and survival depend on temperature and humidity. In this study, we have examined the relationship between those climatic variables and the reported incidence of LD in 15 states that contribute to more than 95% of reported cases within the Unites States. Using fixed effects analysis for a panel of 468 U.S. counties from those high-incidence states with annual data available for the period 2000–2016, we have found sizable impacts of temperature on the incidence of LD. Those impacts can be described approximately by an inverted U-shaped relationship, consistent with patterns of tick survival and host-seeking behavior. Assuming a 2°C increase in annual average temperature—in line with mid-century (2036–2065) projections from the latest U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA4)—we have predicted that the number of LD cases in the United States will increase by over 20 percent in the coming decades. These findings may help improving preparedness and response by clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers, as well as raising public awareness of the importance of being cautious when engaging in outdoor activities.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Herpes Zoster Burden in Canadian Provinces: A Narrative Review and
           Comparison with Quebec Provincial Data

    • Abstract: Background. The main aim of this review was to assess incidence rates and trends of medically attended and death cases of herpes zoster in Canada. Methods. The search was conducted in five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, PsycNET, and Web of Science). Data on herpes zoster-related consultations and hospitalisations and deaths were also extracted from three Quebec provincial administrative databases (RAMQ, MED-ECHO, and ISQ). Results. The electronic search yielded 587 publications. Seventeen publications satisfied inclusion criteria. These publications reported data from eleven studies. Ten studies used provincial databases, and one study used the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network electronic database. Seven studies evaluated overall rates of medically attended cases (consultations and hospitalisations). Four of these studies reported an increase in rates of medically attended cases during the study period; one study reported stable rates, and two studies reported only an average rate. The rates varied from 316 to 450/100,000 p.y. The Quebec analysis shows similar rates with a slight decreasing trend (from 369 to 350/100,000 p.y.). Incidence rates of consultations were reported separately in three studies. Two studies reported an increase in rates (from 258 to 348/100,000 p.y. and from 324 to 366/100,000 p.y.), and the third study reported a decrease (from 525 to 479/100,000 p.y.). Hospitalization rates were reported separately in two studies, both reporting a decrease (from 12 to 8 cases/100,000 p.y. and from 9 to 4 cases/100,000 p.y.). Quebec data also showed a decrease, from 9 to 6 cases/100,000 p.y. One study reported herpes zoster-related deaths. In this study, the reported death rate was 0.7/1,000,000 p.y. in the overall population and 5.5/1,000,000 p.y. in those aged ≥65 years. Quebec analysis showed a death rate of 1.2/1,000,000 p.y. in the overall population and 8.6/1,000,000 p.y. in those aged ≥65 years. Conclusions. The results of the reviewed studies and our analysis of Quebec provincial data indicate important variations in the reported overall incidence rates of medically attended herpes zoster cases in Canada. The trends in time are heterogeneous in studies in which hospitalisations and medical consultations were pooled together. We observed a decrease in hospitalization rates and a slight increase in consultation rates in studies reporting hospitalisations and consultations separately. These results consolidate the understanding of the herpes zoster burden in Canada and might be used as a tool in decision-making regarding future preventive interventions.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bacterial and Parasitic Assessment from Fingernails in Debre Markos,
           Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Food handlers with untrimmed finger nails could contribute or serve as a vehicle for the transmission of food poisoning pathogens. Objectives. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food handlers and antibiotic susceptibility profile of the isolated bacteria in Debre Markos University, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods. This laboratory-based cross-sectional study involved 220 food handlers working in food service establishments in Debre Markos University between 1st January 2015 to 31th June 2016. Subjects’ finger nail specimens of both hands were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. For bacterial isolation, samples were cultured and bacterial species were identified following standard laboratory procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for all bacterial isolates by using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Of the total 220 subjects examined, 29.5% showed positive culture for different bacterial species from their fingernail contents. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant bacteria species (12.3%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (5%), E. coli (2.7%), Klebsiella species (2.7%), Enterococcus species (1.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.8%), Proteus species (1.4%), Citrobacter species (1.4%), and Serratia species (0.9%). None of the food handlers showed positive culture for Shigella and salmonella and parasites in respect of their finger nail specimens. Isolation of bacteria in finger nail has significant association with finger nail status () and inverse relation with service years (). All Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species isolates were uniformly susceptible to vancomycin. Only one (9.1%) of Staphylococcus aureus isolates was resistant for methicillin. Conclusion. To prevent the food poisoning pathogens, implementation and adherence to infection are the key practices, specially food handlers with long finger nail harbor food debris, microbial contaminations, and allergens.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Oct 2018 06:24:31 +000
       
  • Helicobacter pylori Infection and Its Risk Factors: A Prospective
           Cross-Sectional Study in Resource-Limited Settings of Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is implicated for the causation of gastrointestinal tract infections including gastric cancer. Although the infection is prevalent globally, the impact is immense in countries with poor environmental and socioeconomic status including Ethiopia. Epidemiological study on the magnitude of H. pylori and possible risk factors has priceless implication. Therefore, in this study, we determined the prevalence and risk factors of H. pylori infection in the resource-limited area of northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on northwest Ethiopia among 201 systematically selected dyspeptic patients. Data were collected using a structured and pretested questionnaire, and stool and serum samples were collected and analyzed by SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag and dBest H. pylori Disk tests, respectively. Chi-square test was performed to see association between variables, and binary and multinomial regression tests were performed to identify potential risk factors. values
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Elevated Serum Total Bilirubin Level Is Associated with Poor Outcomes in
           Pediatric Patients with Sepsis-Associated Liver Injury

    • Abstract: Aims. The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of the serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level in pediatric patients with sepsis-associated liver injury (SALI). Methods. We performed a retrospective study of patients with SALI admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in Shanghai Children’s Hospital between December 2012 and December 2015. Serum TBIL concentration was determined within 72 h after PICU admission. Results. Seventy-two patients with SALI were included in this study. The overall mortality rate was 36.1% (26/72). The serum levels of TBIL of patients were significantly higher in the nonsurvivor group than the survivor group. Cox regression analysis indicated that the elevated serum TBIL level within 72 hours after admission was an independent risk factor of mortality in patients with SALI. Furthermore, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for TBIL was 0.736 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.614–0.858, ), in which the optimal cut-off value was 64.5 μmol/L. The combined index named “TBIL” and “TBA” showed an AUC of 0.745 (0.626–0.865) for predicting the prognosis in patients with SALI. In addition, the Kaplan–Meier curve indicated that the 28-day survival rate was significantly lower in patients with higher serum TBIL levels (≥64.5 μmol/L) or higher value of TBIL and TBA (≥−0.8902). Conclusions. Elevated serum TBIL level is associated with poor outcomes in pediatric SALI.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Oct 2018 06:16:47 +000
       
  • Development of IgY-Based Sandwich ELISA as a Robust Tool for Rapid
           Detection and Discrimination of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae

    • Abstract: Background. The conventional methods for diagnosis of Vibrio cholerae are time consuming, complicated, and expensive. Development of rapid detection tests is critical for prevention and management of cholera. This study aimed to introduce two sensitive sandwich ELISAs based on avian antibodies (IgY) targeting outer membrane protein W (OmpW) and cytotoxin B (CtxB) antigens of V. cholerae. Methods. The sequences of ompW and ctxB genes were cloned into pET28a vector. Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) was transformed with the recombinant vectors, and gene expression was induced by IPTG. The expressed proteins were purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA resins. Two groups of white Leghorn chickens were immunized by recombinant proteins, and the generated antibodies were purified from egg yolks of chickens by PEG precipitation. The antibodies were used for the development of α-OmpW and α-CtxB ELISAs. Results. The expression and purification yielded 59 and 38 mg of recombinant OmpW and CtxB, respectively, per one liter of bacterial culture. PEG precipitation and purification of egg yolk antibodies yielded on average (±SD) 66.5 ± 1.80 and 50.9 ± 2.23 mg of purified α-OmpW and α-CtxB per egg, respectively. The analytical sensitivity of α-OmpW ELISA was 103 cfu/mL of V. cholerae and that of α-CtxB ELISA was 33 pg/mL of recombinant cytotoxin B. The two developed ELISAs did not show any cross-reactivity to any tested bacteria grown in common conditions. Discussion. The current study is the first report on using IgY for detection of V. cholerae. The developed ELISAs were shown to have considerable analytical sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the assays can be one of the convenient methods for sensitive and specific detection of toxigenic V. cholerae strains in clinical and environmental samples.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Oct 2018 09:50:57 +000
       
  • Triatomine Fauna and Recent Epidemiological Dynamics of Chagas Disease in
           an Endemic Area of Northeast Brazil

    • Abstract: Updated information of the dispersion dynamics of Chagas disease (CD) and a systemic analysis of these data will aid the early identification of areas that are vulnerable to transmission and enable efficient intervention. This work synthesized spatiotemporal information regarding triatomine fauna and analyzed this information in combination with the results from serological tests to elucidate the epidemiological panorama of CD in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. This is a retrospective analytical study that utilized information from the database of the National Chagas Disease Control Program. Between 2010 and 2016, 838 triatomines of eight species, namely, Panstrongylus geniculatus, which was first recorded in the state of Sergipe, Panstrongylus lutzi, P. megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. tibiamaculata, T. melanocephala, and Rhodnius neglectus, were collected. Optical microscopy revealed that 13.2% of triatomines examined were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi-like flagellates. The distribution of triatomines exhibits an expanding south-central to northern dispersion, with a preference for semiarid and agreste areas and occasional observations in humid coastal areas due to anthropogenic actions reflected in the environment. Of the human cases analyzed from 2012 to 2016, 8.3% (191/2316) presented positive serology for Trypanosoma cruzi, and this proportion showed a gradual increase in the southern center of the state and new notifications in coastal regions. There is a need for intensification and continuity of the measures adopted by the Chagas Disease Control Program in Sergipe, identifying new priority areas for intervention and preferential ecotopes of the vectors, considering the occurrence of positive triatomines intradomicilliary and a source of new triatomines in the peridomiciles.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Interpretation Guidance for Pediatric Enteric Pathogens: A
           Modified Delphi Consensus Process

    • Abstract: Background. We sought to develop diagnostic test guidance definitions for pediatric enteric infections to facilitate the interpretation of positive test results in the era of multianalyte molecular diagnostic test platforms. Methods. We employed a systematic, two-phase, modified Delphi consensus process consisting of three web-based surveys and an expert panel face-to-face meeting. In phase 1, we surveyed an advisory panel of North American experts to select pathogens requiring diagnostic test guidance definition development. In phase 2, we convened a 14-member expert panel to develop, refine, and select the final definitions through two web-based questionnaires interspersed with a face-to-face meeting. Both questionnaires asked panelists to rate the degree to which they agreed that if the definition is met the pathogen is likely to be causative of clinical illness. Results. The advisory panel survey identified 19 pathogens requiring definitions. In the expert panel premeeting survey, 13 of the 19 definitions evaluated were rated as being highly likely (“agree” or “strongly agree”) to be responsible for acute gastroenteritis symptoms by ≥67% of respondent panel members. The definitions for the remaining six pathogens (Aeromonas, Clostridium difficile, Edwardsiella, nonenteric adenovirus, astrovirus, and Entamoeba histolytica) were indeterminate. After the expert panel meeting, only two of the modified definitions, C. difficile and E. histolytica/dispar, failed to achieve the a priori specified threshold of ≥67% agreement. Conclusions. We developed diagnostic test guidance definitions to assist healthcare providers for 17 enteric pathogens. We identified two pathogens that require further research and definition development.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Pathogenicity of Shewanella algae and Ability to Tolerate a Wide Range
           of Temperatures and Salinities

    • Abstract: Shewanella algae is a rod-shaped Gram-negative marine bacterium frequently found in nonhuman sources such as aquatic ecosystems and has been shown to be the pathogenic agent in various clinical cases due to the ingestion of raw seafood. The results of this study showed that S. algae was present in approximately one in four samples, including water and shellfish samples. Positive reactions (API systems) in S. algae strains were seen for gelatinase (gelatin); however, negative reactions were found for indole production (tryptophan). S. algae is adapted to a wide range of temperatures (4°C, 25°C, 37°C, and 42°C) and salinity. Temperature is a key parameter in the pathogenicity of S. algae as it appears to induce hemolysis at 25°C and 37°C. S. algae exhibits pathogenic characteristics at widely varying temperatures, which suggests that it may have the ability to adapt to climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Seroprevalence of Malaria and Hepatitis B Coinfection among Pregnant Women
           in Tamale Metropolis of Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Coinfections are becoming common risk factors that may contribute to the increased burden of morbidity in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of coinfections of malaria, hepatitis B (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in the Tamale Metropolis. Methods. By means of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), pregnant women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital (TTH) were screened for malaria, HBV infection, HIV infection, and syphilis from March 2013 to February 2015. Haemoglobin (Hb) values, sickling, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) statuses were also assessed using full blood count (FBC), sodium metabisulphite, and methaemoglobin reduction tests, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the risks/odds ratios (ORs) for the coinfections and other variables (age, gravidity, and time of the first ANC visit) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and set values for accepting any differences at
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Sep 2018 02:51:00 +000
       
  • Contribution of OqxAB Efflux Pump in Selection of
           Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    • Abstract: The role of OqxAB efflux pump in Klebsiella pneumoniae was investigated in correlation with ciprofloxacin exposure. K. pneumoniae SE23 and K. pneumoniae SE191 were isolated from urinary tract infections and were analyzed in this study. Each carried oqxAB resistance determinant and exhibited ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L, respectively. Tested strains were initially exposed to their ciprofloxacin MIC values for 24 hours. Later on, the ciprofloxacin exposition has been increased to a daily 1, 2, 4, and to a final 8 mg/L. Total cellular RNA was extracted at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes of initial exposure and after every 24 hours. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR was performed from each RNA sample. Mutation in gyrA and parC genes was analyzed in each strain and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed. Ciprofloxacin exposure selected resistant strain from K. pneumoniae SE191; by contrast, K. pneumoniae SE23 was not adjustable to the increasing ciprofloxacin concentrations. During initial exposure, both oqxA and oqxB expression remained low (2−ΔCt = 1-2.03). However, increasing ciprofloxacin promoted oqxB expression as it reached fold increase of 15.8–22.8, while oqxA expression was maintained (2−ΔCt = 2-2.15). An amino acid substitution Ser83Tyr in gyrA was detected in K. pneumoniae SE191, but no additional mutations occurred as consequence to ciprofloxacin exposure. MLST identified K. pneumoniae SE191 as ST274, while K. pneumoniae SE23 belonged to the novel ST2567. Ciprofloxacin concentration-dependent upregulation of oqxAB efflux pump in K. pneumoniae is clonally related and contributes to selection for higher level of fluoroquinolone resistance.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Dysbiosis: Can Probiotics
           Administration Be Useful to Treat This Condition'

    • Abstract: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is responsible for one of the most common infections in the world. The prevalence exceeds 50% of the population in developing countries, and approximately one-third of the adults are colonized in North Europe and North America. It is considered a major pathogenic agent of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT). Hp colonization modifies the composition of gastric microbiota that could drive the development of gastric disorders. Currently, an emerging problem in Hp treatment is represented by the increasing rate of antimicrobial therapy resistance. In this context, the search for adjuvant agents can be very useful to overcome this issue and probiotics administration can represent a valid option. The aim of this review is to describe the gastric microbiota changes during Hp colonization, the mechanisms of action, and a possible role of probiotics in the treatment of this infection.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Sero-Molecular Markers of Hepatitis C and B Viruses among
           Patients with β-Thalassemia Major in Northern West Bank, Palestine

    • Abstract: Background. HCV and HBV present a great challenge in the management of β-thalassemia patients. Objective. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of both HBV and HCV in multitransfused-dependent β-thalassemia patients in northern West Bank, Palestine, using sero-molecular markers. Methods. Serum sample from 139 multitransfused β-thalassemia patients were tested for HBV and HCV markers including HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, HBV-DNA, and anti-HCV and HCV-RNA. Demographic data and selected clinical parameters were collected by means of a questionnaire and from the patients’ medical files. Results and Conclusion. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 18.1 years (±10.6). The overall prevalence of the HCV was 10% (14/139), which is 50 times higher than the normal Palestinian population (0.2%). Of which, 3 were positive for anti-HCV alone, 7 positives for HCV-RNA alone, and 4 positives for both anti-HCV and PCR-RNA. On the other hand, low prevalence of HBV was detected at a level of 0.7% (1/139). Only one patient had HCV-HBV coinfection. Twenty-five patients (19%) were positive for anti-HBc, while 99 (71%) were immune with the anti-HBs level above 10 IU/mL. Anti-HBc was insignificantly high () in HCV-positive cases. In conclusion, the prevalence of HCV among β-thalassemia patients is considered high compared to normal population. Determination of HCV prevalence should be based on the detection of both HCV-RNA and anti-HCV. On the contrary, HBV showed a low prevalence. A follow-up schedule and administration of booster dose of HBV vaccine is strongly recommended for β-thalassemia patients whose anti-HBs level
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Risk Factors Associated with Dengue Transmission and Spatial Distribution
           of High Seroprevalence in Schoolchildren from the Urban Area of Medellin,
           Colombia

    • Abstract: Dengue fever is an increasing health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. During 2010 in Medellin, the younger population presented a particularly high dengue incidence rate. This study estimated dengue virus (DENV) transmission in schoolchildren (aged 5–19 years) in Medellin from 2010 to 2012. A longitudinal serological survey (IgG) and spatial analysis were conducted to determine the distribution of DENV seroprevalence. A total of 4,385 schoolchildren participated for at least one year. Dengue seroprevalence significantly increased during the studied period (53.8% to 64.6%; ). A significantly higher seroconversion rate was observed in 2010-2011 (16.8%) compared to 2011-2012 (7.8%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that the main factor associated with the seroprevalence was the aging. Furthermore, in 2010, patients with high socioeconomic status presented a lower risk. Predominant multitypic and DENV4 monotypic antibody responses were demonstrated. Geostatistical analysis evidenced a temporal clustering distribution of DENV seroprevalence in 2010. Population density and Ae. aegypti House Index were significantly correlated with the observed pattern. This study revealed high DENV transmission in schoolchildren determined as “sentinel population.” High DENV risk was found in districts with combined poorly socioeconomic conditions and densest human and mosquito populations. These findings may allow to target population for effective prevention and vaccination campaigns.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Surveillance of Antibiotic Prescribing in Intensive Care Units in Poland

    • Abstract: Antibiotic use and microbial resistance in health care-associated infections are increasing globally and causing health care problems. Intensive Care Units (ICUs) represent the heaviest antibiotic burden within hospitals, and sepsis is the second noncardiac cause of mortality in ICUs. Optimizing appropriate antibiotic treatment in the management of the critically ill in ICUs became a major challenge for intensivists. We performed a surveillance study on the antibiotic consumption in 108 Polish ICUs. We determined which classes of antibiotics were most commonly consumed and whether they affected the length of ICU stay and the size and category of the hospital. A total of 292.389 defined daily doses (DDD) and 192.167 patient-days (pd) were identified. Antibiotic consumption ranged from 620 to 3960 DDD/1000 pd. The main antibiotic classes accounted for 59.6% of the total antibiotic consumption and included carbapenems (17.8%), quinolones (14%), cephalosporins (13.7%), penicillins (11.9%), and macrolides (2.2%), respectively, whereas the other antibiotic classes accounted for the remainder (40.4%) and included antifungals (34%), imidazoles (20%), aminoglycosides (18%), glycopeptides (15%), and polymyxins (6%). The most consumed antibiotic classes in Polish ICUs were carbapenems, quinolones, and cephalosporins, respectively. There was no correlation between antibiotic consumption in DDD/1000 patient-days, mean length of ICU stay, size of the hospital, size of the ICU, or the total amount of patient-days. It is crucial that surveillance systems are in place to guide empiric antibiotic treatment and to estimate the burden of resistance. Appropriate use of antibiotics in the ICU should be an important public health care issue.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Clinical Utility of Rapid Pathogen Identification for Detecting the
           Causative Organisms in Sepsis: A Single-Center Study in Korea

    • Abstract: Purpose. The aim of this pre- and postintervention cohort study was evaluating how effectively rapid pathogen identification with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) detected the causative organisms in sepsis. Methods. All consecutive adult patients who had bacteremia within 72 h of intensive care unit admission and met ≥2 quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment criteria at intensive care unit admission were analyzed. The patients whose microorganisms were identified via MALDI-TOF MS between March 2014 and February 2016 formed the postintervention group. The patients whose microorganisms were identified by using conventional methods between March 2011 and February 2013 formed the preintervention group. Results. The postintervention group () had a shorter mean time from blood draw to receiving the antimicrobial susceptibility results than the preintervention group () (90.2 ± 32.1 vs. 108.7 ± 43.1 h; ). The postintervention group was also more likely to have received active antimicrobial therapy by the time the susceptibility report became available (77% vs. 47%; ). Its 28-day mortality was also lower (40% vs. 70%; ). Univariate analysis showed that identification via MALDI-TOF MS (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.12–0.66; ) and active therapy (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16–0.95; ) were associated with lower 28-day mortality. Conclusion. Rapid microorganism identification via MALDI-TOF MS followed by appropriate antimicrobial therapy may improve the clinical outcomes of patients with sepsis.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection and Obstinate Biofilm
           Producers

    • Abstract: Background. Biofilms, or colonies of uropathogen growing on the surface of indwelling medical devices, can inflict obstinate or recurring infection, thought-provoking antimicrobial therapy. Methods. This prospective analysis included 105 urine samples from catheterized patients receiving intensive care. Ensuing phenotypic identification, antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by modified Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines; MDR isolates were identified according to the combined guidelines of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Biofilm-forming uropathogens were detected by the tissue culture plate (TCA) method. Results. The predominant uropathogen in catheter-associated UTIs (CAUTIs) was Escherichia coli 57%, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia 15%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12%, Staphylococcus aureus 8%, Enterobacter spp. 3%, Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter spp., and Proteus mirabilis 1.5%, of which 46% isolates were biofilm producers. Prime biofilm producers were Escherichia coli 33%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 30%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20%, Staphylococcus aureus 10%, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter 3.33%. Multidrug resistance associated with biofilm producers were greater than biofilm nonproducers. The Gram-negative biofilm producers found 96.15%, 80.76%, 73.07%, 53.84%, 53.84%, 46.15%, 19.23%, and 11.5% resistant to amoxyclave, ceftazidime, tetracycline, gentamicin, meropenem, nitrofurantoin, amikacin, imipenem, and fosfomycin, respectively. Gram-positive biofilm producers, however, were found 100% resistant to tetracycline, cloxacillin, and amoxyclave: 66.67% resistant to ampicillin while 33.33% resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. Conclusion. High antimicrobial resistance was observed in biofilm producers than non-biofilm producers. Of recommended antimicrobial therapies for CAUTIs, ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the least active antibiotics, whereas piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem were found as the most effectual for gram-negative biofilm producer. Likewise, amoxicillin-clavulanate and tetracycline were the least active antibiotics, whereas vancomycin, fosfomycin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and meropenem were found as the most effective antibiotic for Gram-positive biofilm producer. In the limelight, the activity fosfomycin was commendable against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilm producers.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • NOD2 Expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis and Its Influence
           on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    • Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis is one of the most common disorders seen in clinical practice. It is believed that the brain tissue immune injury is caused by the expression of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) which can further induce the release of other cytokines and inflammatory cascades. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and inflammatory factors in rat brain tissues infected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and its influence on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Rats were given an intracranial injection of Streptococcus pneumoniae to construct the Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis rat models. The expression change curves of NOD2 and inflammatory factors at different time points (0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 7 d) after Streptococcus pneumoniae were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blotting analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were engaged to examine the expression of NOD2. Furthermore, the changing processes of pathological characteristics, nervous system score, cerebral oedema, and BBB permeability were observed. Our results showed that NOD2 expression began to increase in the 12 h after Streptococcus pneumoniae infection group, while the remaining inflammatory factors were not obviously increased. Meanwhile, the levels of NOD2, as well as inflammatory factors IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 were markedly elevated in 24 h and 48 h infection groups, which were consistent with the increases in BBB permeability and BWC, and the positive expression of NOD2 in the infected rat brain tissues was observed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). This study suggests that NOD2 might be related to the activation of inflammation pathways and the damage to the blood-brain barrier. NOD2 and inflammatory factors have played vital roles in the pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Oral Colonization of Staphylococcus Species in a Peritoneal Dialysis
           Population: A Possible Reservoir for PD-Related Infections'

    • Abstract: Peritoneal dialysis-related infections are important morbidity/mortality causes, being staphylococci the most prevalent agents. Since Staphylococcus aureus nasopharynx carriage is a known risk factor for PD infections and the oral cavity is a starting point for systemic diseases development, we aimed at comparing the oral staphylococci colonization between PD patients and controls and studying the association with PD-related infections. Saliva samples were plated in Mannitol salt, and isolates were identified by DnaJ gene sequencing. Staphylococci PD-related infections were recorded throughout the 4-year period following sample collection. Staphylococcus colonization was present in >90% of the samples from both groups (a total of nine species identified). PD patients presented less diversity and less prevalence of multispecies Staphylococcus colonization. Although all patients presenting Staphylococcus epidermidis PD-related infections were also colonized in the oral cavity by the same agent, only 1 out of 7 patients with ESI caused by S. aureus presented S. aureus oral colonization. Staphylococci are highly prevalent in the oral cavity of both groups, although PD patients presented less species diversity. The association between oral Staphylococcus carriage and PD-related infections was present for S. epidermidis but was almost inexistent for S. aureus, so, further studies are still necessary to evaluate the infectious potential of oral Staphylococcus carriage in PD.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Aug 2018 06:22:21 +000
       
 
 
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