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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
  [SJR: 0.409]   [H-I: 25]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1712-9532 - ISSN (Online) 1918-1493
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Pathogenicity and Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of a Pseudorabies Virus
           Strain FJ-2012 Isolated from Fujian, Southern China

    • Abstract: The outbreaks of pseudorabies have been frequently reported in Bartha-K61-vaccinated farms in China since 2011. To study the pathogenicity and evolution of the circulating pseudorabies viruses in Fujian Province, mainland China, we isolated and sequenced the whole genome of a wild-type pseudorabies virus strain named “FJ-2012.” We then conducted a few downstream bioinformatics analyses including phylogenetic analysis and pathogenic analysis and used the virus to infect 6 pseudorabies virus-free piglets. FJ-2012-infected piglets developed symptoms like high body temperature and central nervous system disorders and had high mortality rate. In addition, we identified typical micropathological changes such as multiple gross lesions in infected piglets through pathological analysis and conclude that the FJ-2012 genome is significantly different from known pseudorabies viruses, in which insertions, deletions, and substitutions are observed in multiple immune and virulence genes. In summary, this study shed lights on the molecular basis of the prevalence and pathology of the pseudorabies virus strain FJ-2012. The genome of FJ-2012 could be used as a reference to study the evolution of pseudorabies viruses, which is critical to the vaccine development of new emerging pseudorabies viruses.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Detection and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus Infections
           among Hospitalized Children with Acute Diarrhea in Shanghai, China,
           2006–2011

    • Abstract: Background: Human adenovirus (HAdV) is considered a significant enteropathogen associated with sporadic diarrhea in children. However, limited data are available regarding the epidemiology of HAdV in hospitalized children with viral diarrhea in Shanghai. The aim of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of HAdVs and describe their association with acute diarrhea in hospitalized children. Methods: A total of 674 fecal samples were subjected to PCR or RT-PCR to detect RVA, HuCV, HAstV, and HAdV. Results: HAdV infections were detected in 4.7% (32/674) of specimens, with detection rates of 13.4% (11/82), 4.6% (8/174), 3.2% (4/124), 4.1% (3/74), 2.0% (2/100), and 3.3% (4/120) from 2006 to 2011, respectively. Comprehensive detection of the four viruses revealed the presence of a high percentage (90.6%) of coinfections among HAdV-positive samples, where HAdV+RVA was the most prevalent coinfection. Of the 32 HAdV-positive samples, 50.0% (16/32) were classified as HAdV-41, and 18.8% (6/32) were classified as HAdV-3. Almost 94.0% of children infected with HAdV were less than 24 months of age. Conclusions: These results clearly indicated diversity across the HAdV genotypes detected in inpatient children with acute diarrhea in Shanghai and suggested that HAdVs play a role in children with acute diarrhea.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Oral Yeast Colonization and Fungal Infections in Peritoneal Dialysis
           Patients: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Peritonitis and exit-site infections are important complications in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients that are occasionally caused by opportunistic fungi inhabiting distant body sites. In this study, the oral yeast colonization of PD patients and the antifungal susceptibility profile of the isolated yeasts were accessed and correlated with fungal infection episodes in the following 4 years. Saliva yeast colonization was accessed in 21 PD patients and 27 healthy controls by growth in CHROMagar-Candida® and 18S rRNA/ITS sequencing. PD patients presented a lower oral yeast prevalence when compared to controls, namely, Candida albicans. Other species were also isolated, Candida glabrata and Candida carpophila. The antifungal susceptibility profiles of these isolates revealed resistance to itraconazole, variable susceptibility to caspofungin, and higher MIC values of posaconazole compared to previous reports. The 4-year longitudinal evaluation of these patients revealed Candida parapsilosis and Candida zeylanoides as PD-related exit-site infectious agents, but no correlation was found with oral yeast colonization. This pilot study suggests that oral yeast colonization may represent a limited risk for fungal infection development in PD patients. Oral yeast isolates presented a variable antifungal susceptibility profile, which may suggest resistance to some second-line drugs, highlighting the importance of antifungal susceptibility assessment in the clinical practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 05:26:39 +000
       
  • The Incidence of Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Canada, Foodbook Survey
           2014-2015

    • Abstract: Acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) is an important public health issue, with many pathogen sources and modes of transmission. A one-year telephone survey was conducted in Canada (2014-2015) to estimate the incidence of self-reported AGI in the previous 28 days and to describe health care seeking behaviour, using a symptom-based case definition. Excluding cases with respiratory symptoms, it is estimated that there are 0.57 self-reported AGI episodes per person-year, almost 19.5 million episodes in Canada each year. The proportion of cases seeking medical care was nearly 9%, of which 17% reported being requested to submit a sample for laboratory testing, and 49% of those requested complied and provided a sample. Results can be used to inform burden of illness and source attribution studies and indicate that AGI continues to be an important public health issue in Canada.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 06:43:05 +000
       
  • In Vitro Activity of Iclaprim against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus
           aureus Nonsusceptible to Daptomycin, Linezolid, or Vancomycin: A Pilot
           Study

    • Abstract: Iclaprim is a bacterial dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor in Phase 3 clinical development for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Daptomycin, linezolid, and vancomycin are commonly used antibiotics for these indications. With increased selective pressure to these antibiotics, outbreaks of bacterial resistance to these antibiotics have been reported. This in vitro pilot study evaluated the activity of iclaprim against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, which were also not susceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, or vancomycin. Iclaprim had an MIC ≤ 1 µg/ml to the majority of MRSA isolates that were nonsusceptible to daptomycin (5 of 7 (71.4%)), linezolid (26 of 26 (100%)), or vancomycin (19 of 28 (66.7%)). In the analysis of time-kill curves, iclaprim demonstrated ≥ 3 log10 reduction in CFU/mL at 4–8 hours for tested strains and isolates nonsusceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, or vancomycin. Together, these data support the use of iclaprim in serious infections caused by MRSA nonsusceptible to daptomycin, linezolid, or vancomycin.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vitro Assessment of Antifungal Caspofungin on Leishmania donovani
           Culture Isolation

    • Abstract: Leishmania parasite isolation from the human aspirates is always challenging due to most probability of the fungal contamination and the use of antifungal drug which could support the selective growth of the Leishmania parasite. In this study, we examine the effect of antifungal drug caspofungin on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani. Promastigote parasite was cultivated in M199 + 20% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum and plated in 96-well plates. Seven different concentrations of caspofungin (512 µg/ml to 8 µg/ml) were exposed to parasites, and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was calculated. Candida spp. was used in the experiments to know the efficacy of caspofungin to inhibit fungal growth. The IC50 values of Leishmania strains ranged from 23.02 to 155.80 µg/ml (mean 90.25 ± 39.01 µg/ml), and it was significantly higher ( value = 0.02) than IC50 values of Candida spp. (ranged from 0.001 to 0.12 µg/ml, mean = 0.05 ± 0.05 µg/ml). The reduced growth rate of the parasite was found with exposure to 50 µg/ml of caspofungin. Growth inhibition of Leishmania donovani is significantly lower with caspofungin and could be used to protect the parasite cultivation from fungal contamination.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Clinical and Mortality Risk Factors in Bloodstream Infections with
           Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the risk factors underlying the occurrence and mortality of bloodstream infections (BSIs) with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Methods. Medical information was retrospectively analyzed from 148 cases of patients with Enterobacteriaceae BSIs at a medical center in China, between 2013 and 2015. Results. The 30-day mortality rate in the CRE group was 65.4%. Indwelling urethral catheterization, admission to the ICU, use of antibiotics within 30 days, and BSIs from the respiratory system were associated with CRE BSIs. Lung infection, abdominal infection, central venous catheterization, and use of hormones within 30 days were associated with mortality. Conclusion. The 30-day mortality rate of CRE BSIs was high. Lung infections, abdominal infections, central venous catheterization, and use of hormones within 30 days increased the mortality rate of Enterobacteriaceae BSIs.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Inflammasomes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Driven Immunity

    • Abstract: The development of effective innate and subsequent adaptive host immune responses is highly dependent on the production of proinflammatory cytokines that increase the activity of immune cells. The key role in this process is played by inflammasomes, multimeric protein complexes serving as a platform for caspase-1, an enzyme responsible for proteolytic cleavage of IL-1β and IL-18 precursors. Inflammasome activation, which triggers the multifaceted activity of these two proinflammatory cytokines, is a prerequisite for developing an efficient inflammatory response against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). This review focuses on the role of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes in M.tb-driven immunity.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 09:22:12 +000
       
  • Evaluation of the Utility of Point-of-Care HIV Testing on a Canadian
           Internal Medicine Inpatient Unit

    • Abstract: Point-of-care (POC) HIV testing has been shown to be an acceptable method for increasing HIV testing uptake. To date, no studies have examined the use of POC testing for routine HIV screening on the medicine inpatient unit. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted over a three-month period in July, August, and October 2016 to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV and the attitudes towards routine POC HIV testing. Patients admitted directly to medicine inpatient teaching units at a tertiary hospital in Winnipeg, Canada, were approached for participation. The POC HIV test was administered at the bedside. Reactive and indeterminate tests were confirmed with standard serological HIV testing. Participants were given a questionnaire regarding their attitudes towards POC testing on the unit. Although no cases of previously undiagnosed HIV were identified during the study period, only 35% of participants were found to have ever had HIV testing previously. The majority of participants were satisfied with the POC testing experience and would choose to have the POC testing again. Overall, the low rate of outpatient testing highlights the need for routine HIV testing on an inpatient basis.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 07:12:56 +000
       
  • Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Colistin Nonsusceptible Nosocomial
           Acinetobacter baumannii Strains from Russia for 2013-2014

    • Abstract: A high level of resistance to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii strains severely limits therapeutic possibilities. Colistin is the last resort drug against such strains, although the cases of resistance to this drug have become more frequent. This article presents the epidemiological features and genetic diversity of colistin nonsusceptible A. baumannii strains collected as part of a national multicenter epidemiological study of the antibiotic resistance of pathogens of nosocomial infections (MARATHON), which was conducted in 2013-2014 in Russia. A total of 527 A. baumannii isolates were collected, 10 (1.9%) of which were nonsusceptible to colistin. The majority of nonsusceptible A. baumannii isolates to colistin showed resistance to carbapenems and had the genes of the acquired OXA-40-like carbapenemases (). In one case, a combination of OXA-23-like + OXA-40-like () genes was identified. One strain had the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype, 6 isolates had extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype, and 3 isolates had pandrug-resistant (PDR) phenotype. Among the colistin nonsusceptible A. baumannii isolates, 6 individual genotypes were identified, most of which belonged to successful international clones (, ; , ; , ).
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Colistin Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Snakes in
           Taiwan

    • Abstract: This study included fifty-eight isolates of P. aeruginosa from the oral cavity of snakes that were recruited from clinical cases, captive and wild snakes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the determination of susceptibility were identified by the broth microdilution method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to detect β-lactamases genes. With regard to antipseudomonal antibiotics, the lowest nonsusceptible rates were in aztreonam (15%), piperacillin/tazobactam (12%), and amikacin (9%). The nonsusceptible rates were high in gentamicin (33%) and colistin (55%). Meanwhile, presented in 100% of isolates where ,, and came at 94.8%, 89.7%, and 27.6%, respectively. Emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains and colistin-resistant strains highlights the potential breach of public health as P. aeruginosa could be transmitted through either direct contact or indirect dissemination through the environment. This study reports that the highly resistant P. aeruginosa from snakes’ oral cavity were discovered for the very first time in Taiwan.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 09:00:02 +000
       
  • Roles of Interferons in Pregnant Women with Dengue Infection: Protective
           or Dangerous Factors

    • Abstract: Dengue infection is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. With the recent outbreaks of Zika disease and its reported correlation with microcephaly, the large number of pregnancies with dengue infection has become a serious concern. This review describes the epidemiological characteristics of pregnancy with dengue and the initial immune response to dengue infection, especially in IFNs production in this group of patients. Dengue is much more prevalent in pregnant women compared with other populations. The severity of dengue is correlated with the level of IFNs, while the serum IFN level must be sufficiently high to maintain the pregnancy and to inhibit virus replication.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 07:02:01 +000
       
  • Evidences of the Low Implication of Mosquitoes in the Transmission of
           Mycobacterium ulcerans, the Causative Agent of Buruli Ulcer

    • Abstract: Background. Buruli ulcer (BU) continues to be a serious public health threat in wet tropical regions and the mode of transmission of its etiological agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), remains poorly understood. In this study, mosquito species collected in endemic villages in Benin were screened for the presence of MU. In addition, the ability of mosquitoes larvae to pick up MU from their environment and remain colonized through the larval developmental stages to the adult stage was investigated. Methods. 7,218 adults and larvae mosquitoes were sampled from endemic and nonendemic villages and screened for MU DNA targets (IS2404, IS2606, and KR-B) using qPCR. Results. MU was not detected in any of the field collected samples. Additional studies of artificially infected larvae of Anopheles kisumu with MU strains revealed that mosquitoes larvae are able to ingest and host MU during L1, L2, L3, and L4 developmental stages. However, we noticed an absence of these bacteria at both pupae and adult stages, certainly revealing the low ability of infected or colonized mosquitoes to vertically transmit MU to their offspring. Conclusion. The overall findings highlight the low implication of mosquitoes as biological vectors in the transmission cycle of MU from the risk environments to humans.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 06:54:34 +000
       
  • Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Tinea Pedis and Tinea Unguium in
           Tunisia

    • Abstract: Background. Foot mycoses are a frequent disease that represents a public health problem worldwide. Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of foot mycoses among Tunisian patients, in order to determine the fungal etiological agents and to identify possible risk factors. Patients and Methods. A prospective study of three hundred and ninety-two patients was undertaken during one year (2013-2014). All subjects were asked to collect demographic data related to the risk factors of foot mycoses. A complete mycological diagnosis was carried out on all patients. Results. A total of 485 samples were collected; tinea pedis and tinea unguium were confirmed in 88.2% of cases. Dermatophytes were isolated in 70.5% and the most frequent pathogen was Trichophyton rubrum (98.1%), followed by yeasts (17.7%) commonly Candida parapsilosis. Non-dermatophyte molds (NDMs) were observed in 8.02% cases and Fusarium sp. was the frequent genus (29.1%). The main predisposing factors of fungal foot infections were practicing ritual washing (56.6%) and frequentation of communal showers (50.5%). Conclusion. This is a recent survey of foot mycoses in Tunisia. Epidemiological studies can be useful to eradicate these infections and to provide further measures of hygiene and education.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Aug 2017 06:57:55 +000
       
  • The Role of Adjunctive Therapies in Septic Shock by Gram Negative MDR/XDR
           Infections

    • Abstract: Patients with septic shock by multidrug resistant microorganisms (MDR) are a specific sepsis population with a high mortality risk. The exposure to an initial inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy has been considered responsible for the increased mortality, although other factors such as immune-paralysis seem to play a pivotal role. Therefore, beyond conventional early antibiotic therapy and fluid resuscitation, this population may benefit from the use of alternative strategies aimed at supporting the immune system. In this review we present an overview of the relationship between MDR infections and immune response and focus on the rationale and the clinical data available on the possible adjunctive immunotherapies, including blood purification techniques and different pharmacological approaches.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 07:18:42 +000
       
  • First Insight into a Nationwide Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis among Previously Treated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in
           Benin, West Africa

    • Abstract: Background. Molecular studies on tuberculosis (TB) are rare in low-resource countries like Benin, where data on molecular study on previously treated TB cases is unavailable. Materials and Methods. From January to December 2014, all smear- and culture-positive previously treated pulmonary TB patients from all TB clinics were systematically recruited. Drug susceptibility testing and spoligotyping were performed on all isolates. Results. Of the 100 patients recruited, 71 (71.0%) were relapse cases and 24 (24.0%) were failure cases, while 5 (5.0%) were default cases. Resistance rate to any first-line drug was 40.0%, while 12.0% of strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR) and no strain was extensively drug-resistant (XDR). A total of 40 distinct spoligotypes were found to be corresponding to a genotypic diversity of 40.0%. ST61 was the most predominant spoligotype with prevalence of 33.0%. In all, 31 single spoligotypes and nine clusters were observed with 2 to 33 strains per cluster giving a clustering rate of 69.0%. Euro-American (Lineage 4) was the most prevalent lineage (74.0%) and Lineage 2 was associated with resistance to streptomycin. Conclusion. This first insight into genetic diversity of previously treated pulmonary TB patients in Benin showed a relatively high genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Species of Public Health and
           Veterinary Importance from Cattle in the South State of México

    • Abstract: Mycobacterium genus causes a variety of zoonotic diseases. The best known example is the zoonotic tuberculosis due to M. bovis. Much less is known about “nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM),” which are also associated with infections in humans. The Mexican standard NOM-ZOO-031-1995 regulates the presence of M. bovis in cattle; however, no regulation exists for the NTM species. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify nontuberculous mycobacteria species from cattle of local herds in the south region of the State of Mexico through the identification and detection of the 100 bp molecular marker in the 23S rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Milk samples (35) and nasal exudate samples (68) were collected. From the 108 strains isolated, 39 were selected for identification. Thirteen strains isolated from nasal exudates amplified the 100 bp molecular marker and were identified as M. neoaurum (six strains), M. parafortuitum (four strains), M. moriokaense (two strains), and M. confluentis (one strain). Except M. parafortuitum, the other species identified are of public health and veterinary concern because they are pathogenic to humans, especially those with underlying medical conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pathogenicity of Virulent Species of Group C Streptococci in Human

    • Abstract: Group C streptococci (GCS) are livestock pathogens and they often cause zoonotic diseases in humans. They are Gram-positive, in mostly β-hemolytic and facultative anaerobes. Because of their close evolutionary kinship with group A streptococci (GAS), GCS share many common virulence factors with GAS and cause a similar range of diseases. Due to the exchange of genetic material with GAS, GCS belong to bacteria that are difficult to be distinguished from group A streptococci; GCS are often treated in microbiological diagnostics as contamination of the culture. This report focuses mainly on the pathogenicity of virulent species of GCS and their association with human diseases. The condition that is most frequently quoted is pharyngitis. In this paper, the virulence factors have also been mentioned and an interesting link has been made between GCS and the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases among the native people of India and Aboriginal populations.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pelvic Actinomycosis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Actinomycosis is a chronic bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Its symptomatology imitates some malignant pelvic tumours, tuberculosis, or nocardiosis, causing abscesses and fistulas. Actinomycoses are opportunistic infections and require normal mucous barriers to be altered. No epidemiological studies have been conducted to determine prevalence or incidence of such infections. Objective. To analyse the clinical cases of pelvic actinomycosis reported worldwide, to update the information about the disease. Methods. A systematic review of worldwide pelvic actinomycosis cases between 1980 and 2014 was performed, utilising the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. The following information was analysed: year, country, type of study, number of cases, use of intrauterine device (IUD), final and initial diagnosis, and method of diagnosis. Results. 63 articles met the search criteria, of which 55 reported clinical cases and 8 reported cross-sectional studies. Conclusions. Pelvic actinomycosis is confusing to diagnose and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pelvic chronic inflammatory lesions. It is commonly diagnosed through a histological report, obtained after a surgery subsequent to an erroneous initial diagnosis. A bacterial culture in anaerobic medium could be useful for the diagnosis but requires a controlled technique and should be performed using specialised equipment.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluating the Timeliness of Enteric Disease Surveillance in British
           Columbia, Canada, 2012-13

    • Abstract: Timely surveillance of enteric diseases is necessary to identify and control cases and outbreaks. Our objective was to evaluate the timeliness of enteric disease surveillance in British Columbia, Canada, compare these results to other settings, and recommend improvements. In 2012 and 2013, information was collected from case report forms and laboratory information systems on 2615 Salmonella, shigatoxin-producing E. coli, Shigella, and Listeria infections. Twelve date variables representing the surveillance process from onset of symptoms to case interview and final laboratory results were collected, and intervals were measured. The median time from onset of symptoms to reporting subtyping results to BC epidemiologists was 26–36 days and from onset of symptoms to case interview was 12–14 days. Our findings were comparable to the international literature except for a longer time (up to 29 day difference) to reporting of PFGE results to epidemiologists in BC. Such a delay may impact our ability to identify and solve outbreaks. Several process and system changes were implemented which should improve the timeliness of enteric disease surveillance.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 10:29:32 +000
       
  • Development and Validation of a Decision-Making Stratification Algorithm
           to Optimize the Use of Rapid Diagnostic Testing for Patients with
           Staphylococcus Bacteremia

    • Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate whether introducing rapid diagnostic testing in conjunction with implementing a stratification algorithm for testing eligibility would be an appropriate clinical and cost saving approach. Method. An internal concurrent 4-month observational study was performed. Positive blood cultures continued to be worked up in accordance with standard of care. An additional call to the infectious disease (ID) pharmacy service occurred for all positive blood cultures with Gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC). The ID pharmacy service investigated each case using a prespecified stratification algorithm to minimize unnecessary use of rapid identification testing. Results. 43 patients with GPCC were screened. Only nine patients met inclusion criteria for QuickFISH™ testing. The average expected time avoided to optimize antibiotic therapy is hours. If the QuickFISH test had been indiscriminately implemented for all cases, the cost for performing this test would have been $5,590. However, using the prespecified algorithm, only 9 patients were tested for a projected cost of $1,170. Conclusion. Introducing rapid diagnostic testing in conjunction with implementing patient stratification algorithm for rapid identification of GPCC from blood cultures in addition to the ID pharmacy intervention will provide a positive impact on the clinical and economic outcomes in our health care setting.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 07:52:03 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Detection of Gastrointestinal Pathogens from Stool
           Samples on Hemoccult Cards by Multiplex PCR”

    • PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluating the Trends of Bloodstream Infections among Pediatric and Adult
           Patients at a Teaching Hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal: Role of Drug
           Resistant Pathogens

    • Abstract: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the significant causes of morbidity and mortality for patients of all age groups. However, very little is known about the trends of bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibilities among pediatric and adult population from Nepal. In this study, we have investigated the different etiological agents responsible for bloodstream infections among pediatric and adult patients and the role of drug resistant organisms in these infections at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. A total of 3,088 blood culture specimens obtained from pediatric and adult patients suspected to have bloodstream infections were processed by standard microbiological methods. Significant bacterial pathogens were identified by morphological, biochemical, and serological methods as suggested by American Society for Microbiology. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted according to the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Overall, incidence of bloodstream infections among the suspected patients was 7.48%. Pediatric patients (, 9.37%) were the significant subgroup of patients affected with bloodstream infections compared to adults (, CI-95%). Gram positive (, 54.4%) bacteria in pediatric and gram negative bacteria (, 78.7%) in adult patients were the most common isolates for BSI. Staphylococcus aureus (, 45.6%) in pediatric patients and Salmonella enterica (, 28.3%) in adult patients were the leading pathogens. Trends of antimicrobial resistance among isolated bacterial strains were significantly high in adults compared to pediatric patients. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (31.4%), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) (12.5%), and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) (3.9%) producing gram negatives were major resistant strains. Our study shows higher rates of bloodstream infections in pediatric patients compared to adult patients. Alarming rates of antimicrobial resistance among blood culture isolates is a serious issue. Prompt and accurate diagnosis and rational antimicrobial therapy are extremely needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria: Comparison of Manual and Automated
           Diagnostic Tests

    • Abstract: Malaria is the second most prevalent disease in Pakistan resulting in ~30,000 annual deaths. In endemic countries like Pakistan precise and timely diagnosis of malaria is imperative to overcome the associated risks of fatal outcomes. Malarial parasite was screened in 128 malaria suspected patients and 150 healthy controls, by species-specific PCR, microscopy of blood smears, hemoanalyzer Sysmex XE-2100, and rapid test devices (First Response Malaria® and ICT Malaria Combo®). The microscopy detected MP in 126 samples (parasite load/µl 386–53712/µl); 71.094% were infected with Plasmodium vivax and 14.844% with P. falciparum while 14.062% had mixed P. vivax and P. falciparum infection. The mean parasite load for P. vivax and P. falciparum was 14496/µl and 24410/µl, respectively. The abnormal scattergrams of DIFF, WBC/ Baso, IMI channel, and RET-EXT on Sysmex XE-2100 supported 99.2% parasite detection, whereas only 93% of confirmed malaria cases were detected by both rapid tests. About 127 samples were positive by PCR. Since Sysmex XE-2100 automatically detected the presence of malarial parasite with high sensitivity, it can be a good option for presumptive diagnosis in endemic areas. Microscopy remains the gold standard to confirm MP in suspected patients. Rapid diagnostic tests have acceptable sensitivity and specificity.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 05:59:33 +000
       
  • Bacteraemia in Intensive Care Unit: Clinical, Bacteriological, and
           Prognostic Prospective Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. We conducted a one-year observational study from December 2012 to November 2013 to describe the epidemiology of bacteraemia in intensive care units (ICU) of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat (Morocco). Methods. The study consisted of monitoring all blood cultures coming from intensive care units and studying the bacteriological profile of positive blood cultures as well as their clinical significance. Results. During this period, a total of 46 episodes of bacteraemia occurred, which corresponds to a rate of 15,4/1000 patients. The rate of nosocomial infections was 97% versus 3% for community infections. The most common source of bacteraemia was the lungs in 33%, but no source was identified in 52% of the episodes. Gram negative organisms were isolated in 83,6% of the cases with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most frequent. Antibiotic resistance was very high with 42,5% of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Enterobacteriaceae and 100% of carbapenemase in Acinetobacter baumannii. The antibiotherapy introduced in the first 24 hours was adequate in 72% of the cases. Conclusions. Bloodstream infections in ICU occur most often in patients over 55 years, with hypertension and diabetes. The bacteria involved are mainly Gram negative bacteria multiresistant to antibiotics. Early administration of antibiotics significantly reduces patients mortality.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Detection of Gastrointestinal Pathogens from Stool Samples on Hemoccult
           Cards by Multiplex PCR

    • Abstract: Purpose. Up to 30% of international travelers are affected by travelers’ diarrhea (TD). Reliable data on the etiology of TD is lacking. Sufficient laboratory capacity at travel destinations is often unavailable and transporting conventional stool samples to the home country is inconvenient. We evaluated the use of Hemoccult cards for stool sampling combined with a multiplex PCR for the detection of model viral, bacterial, and protozoal TD pathogens. Methods. Following the creation of serial dilutions for each model pathogen, last positive dilution steps (LPDs) and thereof calculated last positive sample concentrations (LPCs) were compared between conventional stool samples and card samples. Furthermore, card samples were tested after a prolonged time interval simulating storage during a travel duration of up to 6 weeks. Results. The LPDs/LPCs were comparable to testing of conventional stool samples. After storage on Hemoccult cards, the recovery rate was 97.6% for C. jejuni, 100% for E. histolytica, 97.6% for norovirus GI, and 100% for GII. Detection of expected pathogens was possible at weekly intervals up to 42 days. Conclusion. Stool samples on Hemoccult cards stored at room temperature can be used in combination with a multiplex PCR as a reliable tool for testing of TD pathogens.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vitro Susceptibility of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Selected
           Antimicrobials

    • Abstract: Background. The current definitive treatment of Buruli ulcer with antibiotics makes the issue of antimicrobial drug resistance an unavoidable one. This is as a result of drug misuse by health personnel and patients’ noncompliance to treatment regimen. Monitoring of these factors and screening for new effective antimicrobials are crucial to effective management of Buruli ulcer disease. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory activity of some antibiotics against isolates of Mycobacterium ulcerans. Methods. Activity of eight antibiotics was tested against twelve M. ulcerans isolates (2 reference strains and 10 clinical isolates). The anti-M. ulcerans activities were determined by the agar dilution method and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar proportion method. Results. All antimicrobials investigated had activity against M. ulcerans isolates tested. The MICs ranged from 0.16 μg/mL to 2.5 μg/mL. Azithromycin recorded the highest inhibitory activity at a mean MIC of 0.39 μg/mL, whilst clofazimine a second-line antileprosy drug, recorded the lowest at a mean MIC of 2.19 μg/mL. Among the four antituberculosis drugs, rifampicin had the highest activity with a mean MIC of 0.81 μg/mL. Conclusion. Azithromycin could be considered as a lucrative alternative to existing treatment methods for inhibiting M. ulcerans in Ghana.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 08:14:54 +000
       
  • Cryptosporidium Contamination and Attributed Risks in Yunlong Lake in
           Xuzhou, China

    • Abstract: Swimming in surface water bodies (e.g., lakes, rivers) can expose the human body to substantial risk of infection by Cryptosporidium. These findings are from a one-year investigation on the occurrence and distribution of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium in Yunlong Lake, Xuzhou, China. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From January to November of 2015, 180 samples (120 water samples and 60 sediment samples) were collected and analyzed. Among them, 42 (35%) water samples and 28 (47%) sediment samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the water samples was 0–8/10 L and 0–260/g in sediment samples. Results revealed that July was the highest risk period for both swimming and diving with an estimated probability of infection from swimming of greater than 18 per 10,000 swim sessions. It was concluded that swimming or diving in Yunlong Lake has a higher risk of Cryptosporidium infection than the acceptable risk level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, regular monitoring of water quality in recreation water bodies is strongly recommended.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 07:29:32 +000
       
  • Epidemiology and Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients with Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral
           Therapy

    • Abstract: Purpose. The impact of critical illness on survival of HIV-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy remains uncertain. We describe the epidemiology of critical illness in this population and identify predictors of mortality. Materials and Methods. Retrospective cohort of HIV-infected patients was admitted to intensive care from 2002 to 2014. Patient sociodemographics, comorbidities, case-mix, illness severity, and 30-day mortality were captured. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of mortality. Results. Of 282 patients, mean age was 44 years (SD 10) and 169 (59%) were male. Median (IQR) CD4 count and plasma viral load (PVL) were 125 cells/mm3 (30–300) and 28,000 copies/mL (110–270,000). Fifty-five (20%) patients died within 30 days. Factors independently associated with mortality included APACHE II score (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.12; 95% CI 1.08–1.16; ), cirrhosis (aHR 2.30; 95% CI 1.12–4.73; ), coronary artery disease (aHR 6.98; 95% CI 2.20–22.13; ), and duration of HIV infection (aHR 1.07 per year; 95% CI 1.02–1.13; ). CD4 count and PVL were not associated with mortality. Conclusions. Mortality from an episode of critical illness in HIV-infected patients remains high but appears to be driven by acute illness severity and HIV-unrelated comorbid disease rather than degree of immune suppression.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Performance of Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid
           Cells-1 in Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia of Patients with Ischemic
           Stroke

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the effect of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), endotracheal aspiration (ETA), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) samples as early biomarkers for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients with ischemic stroke. Methods. One hundred and thirty-two patients with clinically suspected VAP were enrolled in this study. Bronchoscopy was performed on the day of clinically suspected VAP. sTREM-1 levels in serum, BALF, ETA, and EBC were measured. VAP was diagnosed by quantitative cultures of BALF (≥104 cfu/mL). Results. VAP was confirmed in 76 (57.58%) cases. Patients with VAP showed significantly higher sTREM-1 in BALF [32.35 (IQR, 30.08–41.72) versus 18.92 (11.89–31.72)] pg/mL and in EBC [1.57 (IQR, 1.02–2.61) versus 0.41 (0.19–1.61)] pg/mL than patients without VAP. The area under the curve was 0.813 (). The optimum cut-off value for sTREM-1 in BALF was 23.61 pg/mL, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 73.1%. sTREM-1 in BALF had excellent correlation with that in EBC ( = 0.78, ). Conclusions. sTREM-1 in EBC and BALF had good diagnostic performance in differentiating patients with and without VAP.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Feb 2017 08:35:43 +000
       
 
 
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