Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.548
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1712-9532 - ISSN (Online) 1918-1493
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Frequent Recurrences of Genital Herpes Are Associated with Enhanced
           Systemic HSV-Specific T Cell Response

    • Abstract: Objectives. Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is controlled by HSV-specific T cells in the genital tract, and the role of systemic T cell responses is not fully understood. Thus, we analysed T cell responses in patients with recurrent genital herpes (GH). Methods. T cell responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2 native antigens and the expression of HLA-DR and CD38 molecules on circulating CD8+ T cells were analysed in adults with high frequency of GH recurrences (19 patients) and low frequency of GH recurrences (7 patients) and 12 HSV-2 seronegative healthy controls. The study utilized the interferon-γ Elispot assay for measurement of spot-forming cells (SFC) after ex vivo stimulation with HSV antigens and flow cytometry for analysis of the expression of activation markers in unstimulated T cells. Results. The patients with high frequency of GH recurrences (mean number of recurrences of 13.3 per year) had significantly enhanced HSV-specific T cell responses than the HSV-2 seronegative healthy controls. Moreover, a trend of higher numbers of SFC was observed in these patients when compared with those with low frequency of GH recurrences (mean number of recurrences of 3.3 per year). Additionally, no differences in CD38 and HLA-DR expression on circulating CD8+ T cells were found among the study groups. Conclusions. Frequency of GH recurrences positively correlates with high numbers of systemic HSV-specific T cells.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IFN-γ Signaling Pathway Associated
           with Risk of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Chinese Children

    • Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a challenging public health problem in China and worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is one of the main transmission routes of HBV in highly endemic regions. However, the mechanisms of HBV perinatal transmission in children have not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IFN-γ signaling pathway and HBV infection or breakthrough infection in children. Two hundred and seventy-four HBV-infected children defined as test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 353 controls defined as negative for HBsAg in China were recruited from October 2013 to May 2015. SNPs in IFN-γ signaling pathway including IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, and IL12B were genotyped. Rs2234711 in IFNGR1 was significantly associated with HBV infection in children (OR = 0.641, 95% CI: 0.450–0.913). In addition, rs2234711 was also significantly associated with HBV breakthrough infection in children born to HBsAg-positive mothers (OR = 0.452, 95% CI: 0.205–0.998). Our study confirmed that genetic variants in IFN-γ signaling pathway have significant associations with HBV infection, especially with HBV breakthrough in children. This study provides insight into HBV infection in children and could be used to help design effective strategies for reducing immunoprophylaxis failure.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 02:20:09 +000
  • Comparative Study of Clostridium difficile Clinical Detection Methods in
           Patients with Diarrhoea

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of three methods for detecting Clostridium difficile in fecal samples. Methods. One hundred and fifty fecal specimens were collected and tested for C. difficile using three methods: (1) the toxigenic culture (TC); (2) the VIDAS enzyme immunoassay (EIA): the VIDAS glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) assay and toxin A/B assay were used to detect GDH antigen and A/B toxin; and (3) the GeneXpert PCR assay. The toxigenic culture was used as a reference to evaluate the performance of the VIDAS EIA and the GeneXpert PCR assay. Results. Of 150 specimens, 26 carried both A and B toxin genes, and none of the samples were positive for the binary toxin gene. Toxin-producing C. difficile was found in 17.3% (26/150) of the samples. Thirty-seven GDH-positive samples were detected using the VIDAS GDH assay, and 15 toxin-positive samples were detected using the VIDAS toxin A/B assay. The GeneXpert PCR assay was used to detect C. difficile in 79 specimens simultaneously, and a total of 18 positive specimens were detected. Conclusion. The VIDAS GDH assay is useful for initial screening of C. difficile. The GeneXpert PCR assay is a simple and quick method.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 04:20:05 +000
  • Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Salmonella, Shigella, and
           Intestinal Parasites among Food Handlers in Motta Town, North West

    • Abstract: Background. Intestinal parasite, Salmonella, and Shigella infections are the main public health concerns in the world, especially in developing countries due to inaccessibility of safe water and unhygienic food handling practices of food handlers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in food handlers in Motta town, from February 2019 to April 2019. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Salmonella, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among 243 food handlers. Sociodemographic and risk factors were collected using pretested structured questionnaire. The stool sample was collected and examined with direct wet mount and concentration techniques. Culture was performed using xylose lysine deoxycholate agar and MacConkey agar and biochemical tests like Klinger iron agar (KIA), lysine iron agar (LIA), Simmons citrate agar, sulphide indole motility test, citrate utilization, and urease production test were conducted to isolate Salmonella species and Shigella species. An antibiotics susceptibility test was performed with Mueller-Hinton agar using the disk diffusion method. Data were entered using statistical package Epi-Data Version 3.1 and analysed with logistic regression using SPSS version 25 and Fisher’s exact test. A p value 
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 14:20:13 +000
  • Quantitative Anti-HBc in Liver Pathological States in Patients with
           Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    • Abstract: Background. Changes of hepatitis B core antigen antibody (anti-HBc) in liver pathological involvement in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have not been investigated in detail. This study aimed to explore evolving patterns of anti-HBc following liver pathological states and to investigate validities of anti-HBc for predicting liver pathological states. Methods. 254 HBeAg-positive and 237 HBeAg-negative patients with chronic HBV infection were enrolled. Liver pathological diagnoses referred to Scheuer standard, and anti-HBc was measured using chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay. Results. Anti-HBc was significantly positively correlated with pathological grades and stages in both HBeAg-positive (rs = 0.312, , and rs = 0.268, ) and HBeAg-negative (rs = 0.270, , and rs = 0.147, ) patients. The medians of anti-HBc in pathological grades of G1, G2, and G3 and stages of S1, S2, S3, and S4 in HBeAg-positive patients were all significantly lower than those in HBeAg-negative patients (all ). The areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (95% confidence interval) of anti-HBc for predicting pathological grades ≥G2 and ≥G3, and stages ≥S2 and =S4 in HBeAg-positive patients were 0.683 (0.622–0.740) and 0.662 (0.601–0.720), and 0.627 (0.564–0.687) and 0.683 (0.622–0.740), respectively, and in HBeAg-negative patients were 0.681 (0.618–0.740) and 0.702 (0.639–0.760), and 0.569 (0.503–0.633) and 0.630 (0.565–0.691), respectively. Conclusion. Following hepatic aggravation of necroinflammation and progression of fibrosis, anti-HBc increases gradually in HBeAg-positive patients and continues to increase gradually in HBeAg-negative patients, which is a useful but unsatisfactory marker for monitoring pathological states.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Dec 2019 03:05:01 +000
  • Virulence Factors of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile Linked to
           Recurrent Infections

    • Abstract: From 20 to 30% of Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI), patients might develop recurrence of the infection (RCDI) and, after the first recurrence, the risk of further episodes increases up to 60%. Several bacterial virulence factors have been associated with RCDI, including the elevated production of toxins A and B, the presence of a binary toxin CDT, and mutations in the negative regulator of toxin expression, tcdC. Additional factors have shown to regulate toxin production and virulence in C. difficile in RCDI, including the accessory-gene regulator agr, which acts as a positive switch for toxin transcription. Furthermore, adhesion and motility-associated factors, such as Cwp84, SlpA, and flagella, have shown to increase the adhesion efficiency to host epithelia, cell internalization, and the formation of biofilm. Finally, biofilm confers to C. difficile protection from antibiotics and acts as a reservoir for spores that allow the persistence of the infection in the host. In this review, we describe the key virulence factors of C. difficile that have been associated with recurrent infections.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Dec 2019 07:20:04 +000
  • Statistical Modeling of HIV, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis B Transmission in

    • Abstract: Most mortality studies usually attribute death to single disease, while various other diseases could also act in the same individual or a population at large. Few works have been done by considering HIV, Tuberculosis (TB), and Hepatitis B (HB) as jointly acting in a population in spite of their high rate of infections in Ghana. This study applied competing risk methods on these three diseases by assuming they were the major risks in the study population. Among all opportunistic infections that could also act within HIV-infected individuals, TB has been asserted to be the most predominant. Other studies have also shown cases of HIV and Hepatitis B coinfections. The validity of these comorbidity assertions was statistically determined by exploring the conditional dependencies existing among HIV, TB, and HB through Bayesian networks or directed graphical model. Through Classification tree, sex and age group of individuals were found as significant demographic predictors that influence the prevalence of HIV and TB. Females were more likely to contract HIV, whereas males were prone to contracting TB.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Dec 2019 07:20:03 +000
  • Biofilm Formation and Detection of Fluoroquinolone- and

    • Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen that shows resistance to cephalosporins, penicillins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides, the multiresistance being associated with its ability to form biofilms in clinical environments. The aim of this study was to determine biofilm formation and its potential association with genes involved in antibiotic resistance mechanisms of A. baumannii isolates of different clinical specimens. We demonstrated 100% of the A. baumannii isolates examined to be multidrug resistant (MDR), presenting a 73.3% susceptibility to cefepime and a 53.3% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. All A. baumannii isolates were positive for blaOXA-51, 33.3% being positive for blaOXA-23 and ISAba1, and 73.3% being positive for gyrA. We found 86.6% of A. baumannii strains to be low-grade biofilm formers and 13.3% to be biofilm negative; culturing on Congo red agar (CRA) plates revealed that 73.3% of the A. baumannii isolates to be biofilm producers, while 26.6% were not. These properties, combined with the role of A. baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen, increase the probability of A. baumannii causing nosocomial infections and outbreaks as a complication during therapeutic treatments and emphasize the need to control A. baumannii biofilms in hospital environments.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Dec 2019 13:35:02 +000
  • Candida Bloodstream Infection: Changing Pattern of Occurrence and
           Antifungal Susceptibility over 10 Years in a Tertiary Care Saudi

    • Abstract: Background. Candida has emerged as one of the most important pathogens that cause bloodstream infection (BSI).Understanding the current Candida BSI trends, the dominant species causing disease and the mortality associated with this infection are crucial to optimize therapeutic and prophylaxis measures. Objectives. To study the epidemiology and to evaluate the risk factors, prognostic factors, and mortality associated with candidemia and to compare these findings with previously published studies from Saudi Arabia. Design. A retrospective medical record review. Setting. Tertiary hospital in Riyadh. Patients and Methods. The analysis included all cases of Candida blood stream infection who are >18 years old over the period from 2013 to 2018. Continuous variables were compared using the parametric T-test while categorical variables were compared using the Chi-squared test. Main Outcome Measure. Incidence, resistance, and hospital outcomes in Candida blood stream infection. Sample Size. 324 patients. Results. Three hundred and twenty-four episodes of Candida blood stream infections were identified. Median age of patients was 49.7 SD ± 28.1 years, and 53% of patients were males. More than half of the patients had an underlying disease involving the abdomen or laparotomy, 78% had an indwelling intravenous catheter, and 62% had suffered a bacterial infection within 2 weeks prior to candidemia. Candida albicans represents 33% of all isolates with decreasing trend overtime. There was an increase in the number of nonalbicans Candida overtime with Candida tropicalis in the lead (20%). Use of broad spectrum antibiotics (82%), prior ICU admission (60%) and use of central venous catheters (58%) were the most prevalent predisposing factors of candidemia. Azole resistance was variable overtime. Resistance to caspofungin remained very low (1.9%). Fourteen days crude mortality was 37% for ICU patients and 26.7% in non-ICU patients, while hospital crude mortality was 64.4% and 46.7%, respectively. Conclusion. There is an increasing trend of nonalbicans Candida blood stream infection. Fluconazole resistance remained low to C. albicans. Most isolates remain susceptible to caspofungin, voriconazole, and amphotericin B. Candida bloodstream infection is associated with high 14-day hospital mortality.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 10:20:01 +000
  • Survey of Traveler’s Diarrhea: Epidemiology and Testing Reveal the

    • Abstract: Objective. To understand the causes and transmission routes of, as well as risk factors, for a Salmonella outbreak in a tour group. Method. A retrospective cohort design was used to conduct an epidemiological field investigation. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, bacterial culture, and serological identification methods were used for pathogen detection and identification. Result. There were 7 cases of illness, and the attack rate was 46.67%. The onset date was concentrated on May 9 and 10. All cases were found in the tour group, and no cases occurred in the nontour group. The results of this retrospective cohort study showed that the consumption of boiled eggs for breakfast on May 9 was a common factor (R2 = 6.67, ).Salmonella enteritidis was identified from the patients’ stool and vomit. Conclusion. The food poisoning epidemic was caused by Salmonella enteritidis. In the summer and autumn, attention should be paid to preservation, processing, and cooking of food to avoid bacterial contamination. To prevent sickness, travelers should know the disease prevalence at their destinations in advance.
      PubDate: Fri, 29 Nov 2019 05:05:13 +000
  • Epidemiology and Control of Meningococcal Disease in Canada: A Long,
           Complex, and Unfinished Story

    • Abstract: The epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Canada has been punctuated by outbreaks caused by serogroup A strains in the 1940s, virulent serogroup C clones from 1985 to 2001, a serogroup B clone in Quebec from 2003 to 2014, and more recently a W clone in British Columbia. Region- and province-wide immunization campaigns have been implemented to control these outbreaks using meningococcal C polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines, a quadrivalent ACWY conjugate vaccine, and a serogroup B protein-based vaccine. Meningococcal C conjugate vaccines have been included in routine immunization programs for children, and ACWY conjugate vaccines have been included in school-based programs for adolescents in most jurisdictions. In contrast, serogroup B protein-based vaccines were only recommended and used for high-risk individuals and to control outbreaks. Currently, the immunization schedules adopted in provinces and territories are not uniform. This is not explained by notable epidemiologic differences. Publicly funded immunization programs are the result of a complex decision-making process. Political factors including public opinion, media attention, interest groups’ advocacy campaigns, decision-makers’ priorities and budgetary constraints have played important roles in shaping meningococcal programs in Canada, and this should be recognized. As the recent occurrence of outbreaks caused by virulent W clones shows, continued investments in epidemiological surveillance at both the provincial and national levels are necessary, so there can be early warning and informed decisions can be made.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Nov 2019 05:05:04 +000
  • Detection and Quantification of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio
           parahaemolyticus in Anadara subcrenata in the Zhoushan Archipelago

    • Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Anadara subcrenata sampled from aquafarms and retail markets in the Zhoushan islands during June 2013 to March 2015, using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method. Total V. parahaemolyticus was detected in 265 (83.86%) samples with the density 0.3 to 2400 MPN/g. In total, 30.70% and 17.41% of the samples exceeded 100 MPN/g and 1,000 MPN/g, respectively. Both highest positive rate (98.99%) and highest prevalence (median = 210.0 MPN/g) were recorded in summer. Samples from aquafarms had a higher positive rate and median than those from retail markets. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus was detected both in aquafarms and retail markets in all seasons but not in winter. Among the 265 tlh-positive samples, 20 (7.55%) of the samples harbored tdh, and 5 (1.89%) of the samples harbored both tdh and trh. These results indicate that the Zhoushan archipelago is severely contaminated with V. parahaemolyticus in Anadara subcrenata; these results are applicable in risk assessment and to control the risk of food-borne disease caused by V. parahaemolyticus.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Nov 2019 03:05:11 +000
  • Correlation between Common Lower Genital Tract Microbes and High-Risk
           Human Papillomavirus Infection

    • Abstract: Background. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. However, other common lower genital tract microbes may increase hr-HPV infection and their related cervical cytopathy. Methods. To confirm this hypothesis, cervical brush and vaginal swab specimens were collected from 826 adult patients who were divided into the hr-HPV-positive group (254) and the negative group (572) by real-time PCR assay. Cervical specimens were tested for Ureaplasma parvum (UP), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) using PCR analysis. Vaginal secretion was detected for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Candida spp., and bacterial vaginosis (BV) with conventional assay. Results. Among hr-HPV-positive women, UP was found in 51.6%, UU in 15.4%, CT in 15.7%, Candida spp. in 11.0%, TV in 3.1%, and BV in 20.5%. In the hr-HPV-negative group, UP was positive in 36.2%, UU in 8.6%, CT in 4.0%, Candida spp. in 12.4%, TV in 0.2%, and BV in 7.0%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with age-adjusted showed that UU (OR, 1.757), UP (OR, 1.804), CT (OR, 3.538), BV (OR, 3.020), and TV (OR, 14.109) were risk factors on hr-HPV infection ().Conclusion. These microbes might induce cervical chronic inflammation that would damage the mucosal barrier and immune protection to promote the infection of hr-HPV.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 09:05:05 +000
  • The Effectiveness of Dipstick for the Detection of Urinary Tract Infection

    • Abstract: Background. The balance between the choices of UTI diagnostic tools in most primary care settings has been settled for by the more rapid, less labour-intensive dipstick. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dipstick for diagnosing UTI. Method. A total of 429 urine samples were collected from patients suspected of UTI; cultured on cysteine-lactose-electrolyte-deficient (CLED) agar, blood agar, and MacConkey agar; and incubated at 37°C overnight. Urine cultures with bacteria count ≥105 cfu/ml were classified as “positive” for UTI. A dipstick was used to screen for the production of nitrite (NIT) and leucocyte esterase (LE), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Biochemical reactions of nitrite and leucocyte esterase > “trace” were classified as “positive.” A quantitative urine culture was used as the gold standard. Results. The highest sensitivity value and negative predictive value were recorded for the combined “NIT+ or LE+” dipstick results. The highest specificity value, positive predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were recorded for “nitrite-positive and leucocyte esterase-positive” results. Combined “nitrite-positive or leucocyte-positive” result was relatively the best indicator for accurate dipstick diagnosis, with AUC = 0.7242. Cohen’s kappa values between dipstick diagnosis and quantitative culture were
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 15:05:14 +000
  • Histoplasmosis-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A Review of
           the Literature

    • Abstract: Background. Histoplasmosis is an endemic fungal disease with diverse clinical presentations. Histoplasmosis-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare disorder with limited data regarding treatment and outcome. We described the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of five patients in our institution with histoplasmosis-associated HLH. This review also summarizes the current literature about presentation, treatment, and outcome of this infection-related HLH entity. Methods. We searched the electronic medical records for patients with histoplasmosis-associated HLH at our institution from 1/1/2006 to 9/30/2017. Diagnosis of HLH was confirmed by chart review using the HLH-04 criteria. We also searched the current literature for case reports and case series. Results. Five cases of histoplasmosis-associated HLH were included from our institution. All five patients were diagnosed after 2010. The literature review yielded 60 additional cases of histoplasmosis-associated HLH. The most common underlying condition was HIV in 61% of cases. The majority of histoplasmosis patients (81%) were treated with amphotericin B formulations. Documented specific treatments for HLH were as follows: nine patients received steroids only, six patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) only, three patients received dexamethasone and etoposide, two patients received etoposide, dexamethasone, and cyclosporine, two patients received steroids and IVIG, and one patient received Anakinra and IVIG. The inpatient case fatality rate was 31% with most of the deaths occurring within two weeks of hospital admission. Conclusions. Histoplasmosis-associated HLH among adults is an uncommon but serious complication with high associated mortality. Early antifungal therapy with a lipid formulation amphotericin B is critical. The initiation of immunosuppressive therapy with regimens like HLH-04 in this disease entity should be individualized.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Oct 2019 02:05:09 +000
  • Climate and Vector Borne Pathogens: Challenges of the Present and of the

    • PubDate: Tue, 01 Oct 2019 01:05:09 +000
  • Effect of Rising Temperature on Lyme Disease: Ixodes scapularis Population
           Dynamics and Borrelia burgdorferi Transmission and Prevalence

    • Abstract: Warmer temperatures are expected to increase the incidence of Lyme disease through enhanced tick maturation rates and a longer season of transmission. In addition, there could be an increased risk of disease export because of infected mobile hosts, usually birds. A temperature-driven seasonal model of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) transmission among four host types is constructed as a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The model is developed and parametrized based on a collection of lab and field studies. The model is shown to produce biologically reasonable results for both the tick vector (Ixodes scapularis) and the hosts when compared to a different set of studies. The model is used to predict the response of Lyme disease risk to a mean annual temperature increase, based on current temperature cycles in Hanover, NH. Many of the risk measures suggested by the literature are shown to change with increased mean annual temperature. The most straightforward measure of disease risk is the abundance of infected questing ticks, averaged over a year. Compared to this measure, which is difficult and resource-intensive to track in the field, all other risk measures considered underestimate the rise of risk with rise in mean annual temperature. The measure coming closest was “degree days above zero.” Disease prevalence in ticks and hosts showed less increase with rising temperature. Single field measurements at the height of transmission season did not show much change at all with rising temperature.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Sep 2019 08:05:08 +000
  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis
           (MDR-TB) among Presumptive MDR-TB Patients in Tigray Region, Northern

    • Abstract: Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems. There are alarming reports of increasing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MTR-TB) from various parts of the globe, including Ethiopia. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with MDR-TB among presumptive MDR-TB cases in Tigray Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tigray Regional State from 2015 to 2016. Two hundred sputum samples were collected, transported, processed using 2% N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide, and cultured in LJ medium. Besides, the microscopic examination was performed after ZN staining. Moreover, drug susceptibility test was done using molecular line probe assay. Descriptive statistics and binary and multivariable logistic regression were done. A statistical test was regarded as significant when the value was
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 10:05:06 +000
  • ART Regimen and Other Sociodemographics Do Not Affect Cytokine Expression
           in HIV Patients in Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. HIV infection is marked by the production of cytokines by infected cells and cells of the immune system. Variations in the levels of cytokine in HIV-infected individuals significantly impact the role of the immune system with the possibility to affect the course of HIV disease by either exacerbating or suppressing HIV replication. Aim. The study sought to investigate the effect of sociodemographic indices, clinical laboratory parameters, and ART regimen on Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines in HIV patients. Materials and methods. A total of two hundred (200) HIV patients on either the first or second line of ART were recruited into the study. Sociodemographic indices were collected using researcher-administered questionnaires. Serum concentrations of two major immune-promoting cytokines, IL-12 and IFN-γ, and immune-suppressive cytokines, IL-10 and IL-17, were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). T-test and chi-square were used to compare mean scores, while correlation (Pearson’s correlation) and linear regression analyses were also performed with the statistical significance set at .Results. The mean age of the participants was (45.54 ± 0.7846) years with a greater proportion (84.5%) between 31 and 60 years. The mean interferon-gamma (INF-γ), interleukin- (IL-) 10, interleukin-12, and interleukin-17 were estimated to be 349.9 ± 8.391 pg/ml, 19.32 ± 0.4593 pg/ml, 19.23 ± 0.3960 pg/ml, and 24.6 ± 0.6207 pg/ml, respectively. Although INF-γ and IL-17 levels were relatively higher in males compared to females, it was vice versa for IL-10 and IL-12. However, none of these was statistically significant. Again, no significant difference was observed among all the cytokines stratified by the duration of ART, stage of HIV, and smoking status. Most importantly, stratification by either first- or second-line ART regimens recorded no significant difference in cytokine levels. Age significantly correlated inversely with IFN-γ (r = −0.27, ), IL-10 (r = −0.24, ), and IL-12 (r = −0.18, ) while duration on ART significantly correlated inversely with IFN-γ (r = −0.16, ). CD4 counts at 6 months and 12 months on ART correlated inversely with IL-17 (r = −0.17, ) and plasma viral load at 1 year (r = −0.22, ), respectively. A positive correlation was observed between IFN-γ and IL-12 (r = −0.84, ) and IL-17 (r = −0.50, ). This positive trend was repeated between IL-10 and IL-12 (r = −0.92, ) and IL-17 (r = −0.61, ).Conclusion. The levels of IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-10 are not significantly affected by sociodemographics and ART regimen. This observation shows that no significant difference was observed in cytokine levels stratified by ART regiments. This means that both regimens are effective in the suppression of disease progression.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 09:05:08 +000
  • Molecular Detection of Bartonella spp. in China and St. Kitts

    • Abstract: Bartonella are vector-borne hemotropic bacteria that infect a wide variety of hosts, including people. While there are PCR assays that can identify individual or groups of Bartonella, there is no reliable molecular method to simultaneously detect all species while maintaining genus specificity and sensitivity. By comparing highly conserved 16S rRNA sequences of the better-recognized Bartonella spp. on GenBank, we selected primers and probes for a genus-specific pan-Bartonella FRET-qPCR. Then, a gltA-based Bartonella PCR was established by selecting primers for a highly variable region of gltA, of which the sequenced amplicons could identify individual Bartonella spp. The pan-Bartonella FRET-qPCR did not detect negative controls (Brucella spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Wolbachia) but reliably detected as few as two copies of the positive control (Bartonella henselae) per reaction. There was complete agreement between the pan-Bartonella FRET-qPCR and the gltA-based Bartonella PCR in detecting Bartonella in convenience test samples from China and St. Kitts: cats (26%; 81/310), Ctenocephalides felis (20%; 12/60), cattle (24%; 23/98), and donkeys (4%; 1/20). Sequencing of the gltA-based Bartonella PCR products revealed B. henselae (70%; 57/81) and B. clarridgeiae (30%; 24/81) in cats and C. felis (67%; 8/12, and 33%; 4/12, respectively) and B. bovis in cattle (23.5%; 23/98) and donkeys (4.0%; 1/24). The pan-Bartonella FRET-qPCR and gltA-based Bartonella PCR we developed are highly sensitive and specific in detecting recognized Bartonella spp. in a single reaction. The pan-Bartonella FRET-qPCR is convenient requiring no gel electrophoresis and providing copy numbers, while the gltA-based Bartonella PCR reliably differentiates individual Bartonella species. The use of these PCRs should greatly facilitate large-scale surveillance studies and the diagnosis of infections in clinical samples.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Sep 2019 03:05:02 +000
  • Antibiotic Resistance of Enteric Bacteria in HIV-Infected Patients at the
           Banka Ad-Lucem Hospital, West Region of Cameroon

    • Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious problem throughout the world and especially in developing countries. This study was conducted to define the bacterial aetiologies of enteric disorders and their association with CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count and serum hs-CRP in HIV-seropositive patients coming for consultation at the AD-Lucem Banka Hospital. Stool samples from one-hundred HIV-positive patients with enteric disorders and forty HIV negative patients with enteric disorders were examined for the presence of bacteria by different diagnostic techniques. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and serum hs-CRP of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were examined, respectively, by flux cytometry and the ELISA solid-phase direct sandwich method. Among all the participants, 39 (26.35%) were males and 109 (73.65%) were females. HIV-seropositive mean age (43.79 years) was significantly higher compared to HIV-seronegative (27.13 years) patients (). The average values of CD4+ T-cell count (), lymphocytes (), monocytes (), and total WBC count () were significantly higher in HIV− patients compared to HIV+ patients. Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were more isolated in HIV+ patients 5 (83.33), 18 (75.00), and 37 (71.15) compared to HIV− patients 1 (16.67), 6 (25.00), and 15 (28.85), respectively. Majority of isolates were susceptible to IPM, NOR, and CIP. Klebsiella pneumoniae, the most prevalent isolate, showed resistance to AMC (45.95) in HIV+ patients, whereas in HIV− patients, Enterobacter aerogenes and Shigella sp. showed resistance to AMC (80.00% and 85.71%, respectively) and to CFM (80.00% and 57.14%, respectively). Enterobacter aerogenes (40.00%) and Shigella sp. (14.29) isolates showed multidrug resistance in HIV− patients, whereas Escherichia coli (5.56%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.70%) showed multidrug resistance in HIV+ patients. Understanding the burden of bacteria disease in HIV patients as shown in the present study is important for planning effective control programs for the overall reduction of bacteria diseases in HIV-infected patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:06:31 +000
  • Cytological and Wet Mount Microscopic Observations Made in Urine of
           Schistosoma haematobium-Infected Children: Hint of the Implication in
           Bladder Cancer

    • Abstract: Background. Schistosomiasis is the second major human parasitic disease next to malaria, in terms of socioeconomic and public health consequences, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) is a trematode and one of the species of Schistosoma that cause urogenital schistosomiasis (urinary schistosomiasis). Although the knowledge of this disease has improved over the years, there are still endemic areas, with most of the reported cases in Africa, including Ghana. Not much has been done in Ghana to investigate cytological abnormalities in individuals within endemic communities, although there are epidemiologic evidences linking S. haematobium infection with carcinoma of the bladder. Aim. The aim of this study was to identify microscopic and cytological abnormalities in the urine deposits of S. haematobium-infected children. Methodology. Three hundred and sixty-seven (367) urine samples were collected from school children in Zenu and Weija communities. All the samples were examined microscopically for the presence of S. haematobium eggs, after which the infected samples and controls were processed for cytological investigation. Results. S. haematobium ova were present in 66 (18.0%) out of the 367 urine samples. Inflammatory cells (82%, 54/66), hyperkeratosis (47%, 31/66), and squamous cell metaplasia (24%, 16/66) were the main observations made during the cytological examination of the S. haematobium-infected urine samples. Conclusion. Cytological abnormalities in S. haematobium-infected children may play an important role in the severity of the disease, leading to the possible development of bladder cancer in later years, if early attention is not given. Therefore, routine cytological screening for urogenital schistosomiasis patients (especially children) at hospitals in S. haematobium-endemic locations is recommended.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:06:28 +000
  • Epidemiology of Plague: Problems with the Use of Mathematical
           Epidemiological Models in Plague Research and the Question of Transmission
           by Human Fleas and Lice

    • Abstract: This article addresses the recent use of mathematical epidemiological SIR or SEIR models in plague research. This use of S(E)IR models is highly problematic, but the problems are not presented and considered. Serious problems show in that such models are used to “prove” that historical plague was a (1) Filoviridae disease and (2) a bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pestis which was transmitted by human fleas and lice. (3) They also support early-phase transmission (by fleas). They purportedly consistently disprove (4) the conventional view that plague is/was a rat-and-rat-flea-borne disease. For these reasons, the focus is on methodological problems and on empirical testing by modern medical, entomological, and historical epidemiological data. An important or predominant vectorial role in plague epidemics for human fleas and lice requires that several necessary conditions are satisfied, which are generally not considered by advocates of the human ectoparasite hypothesis of plague transmission: (1) the prevalence and levels of human plague bacteraemia (human plague cases as sources of infection of feeding human ectoparasites); (2) the general size of blood meals ingested by human fleas and lice; (3) the consequent number of ingested plague bacteria; (4) the lethal dose of bacteria for 50% of a normal sample of infected human beings, LD50; and (5) efficient mechanism of transmission by lice and by fleas. The factual answers to these crucial questions can be ascertained and shown to invalidate the human ectoparasite hypothesis. The view of the standard works on plague has been corroborated, that bubonic plague, historical and modern, is/was a rat-and-rat-flea-borne disease caused by Yersinia pestis. These conclusions are concordant with and corroborate recent studies which, by laboratory experiments, invalidated the early-transmission hypothesis as a mechanism of transmission of LDs to humans in plague epidemics and removed this solution to the problem of transmission by human fleas.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 00:05:22 +000
  • Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Haemophilus influenzae Isolates from
           Children in 2016: A Multicenter Study in China

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Haemophilus influenzae (HI) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. In many countries, HI strains are increasingly resistant to ampicillin and other commonly prescribed antibiotics, posing a challenge for effective clinical treatment. This study was undertaken to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of HI isolates from Chinese children and to provide guidelines for clinical treatment. Methods. Our Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) collaboration group includes six children’s hospitals in different regions of China. The same protocols and guidelines were used by all collaborators for the culture and identification of HI. The Kirby–Bauer method was used to test antibiotic susceptibility, and a cefinase disc was used to detect β-lactamase activity. Results. We isolated 2073 HI strains in 2016: 83.9% from the respiratory tract, 11.1% from vaginal secretions, and 0.5% from blood. Patients with respiratory isolates were significantly younger than nonrespiratory patients (). Of all 2073 strains, 50.3% were positive for β-lactamase and 58.1% were resistant to ampicillin; 9.3% were β-lactamase-negative and ampicillin-resistant. The resistance rates of the HI isolates to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, and meropenem were 71.1%, 32.0%, 31.2%, 17.6%, 5.9%, and 0.2%, respectively. Conclusions. More than half of the HI strains isolated from Chinese children were resistant to ampicillin, primarily due to the production of β-lactamase. Cefotaxime and other third-generation cephalosporins could be the first choice for the treatment of ampicillin-resistant HI infections.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 12:05:07 +000
  • Application of kDNA Minicircle PCR-RFLP to Characterize Leishmania
           donovani Clinical Isolates Obtained from Post-Kala-Azar Dermal
           Leishmaniasis in Eastern Nepal

    • Abstract: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a skin manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which develops after apparent cure in some patients. PKDL is considered as the potential reservoir for the VL infection. Molecular epidemiological characterization of L. donovani isolates obtained from VL and PKDL isolates is essentially required in order to understand the transmission dynamics of the VL infection. To date, genetic variation among the VL and PKDL L. donovani isolates was not fully elucidated. Therefore, 14 clinical isolates from VL and 4 clinical isolates from PKDL were speciated by hsp70 and rDNA genes. Further characterization of L. donovani by haspB PCR demonstrates two different genotypes. All PKDL isolates have the same genetic structure. kDNA PCR-RFLP assay revealed 18 different genotypes; however, structural analysis showed the two distinct kDNA genotype population (k = 2). The kDNA fingerprint patterns of parasites from hilly districts were clustered separately from low-land districts. Therefore, further study with a large number of samples is urgently required for systematic characterization of the clinical isolates to track the molecular epidemiology of the Leishmania donovani causing VL and the role of PKDL as a reservoir.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 14:05:03 +000
  • Development of a Predictive Model of Tuberculosis Transmission among
           Household Contacts

    • Abstract: Background. Household contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) are at great risk of TB infection. The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of TB transmission among household contacts. Method. This was a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study, in which a total of 700 TB patients and 3417 household contacts were enrolled between 2010 and 2013 at two study sites in Peru. The incidence of secondary TB cases among household contacts of index cases was recorded. The LASSO regression method was used to reduce the data dimension and to filter variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to develop the predictive model, and internal validation was performed. A nomogram was constructed to display the model, and the AUC was calculated. The calibration curve and decision curve analysis (DCA) were also evaluated. Results. The incidence of TB disease among the contacts of index cases was 4.4% (149/3417). Ten variables (gender, age, TB history, diabetes, HIV, index patient’s drug resistance, socioeconomic status, spoligotypes, and the index-contact share sleeping room status) filtered through the LASSO regression technique were finally included in the predictive model. The model showed good discriminatory ability, with an AUC value of 0.761 (95% CI, 0.723–0.800) for the derivation and 0.759 (95% CI, 0.717–0.796) for the internal validation. The predictive model showed good calibration, and the DCA demonstrated that the model was clinically useful. Conclusion. A predictive model was developed that incorporates characteristics of both the index patients and the contacts, which may be of great value for the individualized prediction of TB transmission among household contacts.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 13:05:23 +000
  • Helicobacter pylori: Infection and New Perspective for the Treatment

    • PubDate: Mon, 29 Jul 2019 10:05:18 +000
  • Association between Elevated Serum Tau Protein Level and Sepsis-Associated
           Encephalopathy in Patients with Severe Sepsis

    • Abstract: Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is a common complication of sepsis. It is imperative to recognize, diagnose, and effectively manage SAE at the early stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of using the serum tau protein level in the diagnosis of SAE and the prediction of SAE outcomes. This was a retrospective and observational study. The patients included in this study were diagnosed with severe sepsis or septic shock. The serum tau protein level was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between the level of serum tau protein and SAE was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. One hundred nine patients with severe sepsis were enrolled during a period of two years. Of the 109 enrolled patients, 27 developed SAE. The serum tau protein level was significantly higher in the patients with SAE than that of the non-SAE group. The serum tau protein level and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score were independent factors that were associated with SAE. The combined use of the serum tau protein level with the SOFA score improved the accuracy in distinguishing SAE from non-SAE patients. A cutoff value serum tau protein level of 75.92 pg/mL had 81.1% sensitivity and 86.1% specificity in predicting the 28-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis. We identified a close association between the serum tau protein level with the appearance of SAE in patients with severe sepsis. The serum tau protein level can be useful in the prediction of poor outcomes in patients with sepsis.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jul 2019 12:05:05 +000
  • Rifabutin and Furazolidone Could Be the Candidates of the Rescue Regimen
           for Antibiotic-Resistant H. pylori in Korea

    • Abstract: Background/Aim. In Korea, the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication has declined steadily as a result of increasing resistance to antibiotics, especially dual resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole. However, microbiological culture data on drug-resistant H. pylori is lacking. This study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of candidate antibiotics against resistant H. pylori strains. Methods. After retrospectively reviewing the data from the Helicobacter Registry in Gil Medical Center (GMC) and Asan Medical Center (AMC), along with 4 reference strains, we selected the 31 single- or multidrug-resistant strains. The susceptibility of the H. pylori strains to seven antibiotics (clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, rifabutin, and furazolidone) and minimum inhibitory concentration were tested using the broth microdilution technique. Results. Among 31 antibiotic resistance strains for H. pylori, there were no strains resistant to rifabutin or furazolidone, which had MICs of
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jul 2019 13:05:14 +000
  • Sterol Carrier Protein Inhibition-Based Control of Mosquito Vectors:
           Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    • Abstract: Cholesterol is one of the most vital compounds for animals as it is involved in various biological processes and acts as the structural material in the body. However, insects do not have some of the essential enzymes in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and this makes them dependent on dietary cholesterol. Thus, the blocking of cholesterol uptake may have detrimental effects on the survival of the insect. Utilizing this character, certain phytochemicals can be used to inhibit mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 (AeSCP-2) activity via competitive binding and proven to have effective insecticidal activities against disease-transmitting mosquitoes and other insect vectors. A range of synthetic compounds, phytochemicals, and synthetic analogs of phytochemicals are found to have AeSCP-2 inhibitory activity. Phytochemicals such as alpha-mangostin can be considered as the most promising group of compounds when considering the minimum environmental impact and availability at a low cost. Once the few limitations such as very low persistence in the environment are addressed successfully, these chemicals may be used as an effective tool for controlling mosquitoes and other disease-transmitting vector populations.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jul 2019 12:05:12 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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