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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

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Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.867
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2291-2789 - ISSN (Online) 2291-2797
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • β-Catenin Regulation in Sporadic Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Not as
           Simple as APC

    • Abstract: Background. The wnt/APC/β-catenin pathway is a critical initiator in colorectal carcinogenesis in both hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The progression of this process remains incompletely understood, although inflammation is pivotal. Drivers of inflammation are elevated in malignant tissue and have been shown to regulate β-catenin expression. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is protumorigenic at elevated levels via COX-2 stimulation. Elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression has reduced risk of carcinogenesis and good overall prognosis in established CRC. Activation of PPARγ has inhibitory effect on β-catenin. Methods. Using qPCR and IHC, we compared β-catenin, PPARγ, COX-2, and IL-17A in the colonic mucosa of patients with sporadic CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), against a normal control population. Results. β-catenin mRNA and protein expression progressively increased from the Normal group, through IBS and IBD reaching statistical significance in CRC. COX-2 mRNA levels increased similarly with statistical significance in IBD and CRC. However, COX-2 protein expression was inverted with significant expression in the Normal and IBS groups and reduced levels in IBD and CRC. PPARγ mRNA expression was unchanged in IBD and CRC but was significantly elevated in the IBS. IL-17A mRNA was significantly reduced in IBS and CRC but unchanged in IBD. There were no differences in all parameters tested in the Normal and IBS groups. Conclusion. β-catenin is confirmed as a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis but is controlled by many more players other than APC. Elevated levels of PPARγ may have an anticarcinogenic effect. The role of COX-2 expression, especially its posttranscriptional regulation in colorectal cancer, needs further elucidation.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:26:08 +000
       
  • Low Total Dose of Anti-Human T-Lymphocyte Globulin (ATG) Guarantees a Good
           Glomerular Filtration Rate after Liver Transplant in Recipients with
           Pretransplant Renal Dysfunction

    • Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low doses of anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG)-based immunosuppression in preserving renal function and preventing liver rejection in liver transplant (LT) recipients with pretransplant renal dysfunction. We designed a prospective single-center cohort study analyzing patients with pre-LT renal dysfunction defined as eGFR
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Increased Duodenal Iron Absorption through Upregulation of Ferroportin 1
           due to the Decrement in Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis
           C

    • Abstract: Hepatic iron accumulation is generally increased in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) liver; however, the precise mechanism of such accumulation remains unclear. We evaluated iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of patients with CHC and control participants. We measured the expression of a panel of molecules associated with duodenal iron absorption and serum hepcidin levels to determine the mechanism of iron accumulation in the CHC liver. We enrolled 24 patients with CHC and 9 patients with chronic gastritis without Helicobacter pylori infection or an iron metabolism disorder as control participants. An oral iron absorption test (OIAT) was administered which involved a dosage of 100 mg of sodium ferrous citrate. Serum level of hepcidin-25 was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ferroportin 1 (FPN) mRNA was measured by RT-PCR and FPN protein was analyzed by western blot. Samples were obtained from duodenum biopsy tissue from each CHC patient and control participant. Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated in Costar transwells (0.4 μm pores). The OIAT showed significantly greater iron absorption in CHC patients than control participants. Serum hepcidin-25 in the CHC group was significantly lower than in the control group. Compared with control participants, duodenal FPN mRNA expression in CHC patients was significantly upregulated. The FPN mRNA levels and protein levels increased significantly in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers cultured in transwells with hepcidin. Lower serum hepcidin-25 levels might upregulate not only FPN protein expression but also mRNA expression in the duodenum and cause iron accumulation in patients with CHC.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 07:19:39 +000
       
  • The Use of Biomarkers in Early Diagnostics of Pancreatic Cancer

    • Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal solid malignancies with increasing incidence. The poor prognosis is due to the aggressive nature of the tumor, late detection, and the resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A radical surgery procedure is the only treatment that has been shown to improve the 5-year survival rate to 20-25%. However, the majority of patients (80-85%) are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease and just 15-20% patients are diagnosed in an early stage allowing them to undergo the potentially curative surgical resection. The early detection of PDAC without the use of invasive methods is challenging and discovery of a cost-effective biomarker with high specificity and sensitivity could significantly improve the treatment and survival in these patients. In this review, we summarize current and newly examined biomarkers in early PDAC detection.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 06:56:00 +000
       
  • Predictive Value of a Noninvasive Serological Hepatic Fibrosis Scoring
           System in Cirrhosis Combined with Oesophageal Varices

    • Abstract: Objective. In recent years, the noninvasive serological scoring system has become a research hotspot in predicting hepatic fibrosis and has achieved good results. However, it has rarely been applied to the prediction of oesophageal varices. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of the four following scoring systems in cirrhosis combined with oesophageal varices: aspartate and platelet ratio index (APRI), aspartate aminotransferase-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), FIB-4, and S index. Methods. A total of 153 patients with cirrhosis were categorized into groups with or without oesophageal varices. In addition, cirrhosis patients with oesophageal varices were further divided into mild, moderate, and severe grades. The rank sum test was used to compare the significant differences of APRI, AAR, FIB-4, and S index between the two groups of cirrhosis patients with or without oesophageal varices. A ROC curve was generated to compare the area under the curve of the three groups and to obtain the corresponding optimal prediction value. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the predictive factors for cirrhosis combined with oesophageal varices. Results. 44 patients had no oesophageal varices and 108 patients had oesophageal varices. Of the 108 patients with oesophageal varices, 43 were mild, 32 were moderate, and 33 were severe. The rank sum test indicated that the APRI, FIB-4, and S index were statistically significant between two groups (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was detected in terms of AAR between the two groups (P > 0.05). In addition, all four scoring systems were statistically significant between nonoesophageal varices group and severe oesophageal varices group (P < 0.05). In the ROC curve of oesophageal varices, the AUC values of APRI, FIB-4, and S index for predicting oesophageal varices were 0.681, 0642, and 0.673, respectively. However, in the ROC curve of severe oesophageal varices, the AUC values of APRI, AAR, FIB-4, and S index were 0.729, 0.648, 0.673, and 0.695, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that APRI and FIB-4 were predictors of disease progression (P < 0.05). Conclusion. AAR harboured a poor predictive value for oesophageal varices, APRI can be used as a reference index for the prediction of severe oesophageal varices, and the S index harboured potential value in predicting the degree of progression of cirrhosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Chronic Hepatitis C Association with Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular
           Risk in the Era of DAA Therapy

    • Abstract: Patients with chronic hepatitis C have both higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and increased cardiovascular risk compared to never infected people. Sustained viral response (SVR) achievement led to decreasing incidence and prevalence of T2DM during the interferon era of HCV treatment. Currently, direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAA) are the gold standard for treating HCV infection, while yielding SVR in nearly all patients. In chronic HCV patients with T2DM (prediabetes most likely too), DAA therapy is associated with both better fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) controls; thus reducing pharmacotherapy in a certain part of patients is possible. Papers mentioned in the review confirmed DAA role in both total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increase. This alteration was accompanied by an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and a decrease in triglycerides (TG) verified by most of the studies. However, the clinical significance of lipoprotein alterations caused by DAA therapy has not been explained yet. Moreover, DAA treatment of chronic hepatitis C improves hypertension control and atherosclerotic plaques. It is very likely that DAA therapeutic regimens will decrease both T2DM prevalence and cardiovascular risk in chronic hepatitis C patients; further research, however, is needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 08:31:33 +000
       
  • Mirizzi Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management of a Challenging Biliary
           Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Mirizzi syndrome is a condition difficult to diagnose and treat, representing a particular “challenge” for the biliary surgeon. The disease can mimic cancer of the gallbladder, causing considerable diagnostic difficulties. Furthermore, it increases the risk of intraoperative biliary injury during cholecystectomy. The aim of this study is to point out some particular aspects of diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Methods. The clinical records of patients with Mirizzi syndrome, treated in the last five years, were reviewed. Clinical data, cholangiograms, preoperative diagnosis, operative procedures, and early and late results were examined. Results. Eighteen consecutive patients were treated in the last five years. Presenting symptoms were jaundice, pain, and cholangitis. Preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome was achieved in 11 patients, while 6 had a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and 1 of Klatskin tumor. Seventeen patients underwent surgery, including cholecystectomy in 8 cases, bile duct repair over T-tube in 3 cases, and hepaticojejunostomy in 4 cases. Two cases (11.1%) of gallbladder cancer associated with the Mirizzi syndrome were incidentally found: a patient underwent right hepatectomy and another patient was unresectable. The overall morbidity rate was 16.6%. There was no postoperative mortality. An ERCP with stent insertion was required in three cases after surgery. Sixteen patients were asymptomatic at a mean distance of 24 months (range: 6-48) after surgery. Conclusions. Mirizzi syndrome requires being treated by an experienced biliary surgeon after a careful assessment of the local situation and anatomy. The preoperative placement of a stent via ERCP can simplify the surgical procedure.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 07:54:32 +000
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Single-Session Endoscopic Stone Removal for Acute
           Cholangitis Associated with Choledocholithiasis

    • Abstract: Background/Aims. In early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis, it is unclear that single-session stone removal can be safely performed. We examined the efficacy and safety of early single-session stone removal for mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. Methods. Among patients with mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis who underwent early ERCP (n = 167), we retrospectively compared the removal group (patients who underwent single-session stone removal; n = 78) with the drainage group (patients who underwent biliary drainage alone; n = 89) and examined the effectiveness and safety of single-session stone removal by early ERCP. Results. The patients in the removal group had significantly fewer and smaller stones compared with those in the drainage group. The single-session complete stone removal rate was 85.9% in the removal group. The complication rate in early ERCP was 11.5% in the removal group and 10.1% in the drainage group, with no significant difference (P = 0.963). On comparing patients who underwent early endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) with those who underwent elective EST after cholangitis had improved, the post-EST bleeding rates were 6.8% and 2.7%, respectively, with no significant difference (P = 0.600). The mean duration of hospitalization was 11.9 days for the removal group and 19.9 days for the drainage group, indicating a shorter stay for the removal group (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, stone removal in early ERCP, number of stones, and C-reactive protein level were significant predictors of hospitalization period. Conclusions. Single-session stone removal for mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis can be safely performed. It is useful from the perspective of shorter hospital stay.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Expanding Role of Systemic Therapy in the Management of Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a global health problem, with the majority of patients presenting at an advanced or incurable stage. The development of effective systemic therapy options for this disease has been challenging because many HCC patients suffer from underlying liver cirrhosis that precludes the safe delivery of systemic therapy. The current review seeks to provide an overview of the current systemic therapeutic approaches for advanced HCC as well as some of the novel management strategies that are currently being evaluated.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 07:06:49 +000
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Immunosuppressive Therapy for PBC–AIH Overlap
           Syndrome Accompanied by Decompensated Cirrhosis: A Real-World Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To explore the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis (PBC-AIH) overlap syndrome accompanied by decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. A cohort study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of immunosuppressive therapy in this unique group. This cohort study was performed between October 2013 and June 2017 and included 28 biopsy-proven patients diagnosed according to the Paris criteria. The therapies included ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone (N=14) or in combination with immunosuppression (IS) therapy (N=14). The primary endpoints were biochemical remission, liver-related adverse events, transplant-free survival, and drug side-effects. Results. The frequency of biochemical remission for the AIH features was significantly higher in the UDCA+IS group than in the UDCA-only group (60.0 versus 9.1%, P=0.024) after 12 months of therapy but not after 3 and 6 months (28.6 versus 0%, P=0.165; 35.7 versus 7.1%, P=0.098). The rates of liver-related adverse events were lower in the combined group (2/14 versus 9/14, P=0.018). The Kaplan-Meier estimate showed that the transplant-free survival was distinct between the two groups (P=0.019). In the UDCA+IS group, mild and transient leukopenia occurred in two patients receiving azathioprine (AZA), and an infection was observed in one patient receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Conclusions. PBC-AIH patients with decompensated cirrhosis receiving a combination of UDCA and immunosuppressors presented with higher biochemical remission rates and experienced fewer liver-related adverse events, implying that the combined treatment might be a better therapeutic option for strictly defined decompensated PBC-AIH overlap syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Aug 2018 10:12:21 +000
       
  • Systemic Inflammation and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: Too Much, Not
           Enough

    • Abstract: ACLF is a specific, but complex and multifactorial form of acute decompensation of cirrhosis and is characterized by an extraordinary dynamic natural course, rapidly evolving organ failure, and high short-term mortality. Dysbalanced immune function is central to its pathogenesis and outcome with an initial excessive systemic inflammatory response that drives organ failure and mortality. Later in its course, immuno-exhaustion/immunoparalysis prevails predisposing the patient to secondary infectious events and reescalation in end-organ dysfunction and mortality. The management of patients with ACLF is still poorly defined. However, as its pathophysiology is gradually being unravelled, potential therapeutic targets emerge that warrant further study such as restoring or substituting albumin via plasma exchange or via albumin dialysis and evaluating usefulness of TLR4 antagonists, modulators of gut dysbiosis (pre- or probiotics), and FXR-agonists.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 07:25:09 +000
       
  • Portal Hypertensive Polyposis in Advanced Liver Cirrhosis: The Unknown
           Entity'

    • Abstract: Background. Portal hypertension is a serious complication of liver cirrhosis. Objective. To identify relevant endoscopic findings in patients with advanced cirrhosis and consecutive portal hypertension. Methods. This was a retrospective study of liver transplant candidates who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between April 2011 and November 2015. Results. A total of 1,045 upper endoscopies were analyzed. Portal hypertensive gastric and duodenal polyps were frequently observed and were associated with thrombocytopenia (p = 0.040; OR: 2.4, 95% CI 1.04–5.50), Child-Pugh score > 6 (p = 0.033; OR: 2.3, 95% CI 1.07–4.92), Model for End Stage Liver Disease score > 16 (p = 0.030; OR: 4.1, 95% CI 1.14–15.00), and previous rubber band ligation (p < 0.001; OR = 5.2, 95% CI 2.5–10.7). These polyps often recurred after polypectomy; however, no malignant transformation occurred during the observational time until October 2017. The most common endoscopic finding was esophageal varices, observed in more than 90% of patients. Conclusion. Portal hypertensive polyposis is common in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Our data suggest that these polyps have benign characteristics.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 12:55:26 +000
       
  • Is Nighttime Really Not the Right Time for a Laparoscopic
           Cholecystectomy'

    • Abstract: Purpose. The impact of an out-of-hours laparoscopic cholecystectomy on outcome is controversial. We sought to determine the association between an out-of-hours procedure and postoperative complications within 90 days. Methods. Between 2014 and 2016, 1553 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed. Therapeutic, operative, and outcome data were prospectively collected and analyzed. We defined out of hours as during weekends, national holidays, and daily between 5PM and 8AM. Results. Most patients operated on were female (n=988; 63.6%) and the majority of procedures were electives (n=1341; 86.3%). Although all procedures were performed with a laparoscopic intent, 42 (2.7%) were converted to open procedure. In total, 145 (9.3%) procedures were out of hours, all nonelective, and in most cases for acute cholecystitis (n=111; 7.1%). Overall, there were 212 complications in 191 patients (12.3%), most (n=153; 9.9%) classified as minor. The conversion rate in the out-of-hours group was significantly higher (9.7% vs 2.0%; p
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 07:26:50 +000
       
  • New Insights in Genetic Cholestasis: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical
           Implications

    • Abstract: Cholestasis is characterised by impaired bile secretion and accumulation of bile salts in the organism. Hereditary cholestasis is a heterogeneous group of rare autosomal recessive liver disorders, which are characterised by intrahepatic cholestasis, pruritus, and jaundice and caused by defects in genes related to the secretion and transport of bile salts and lipids. Phenotypic manifestation is highly variable, ranging from progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC)—with onset in early infancy and progression to end-stage liver disease—to a milder intermittent mostly nonprogressive form known as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC). Cases have been reported of initially benign episodic cholestasis that subsequently transitions to a persistent progressive form of the disease. Therefore, BRIC and PFIC seem to represent two extremes of a continuous spectrum of phenotypes that comprise one disease. Thus far, five representatives of PFIC (named PFIC1-5) caused by pathogenic mutations present in both alleles of ATP8B1, ABCB11, ABCB4, TJP2, and NR1H4 have been described. In addition to familial intrahepatic cholestasis, partial defects in ATP8B1, ABCB11, and ABCB4 predispose patients to drug-induced cholestasis and intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnancy. This review summarises the current knowledge of the clinical manifestations, genetics, and molecular mechanisms of these diseases and briefly outlines the therapeutic options, both conservative and invasive, with an outlook for future personalised therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 10:34:01 +000
       
  • Effect of a Cooperation Strategy between Primary Care Physicians and
           Hospital Liver Units on HBV Care in Campania, Italy

    • Abstract: Aims. This study is aimed at assessing the efficacy of an active search and treat strategy for HBV-infected subjects in an endemic area (Campania, Italy). To do this, we created a cooperation bundle between 24 General Practitioners (GPs) and 3 Hospital Liver Units (HLU). We assessed whether this strategy improved the detection of HBV infection in patients at risk and the overall quality of care, with the aim of reducing liver disease progression. Methods. We estimated that, among about 20,000 patients cared for by the 24 GPs, approximately 280 patients unaware of or underestimating HBV infection would be found. Identified patients were to be referred to the HLU for clinical evaluation and treatment from February 2016 for 12 months. Results. Unexpectedly, screening and enrolment were poor (48 patients only). GP workloads, patient financial difficulties, and patients' refusal were the major causes of enrolment failure according to GPs. All patients referred to HLU completed the program; most of them were HBV inactive carriers. Conclusions. This program failed to scavenge chronic HBV-infected patients in an endemic area and establish a successful clinical collaboration between GPs and HLU. Underlying reasons are diverse and call for new strategies to implement cooperation between primary care providers and hospital specialists.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Correlation between miR-122 and Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in
           Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    • Abstract: Chronic HCV infection is strictly associated with host lipid/lipoprotein metabolism disorders. The study aimed to analyze the relationship between viral load, lipid profile, IFNγ, and the expression of miR-122 and LPL in the liver and PBMCs. Sera, PBMCs, and matching liver biopsies from 17 chronic hepatitis C patients were enrolled in this study. Collected data shows that liver (not PBMCs) miR-122 expression is positively correlated with HCV RNA load and IFNγ and reversely with LPL expression in CHC patients. Presented, for the first time, in this study, the reverse correlation of miR-122 and LPL expression in liver; miR-122 and LPL seem to be important factors of CHC infection.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Immunohistochemical Coexpression of Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule and
           Alpha-Fetoprotein in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) has been proposed as a marker for cancer stem cells in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as in the development of novel target therapies. This study aimed to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of EpCAM and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in HCC patients and their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Methods. This study included Child-Pugh A HCC patients undergoing curative surgical resection. Results. A significant difference was observed in the ratio between the different phenotypes (p = 0.002), identifying 12 (29.3%) EPCAM positive tumors and 29 (70.7%) negative tumors. EpCAM+ expression was associated with AFP + (OR = 12.5, 95% CI, 1.9-84.1, p
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 07:29:29 +000
       
  • Patient Views on Advance Care Planning in Cirrhosis: A Qualitative
           Analysis

    • Abstract: Aim. To investigate patient experiences and perceptions of advance care planning (ACP) process in cirrhosis. Methods. Purposive sampling was used to identify and recruit participants (N = 17) from discrete patient groups: compensated with no prior decompensation, decompensated and not yet listed for transplant, transplant wait listed, medical contraindications for transplant, and low socioeconomic status. Review and discussion of local ACP videos, documents, and experiences with ACP occurred in two individual interviews and four focus groups. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis including iterative processes of open coding, categorization, and abstraction. Results. Three overarching categories emerged: (1) lack of understanding about disease trajectories and ACP processes, (2) roles of alternate decision makers, and (3) preferences for receiving ACP information. Most patients desired advanced care-planning conversations before the onset of decompensation (specifically hepatic encephalopathy) with a care provider with whom they had a trusting, preexisting relationship. Involvement of the alternate decision makers was of critical importance to participants, as was the use of direct, easy to understand patient education tools that address practical issues. Conclusion. Our findings support the need for early advance care planning in the outpatient setting. Outpatient clinicians may play a key role in facilitating these discussions.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pathological Features of Mitochondrial Ultrastructure Predict
           Susceptibility to Post-TIPS Hepatic Encephalopathy

    • Abstract: Background. Post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy (PSE) is a complex process involving numerous risk factors; the root cause is unclear, but an elevation of blood ammonia due to portosystemic shunt and metabolic disorders in hepatocytes has been proposed as an important risk factor. Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pathological features of mitochondrial ultrastructure on PSE via transjugular liver biopsy at TIPS implantation. Methods. We evaluated the pathological damage of mitochondrial ultrastructure on recruited patients by the Flameng classification system. A score ≤2 (no or low damage) was defined as group A, and a score >2 (high damage level) was defined as group B; routine follow-up was required at 1 and 2 years; the incidence of PSE and multiple clinical data were recorded. Results. A total of 78 cases in group A and 42 in group B completed the study. The incidence of PSE after 1 and 2 years in group B (35.7% and 45.2%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in group A (16.7% and 24.4%, respectively); the 1- and 2-year OR (95% CI) were 2.778 (1.166-6.615) and 2.565 (1.155-5.696), respectively, for groups A and B. Importantly, group B had worse incidence of PSE than group A [P=0.014, hazard ratio (95%CI): 2.172 (1.190-4.678)]. Conclusion. Aggressive damage to mitochondrial ultrastructure in liver shunt predicts susceptibility to PSE. The registration number is NCT02540382.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Primary Prophylaxis to Prevent the Development of Hepatic Encephalopathy
           in Cirrhotic Patients with Acute Variceal Bleeding

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. Variceal bleeding is the second most important precipitating factor related to the development of episodic hepatic encephalopathy; but to date there are no recommendations to prevent this complication. The aim of this study was to compare if primary prophylaxis with lactulose or L-ornithine L-aspartate or rifaximin, in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding, is better than placebo for avoiding the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02158182) which included cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding, without minimal or clinical hepatic encephalopathy at admission. Findings. 87 patients were randomized to one of four groups. The basal characteristics were similar between groups. Comparatively with placebo, the frequency with regard to the development of hepatic encephalopathy was as follows: lactulose (54.5% versus 27.3%; OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.09-1.0; P = 0.06); L-ornithine L-aspartate (54.5% versus 22.7%, OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.06-0.88; P = 0.03); rifaximin (54.5% versus 23.8%; OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.07-0.9; P = 0.04). There was no significant difference between the three groups receiving any antiammonium drug (P = 0.94). In the group receiving lactulose, 59.1% had diarrhea, and 45.5% had abdominal discomfort, bloating, and flatulence. Two patients (10%) treated with lactulose and a patient (4.5%) in the placebo group developed spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to E. coli; one of them died due to recurrent variceal bleeding. There were no other adverse effects. Conclusions. Antiammonium drugs, particularly L-ornithine L-aspartate and rifaximin, proved to be effective in preventing the development of hepatic encephalopathy in those cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 07:04:39 +000
       
  • Gastroenterological Cancer and Immunotherapy

    • PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Serum Metabonomics Analysis of Liver Failure Treated by Nonbioartificial
           Liver Support Systems

    • Abstract: Objective. To analyze the small molecular metabolic compounds of nonbioartificial liver for treatment of hepatic failure and make further efforts to study the clinical efficacy, mechanism of action, and pathogenesis of hepatic failure. Methods. 52 patients who met the standard of artificial liver treatment for liver failure were enrolled; these patients included 6 cases of acute liver failure (11.54%), 3 cases of subacute liver failure (5.77%), acute-on-chronic liver failure in 10 cases (19.23%), and 33 cases of chronic liver failure (63.46%). Treatment modes included plasma exchange in 34 patients (65.38%), bilirubin adsorption in 9 patients (17.31%), and hemofiltration in 9 patients (17.31%). The clinical efficacy of artificial liver was assessed by monitoring the effects in the near future. Significant changes in metabolic compounds of liver failure in the treatment before and after artificial liver were screened by using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Related metabolic pathways were analyzed by MetaboAnalyst. Results. After artificial liver treatment, the liver function and coagulation function of liver failure patients were significantly improved (P < 0.01), the Meld score was lower than that before treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Serum metabolomics identified 29 small metabolic compounds and 12 metabolic pathways with variable projection importance (VIP) greater than 1 before and after artificial liver treatment. There were 11 metabolic compounds of VIP over 1 and 7 metabolic pathways in the different modes of artificial liver treatment for chronic liver failure. Among them, bile acid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism are the main sources. Conclusion. Artificial liver treatment can effectively improve liver function and blood coagulation function and Meld score, clinical symptoms and signs in patients with liver failure; the curative effect of artificial liver was verified, which reflected the clinical value of artificial liver in the treatment of liver failure. Artificial liver treatment of liver failure on fatty acids and primary bile acid synthesis pathway was the most significant. The difference of fatty acid, primary bile acid synthesis pathway, and phenylalanine metabolic pathway in different artificial liver patterns of chronic liver failure was the most significant. This provides a new basis for understanding the mechanism of hepatic failure and the mechanism of liver failure by artificial liver treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Domino Hepatocyte Transplantation: A Therapeutic Alternative for the
           Treatment of Acute Liver Failure

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Acute liver failure (ALF) is a severe syndrome with an elevated mortality rate, ranging from 40 to 80 %. Currently, liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for these patients and new therapies aiming to treat ALF include artificial organs implant and stem cells therapy, for example. However, a major limitation of liver donors exists. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), split liver transplantation (SLT), and domino liver transplantation (DLT) are some of the available alternatives to treat ALF patients, but these do not reduce the number of patients on waiting lists. Herein, we discuss domino hepatocyte transplantation (DHT) using livers that would not meet transplantation criteria. Methods. We conducted a literature search on PubMed/Medline using acute liver failure, liver transplantation, hepatocyte transplantation, and domino liver transplantation as key words. Results. New sources of biochemically functional hepatocytes and therapeutic treatments, in parallel to organ transplantation, may improve liver injury recovery and decrease mortality rates. Moreover, the literature reports hepatocyte transplantation as a therapeutic alternative for organ shortage. However, a major challenge remains for a wide clinical application of hepatocytes therapy, i.e., the availability of sufficient amounts of cells for transplantation. Ideally, hepatocytes isolated from livers rejected for transplantation may be a promising alternative for this problem. Conclusion. Our review suggests that DHT may be an excellent strategy to increase cell supplies for hepatocyte transplantation.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 08:51:00 +000
       
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Cirrhosis: A Review of Its Epidemiology,
           

    • Abstract: Cirrhosis is the common end stage of a number of chronic liver conditions and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. With the growing epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and will become one of the leading causes of cirrhosis. Increased awareness and understanding of NAFLD cirrhosis are essential. To date, there has been no published systematic review on NAFLD cirrhosis. Thus, this article reviews recent studies on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of NAFLD cirrhosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Deciphering Platelet Kinetics in Diagnostic and Prognostic Evaluation of
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Liver pathophysiology can, directly and indirectly, impose morphological or biochemical abnormalities of the platelets. Conversely, platelets are also able to regulate the promitogenic and profibrotic signals on liver pathobiology. Platelet contribution to the liver pathophysiology is typically facilitated by the platelet-derived growth factors that are sequestered in different subsets of alpha and dense granules, and the release of these growth factors is synchronized according to the stage and type of liver disease or injury. Thus, platelets harbor clinically relevant information with potential diagnostic and prognostic implications in liver diseases. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) largely influences the platelet kinetics, and a growing body of evidence has recognized its association with HCC occurrence or prognosis. This narrative review summarizes the progress made on implicating platelet as a diagnostic and prognostic tool for HCC; the review also dissects the contradictory results from earlier studies and reflects how combining platelet-based information may enable more reliable test for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of HCC.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of Invariant NKT in Autoimmune Liver Disease: Can Vitamin D Act
           as an Immunomodulator'

    • Abstract: Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a distinct lineage of T cells which express both the T cell receptor (TCR) and natural killer (NK) cell markers. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells bear an invariant TCR and recognize a small variety of glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d (nonclassical MHC-I). CD1d-restricted iNKT cells are regulators of immune responses and produce cytokines that may be proinflammatory (such as interferon-gamma (IFN-)) or anti-inflammatory (such as IL-4). iNKT cells also appear to play a role in B cell regulation and antibody production. Alpha-galactosylceramide (-GalCer), a derivative of the marine sponge, is a potent stimulator of iNKT cells and has been proposed as a therapeutic iNKT cell activator. Invariant NKT cells have been implicated in the development and perpetuation of several autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Animal models of SLE have shown abnormalities in iNKT cells numbers and function, and an inverse correlation between the frequency of NKT cells and IgG levels has also been observed. The role of iNKT cells in autoimmune liver disease (AiLD) has not been extensively studied. This review discusses the current data with regard to iNKT cells function in AiLD, in addition to providing an overview of iNKT cells function in other autoimmune conditions and animal models. We also discuss data regarding the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on iNKT cells, which may serve as a potential therapeutic target, given that deficiencies in vitamin D have been reported in various autoimmune disorders.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jun 2018 09:18:10 +000
       
  • MicroRNAs as Immunotherapy Targets for Treating Gastroenterological
           Cancers

    • Abstract: Gastroenterological cancers are the most common cancers categorized by systems and are estimated to comprise 18.4% of all cancers in the United States in 2017. Gastroenterological cancers are estimated to contribute 26.2% of cancer-related death in 2017. Gastroenterological cancers are characterized by late diagnosis, metastasis, high recurrence, and being refractory to current therapies. Since the current targeted therapies provide limited benefit to the overall response and survival, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of gastroenterological cancers. Immunotherapy has been developed and underwent clinical trials, but displayed limited therapeutic benefit. Since aberrant expressions of miRNAs are found in gastroenterological cancers and miRNAs have been shown to regulate antitumor immunity, the combination therapy combining the traditional antibody-based immunotherapy and novel miRNA-based immunotherapy is promising for achieving clinical success. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs that exhibit immunoregulatory roles in gastroenterological cancers and precancerous diseases of digestive system, as well as the miRNA-based clinical trials for gastroenterological cancers. This review also analyzes the ongoing challenge of identifying appropriate therapy candidates for complex and dynamic tumor microenvironment, ensuring efficient and targeted delivery to specific cancer tissues, and developing strategy for avoiding off-target effect.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Jun 2018 07:19:06 +000
       
  • Immunotherapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: An Overview of the Emerging
           Strategies

    • Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) remains a public health problem, being the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In the western countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. Additionally, 65 to 75% of patients treated with curative intent will relapse and develop systemic disease. In metastatic disease, systemic treatment still represents the state of the art, with less than a year of median overall survival. The new molecular classification of GC was published in 2014, identifying four distinct major subtypes of gastric cancer, and has encouraged the investigation of new and more personalized treatment strategies. This paper will review the current evidence of immunotherapy in advanced gastric cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jun 2018 08:44:51 +000
       
  • The Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Potential of Let-7 MicroRNAs against
           Colorectal Cancer

    • Abstract: Although a number of studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms which regulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), we have not completely overcome this disease yet. Accumulating evidence has shown that the posttranscriptional regulation by the noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs plays an important role in the development or progression of CRC. Among a number of microRNAs, the let-7 microRNA family that was first discovered in C. elegans and conserved from worms to humans has been linked with the development of many types of cancers including CRC. The expression level of let-7 microRNAs is temporally low during the normal developmental processes, while elevated in the differentiated tissues. The let-7 microRNAs regulate the cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, metabolism, and stemness. In CRC, expressions of let-7 microRNAs have been reported to be reduced, and so let-7 microRNAs are considered to be a tumor suppressor. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms regulating the let-7 microRNA expression and the downstream targets of let-7 in the context of intestinal tumorigenesis. The application of let-7 mimics is also highlighted as a novel therapeutic agent.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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