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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 330 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 330 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 193)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.867
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0835-7900 - ISSN (Online) 2291-2797
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [330 journals]
  • Immunotherapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer: An Overview of the Emerging
           Strategies

    • Abstract: Gastric cancer (GC) remains a public health problem, being the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In the western countries, the majority of patients present with advanced disease. Additionally, 65 to 75% of patients treated with curative intent will relapse and develop systemic disease. In metastatic disease, systemic treatment still represents the state of the art, with less than a year of median overall survival. The new molecular classification of GC was published in 2014, identifying four distinct major subtypes of gastric cancer, and has encouraged the investigation of new and more personalized treatment strategies. This paper will review the current evidence of immunotherapy in advanced gastric cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jun 2018 08:44:51 +000
       
  • The Molecular Basis and Therapeutic Potential of Let-7 MicroRNAs against
           Colorectal Cancer

    • Abstract: Although a number of studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms which regulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), we have not completely overcome this disease yet. Accumulating evidence has shown that the posttranscriptional regulation by the noncoding RNAs such as microRNAs plays an important role in the development or progression of CRC. Among a number of microRNAs, the let-7 microRNA family that was first discovered in C. elegans and conserved from worms to humans has been linked with the development of many types of cancers including CRC. The expression level of let-7 microRNAs is temporally low during the normal developmental processes, while elevated in the differentiated tissues. The let-7 microRNAs regulate the cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, metabolism, and stemness. In CRC, expressions of let-7 microRNAs have been reported to be reduced, and so let-7 microRNAs are considered to be a tumor suppressor. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms regulating the let-7 microRNA expression and the downstream targets of let-7 in the context of intestinal tumorigenesis. The application of let-7 mimics is also highlighted as a novel therapeutic agent.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Small (1–2 cm) Hepatocellular
           Carcinomas Inconspicuous on B-Mode Ultrasonographic Imaging: Usefulness of
           Combined Fusion Imaging with MRI and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography

    • Abstract: Purpose. To assess usefulness of adding contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to fusion imaging (FI) for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) inconspicuous on FI alone. Therapeutic outcomes of RFA under CEUS-added FI guidance for HCCs inconspicuous on FI alone were also evaluated. Methods. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Planning US was performed with FI for 126 patients with a single HCC (1–2 cm) to evaluate the feasibility of RFA by grading lesion conspicuity score using a four-point scale. RFA was performed under CEUS-added FI guidance for HCCs inconspicuous on FI alone. We evaluated how many HCCs initially inconspicuous on FI became conspicuous after adding CEUS. After CEUS-added FI-guided RFA, therapeutic outcomes including rates of technical success, primary technique efficacy, major complications, and local tumor progression were assessed. Results. After adding CEUS, 90.5% (19/21) of all tumors initially inconspicuous on FI became conspicuous, thus enabling direct targeting for RFA. Technical success and primary technique efficacy rates were 94.7% (18/19) and 100% (19/19), respectively. No major complications were observed after RFA. Cumulative local tumor progression rates after RFA were estimated to be 5.3%, 10.8%, and 10.8% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Conclusion. Adding CEUS to FI is useful for improving the conspicuity of HCCs inconspicuous on FI alone, thus enabling successful percutaneous RFA with excellent therapeutic outcomes.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Jun 2018 07:56:26 +000
       
  • Economic Evaluations of Treatments for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A
           Literature Review

    • Abstract: Objective. The objective of this literature review was to evaluate the existing evidence regarding the cost-effectiveness of treatment options in IBD. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify economic evaluations of IBD therapy. The literature search was performed using electronic databases MEDLINE and EMBASE. Searches were limited to full economic evaluations published in English or French between 2004 and 2016. Results. A total of 5,403 potentially relevant studies were identified. After screening titles and abstracts, 48 studies were included, according to the eligibility criteria. A total of 56% and 42% of the studies were assessing treatments of UC or CD, respectively. Treatment options under evaluation included biological agents, mesalamine, immunosuppressants, and surgery. The majority of studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of biological treatments. Biological therapies were dominant in 23% of the analyses and were cost-effective according to a $CAD50,000/QALY and $CAD100,000/QALY threshold in 41% and 62% of the analyses, respectively. Conclusion. This literature review provided a comprehensive overview of the economic evaluations for the different treatment options for IBD over the past 12 years and represents a helpful reference for future economic evaluations.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 07:59:36 +000
       
  • Macroscopic Portal Vein Thrombosis in HCC Patients

    • Abstract: Macroscopic portal vein invasion (PVT) by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the liver is one of the most important negative prognostic factors for HCC patients. The characteristics of a large cohort of such patients were examined. We found that the percent of patients with PVT significantly increased with increasing maximum tumor diameter (MTD), from 13.7% with tumors of MTD 10cm. There were similar numbers of HCC patients with very large tumors with and without PVT. Thus, MTD alone was insufficient to explain the presence of PVT, as were high AFP levels, since less than 50% of high AFP patients had PVT. However, the percent of patients with PVT was also found to significantly increase with increasing blood alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and tumor multifocality. A logistic regression model that included these 3 factors together showed an odds ratio of 17.9 for the combination of MTD>5.0cm plus tumor multifocality plus elevated AFP, compared to low levels of these 3 parameters. The presence or absence of macroscopic PVT may therefore represent different HCC aggressiveness phenotypes, as judged by a significant increase in tumor multifocality and AFP levels in the PVT positive patients. Factors in addition to MTD and AFP must also contribute to PVT development.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Continental Divide: Anti-TNF Use in Pediatric IBD Is Different in
           North America Compared to Other Parts of the World

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Use of anti-TNF therapies varies internationally. As an initiative of the international Pediatric IBD Network (PIBDNet), we compared global pediatric IBD anti-TNF practice patterns. Methods. Physicians were surveyed about anti-TNF use in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Chi-squared, independent samples Mann–Whitney U, or related samples Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare groups. Results. 344 physicians treating pediatric IBD responded from 43 countries (54% North America, 29% Europe, 6% Oceania, 6% Asia, 3% Africa, and 2% South America). Respondents treated a median 40 IBD patients. CD was more commonly treated with anti-TNF than UC (40% vs. 10%, p
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jun 2018 08:12:55 +000
       
  • Immune Condition of Colorectal Cancer Patients Featured by Serum
           Chemokines and Gene Expressions of CD4+ Cells in Blood

    • Abstract: Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC), the most common malignancy worldwide, causes inflammation. We explored the inflammatory pathophysiology of CRC by assessing the peripheral blood parameters. Methods. The differences in gene expression profiles of whole blood cells and cell subpopulations between CRC patients and healthy controls were analyzed using DNA microarray. Serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations in CRC patients and healthy controls were measured via multiplex detection immunoassays. In addition, we explored correlations between the expression levels of certain genes of peripheral CD4+ cells and serum chemokine concentrations. Results. The gene expression profiles of peripheral CD4+ cells of CRC patients differed from those of healthy controls, but this was not true of CD8+ cells, CD14+ cells, CD15+ cells, or CD19+ cells. Serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients, and the levels substantially correlated with the expression levels of certain genes of CD4+ cells. Interestingly, the relationships between gene expression levels in peripheral CD4+ cells and serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 levels resembled those of monocytes/macrophages, not T cells. Conclusions. Serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 concentrations increased and were associated with changes in the gene expression of peripheral CD4+ cells in CRC patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Independent Heath Facility Meets Cancer Care Ontario and Canadian
           Association of Gastroenterology Guidelines for Endoscopic Procedure Wait
           Times While Meeting Quality Indicators: A Retrospective Review

    • Abstract: Background. Canadian independent health facilities (IHFs) have been implemented to reduce hospital endoscopy volume and expedite endoscopic evaluations for patients suspected to have underlying colorectal cancer. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of a prospective database at a large-volume urban IHF. The primary outcomes were wait times, and the secondary outcomes were colonoscopy quality indicators and complication rates. Results. Median wait times from referral to colonoscopy met the recommendations set out by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology and Cancer Care Ontario for all indications: chronic abdominal pain: 43 days; new onset change in bowel habits: 36 days; bright red rectal bleeding: 42 days; documented iron-deficiency anemia: 43 days; fecal occult blood test positive: 38 days; cancer likely based on imaging or physical exam: 23 days; chronic diarrhea and chronic constipation: 42 days; and screening colonoscopies: 55 days. Secondary outcomes of quality indicators and complication rates all met or exceeded the CCO and CAG recommendations. Conclusions. This IHF met the recommended wait times for all indications for colonoscopy while maintaining high procedural quality and safety. IHFs are one solution to help meet the increasing demand for colonoscopy in Ontario.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Indications for Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Pancreatic Drainage: For
           Benign or Malignant Cases'

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Recurrent pancreatitis associated with pancreatic strictures requires treatment with endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP), but it is sometimes technically unsuccessful. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreatic drainage (EUS-PD) was developed as an alternative to a surgical approach after failed ERP; however, the indications for EUS-PD are unclear. In this study, we evaluated the outcomes of EUS-PD and established the indications for EUS-PD. Methods. A total of 15 patients had indications for EUS-PD for recurrent pancreatitis due to pancreatic strictures. There were eight patients with benign pancreatic strictures and seven with malignant pancreatic strictures. The success rate, adverse events, and long-term outcomes were evaluated. Results. The technical success rates of benign and malignant strictures were 75% (6/8) and 100% (7/7), respectively, and clinical success was achieved in 100% (6/6) and 87.5% of cases (6/7), respectively. Rendezvous procedures were performed in two patients with benign strictures. The adverse event (AE) rate was 26.7% (4/15) and included cases of peritonitis, bleeding, and stent migration. Reinterventions were performed in three patients with benign strictures and two with malignant strictures. Conclusions. EUS-PD was an appropriate treatment for not only benign strictures but also malignant strictures with recurrent pancreatitis after failed ERP. However, the AE rate was high, and reinterventions were required in some cases during long-term follow-up. The indications for EUS-PD should be considered carefully, and careful follow-up is needed.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Percutaneous Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Comparison of Various
           Ablation Techniques and Surgery

    • Abstract: Image-guided percutaneous ablation is considered best in the treatment of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ablation is potentially curative, minimally invasive, and easily repeatable for recurrence. Ethanol injection used to be the standard in ablation. However, radiofrequency ablation has recently been the most prevailing ablation method for HCC. Many investigators have reported that radiofrequency ablation is superior to ethanol injection, from the viewpoints of treatment response, local tumor curativity, and overall survival. New-generation microwave ablation can create a larger ablation volume in a shorter time period. Further comparison studies are, however, mandatory between radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation, especially in terms of complications and long-term survival. Irreversible electroporation, which is a non-thermal ablation method that delivers short electric pulses to induce cell death due to apoptosis, requires further studies, especially in terms of long-term outcomes. It is considerably difficult to compare outcomes in ablation with those in surgical resection. However, radiofrequency ablation seems to be a satisfactory alternative to resection for HCC 3 cm or smaller in Child-Pugh class A or B cirrhosis. Furthermore, radiofrequency ablation may be a first-line treatment in HCC 2 cm or smaller in Child-Pugh class A or B cirrhosis. Various innovations would further improve outcomes in ablation. Training programs may be effective in providing an excellent opportunity to understand basic concepts and learn cardinal skills for successful ablation. Sophisticated ablation would be more than an adequate alternative of surgery for small- and possibly middle-sized HCC.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Transient Elastography for Significant Liver Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in
           Chronic Hepatitis B: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The hepatitis B virus infection is a global health issue and the stage of liver fibrosis affects the prognosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We performed the meta-analysis describing diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography (TE) for predicting CHB-related fibrosis. Methods. We performed an adequate literature search to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of TE in CHB patients using biopsy as reference standard. Hierarchical summary receiver-operating curves model and the bivariate mixed-effects binary regression model were applied to generate summary receiver-operating characteristic curves and pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity. Results. The area under the summary receiver-operating curve for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis was 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83–0.89) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.94), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of TE for significant fibrosis were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.73–0.81, ; %), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77–0.84, ; %), and 14.44 (95% CI: 10.80–19.31, ; %) and for cirrhosis were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.80–0.88, ; %), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84–0.90, ; %), and 36.63 (95% CI: 25.38–52.87, ; %), respectively. The optimal cut-off values of TE were 7.25 kPa for diagnosing significant fibrosis and 12.4 kPa for diagnosing cirrhosis, respectively. Conclusion. TE is of great value in the detection of patients with CHB-related cirrhosis but has a suboptimal accuracy in the detection of significant fibrosis.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 May 2018 07:45:26 +000
       
  • Comment on “Establishing a Porcine Model of Small for Size Syndrome
           following Liver Resection”

    • PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • 48-Week Outcome after Cessation of Nucleos(t)ide Analogue Treatment in
           Chronic Hepatitis B Patient and the Associated Factors with Relapse

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. We aimed to ascertain the feasibility and safety of NA cessation, the status of patients after cessation, and the predictive factors for relapse and subsequent retreatment. Methods. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this prospective study. Patients were monitored every month for the first 3 months after cessation and every 3 months thereafter. Results. Sixty-two patients finished 48 weeks of follow-up. None died or developed liver failure, cirrhosis, or HCC. The 62 patients could be divided into 4 categories according to the 48-week clinical development of relapse. Virologic relapses occurred in 39 (62.9%) patients, with 72.7% occurring in the first 24 weeks in origin HBeAg positive patients and 82.4% in the first 12 weeks in origin HBeAg negative patients. Age (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.02–1.10; ), the HBsAg level (OR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.47–3.32; ), and positive origin HBeAg status (OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.14–0.74; ) were predictive factors to virologic relapse. HBV DNA level (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.58; ) was predictive factor to retreatment. Conclusions. NA cessation is safe under supervision. Age, HBsAg level, and origin HBeAg status can be predictive factors for virologic relapse. The study was submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration and Results System with the assigned NCT ID NCT02883647.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Alpha-Fetoprotein as a Predictive Marker for Patients with Hepatitis
           B-Related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. The value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in hepatitis B-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBACLF) is not fully understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effect of AFP on the prediction of HBACLF outcomes. Methods. We investigated a cohort of patients with HBACLF admitted from January 2013 to May 2017. The endpoint of followup was 180 days, death, or liver transplantation. AFP concentrations were estimated on admission. To make statistical comparisons, we used chi-squared test, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, survivorship curve analysis, and Cox proportional-hazards model. Results. A total of 92 patients (81.5% male, median age of 46 years) were included. Overall survival rate within 180 days was 43.48%, and the value of ≥ 2.04 indicated a better prognosis with 76.9% specificity and 62.5% sensitivity for patients with HBACLF. Age (HR 1.041), total bilirubin (HR 1.004), (HR 2.155), and INR (HR 1.446) were found to be risk factors of survival. Conclusion. AFP could be a useful marker to predict outcomes of acute-on-chronic liver failure.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 08:15:56 +000
       
  • Predictive Role of Interleukin-18 in Liver Steatosis in Obese Children

    • Abstract: Introduction. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can be recognized as a feature of MS. Material and Methods. Serum IL-18 concentration was evaluated in serum of 108 obese children, determined with ELISA, and referred to degree of liver steatosis in USG or total intrahepatic lipid content assessed by magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (1HMRS). Results. Fatty liver was confirmed in 89 children with USG and in 72 with 1HMRS. IL-18 concentration demonstrated significantly higher values in patients than in controls. Significant correlations between IL-18 and ALT, GGT, triglycerides, hsCRP, and the degree of liver steatosis were demonstrated. NAFLD children had significantly higher level of IL-18, ALT, GGT, HOMA-IR, waist circumference, and total lipids content in 1HMRS than other obese children. IL-18 level was also significantly higher in obese children with advanced liver steatosis. Measurement of serum IL-18 showed ability to differentiate children with fatty liver from those without steatosis. Conclusion. Elevated serum IL-18 concentration and its correlation with hepatocyte injury, systemic inflammation, and degree of liver steatosis support role in NAFLD pathomechanism. IL-18 can be considered to play a role in predicting advanced liver steatosis and fatty liver in obese children.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Predictive Value of Adiposity Level, Metabolic Syndrome, and Insulin
           Resistance for the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Diagnosis in
           Obese Children

    • Abstract: Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in obese children. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for curing or slowing down the disease progression. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of NAFLD in this population and to identify anthropometrical and metabolic risk factors for NAFLD prediction and its development. Material and Methods. The study included 108 obese children. Anthropometric measurements, NAFLD diagnosis (based on ALT level and/or liver ultrasound), and metabolic syndrome (MS) components were assessed in all patients. Patients were divided into groups with and without NAFLD. Results. NAFLD was diagnosed in 49 (45%) patients with similar prevalence in boys (27; 55.10%) and girls [22 (44.9%), ]. NAFLD patients had significantly greater waist circumference, WHR, and WHtR and significantly higher total cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting insulin concentrations as well as higher glucose and insulin concentrations in 120 minutes of OGTT and higher HOMA-IR levels compared to group of patients without NAFLD. In NAFLD patients, MS was significantly more likely to be diagnosed than in group without NAFLD (40.82% versus 22.81%,  ), but among the MS components only hypertriglyceridemia was significantly more frequently diagnosed in the group with NAFLD (). Among analysed parameters the best independent risk factor for NAFLD was fasting insulin concentration with the cut-off point = 18,9 uIU/ml (AUC = 0.829). Conclusions. NAFLD is a very common disease in obese children. NAFLD predictive risk factors include increased waist circumference, elevated WHR and WHtR, and elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin as well as elevated glucose and insulin concentration in the OGTT and HOMA-IR index. NAFLD increases the risk of potential cardiovascular complications expressed by diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The best independent predictive risk factor for diagnosing NAFLD in obese children is fasting insulin > 18.9 uIU/ml.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An In Vivo Study on Intoxicating Effects of Nerium oleander Water Based
           Extract on Multiorgans of Wistar Rat

    • Abstract: This study was aimed to find histological changes in the extrahepatic organs, hepatic iron deposition, and gene expression of some iron regulatory proteins in rats after sterile muscle abscess during the acute intoxication of Nerium oleander leaves decoction. 10 ml/kg of the leaves extract was injected intramuscularly in Wistar rats (200–225 g, ). Control animals received saline injection of matched volume. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed after 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of decoction. Lungs, kidney, spleen, and liver were extracted and processed for histopathological examination while portion of liver tissue was proceeded for iron regulatory gene expression quantification. Sections of all studied organs were found with signs of cellular dysfunction with infiltration of variety of leucocytes. In the lungs section at 3 h time point mononuclear cell infiltrates were observed while in alveolar tissue at 24 h time point dilation and even collapse in some of the alveoli were evident. In kidney sections distortion of renal tubules and epithelial cells with shrinkage of glomeruli was noted at all studied time points. In the splenic section of 12 h time point, degeneration, depopulation, and shrinkage of white pulp have been noted. Distension of the red pulp along with activation of splenic follicles was evident after 24 h onset of APR. Significant changes in the expression of acute phase cytokine and iron regulatory genes were noted. IL-6 and Hepc gene expression were strongly upregulated up to 12 h whereby Tf gene expression showed an early upregulation at 3 h time point followed by downregulation on later points while Hjv gene expression showed an overall downregulation at all study time points compared to control. It is concluded that inherent toxins present in the N. oleander can induce acute phase response and cause severe histological changes in the organs and marked changes in the regulation of iron regulatory proteins thus cannot be practiced routinely.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Comparison of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration and
           Fine-Needle Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Solid Pancreatic Lesions

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the method of choice for sampling pancreatic lesions. This study compares the diagnostic accuracy and safety of FNB using a novel core needle to FNA in solid pancreatic lesions. Methods. A retrospective review of patients in whom EUS FNA or FNB was performed for solid pancreatic lesions was conducted. Diagnostic performance was calculated based upon a dual classification system: classification 1, only malignant pathology considered a true positive, versus classification 2, atypical, suspicious, and malignant pathology considered a true positive. Results. 43 patients underwent FNB compared with 51 FNA. Using classification 1, sensitivity was 74.0% versus 80.0%, specificity 100% versus 100%, and diagnostic accuracy 77.0% versus 80.0% for FNB versus FNA, respectively (all ). Using classification 2, sensitivity was 97% versus 94.0%, specificity 100% versus 100%, and diagnostic accuracy 98.0% versus 94.0% for FNB versus FNA, respectively (all ). FNB required significantly fewer needle passes (median = 2) compared to FNA (median = 3; ). Adverse events occurred in two (4.5%) FNB patients compared with none in the FNA group (). Conclusion. FNA and FNB have comparable sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy. FNB required fewer passes.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Good Tolerance of Citrate Accumulation due to Plasma Exchange among
           Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Prospective, Observational
           Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To assess the tolerance of citrate accumulation due to plasma exchange (PE) among patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Methods. A prospective, observational study was conducted among patients with ACLF who received heparin anticoagulation during PE-centered therapy without filtration and dialysis. Citrate accumulation was defined as the value of total calcium () to ionized calcium () ratio () greater than or equal to 2.5 (). Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled. The mean age and MELD score were 50.0 ± 11.3 years old and 25 ± 7, respectively. Thirty-three patients had liver cirrhosis. The total 3-month survival rate was 57.4% (31/54). The mean at the time before PE was 2.05 ± 0.14. occurred in 100.0% (54/54) and 29.6% (16/54) of patients with mean of 4.34 ± 1.52 and 2.36 ± 0.32 immediately after PE and 1 hour after PE, respectively, and these levels were much higher than those before PE (). However, all values returned to lower than 2.5 by the next morning with no difference from those before PE (2.10 ± 0.14 versus 2.05 ± 0.14, ). Hypocalcemia (ionized calcium) and mild alkalosis were the main metabolic alterations. No symptoms associated with hypocalcemia occurred. Conclusions. Citrate accumulation is well tolerated by patients with ACLF who receive PE-centered therapy without filtration and dialysis. This study is regeristed with ChiCTR-OOC-17013618.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase,
           Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic
           Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low
           Calorie Diet

    • Abstract: Background. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. Methods. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m2) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. Findings. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements (). There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups (). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Long-Term Management of Recurrent Cholecystitis after Initial Conservative
           Treatment: Endoscopic Transpapillary Gallbladder Stenting

    • Abstract: Background. Endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder stenting (ETGBS) is an effective procedure for treating high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis and severe comorbidities. However, the efficacy of ETGBS for recurrent cholecystitis (RC) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore its efficacy in patients with RC for whom cholecystectomy is contraindicated because of its high surgical risk. Methods. Data on 19 high-risk patients who had undergone ETGBS for RC after initial conservative therapy in our institution between June 2006 and May 2012 were retrospectively examined. The primary outcome was the clinical success rate, which was defined as no recurrences of acute cholecystitis after ETGBS until death or the end of the follow-up period. Secondary outcomes were technical success rate and adverse events (AEs). Results. The clinical success rate of ETGBS was 100%, the technical success rate 94.7%, and AE rate 5%: one patient developed procedure-related mild acute pancreatitis. The clinical courses of all patients were as follows: four died of nonbiliary disease, and the remaining 15 were subsequently treated conservatively. The median duration of follow-up was 14.95 months (range 3–42 months). Conclusions. ETGBS is an effective alternative for managing RC in high-risk patients with severe comorbidities.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Lumen Apposing Self-Expandable Metal Stents for EUS
           Guided Cholecystostomy: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Patients with acute cholecystitis are treated with early cholecystectomy. A subset of patients are unfit for surgery due to comorbidities and late presentation. Prompt gall bladder drainage (GBD) with percutaneous or endoscopic approach remains a viable therapeutic option for nonoperative candidates. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided transluminal gall bladder drainage (EUS-GBD) continues to evolve as an alternative approach to percutaneous drainage. With continued refinement in stent technology, lumen apposing self-expandable metal stent (LAMS) offers several advantages. We performed a pooled analysis on the efficacy and safety of EUS-GBD with LAMS in nonoperative candidates with acute cholecystitis. Methods. Extensive English language literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar using keywords “endoscopic ultrasound”, “stent”, “gallbladder”, “acute cholecystitis”, and “cholecystostomy” from Jan 2000 to Dec 2016. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Results. Data was extracted from 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria . Pooled proportion of technical success was 93.86% (95% CI = 90.56 to 96.49) and clinical success was 92.48% (95% CI = 88.9 to 95.42). Overall complication rate was 18.31% (95% CI = 13.49 to 23.68) and stent related complication rate was 8.16% (95% CI = 4.03 to 14.96) in the pooled percentage of patients. Pooled proportion for perforation was 6.71% (95% CI 3.65 to 10.6) and recurrent cholangitis/cholecystitis was noted in 4.05% (95% CI = 1.64 to 7.48). Publication bias calculated using Harbord-Egger bias indicator gave a value of −0.61 (95%CI = −1.39 to 0.16, ). The Begg-Mazumdar indicator for bias gave Kendall’s tau value of −0.42 . Conclusions. EUS-GBD with LAMS is a safe and alternative treatment modality for patients needing gallbladder drainage, with acceptable intraprocedural and postprocedural complications. However, due to the limited data and lack of direct comparison with other methods, further controlled trials are necessary to estimate the overall efficacy and safety and the role of EUS-GBD with LAMS in management of nonoperative patients with acute cholecystitis.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Transcriptome Analysis of Porcine PBMCs Reveals the Immune Cascade
           Response and Gene Ontology Terms Related to Cell Death and Fibrosis in the
           Progression of Liver Failure

    • Abstract: Background. The key gene sets involved in the progression of acute liver failure (ALF), which has a high mortality rate, remain unclear. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the transcriptional response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following ALF. Methods. ALF was induced by D-galactosamine (D-gal) in a porcine model. PBMCs were separated at time zero (baseline group), 36 h (failure group), and 60 h (dying group) after D-gal injection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using RNA sequencing and analysed using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Results. Compared with the baseline group, 816 and 1,845 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the failure and dying groups, respectively. A total of five and two gene ontology (GO) term clusters were enriched in 107 GO terms in the failure group and 154 GO terms in the dying group. These GO clusters were primarily immune-related, including genes regulating the inflammasome complex and toll-like receptor signalling pathways. Specifically, GO terms related to cell death, including apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy, and those related to fibrosis, coagulation dysfunction, and hepatic encephalopathy were enriched. Seven Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, hematopoietic cell lineage, lysosome, rheumatoid arthritis, malaria, and phagosome and pertussis pathways were mapped for DEGs in the failure group. All of these seven KEGG pathways were involved in the 19 KEGG pathways mapped in the dying group. Conclusion. We found that the dramatic PBMC transcriptome changes triggered by ALF progression was predominantly related to immune responses. The enriched GO terms related to cell death, fibrosis, and so on, as indicated by PBMC transcriptome analysis, seem to be useful in elucidating potential key gene sets in the progression of ALF. A better understanding of these gene sets might be of preventive or therapeutic interest.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Urinary Elimination of Bile Acid Glucuronides under Severe Cholestatic
           Situations: Contribution of Hepatic and Renal Glucuronidation Reactions

    • Abstract: Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic complication, causes accumulation of toxic bile acids (BAs) in liver cells. Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, detoxifies cholestatic BAs. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, 11 BA glucuronide (-G) species were quantified in prebiliary and postbiliary stenting serum and urine samples from 17 patients with biliary obstruction. Stenting caused glucuronide- and fluid-specific changes in BA-G levels and BA-G/BA metabolic ratios. In vitro glucuronidation assays with human liver and kidney microsomes revealed that even if renal enzymes generally displayed lower values, the two tissues shared similar glucuronidation capacities for BAs. By contrast, major differences between the two tissues were observed when four human BA-conjugating UGTs 1A3, 1A4, 2B4, and 2B7 were analyzed for mRNA and protein levels. Notably, the BA-24G producing UGT1A3 enzyme, abundant in the liver, was not detected in kidney microsomes. In conclusion, the circulating and urinary BA-G profiles are hugely impacted under severe cholestasis. The similar BA-glucuronidating abilities of hepatic and renal extracts suggest that both the liver and kidney may contribute to the urine BA-G pool.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Stimulate Bile Acid Detoxification in
           Human Cell Models

    • Abstract: Cholestasis is characterized by the accumulation of toxic bile acids (BAs) in liver cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids, on BA homeostasis and toxicity in human cell models. The effects of EPA and/or DHA on the expression of genes involved in the maintenance of BA homeostasis were analyzed in human hepatoma (HepG2) and colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells, as well as in primary culture of human intestinal (InEpC) and renal (RPTEC) cells. Extracellular BA species were quantified in culture media using LC-MS/MS. BA-induced toxicity was evaluated using caspase-3 and flow cytometry assays. Gene expression analyses of HepG2 cells reveal that n-3 PUFAs reduce the expression of genes involved in BA synthesis (CYP7A1, CYP27A1) and uptake (NTCP), while activating genes encoding metabolic enzymes (SULT2A1) and excretion transporters (MRP2, MRP3). N-3 PUFAs also generate a less toxic BA pool and prevent the BA-dependent activation of apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Conclusion. The present study reveals that n-3 PUFAs stimulate BA detoxification.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Thromboembolic Events Secondary to Endoscopic Cyanoacrylate Injection: Can
           We Foresee Any Red Flags'

    • Abstract: Background. Gastric varices (GV) are associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension. Endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is the first-line recommended therapy for GV obliteration. This study aims to explore the reason behind related adverse events and better prevent its occurrence. Methods. A retrospective case series study was conducted from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2016, to identify patients who experienced severe adverse events secondary to endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection. A literature review of similar cases was performed on two medical databases, Medline and Embase. Results. A total of 652 patients underwent cyanoacrylate injection at our center within the study duration. Five cases of severe adverse events related to the use of tissue adhesives were identified. Detailed clinical presentation, patient treatment, and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. Twenty-seven similar cases were identified based on the literature review providing further insight into the study. Conclusion. Although rare in incidence, systemic embolism associated with cyanoacrylate injection is often fatal or debilitating. This report may raise awareness in treatment protocol, including the necessity of preoperative angiographic studies, to avoid similar adverse events in clinical practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 06:42:52 +000
       
  • Establishment of a Model of Microencapsulated SGC7901 Human Gastric
           Carcinoma Cells Cocultured with Tumor-Associated Macrophages

    • Abstract: The important factors of poor survival of gastric cancer (GC) are relapse and metastasis. For further elucidation of the mechanism, a culture system mimicking the microenvironment of the tumor in humans was needed. We established a model of microencapsulated SGC7901 human GC cells and evaluated the effects of coculturing spheres with tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). SGC7901 cells were encapsulated in alginate-polylysine-sodium alginate (APA) microcapsules using an electrostatic droplet generator. MTT assays showed that the numbers of microencapsulated cells were the highest after culturing for 14 days. Metabolic curves showed consumption of glucose and production of lactic acid by day 20. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were expressed in microencapsulated SGC7901 cells on days 7 and 14. The expression of PCNA was observed outside spheroids; however, VEGF was found in the entire spheroids. PCNA and VEGF were increased after being cocultured with TAMs. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expressions were detected in the supernatant of microencapsulated cells cocultured with TAMs but not in microencapsulated cells. Our study confirms the successful establishment of the microencapsulated GC cells. TAMs can promote PCNA, VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions of the GC cells.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Anesthesia on the Immune System in Colorectal Cancer
           Patients

    • Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the key leading cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Surgical excision is the most effective treatment for CRC. However, stress caused by surgery response can destroy the body’s immunity and increase the likelihood of cancer dissemination and metastasis. Anesthesia is an effective way to control the stress response, and recent basic and clinical research has shown that anesthesia and related drugs can directly or indirectly affect the immune system of colorectal cancer patients during the perioperative period. Thus, these drugs may affect the prognosis of CRC surgery patients. This review is intended to summarize currently available data regarding the effects of anesthetics and related drugs on perioperative immune function and postoperative recurrence and metastasis in CRC patients. Determining the most suitable anesthesia for patients with CRC is of utmost importance.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Alpha-Fetoprotein and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Immunity

    • Abstract: Hepatocarcinoma is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological cancers in the world with less effective therapy. As an oncofetal antigen and diagnostic marker for liver cancer, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) possesses a variety of biological functions. Except for its diagnosis in liver cancer, AFP has become a target for liver cancer immunotherapy. Although the immunogenicity of AFP is weak and it could induce the immune escapes through inhibiting the function of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T lymphocytes, AFP has attracted more attention in liver cancer immunotherapy. By in vitro modification, the immunogenicity and immune response of AFP could be enhanced. AFP-modified immune cell vaccine or peptide vaccine has displayed the specific antitumor immunity against AFP-positive tumor cells and laid a better foundation for the immunotherapy of liver cancer.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Relationship between NAFLD and Sarcopenia in Elderly Patients

    • Abstract: Aim. Previous studies have shown that individuals with low muscle mass exhibit an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigated the association between NAFLD and sarcopenia in elderly patients. Methods. We classified the participants into sarcopenia/nonsarcopenia groups based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), muscle strength (grip strength), or/and physical performance (6 m usual gait speed). We diagnosed NAFLD by ultrasonography combined with the history of alcohol intake. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlation between sarcopenia and NAFLD. Results. NAFLD was significantly less frequent in the sarcopenia group than in the nonsarcopenia group . However, NAFLD was neither an independent risk factor nor a protective factor for sarcopenia. Conclusions. NAFLD is not independently associated with sarcopenia.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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