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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 191)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.867
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2291-2789 - ISSN (Online) 2291-2797
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Gastric Cancer Cell Lines Have Different MYC-Regulated Expression Patterns
           but Share a Common Core of Altered Genes

    • Abstract: MYC is an oncogene responsible for excessive cell growth in cancer, enabling transcriptional activation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and apoptosis, and is usually overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). By using siRNA and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), we identified MYC-regulated differentially expressed Genes (DEGs) in three Brazilian gastric cancer cell lines representing the histological subtypes of GC (diffuse, intestinal, and metastasis). The DEGs were picked using Sailfish software, followed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway analysis using KEGG. We found 11 significantly enriched gene sets by using enrichment score (ES), False Discovery Rate (FDR), and nominal P-values. We identified a total of 5.471 DEGs with correlation over (80%). In diffuse-type and in metastatic GC cell lines, MYC-silencing caused DEGs downregulation, while the intestinal-type GC cells presented overall DEGs upregulation after MYC siRNA depletion. We were able to detect 11 significant gene sets when comparing our samples to the hallmark collection of gene expression, enriched mostly for the following hallmarks: proliferation, pathway, signaling, metabolic, and DNA damage response. When we analyzed our DEGs considering KEGG metabolic pathways, we found 12 common branches covering a wide range of biological functions, and three of them were common to all three cell lines: ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, ribosomes, and system and epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection. The GC cell lines used in this study share 14 MYC-regulated genes, but their gene expression profile is different for each histological subtype of GC. Our results present a computational analysis of MYC-related signatures in GC, and we present evidence that GC cell lines representing distinct histological subtypes of this disease have different MYC-regulated expression profiles but share a common core of altered genes. This is an important step towards the understanding of MYC’s role in gastric carcinogenesis and an indication of probable new drug targets in stomach cancer.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Oct 2018 06:11:44 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Value of lncRNAs as Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An
           Updated Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) display aberrantly high or low expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and have the potential to serve as diagnostic biomarkers. Here, we accomplished a meta-analysis based on current studies to assess the diagnostic value of lncRNAs in HCC. Eligible literatures were systematically selected from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase (up to January 20, 2018) according to defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. QUADAS scale was applied to the quality assessment of the included studies. Statistical analysis was performed through bivariate random-effects models based on R software. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plot and Begg’s and Egger’s tests. 16 articles containing 2,268 cancer patients and 2,574 controls were selected for the final meta-analysis. Random effect model was used for the meta-analysis due to significant between-study heterogeneity. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (PLR), and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 0.87(0.838-0.897), 0.829(0.794-0.86), 23.085(20.575-25.901), 4.533(4.239-4.847), and 0.176(0.166-0.186), respectively. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was conducted to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of lncRNAs in HCC with the area under curve (AUC) of 0.915. Subgroups analysis showed that lncRNA profiling, sample size, specimen types, and ethnicity might be the sources of heterogeneity. No publication bias existed according to funnel plot symmetry and Begg’s (P = 0.187) and Egger’s (P = 0.477) tests. In conclusion, lncRNAs can serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers of HCC with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, lncRNAs panel from serum and plasma has a relatively high diagnostic value for HCC patients from Asia.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Oct 2018 07:36:19 +000
       
  • Increased CCRPD-CXCRCD T Cells in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are
           Correlated with Immune Activation in Patients with Chronic HBV Infection

    • Abstract: T follicular helper cells (Tfh cells) affect essential immune pathogenesis in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The CCRPD- Tfh subset has a partial Tfh effector phenotype and is associated with active Tfh differentiation, whereas the CCRPD- Tfh subset is a resting phenotype. We recruited 20 healthy volunteers and 77 patients with chronic HBV infection, including those in the immune tolerant (IT) phase (n=19), immune clearance (IC) phase (n=20), low replicative (LR) phase (n=18), and reactivation (RA) phase (n=20). The expression of CD4, CXCR5, PD-1, and CCR7 was detected in T cells from peripheral blood by flow cytometry. The frequency of the CCRPD- T subset was significantly higher in the patients than in the healthy controls (14.92±4.87% vs 12.23±2.95%, p=0.018). The frequency of this Tfh subset in the IC group (18.42%±3.08) was increased compared with the IT group (11.94±2.87%, p=0.001) and LR group (13.65±4.93%, p=0.031) and was higher in the RA group than in the IT group (16.03±5.37% vs 11.94±2.87%, p=0.030). We observed a weak positive correlation between the CCRPD- Tfh subset population and the alanine transaminase (ALT) level (r=0.370, p=0.001). The CCRPD- Tfh subset in the chronic HBV-infected patients was elevated to various degrees among the different immune phases. CCRPD-CXCR5+CD4+ T cells are correlated with the immune status of chronic HBV infection patients and may be developed as a potential indicator for antiviral treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 08:59:02 +000
       
  • Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: From Basic Research to Clinical
           Applications

    • PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 08:08:15 +000
       
  • Glucose Metabolism Changes in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Treated
           with Direct Acting Antivirals

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Chronic hepatitis C is a systemic disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) belongs to more common extrahepatic. The aim of this study was to (i) explore the prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and T2DM in patients with chronic hepatitis C, (ii) explore the effect of direct acting antivirals (DAA) treatment on the glycemia, and (iii) explore the factors that modulate the effect of DAA treatment on glycemia in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Methods. We performed a longitudinal retrospective observational study focused on the patients undergoing DAA treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Data about glycemia, history of diabetes, hepatitis C virus, treatment, and liver status, including elastography, were obtained at baseline (before treatment start), at the end of treatment and 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Patients were treated with various regimens of direct acting antivirals. Results. We included 370 patients; 45.9% had F4 fibrosis. At baseline, the prevalence of T2DM increased with the degree of fibrosis (F0-F2 14.4%, F3 21.3%, and F4 31.8%, p=0.004). Fasting glycemia also increased with the degree of fibrosis (F0-F2 5.75±0.18 F3 5.84±0.17, and F4 6.69±0.2 mmol/L, p=0.001). We saw significant decrease of glycemia after treatment in all patients, but patients without T2DM or IFG from 6.21±0.12 to 6.08±0.15 mmol/L (p=0.002). The decrease was also visible in treatment experienced patients and patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. Conclusion. We confirmed that the prevalence of either T2DM or IFG increases in chronic hepatitis C patients with the degree of fibrosis. The predictive factors for T2DM were, besides F4, fibrosis also higher age and BMI. Significant decrease of fasting glycemia after the DAA treatment was observed in the whole cohort and in subgroups of patients with T2DM, IFG, cirrhotic, and treatment experienced patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Management Strategies and Outcomes for Hyponatremia in Cirrhosis in the
           Hyponatremia Registry

    • Abstract: Aim. Treatment practices and effectiveness in cirrhotic patients with hyponatremia (HN) in the HN Registry were assessed. Methods. Characteristics, treatments, and outcomes were compared between patients with HN at admission and during hospitalization. For HN at admission, serum sodium concentration [Na] response was analyzed until correction to > 130 mmol/L, switch to secondary therapy, or discharge or death with sodium ≤ 130 mmol/L. Results. Patients with HN at admission had a lower [Na] and shorter length of stay (LOS) than those who developed HN (P < 0.001). Most common initial treatments were isotonic saline (NS, 36%), fluid restriction (FR, 33%), and no specific therapy (NST, 20%). Baseline [Na] was higher in patients treated with NST, FR, or NS versus hypertonic saline (HS) and tolvaptan (Tol) (P < 0.05). Treatment success occurred in 39%, 39%, 52%, 78%, and 81% of patients with NST, FR, NS, HS, and Tol, respectively. Relapse occurred in 55% after correction and was associated with increased LOS (9 versus 6 days, P < 0.001). 34% admitted with HN were discharged with HN corrected. Conclusions. Treatment approaches for HN were variable and frequently ineffective. Success was greatest with HS and Tol. Relapse of HN is associated with increased LOS.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Sep 2018 10:57:13 +000
       
  • The Ethanol Supernatant Extracts of Liushenwan Could Alleviate
           Nanodiethylnitrosamine-Induced Liver Cancer in Mice

    • Abstract: Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancerous deaths worldwide. At present, the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be a problem globally. Liushenwan (LSW), an ancient Chinese medicine previously used to treat localized infections, was recently reported to possess anticancer activity. Here in this study, we aim to examine the effect of LSW-ET (LSW-ET is the supernatant fraction of LSW from ultrasound assisted ethanol extraction) in prevention and treatment on nanodiethylnitrosamine- (nanoDEN-) induced HCC in mice. In nanoDEN-induced HCC mice treated with LSW-ET by oral (po) or intragastric gavage (ig), we observed an alleviation of serum ALT and AST levels, amelioration in histopathological stainings, and an inhibition in liver tumor growth. In addition, compared with the nanoDEN group, downregulation of multiple pivotal factors (COX-2, β-catenin, PCNA, and HMGB-1) was observed in LSW-ET-po and LSW-ET-ig groups. Taken together, the delivery of LSW-ET by oral could be a potential prevention and treatment of liver cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2018 07:08:07 +000
       
  • Colon Epithelial MicroRNA Network in Fatty Liver

    • Abstract: Background & Aims. Intestinal barrier alterations are associated with fatty liver (FL) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), but microRNA (miR) signaling pathways in MetS-FL pathogenesis remain unclear. This study investigates an epithelial-focused miR network in colorectal cell models based on the previously reported MetS-FL miR trio of hsa-miR-142-3p, hsa-miR-18b, and hsa-miR-890. Methods. Each miR mimic construct of MetS-FL miR trio was transfected into human colorectal cells, CRL-1790 or Caco-2. Global miRNome changes posttransfection were profiled (nCounter® Human v3 miRNA, NanoString Technologies). Changes in barrier (transepithelial electrical resistance, TEER) and epithelial cell junction structure (Occludin and Zona Occludens-1/ZO-1 immunofluorescence staining-confocal microscopy) were examined pre- and posttransfection in Caco-2 cell monolayers. A signaling network was constructed from the MetS-FL miR trio, MetS-FL miR-induced colorectal miRNome changes, ZO-1, and Occludin. Results. Transfection of CRL-1790 cells with each MetS-FL miR mimic led to global changes in the cellular miRNome profile, with 288 miRs being altered in expression by more than twofold. Eleven miRs with known cytoskeletal and metabolic roles were commonly altered in expression by all three miR mimics. Transfection of Caco-2 cell monolayers with each MetS-FL miR mimic induced barrier-associated TEER variations and led to structural modifications of ZO-1 and Occludin within epithelial cell junctions. Pathway analysis incorporating the MetS-FL miR trio, eleven common target miRs, ZO-1, and Occludin revealed a signaling network centered on TNF and AKT2, which highlights injury, inflammation, and hyperplasia. Conclusions. Colon-specific changes in epithelial barriers, cell junction structure, and a miRNome signaling network are described from functional studies of a MetS-FL miR trio signature.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Sep 2018 09:02:55 +000
       
  • Reduced Incidence and Better Liver Disease Outcomes among Chronic HCV
           Infected Patients Who Consume Cannabis

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. The effect of cannabis use on chronic liver disease (CLD) from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, the most common cause of CLD, has been controversial. Here, we investigated the impact of cannabis use on the prevalence of CLD among HCV infected individuals. Methods. We analyzed hospital discharge records of adults (age ≥ 18 years) with a positive HCV diagnosis. We evaluated records from 2007 to 2014 of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We excluded records with other causes of chronic liver diseases (alcohol, hemochromatosis, NAFLD, PBC, HBV, etc.). Of the 188,333 records, we matched cannabis users to nonusers on 1:1 ratio (4,728:4,728), using a propensity-based matching system, with a stringent algorithm. We then used conditional regression models with generalized estimating equations to measure the adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR) for having liver cirrhosis (and its complications), carcinoma, mortality, discharge disposition, and the adjusted mean ratio (aMR) of total hospital cost and length of stay (LOS) [SAS 9.4]. Results. Our study revealed that cannabis users (CUs) had decreased prevalence of liver cirrhosis (aPRR: 0.81[0.72-0.91]), unfavorable discharge disposition (0.87[0.78-0.96]), and lower total health care cost ($39,642[36,220-43,387] versus $45,566[$42,244-$49,150]), compared to noncannabis users (NCUs). However, there was no difference among CUs and NCUs on the incidence of liver carcinoma (0.79[0.55-1.13]), in-hospital mortality (0.84[0.60-1.17]), and LOS (5.58[5.10-6.09] versus 5.66[5.25-6.01]). Among CUs, dependent cannabis use was associated with lower prevalence of liver cirrhosis, compared to nondependent use (0.62[0.41-0.93]). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with decreased incidence of liver cirrhosis, but no change in mortality nor LOS among HCV patients. These novel observations warrant further molecular mechanistic studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Sep 2018 09:30:27 +000
       
  • Characteristics and Changes over Time of Alcohol-Related Chronic Liver
           Diseases in Italy

    • Abstract: Introduction. To evaluate the characteristics of alcohol-related chronic liver disease (CLD) in Italy and their potential changes over time. Patients and Methods. Subjects with CLD were enrolled in two national surveys performed in 2001 and in 2014 in Italy. The two surveys prospectively recruited patients aged ≥ 18 years referring to more than 80 Italian liver units scattered all over the country using similar clinical approach, analytical methods, and threshold of risky alcohol intake definition (≥ 3 units/day in men and ≥ 2 units/day in women). Results. Out of 12,256 enrolled subjects, 2,717 (22.2%) reported a risky alcohol intake. Of them, anti-HCV positive was observed in 48.3% of subjects. The overall sex ratio (M/F) was 3.1, decreasing from 3.8 in 2001 to 1.3 in 2014. Women were significantly older than men (58.9 versus 53.1 years; ) and an increasing ageing over time was observed in both sexes. The proportion of subjects with liver cirrhosis increased over time in both sexes, and decompensated stage (Child B or C) was detected in 55.9% of cases in 2001 and 46.0% in 2014. Conclusions. Risky alcohol intake plays a role in more than one-fifth of CLD in Italy, with a shift over time towards an older age and a more severe liver disease stage. These data put alcohol back in the spotlight with an important role in CLD in the years to come in Italy.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Sep 2018 07:10:36 +000
       
  • Plexin C1 Marks Liver Cancer Cells with Epithelial Phenotype and Is
           Overexpressed in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Hepatocellular carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy of the liver and is ranked as the sixth most common cancer worldwide. There is still room for novel markers to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of HCC. Our observations in cancer databases that PLXNC1 is upregulated in HCC led us to investigate the expression profile of Plexin C1 mRNA and protein in HCC cell lines and tissues. Methods. A recombinant protein encompassing part of the extracellular domain of Plexin C1 was used as an antigen for monoclonal antibody development. Transcript and protein levels of Plexin C1 in HCC cell lines were determined by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. In vivo evaluation of Plexin C1 expression in HCC tissues was accomplished by immunohistochemistry studies in tissue microarrays. Results. A monoclonal antibody, clone PE4, specific to Plexin C1, was generated. In silico and in vitro analyses revealed a Plexin C1-based clustering of well-differentiated HCC cell lines. Staining of HCC and nontumoral liver tissues with PE4 showed a membrane-localized overexpression of Plexin C1 in tumors (p=0.0118). In addition, this expression was correlated with the histological grades of HCC cases. Conclusions. Plexin C1 distinguishes HCC cells of epithelial characteristics from those with the mesenchymal phenotype. Compared to the nontumoral liver, HCC tissues significantly overexpress Plexin C1. The newly generated PE4 antibody can be evaluated in larger HCC cohorts and might be exploited for the examination of Plexin C1 expression pattern in other epithelial malignancies.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Mesalazine for People with Diverticular Disease: A Systematic Review of
           Randomized Controlled Trials

    • Abstract: Background. Diverticular disease treatment is limited to fibres, antibiotics, and surgery. There is conflicting evidence on mesalazine benefits and harms. Aim. We systematically reviewed current evidence on benefits and harms of mesalazine versus all other treatments in people with diverticular disease. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov for studies published to July 2018. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (disease remission/recurrence, acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease, need for surgery/hospitalization, all-cause/disease-related mortality, adverse events), mean differences (MD) or standardized MD (SMD) for continuous outcomes (quality of life, symptoms score, time to recurrence/remission), and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. We quantified heterogeneity by Chi2 and I2 tests. We performed subgroup analyses by disease subtype, comparator, follow-up duration, mesalazine dose, and mode of administration. Results. We identified 13 randomized trials (n=3028 participants). There was a higher likelihood of disease remission with mesalazine than controls in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (1 trial, 81 participants, RR=2.67, 95%CI=1.05-6.79), but not in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (1 trial, 123 participants, RR=1.04, 95%CI=0.81-1.34). There was a lower likelihood of disease recurrence with mesalazine than controls in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (2 trials, 216 participants, RR=0.52, 95%CI=0.28-0.97), but not in acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (7 trials, 2196 participants, RR=0.90, 95%CI=0.61-1.33). There was no difference in the likelihood of developing acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease between the two groups (3 trials, 484 participants, RR=0.26, 95%CI=0.06-1.20). There was a higher global symptoms score reduction with mesalazine than controls in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (2 trials, 326 participants, SMD=-1.01, 95%CI=-1.51,-0.52) and acute uncomplicated diverticulitis (2 trials, 153 participants, SMD=-0.56, 95%CI=-0.88,-0.24). Conclusions. Mesalazine may reduce recurrences in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. There is uncertainty on the effect of mesalazine in achieving diverticular disease remission. Mesalazine may not prevent acute diverticulitis in symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effectiveness of Antiviral Treatments for Patients with HBeAg-Positive
           Chronic Hepatitis B: A Bayesian Network Analysis

    • Abstract: This network analysis is to determine the most effective treatment in HBeAg-positive patients. PubMed databases were searched for randomized controlled trials. Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to calculate the pairwise hazard ratios, 95% credible intervals, and ranking of surrogate outcomes. 9 studies were identified. The results show that NA add-on PEG IFN might be a better antiviral approach for HBeAg-positive patients in end point of treatment, with a comparable results of nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NA), PEG IFN, PEG IFN add-on NA, PEG IFN combined NA, and PEG IFN combined placebo in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and HBV DNA undetectable. Cumulative probabilities of being the most efficacious treatment were NA add-on PEG IFN (30%) for HBeAg loss. The second efficacious (23%) is HBeAg seroconversion. This network analysis shows that NA add-on PEG IFN might be a better antiviral approach for HBeAg-positive patients in end point of treatment. But the long-term efficiency should be further determined.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 06:40:57 +000
       
  • The Effect of Antidepressants on the Course of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Mood may have an important role in the natural history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the impact of antidepressant use on prognosis is unknown. We aimed to address this in a longitudinal study in a referral population. Methods. We collected demographic data, clinical disease activity and mood using validated questionnaires, and antidepressant use at baseline. Longitudinal disease activity was defined by disease flare or need for glucocorticosteroids, escalation of medical therapy, hospitalisation, or intestinal resection. We compared rates of these over a minimum period of 2 years according to antidepressant use at baseline. Results. In total, 331 patients provided complete data, of whom 54 (15.8%) were taking an antidepressant at study entry. Older age, female gender, and abnormal mood scores were associated with antidepressant use. During longitudinal follow-up, there was a trend towards lower rates of any of the four endpoints of IBD activity of interest in patients with abnormal anxiety scores at baseline and who were receiving an antidepressant (42.3% versus 64.6%, P = 0.05). Based on univariate Cox regression analysis, there was a trend towards lower rates of escalation of medical therapy among patients receiving antidepressants at baseline (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-1.00, P = 0.05). None of the differences observed persisted after multivariate Cox regression. Conclusions. Antidepressants may have some beneficial effects on the natural history of IBD, but larger studies with longer follow-up are required. Whether these effects are limited to patients with abnormal mood remains uncertain.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 07:47:03 +000
       
  • The Relationship between Gender, Severity of Disease, Treatment Type, and
           Employment Outcome in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Israel

    • Abstract: Introduction. Since individuals with IBD typically experience symptoms during their prime years of employment, it raises the question about IBD impact on employment status. Most studies concentrated on absenteeism from work with varying results in different populations. However, absenteeism reflects only one dimension of the ability to work and does not expose the problem of inability to hold a full-time job. Aims. To evaluate the influence of IBD on unemployment and working hours in Israel. Secondary aims were to investigate the correlation between working hours and the type of medical treatment and the impact of severity of disease. Patients and Methods. Demographic data, employment status, number of weekly working hours, and disease parameters. The data was compared to that of the general Israeli population extracted from the website of the Central Bureau of Statistics. Results. 242 IBD patients were interviewed. Patients median age was 37.04(IQR 30.23-44.68) years and 88 (36.4%) were men and 154 (63.6%) women. Diagnosis of CD was established in 167 (69%) patients and UC in 65 (26.9%). There was no significant reduction in employment rates or working hours among the IBD patients comparing to the general population. Immunosuppressive or biologic treatment did not influence employment status. The unemployed patients had higher disease severity (median 7.33, IQR 5-10.66) compared to employed patients (median 6, IQR 3.66-7.66; p=0.003). Conclusions. Although IBD patients in Israel do not have higher unemployment, those with severe disease have lower proportion of employment.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota
           Transplant for Clostridium difficile Infection in Immunocompromised
           Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be effective in recurrent Clostridium difficile (CD) infection, with resolution in 80% to 90% of patients. However, immunosuppressed patients were often excluded from FMT trials, so safety and efficacy in this population are unknown. Methods. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for English language articles published on FMT for treatment of CD infection in immunocompromised patients (including patients on immunosuppressant medications, patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inherited or primary immunodeficiency syndromes, cancer undergoing chemotherapy, or organ transplant, including-bone marrow transplant) of all ages. We excluded inflammatory bowel disease patients that were not on immunosuppressant medications. Resolution and adverse event rates (including secondary infection, rehospitalization, and death) were calculated. Results. Forty-four studies were included, none of which were randomized designs. A total of 303 immunocompromised patients were studied. Mean patient age was 57.3 years. Immunosuppressant medication use was the reason for the immunocompromised state in the majority (77.2%), and 19.2% had greater than one immunocompromising condition. Seventy-six percent were given FMT via colonoscopy. Of the 234 patients with reported follow-up outcomes, 207/234 (87%) reported resolution after first treatment, with 93% noting success after multiple treatments. There were 2 reported deaths, 2 colectomies, 5 treatment-related infections, and 10 subsequent hospitalizations. Conclusion. We found evidence that supports the use of FMT for treatment of CD infection in immunocompromised patients, with similar rates of serious adverse events to immunocompetent patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis- (NASH-) Related
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Abstract: The proportion of obese or diabetic population has been anticipated to increase in the upcoming decades, which rises the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent evidence indicates that NASH is the main cause of chronic liver diseases and it is an important risk factor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although the literature addressing NASH-HCC is growing rapidly, limited data is available about the etiology of NASH-related HCC. Experimental studies on the molecular mechanism of HCC development in NASH reveal that the carcinogenesis is relevant to complex changes in signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and energy metabolism. Genetic or epigenetic modifications and alterations in metabolic, immunologic, and endocrine pathways have been shown to be closely related to inflammation, liver injury, and fibrosis in NASH along with its subsequent progression to HCC. In this review, we provide an overview on the current knowledge of NASH-related HCC development and emphasize molecular signaling pathways regarding their mechanism of action in NASH-derived HCC.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 09:20:03 +000
       
  • Ultrasound Grade of Liver Steatosis Is Independently Associated with the
           Risk of Metabolic Syndrome

    • Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore (a) prevalence and grade of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) among outpatients referred for abdominal ultrasound (US) examination and (b) relationship between the presence and severity of liver steatosis and metabolic syndrome (MS). This was a retrospective analysis of patients without history of liver disease examined by abdominal US in the University hospital setting. US was used to detect and semiquantitatively grade (0-3) liver steatosis. Data on patients’ age, gender, body mass index (BMI), impaired glucose metabolism (IGM), atherogenic dyslipidaemia (AD), raised blood pressure (RBP), transaminases, and platelet counts were obtained from medical records. MS was defined as having at least 3 of the following components: obesity, IGM, AD, and RBP. Of the 631 patients (median age 60 years, median BMI 27.4 kg/m2, and 57.4% females) 71.5% were overweight and 48.5% had NAFL. In the subgroup of 159 patients with available data on the components of MS, patients with higher US grade of steatosis had significantly higher BMI and increased prevalence of obesity, IGM, AD, RBP, and accordingly more frequently had MS, whereas they did not differ in terms of age and gender. NAFL was independently associated with the risk of having MS in a multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and IGM. The grade of liver steatosis did not correlate with the presence of liver fibrosis. We demonstrated worrisome prevalence of obesity and NAFL in the outpatient population from our geographic region. NAFL is independently associated with the risk of having MS implying worse prognosis.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 08:28:25 +000
       
  • Response to: Comment on “Establishing a Porcine Model of Small for Size
           Syndrome following Liver Resection”

    • PubDate: Sun, 19 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • β-Catenin Regulation in Sporadic Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Not as
           Simple as APC

    • Abstract: Background. The wnt/APC/β-catenin pathway is a critical initiator in colorectal carcinogenesis in both hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). The progression of this process remains incompletely understood, although inflammation is pivotal. Drivers of inflammation are elevated in malignant tissue and have been shown to regulate β-catenin expression. Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is protumorigenic at elevated levels via COX-2 stimulation. Elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression has reduced risk of carcinogenesis and good overall prognosis in established CRC. Activation of PPARγ has inhibitory effect on β-catenin. Methods. Using qPCR and IHC, we compared β-catenin, PPARγ, COX-2, and IL-17A in the colonic mucosa of patients with sporadic CRC, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), against a normal control population. Results. β-catenin mRNA and protein expression progressively increased from the Normal group, through IBS and IBD reaching statistical significance in CRC. COX-2 mRNA levels increased similarly with statistical significance in IBD and CRC. However, COX-2 protein expression was inverted with significant expression in the Normal and IBS groups and reduced levels in IBD and CRC. PPARγ mRNA expression was unchanged in IBD and CRC but was significantly elevated in the IBS. IL-17A mRNA was significantly reduced in IBS and CRC but unchanged in IBD. There were no differences in all parameters tested in the Normal and IBS groups. Conclusion. β-catenin is confirmed as a major driver of colorectal carcinogenesis but is controlled by many more players other than APC. Elevated levels of PPARγ may have an anticarcinogenic effect. The role of COX-2 expression, especially its posttranscriptional regulation in colorectal cancer, needs further elucidation.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 08:26:08 +000
       
  • Low Total Dose of Anti-Human T-Lymphocyte Globulin (ATG) Guarantees a Good
           Glomerular Filtration Rate after Liver Transplant in Recipients with
           Pretransplant Renal Dysfunction

    • Abstract: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of low doses of anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG)-based immunosuppression in preserving renal function and preventing liver rejection in liver transplant (LT) recipients with pretransplant renal dysfunction. We designed a prospective single-center cohort study analyzing patients with pre-LT renal dysfunction defined as eGFR
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Increased Duodenal Iron Absorption through Upregulation of Ferroportin 1
           due to the Decrement in Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis
           C

    • Abstract: Hepatic iron accumulation is generally increased in the chronic hepatitis C (CHC) liver; however, the precise mechanism of such accumulation remains unclear. We evaluated iron absorption from the gastrointestinal tract of patients with CHC and control participants. We measured the expression of a panel of molecules associated with duodenal iron absorption and serum hepcidin levels to determine the mechanism of iron accumulation in the CHC liver. We enrolled 24 patients with CHC and 9 patients with chronic gastritis without Helicobacter pylori infection or an iron metabolism disorder as control participants. An oral iron absorption test (OIAT) was administered which involved a dosage of 100 mg of sodium ferrous citrate. Serum level of hepcidin-25 was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ferroportin 1 (FPN) mRNA was measured by RT-PCR and FPN protein was analyzed by western blot. Samples were obtained from duodenum biopsy tissue from each CHC patient and control participant. Caco-2/TC7 cells were incubated in Costar transwells (0.4 μm pores). The OIAT showed significantly greater iron absorption in CHC patients than control participants. Serum hepcidin-25 in the CHC group was significantly lower than in the control group. Compared with control participants, duodenal FPN mRNA expression in CHC patients was significantly upregulated. The FPN mRNA levels and protein levels increased significantly in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers cultured in transwells with hepcidin. Lower serum hepcidin-25 levels might upregulate not only FPN protein expression but also mRNA expression in the duodenum and cause iron accumulation in patients with CHC.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 07:19:39 +000
       
  • The Use of Biomarkers in Early Diagnostics of Pancreatic Cancer

    • Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal solid malignancies with increasing incidence. The poor prognosis is due to the aggressive nature of the tumor, late detection, and the resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. A radical surgery procedure is the only treatment that has been shown to improve the 5-year survival rate to 20-25%. However, the majority of patients (80-85%) are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic disease and just 15-20% patients are diagnosed in an early stage allowing them to undergo the potentially curative surgical resection. The early detection of PDAC without the use of invasive methods is challenging and discovery of a cost-effective biomarker with high specificity and sensitivity could significantly improve the treatment and survival in these patients. In this review, we summarize current and newly examined biomarkers in early PDAC detection.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 06:56:00 +000
       
  • Predictive Value of a Noninvasive Serological Hepatic Fibrosis Scoring
           System in Cirrhosis Combined with Oesophageal Varices

    • Abstract: Objective. In recent years, the noninvasive serological scoring system has become a research hotspot in predicting hepatic fibrosis and has achieved good results. However, it has rarely been applied to the prediction of oesophageal varices. The aim of the study was to evaluate the predictive value of the four following scoring systems in cirrhosis combined with oesophageal varices: aspartate and platelet ratio index (APRI), aspartate aminotransferase-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), FIB-4, and S index. Methods. A total of 153 patients with cirrhosis were categorized into groups with or without oesophageal varices. In addition, cirrhosis patients with oesophageal varices were further divided into mild, moderate, and severe grades. The rank sum test was used to compare the significant differences of APRI, AAR, FIB-4, and S index between the two groups of cirrhosis patients with or without oesophageal varices. A ROC curve was generated to compare the area under the curve of the three groups and to obtain the corresponding optimal prediction value. Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the predictive factors for cirrhosis combined with oesophageal varices. Results. 44 patients had no oesophageal varices and 108 patients had oesophageal varices. Of the 108 patients with oesophageal varices, 43 were mild, 32 were moderate, and 33 were severe. The rank sum test indicated that the APRI, FIB-4, and S index were statistically significant between two groups (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was detected in terms of AAR between the two groups (P > 0.05). In addition, all four scoring systems were statistically significant between nonoesophageal varices group and severe oesophageal varices group (P < 0.05). In the ROC curve of oesophageal varices, the AUC values of APRI, FIB-4, and S index for predicting oesophageal varices were 0.681, 0642, and 0.673, respectively. However, in the ROC curve of severe oesophageal varices, the AUC values of APRI, AAR, FIB-4, and S index were 0.729, 0.648, 0.673, and 0.695, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that APRI and FIB-4 were predictors of disease progression (P < 0.05). Conclusion. AAR harboured a poor predictive value for oesophageal varices, APRI can be used as a reference index for the prediction of severe oesophageal varices, and the S index harboured potential value in predicting the degree of progression of cirrhosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Chronic Hepatitis C Association with Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular
           Risk in the Era of DAA Therapy

    • Abstract: Patients with chronic hepatitis C have both higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and increased cardiovascular risk compared to never infected people. Sustained viral response (SVR) achievement led to decreasing incidence and prevalence of T2DM during the interferon era of HCV treatment. Currently, direct-acting antiviral drugs (DAA) are the gold standard for treating HCV infection, while yielding SVR in nearly all patients. In chronic HCV patients with T2DM (prediabetes most likely too), DAA therapy is associated with both better fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) controls; thus reducing pharmacotherapy in a certain part of patients is possible. Papers mentioned in the review confirmed DAA role in both total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increase. This alteration was accompanied by an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and a decrease in triglycerides (TG) verified by most of the studies. However, the clinical significance of lipoprotein alterations caused by DAA therapy has not been explained yet. Moreover, DAA treatment of chronic hepatitis C improves hypertension control and atherosclerotic plaques. It is very likely that DAA therapeutic regimens will decrease both T2DM prevalence and cardiovascular risk in chronic hepatitis C patients; further research, however, is needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Aug 2018 08:31:33 +000
       
  • Mirizzi Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management of a Challenging Biliary
           Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Mirizzi syndrome is a condition difficult to diagnose and treat, representing a particular “challenge” for the biliary surgeon. The disease can mimic cancer of the gallbladder, causing considerable diagnostic difficulties. Furthermore, it increases the risk of intraoperative biliary injury during cholecystectomy. The aim of this study is to point out some particular aspects of diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Methods. The clinical records of patients with Mirizzi syndrome, treated in the last five years, were reviewed. Clinical data, cholangiograms, preoperative diagnosis, operative procedures, and early and late results were examined. Results. Eighteen consecutive patients were treated in the last five years. Presenting symptoms were jaundice, pain, and cholangitis. Preoperative diagnosis of Mirizzi syndrome was achieved in 11 patients, while 6 had a diagnosis of gallbladder cancer and 1 of Klatskin tumor. Seventeen patients underwent surgery, including cholecystectomy in 8 cases, bile duct repair over T-tube in 3 cases, and hepaticojejunostomy in 4 cases. Two cases (11.1%) of gallbladder cancer associated with the Mirizzi syndrome were incidentally found: a patient underwent right hepatectomy and another patient was unresectable. The overall morbidity rate was 16.6%. There was no postoperative mortality. An ERCP with stent insertion was required in three cases after surgery. Sixteen patients were asymptomatic at a mean distance of 24 months (range: 6-48) after surgery. Conclusions. Mirizzi syndrome requires being treated by an experienced biliary surgeon after a careful assessment of the local situation and anatomy. The preoperative placement of a stent via ERCP can simplify the surgical procedure.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 07:54:32 +000
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Single-Session Endoscopic Stone Removal for Acute
           Cholangitis Associated with Choledocholithiasis

    • Abstract: Background/Aims. In early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for acute cholangitis due to choledocholithiasis, it is unclear that single-session stone removal can be safely performed. We examined the efficacy and safety of early single-session stone removal for mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis. Methods. Among patients with mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis associated with choledocholithiasis who underwent early ERCP (n = 167), we retrospectively compared the removal group (patients who underwent single-session stone removal; n = 78) with the drainage group (patients who underwent biliary drainage alone; n = 89) and examined the effectiveness and safety of single-session stone removal by early ERCP. Results. The patients in the removal group had significantly fewer and smaller stones compared with those in the drainage group. The single-session complete stone removal rate was 85.9% in the removal group. The complication rate in early ERCP was 11.5% in the removal group and 10.1% in the drainage group, with no significant difference (P = 0.963). On comparing patients who underwent early endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) with those who underwent elective EST after cholangitis had improved, the post-EST bleeding rates were 6.8% and 2.7%, respectively, with no significant difference (P = 0.600). The mean duration of hospitalization was 11.9 days for the removal group and 19.9 days for the drainage group, indicating a shorter stay for the removal group (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, stone removal in early ERCP, number of stones, and C-reactive protein level were significant predictors of hospitalization period. Conclusions. Single-session stone removal for mild-to-moderate acute cholangitis can be safely performed. It is useful from the perspective of shorter hospital stay.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Expanding Role of Systemic Therapy in the Management of Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a global health problem, with the majority of patients presenting at an advanced or incurable stage. The development of effective systemic therapy options for this disease has been challenging because many HCC patients suffer from underlying liver cirrhosis that precludes the safe delivery of systemic therapy. The current review seeks to provide an overview of the current systemic therapeutic approaches for advanced HCC as well as some of the novel management strategies that are currently being evaluated.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 07:06:49 +000
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Immunosuppressive Therapy for PBC–AIH Overlap
           Syndrome Accompanied by Decompensated Cirrhosis: A Real-World Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To explore the efficacy and safety of immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis-autoimmune hepatitis (PBC-AIH) overlap syndrome accompanied by decompensated cirrhosis. Methods. A cohort study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of immunosuppressive therapy in this unique group. This cohort study was performed between October 2013 and June 2017 and included 28 biopsy-proven patients diagnosed according to the Paris criteria. The therapies included ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) alone (N=14) or in combination with immunosuppression (IS) therapy (N=14). The primary endpoints were biochemical remission, liver-related adverse events, transplant-free survival, and drug side-effects. Results. The frequency of biochemical remission for the AIH features was significantly higher in the UDCA+IS group than in the UDCA-only group (60.0 versus 9.1%, P=0.024) after 12 months of therapy but not after 3 and 6 months (28.6 versus 0%, P=0.165; 35.7 versus 7.1%, P=0.098). The rates of liver-related adverse events were lower in the combined group (2/14 versus 9/14, P=0.018). The Kaplan-Meier estimate showed that the transplant-free survival was distinct between the two groups (P=0.019). In the UDCA+IS group, mild and transient leukopenia occurred in two patients receiving azathioprine (AZA), and an infection was observed in one patient receiving mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Conclusions. PBC-AIH patients with decompensated cirrhosis receiving a combination of UDCA and immunosuppressors presented with higher biochemical remission rates and experienced fewer liver-related adverse events, implying that the combined treatment might be a better therapeutic option for strictly defined decompensated PBC-AIH overlap syndrome.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Aug 2018 10:12:21 +000
       
  • Systemic Inflammation and Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: Too Much, Not
           Enough

    • Abstract: ACLF is a specific, but complex and multifactorial form of acute decompensation of cirrhosis and is characterized by an extraordinary dynamic natural course, rapidly evolving organ failure, and high short-term mortality. Dysbalanced immune function is central to its pathogenesis and outcome with an initial excessive systemic inflammatory response that drives organ failure and mortality. Later in its course, immuno-exhaustion/immunoparalysis prevails predisposing the patient to secondary infectious events and reescalation in end-organ dysfunction and mortality. The management of patients with ACLF is still poorly defined. However, as its pathophysiology is gradually being unravelled, potential therapeutic targets emerge that warrant further study such as restoring or substituting albumin via plasma exchange or via albumin dialysis and evaluating usefulness of TLR4 antagonists, modulators of gut dysbiosis (pre- or probiotics), and FXR-agonists.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 07:25:09 +000
       
 
 
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