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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 298 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 202)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
  [SJR: 0.856]   [H-I: 53]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0835-7900 - ISSN (Online) 2291-2797
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Repeat Colonoscopy within 6 Months after Initial Outpatient Colonoscopy in
           Ontario: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. The goal of this study is to examine utilization of early repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure. Methods. We identified persons having repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months following outpatient colonoscopy without prior colonoscopy ≤ 5 years or prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We modeled repeat colonoscopy using a generalized estimating equation with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for clustering of patients by endoscopist. Results. The population included 334,663 persons, 7,892 (2.36%) of whom had an early repeat colonoscopy within 6 months. Overall, endoscopist prior year colonoscopy volume was inversely related to repeat ≤ 6 months. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months varied by the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy (adjusted OR = 1.41 (95% CI 1.29–1.55)) at nonhospital facilities compared to teaching or community hospitals. Among those who had polypectomy or biopsy, the adjusted OR for early repeat ≤ 6 months was elevated among those whose index colonoscopy was at a nonhospital facility (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.30–1.60), compared to those at a teaching hospital or community hospital. Conclusions. Repeat colonoscopy ≤ 6 months after an index procedure is associated with the clinical setting of the index colonoscopy.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 10:32:59 +000
       
  • Establishing a Porcine Model of Small for Size Syndrome following Liver
           Resection

    • Abstract: Background. Small for size syndrome (SFSS) is responsible for a high proportion of mortalities and morbidities following extended liver resection. Aim. The aim of this study was to establish a porcine model of SFSS. Methods. Twenty-four Landrace pigs underwent liver resection with a remnant liver volume of 50% (group A, ), 25% (group B, ), and 15% (group C, ). After resection, the animals were followed up for 8 days and clinical, laboratory, and histopathological outcomes were evaluated. Results. The survival rate was significantly lower in group C compared with the other groups (). The international normalized ratio, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase levels increased shortly after surgery in groups B and C, but no change was observed in group A ( for all analyses). The histopathological findings in group A were mainly mild mitoses, in group B severe mitoses and hepatocyte ballooning, moderate congestion, and hemorrhage, along with mild necrosis, and in group C extended tissue damage with severe necrosis, hemorrhage, and congestion. Conclusions. Combination of clinical, laboratory, and histopathological evaluations is needed to confirm the diagnosis of SFSS. 75% liver resection in porcine model results in SFSS. 85% liver resection causes irreversible liver failure.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:45:50 +000
       
  • Bone Loss Prevention of Bisphosphonates in Patients with Inflammatory
           Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates in improving bone mineral density (BMD) and decreasing the occurrence rate of fractures and adverse events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which use bisphosphonates in IBD patients were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE database, EMBASE database, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Databases between 1990 and June 2016. People received bisphosphonate or placebos with a follow-up of at least one year were also considered. STATA 12.0 software was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Eleven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The data indicated that the percentage change in the increased BMD in the bisphosphonates groups was superior to that of the control groups at the lumbar spine and total hip. At the femoral neck, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The incidence of new fractures during follow-up showed significant reduction. The adverse event analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that bisphosphonates therapy has an effect on bone loss in patients with IBD but show no evident efficiency at increasing the incidence of adverse events.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 07:38:08 +000
       
  • The Geography of Primary Hepatic Neoplasms Treatments in Canada: Changes
           in Latitudes and Changes in Attitudes

    • Abstract: Background. Studies on treatment modalities for primary hepatic neoplasms (PHN) in Canada are lacking. Our primary aim was to analyze the age-standardized incidence of hepatic resection, ablation, transplantation, and embolization for PHN between 2002 and 2013. Secondary aim was to evaluate temporal trends for these treatment modalities. Study Design. National Canadian Cancer Registries were accessed for relevant epidemiological data. Age-standardized incidence of treatment ratios (SIRs) was calculated and comparisons were performed for Atlantic Canada, Ontario, the Prairies, and British Columbia. Results. British Columbia recorded the highest SIRs for ablation (1.9; 95% CI 1.8–2.0), hepatic resection (1.2; 95% CI 1.1–1.3), and transarterial locoregional therapies (2.8; 95% CI 2.4–3.2). For hepatic resection, the lowest SIR was found in Atlantic Canada (0.7; 95% CI 0.6–0.9), while the Prairies recorded the lowest estimate for transarterial therapies (0.2; 95% CI 0.1–0.4). Liver transplantation had the highest SIR in Ontario (1.5; 95% CI 1.3–1.6) and the lowest SIR in British Columbia. No significant temporal changes in SIRs were observed for any of the treatments except for transarterial therapies. Conclusions. Treatment of PHN in Canada differs by geography. Variations might be due to differences in expertise or access to therapeutic modalities.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 08:17:37 +000
       
  • Evaluation of Adrenal Function in Nonhospitalized Patients with Cirrhosis

    • Abstract: Background. Patients with cirrhosis and advancing hepatic insufficiency may show various degrees of other organ malfunction, including brain, kidney, and lung. Several studies have also shown a high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients that may cause hemodynamic instability. Materials and Methods. In this study we prospectively evaluated adrenal function in a population of nonhospitalized cirrhotic patients. Categorization of liver disease severity was done according to model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing was performed on subjects using 250 μg of synthetic short acting hormone; radio immunoassay was used to measure plasma cortisol levels. Results. Of 105 cirrhotic patients, 15.23% had evidence of adrenal insufficiency. These patients were not statistically different from those with normal adrenal function in levels of serum creatinine or bilirubin, MELD score, or presence of cirrhosis related complications. Significant differences were seen in mean international normalized ratio and serum sodium. Patients with a sodium level < 135 mEq/L had a higher rate (31.25%) of adrenal insufficiency. Conclusion. Adrenal dysfunction was identified in a population of stable nonhospitalized cirrhotic patients. Our results suggest a possible role for adrenal dysfunction as a contributing factor in hyponatremia in cirrhosis independent of other known factors of neurohormonal activation secondary to systemic vasodilation.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 09:14:38 +000
       
  • Acyl-CoA Synthetase 5 Promotes the Growth and Invasion of Colorectal
           Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Acyl-CoA synthetase 5 (ACS5) has been reported to be associated with the development of various cancers, but the role of it in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well understood. The present study aimed to explore the potential role of ACS5 in the development and progression of CRC. Methods. ACS5 expression in CRC tissues and CRC cell lines was examined, and its clinical significance was analyzed. The role of ACS5 in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion was examined in vitro. Results. We found that ACS5 expression was upregulated in CRC cells and CRC tissues and that high ACS5 expression was more frequent in CRC patients with excess muscular layer and with poor tumor differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of ACS5 in HT29 and SW480 cells significantly dampened cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and reduced cell migration and invasion. In contrast, the ectopic overexpression of ACS5 in LOVO and SW620 cells remarkably promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and enhanced cell migration and invasion. Enhanced cell growth and invasion ability mediated by the gain of ACS5 expression were associated with downregulation of caspase-3 and E-cadherin and upregulation of survivin and CD44. Conclusions. Our data demonstrate that ACS5 can promote the growth and invasion of CRC cells and provide a potential target for CRC gene therapy.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 08:21:46 +000
       
  • Possible Involvement of Liver Resident Macrophages (Kupffer Cells) in the
           Pathogenesis of Both Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Inflammation

    • Abstract: Liver resident macrophages designated Kupffer cells (KCs) form the largest subpopulation of tissue macrophages. KCs are involved in the pathogenesis of liver inflammation. However, the role of KCs in the systemic inflammation is still elusive. In this study, we examined whether KCs are involved in not only intrahepatic inflammation but also extrahepatic systemic inflammation. Administration of clodronate liposomes resulted in the KC deletion and in the suppression of liver injury in T cell-mediated hepatitis by ConA as a local acute inflammation model, while the treatment did not influence dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced colitis featured by weight loss, intestinal shrink, and pathological observation as an ectopic local acute inflammation model. In contrast, KC deletion inhibited collagen-induced arthritis as a model of extrahepatic, systemic chronical inflammation. KC deleted mice showed weaker arthritic scores, less joint swelling, and more joint space compared to arthritis-induced control mice. These results strongly suggest that KCs are involved in not only intrahepatic inflammatory response but also systemic (especially) chronic inflammation.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Prevalence of Hjortsjo Crook Sign of Right Posterior Sectional Bile
           Duct and Bile Duct Anatomy in ERCP

    • Abstract: Aim. The frequency of the Right Posterior Sectional Bile Duct (RPSBD) hump sign in cholangiogram when it crosses over the right portal vein known as Hjortsjo Crook Sign and the bile duct anatomy are studied. Knowledge of the implication of positive sign can facilitate safe resection for both bile duct and portal vein. Methods. Prospectively, we included 237 patients with indicated ERCP during a period from March 2010 to January 2015. Results. The mean age (±SD) and male to female ratio were 38.8 (±19.20) and 1 : 1.28, respectively. All patients are Arab from Middle Eastern origin, had biliary stone disease, and underwent diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP. Positive Hjortsjo Crook Sign was found in 17.7% (42) of patients. The sign was found to be equally more frequent in Nakamura’s RPSBD anatomical variant types I, II, and IV in 8.4% (20), 6.8% (16), and 2.1% (5), respectively, while rare anatomical variant type III showed no positive sign. Conclusion. Hjortsjo Crook Sign frequently presents in RPSBD variation types I, II, and IV in our patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:08:21 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Assessment of School Readiness in Chronic Cholestatic
           Liver Disease: A Pilot Study Examining Children with and without Liver
           Transplantation”

    • PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Obesity Increases Prevalence of Colonic Adenomas at Screening Colonoscopy:
           A Canadian Community-Based Study

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia. We examined the influence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) on prevalence of neoplasia at screening colonoscopy. Methods. We evaluated 2020 subjects undergoing first screening colonoscopy. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated at enrolment. Hyperlipidemia (HL), hypertension (HT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were identified. Details of colonoscopy, polypectomy, and histology were recorded. Odds for adenomas (A) and advanced adenomas (ADV) in overweight (BMI 25.1–30) and obese (BMI > 30) subjects were assessed by multinomial regression, adjusted for covariates. Analyses included relationships between HL, HT, DM, age, tobacco usage, and neoplasia. Discriminatory power of HT, HL, DM, and BMI for neoplasia was assessed by binary logistic regression. Odds were calculated for neoplasia in each colonic segment related to BMI. Results. A and ADV were commoner in overweight and obese males, obese females, older subjects, and smokers. HL, HT, and DM were associated with increased odds for neoplasia, significantly for A with hypertension. BMI alone predicted neoplasia as well as HT, HL, DM, or combinations thereof. All segments of the colon were affected. Multiple polyps were particularly prevalent in the obese. Conclusions. Obesity and MetS are risk factors for colonic neoplasia in a Canadian population.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Prebiotics: A Novel Approach to Treat
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma”

    • PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 10:45:16 +000
       
  • Recognition of Lynch Syndrome Amongst Newly Diagnosed Colorectal Cancers
           at St. Paul’s Hospital

    • Abstract: Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS) is the most common cause of inherited colorectal cancer (CRC). In British Columbia, most centres still use clinical criteria (Amsterdam II, Revised Bethesda, or the BC Cancer Agency’s criteria) to determine who should undergo further first-line testing in the form of microsatellite instability or immunohistochemistry staining. Given the limitations with this strategy, LS is thought to be underrecognized. Objective. To investigate whether LS is truly underrecognized when compared to the reported prevalence. Methods. A retrospective chart review of all CRC cases diagnosed at St. Paul’s Hospital from 2010 to 2013 was conducted. Results. 246 patients met inclusion criteria. 76% (83/109) with a family history of malignancy were unable to recall the specific malignancy or age of diagnosis. 18% (43/235) were only asked about a history of gastrointestinal related malignancy and 26% (65/246) met at least one of the three criteria but only 21% (13/63) received further investigation. Only 1.6% (4/246) had LS compared to the reported prevalence of 2–5% of all CRC cases. Conclusion. This data supports our hypothesis that LS is underrecognized. Issues at the patient, physician, and systems level need to be evaluated to determine where the limitations preventing appropriate testing are occurring.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jul 2017 09:07:46 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Evaluation and Management of Skeletal Health in Celiac
           Disease: Position Statement”

    • PubDate: Sun, 02 Jul 2017 06:45:55 +000
       
  • Comparative Readability Analysis of Online Patient Education Resources on
           Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    • Abstract: Background. The National Institutes of Health recommend a readability grade level of less than 7th grade for patient directed information. In this study, we use validated readability metrics to analyze patient information from prominent websites pertaining to ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Methods. The terms “Crohn’s Disease,” “Ulcerative Colitis,” and “Inflammatory Bowel Disease” were queried on Google and Bing. Websites containing patient education material were saved as a text file and then modified through expungement of medical terminology that was described within the text. Modified text was then divided into subsections that were analyzed using six validated readability scales. Results. None of the websites analyzed in this study achieved an estimated reading grade level below the recommended 7th grade. The median readability grade level (after modification) was 11.5 grade levels for both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The treatment subsection required the highest level of education with a median readability grade of 12th grade (range of 6.9 to 17). Conclusion. Readability of online patient education material from the analyzed popular websites far exceeds the recommended level of being less than 7th grade. Patient education resources should be revised to achieve wider health literacy.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 07:49:33 +000
       
  • Health-Related Quality of Life after Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A
           Qualitative Analysis of the Perspectives of Health Care Providers

    • Abstract: With improved survival outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation (LT), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome metric. Understanding the elements contributing to HRQoL after LT in children would enable more targeted strategies towards optimizing best outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to explore health care providers (HCP) perceptions about HRQoL after pediatric LT. Thirteen experienced HCP participated in two focus group discussions. Data analysis via a thematic analysis approach revealed 4 major themes: “LT as a facilitator of better HRQoL,” “coping and adapting to LT,” “living with a transplanted liver,” and “the family context.” HCP identified elements that both enhance (improved physical health, peer relationship, and activities of daily living) and challenge (need for immunosuppression, transplant follow-up, and restrictions) the multidimensional domains of HRQoL. HCP perceived LT to be a stressful life-changing event for children and their families. Patients and their parents’ ability to cope and adjust positively to LT was perceived as a key contributor to better HRQoL. HCP perspective highlights the importance of promoting psychosocial support and a family-centered care delivery model towards the overarching goal of optimizing durable outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 07:08:43 +000
       
  • Relationship between Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Vitamin D
           Nutritional Status in Extreme Obesity

    • Abstract: Aim. To evaluate the relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with nutritional status of vitamin D in extreme obesity. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study in individuals with class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2), aged ≥ 20 years to < 60 years. Data were obtained for weight, height, waist circumference (WC), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. Vitamin D analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the cutoff points used for its classification were < 20 ng/mL for deficiency and 20–29.9 ng/ml for insufficiency. NAFLD gradation was conducted through histological evaluation by liver biopsy. Results. The sample is comprised of 50 individuals (86% female). BMI and average weight were 44.1 ± 3.8 kg/m2 and 121.4 ± 21.4 kg, respectively. Sample distribution according to serum 25(OH)D levels showed 42% of deficiency and 48% of insufficiency. The diagnosis of NAFLD was confirmed in 100% of the individuals, of which 70% had steatosis and 30% had steatohepatitis. The highest percentage of 25(OH)D insufficiency was seen in individuals with steatosis () and steatohepatitis (). All individuals with steatohepatitis presented VDD (). Conclusion. The results of this study showed high prevalence of serum 25(OH)D inadequacy in individuals with class III obesity, which worsens as the stage of liver disease progresses.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 09:43:34 +000
       
  • The Effects of Synbiotic “Bifidobacterium lactis B94 plus Inulin”
           Addition on Standard Triple Therapy of Helicobacter pylori Eradication in
           Children

    • Abstract: Aim. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the synbiotic Bifidobacterium lactis B94 plus inulin addition to the standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection eradication rates. Methods. Children aged 6–16 years who had biopsy proven H. pylori infection were randomly classified into two groups. The first group received the standard triple therapy consisting of amoxicillin + clarithromycin + omeprazole. The second group was treated with the standard triple therapy and Bifidobacterium lactis B94 (5 × 109 CFU/dose) plus inulin (900 mg) for 14 days, concurrently. Eradication was determined by 14C-urea breath test 4–6 weeks after therapy discontinuation. Results. From a total of 69 H. pylori infected children (F/M = 36/33; mean ± SD = 11.2 ± 3.0 years), eradication was achieved in 20/34 participants in the standard therapy group and 27/35 participants in the synbiotic group. The eradication rates were not significantly different between the standard therapy and the synbiotic groups [intent-to-treat, 58.8% and 77.1%, resp., p = 0.16; per-protocol, 64.5% and 81.8%, resp., p = 0.19]. There was no difference between the groups in terms of symptom relief (p = 0.193). The reported side effects were ignorable. Conclusion. Considering the eradication rates, synbiotic addition to therapy showed no superiority over the standard triple therapy conducted alone. This trial is registered with NCT03165253.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 05:51:36 +000
       
  • Disability in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Correlations with
           Quality of Life and Patient’s Characteristics

    • Abstract: Background. Inflammatory bowel diseases may cause significant disability. However, little is known regarding the life domains where patients encounter most limitations. Objectives. To assess patients’ overall disability and determine the life domains where most restrictions were applied. Secondarily, we sought for possible relationships among disability, quality of life (HRQoL), and population characteristics. Method. The study lasted for two years (2013–2015) and included 200 patients from a referral centre. Disability was evaluated using the 36-item version of WHODAS 2.0 questionnaire. The influence of population characteristics on overall disability was assessed with linear regression. Results. Crohn’s disease (CD) patients showed greater overall disability compared to UC (19.22 versus 15.01, ), with higher scores in the domains of relationships, life activities, and participation. Disability was negatively associated with HRQoL (). Long activity, extensive disease, rural residence, and employment independently influenced the overall disability in both groups. Additionally, significant influence was recorded for lower education in the UC and for operation and celibacy in the CD group. Conclusions. CD patients were facing more limitations compared to those with UC, especially in the domains of relationships, activities, and participation. Other than clinical factors, sociodemographic characteristics were also associated with increased disability.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2017 10:20:50 +000
       
  • Association between Plasmatic Ceramides Profile and AST/ALT Ratio: C14:0
           Ceramide as Predictor of Hepatic Steatosis in Adolescents Independently of
           Obesity

    • Abstract: Objective. To assess the association between plasma ceramides and hepatic steatosis (HS) in adolescents, independently of obesity. Materials and Methods. Ninety-four adolescents from two previous studies conducted and published by our crew were included. Study subjects were stratified in three groups: normal weight (), obesity (), and obesity + HS (). The presence of HS was defined when ALT/AST ratio was
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Allied Health Professional Support in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel
           Disease: A Survey from the Canadian Children Inflammatory Bowel Disease
           Network—A Joint Partnership of CIHR and the CH.I.L.D. Foundation

    • Abstract: Objectives. The current number of healthcare providers (HCP) caring for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) across Canadian tertiary-care centres is underinvestigated. The aim of this survey was to assess the number of healthcare providers (HCP) in ambulatory pediatric IBD care across Canadian tertiary-care centres. Methods. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we examined available resources in academic pediatric centres within the Canadian Children IBD Network. The survey evaluated the number of HCP providing ambulatory care for children with IBD. Results. All 12 tertiary pediatric gastroenterology centres participating in the network responded. Median full-time equivalent (FTE) of allied health professionals providing IBD care at each site was 1.0 (interquartile range (IQR) 0.6–1.0) nurse, 0.5 (IQR 0.2–0.8) dietitian, 0.3 (IQR 0.2–0.8) social worker, and 0.1 (IQR 0.02–0.3) clinical psychologists. The ratio of IBD patients to IBD physicians was 114 : 1 (range 31 : 1–537 : 1), patients to nurses/physician assistants 324 : 1 (range 150 : 1–900 : 1), dieticians 670 : 1 (range 250 : 1–4500 : 1), social workers 1558 : 1 (range 250 : 1–16000 : 1), and clinical psychologists 2910 : 1 (range 626 : 1–3200 : 1). Conclusions. There was a wide variation in HCP support among Canadian centres. Future work will examine variation in care including patients’ outcomes and satisfaction across Canadian centres.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prebiotics: A Novel Approach to Treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the fatal malignancies and is considered as the third leading cause of death. Mutations, genetic modifications, dietary aflatoxins, or impairments in the regulation of oncogenic pathways may bring about liver cancer. An effective barrier against hepatotoxins is offered by gut-liver axis as a change in gut permeability and expanded translocation of lipopolysaccharides triggers the activation of Toll-like receptors which stimulate the process of hepatocarcinogenesis. Prebiotics, nondigestible oligosaccharides, have a pivotal role to play when it comes to inducing an antitumor effect. A healthy gut flora balance is imperative to downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and reducing lipopolysaccharides induced endotoxemia, thus inducing the antitumor effect.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 May 2017 07:01:49 +000
       
  • Dynamic Changes of the Frequency of Classic and Inflammatory Monocytes
           Subsets and Natural Killer Cells in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Treated
           by Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    • Abstract: Objective. Up to now, little was known about the immunological changes of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients treated with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs); we try to explore the effect of DAAs on the frequency of monocytes, NK cells, and cytokines that promote their activation. Methods. 15 treatment-naive CHC patients and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were examined before DAAs therapy (0 w) and at week 4 (4 w) and week 12 (12 w) of therapy. Percentage of monocytes and NK cells of the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum cytokines IL-12, IL-18, CXCL10, CXCL11, sCD14, and sCD163 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The frequency of CD3–CD16+CD56+ NK cells and classic CD14++CD16− monocytes decreased, while CD14+CD16+ monocytes and cytokines IL-12, IL-18, CXCL10, CXCL11, sCD14, and sCD163 increased at 0 w compared to healthy controls. During DAAs treatment, the decreased NK cells and classic monocytes gradually increased to normal levels; the increased inflammatory monocytes and cytokines IL-12 and CXCL11 decreased to normal levels, but the increased cytokines IL-18, CXCL10, sCD14, and sCD163 still remained at high levels at 12 w though they decreased rapidly from 0 w. Conclusion. Our results showed that DAAs treatment attenuated the activation of monocytes and NK cells in CHC patients. Trial registration number is NCT03063723.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2017 10:24:29 +000
       
  • Maintenance of Remission with Partial Enteral Nutrition Therapy in
           Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Background. Partial enteral nutrition (PEN) may be helpful for the maintenance of remission in pediatric Crohn’s disease patients. Aims. To evaluate the efficacy of PEN treatment for preventing clinical relapse. Methods. We retrospectively assessed 42 pediatric Crohn’s disease patients who entered clinical remission on 4–12 weeks of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) and were maintained on PEN as a supplementary diet. We evaluated the efficacy of the treatment at different time points using the weighted Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index (wPCDAI), Physician Global Assessment, laboratory parameters, and growth of each patient. Additionally, we assessed the use of concomitant medications. Results. The median length of remission with PEN was 6 (0–36) months. Patients’ remission was maintained on PEN without concomitant medications for a median time of zero months (0–16). The mean body mass index in the PEN group increased from 18.1 to 18.8 after six months of PEN. The median wPCDAI decreased from 30 at diagnosis to 5.0 after EEN and increased to 7.5 after three months of PEN. Overall, the median wPCDAI decreased by 26.2. Conclusions. PEN treatment was partially effective in maintaining remission and was able to increase BMI and lower wPCDAI. Most patients required concomitant medication after PEN initiation.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2017 07:18:04 +000
       
  • Choice of Allograft in Patients Requiring Intestinal Transplantation: A
           Critical Review

    • Abstract: Intestinal transplantation (ITx) is indicated in patients with irreversible intestinal failure (IF) and life-threatening complications related to total parenteral nutrition (TPN). ITx can be classified into three main types. Isolated intestinal transplantation (IITx), that is, transplantation of the jejunoileum, is indicated in patients with preserved liver function. Combined liver-intestine transplantation (L-ITx), that is, transplantation of the liver and the jejunoileum, is indicated in patients with liver failure related to TPN. Thus, patients with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis should receive a combined allograft, while patients with lower grades of liver fibrosis can usually safely undergo ITx. Reflecting their degree of sickness, the waitlist mortality rate and the early posttransplant outcomes of patients receiving L-ITx are worse than IITx. However, L-ITx is associated with better long-term graft and patient survival. Multivisceral transplantation (MVTx), that is, transplantation of the organs dependent on the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, can be classified into full MVTx if it includes the liver and modified MVTx if it does not. The most common indications for MVTx are extensive portomesenteric thrombosis and diffuse gastrointestinal pathology such as motility disorders and polyposis syndrome. Every patient with IF should undergo a multidisciplinary evaluation by an experienced ITx team.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 May 2017 09:35:41 +000
       
  • Living with Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis
           of Qualitative Literature

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. The lived experience of HCV has not been well documented in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to understand the experiences of living with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Methods. Five databases were searched from inception until January 19, 2015. Studies were included if they focused on adults diagnosed with HCV; reported experience living with HCV; and described original research. Results. 46 studies were included. Studies found that participants had reduced quality of life due to physical symptoms. Due to physical symptoms and discrimination, many participants switched to part-time work or quit their jobs. Many individuals reported negative experiences with the healthcare system; themes of feeling unsupported, not having adequate information, and not feeling involved in decisions were reported. Stigma significantly impacted those living with HCV. Conclusions. Published literature indicates that those with HCV often feel stigmatized and unsupported in their care, relationships, and work environments, while simultaneously coping with physical and psychological symptoms. This synthesis points to areas where greater education, compassion, and patient-centered healthcare could improve the experience of people living with HCV.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 09:50:05 +000
       
  • Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin Methods for Predicting Relapse of
           Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is on the rise worldwide. Endoscopies are necessary for IBD assessment but are invasive, expensive, and inconvenient. Recently, fecal calprotectin (FCal) was proposed as a noninvasive and specific marker of gut inflammation. We evaluated the analytical performance of three FCal assays and their clinical performance in predicting relapse in pediatric IBD. Methods. This study used 40 pediatric IBD and 40 random non-IBD patients’ fecal samples. Two automated ELISAs (Bühlmann and PhiCal® Calprotectin-EIA) and an EliA (Phadia 250 EliA-Calprotectin) were used to evaluate the analytical performance. The clinical performance was assessed by PhiCal Calprotectin-EIA, EliA-Calprotectin, and Bühlmann immunochromatographic point-of-care test (POCT). Results. All assays displayed acceptable analytical performance below and above the medical decision cut-off [imprecision (CV < 10% intra-assay;
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen as a Predictor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis Based on
           the Revised Atlanta Criteria: Timing of Measurement and Cutoff Points

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. This study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of BUN for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in terms of the best timing for BUN measurement and the optimal BUN cutoff points. Methods. BUN determinants at the time of admission and 24 hrs after hospital admission were recorded and analyzed statistically. The ability of BUN in predicting the SAP and the occurrence of IHM were assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. For SAP, AUC of BUN at admission and 24 hrs after hospital admission was 0.75 and 0.80, respectively. For IHM in acute pancreatitis, it was 0.86 at admission and 0.84 after 24 hrs of hospital admission, respectively. The optimal cutoff point of BUN 24 hrs after hospital admission for SAP and at admission for IHM was 8.3 mmol/L and 13.3 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. BUN determination after 24 hrs of hospital admission has high accuracy for prediction of SAP while BUN at initial admission has high accuracy for prediction of IHM.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Gastroenterology Curriculum in the Canadian Medical School System

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. Gastroenterology is a diverse subspecialty that covers a wide array of topics. The preclinical gastroenterology curriculum is often the only formal training that medical students receive prior to becoming residents. There is no Canadian consensus on learning objectives or instructional methods and a general lack of awareness of curriculum at other institutions. This results in variable background knowledge for residents and lack of guidance for course development. Objectives. (1) Elucidate gastroenterology topics being taught at the preclinical level. (2) Determine instructional methods employed to teach gastroenterology content. Results. A curriculum map of gastroenterology topics was constructed from 10 of the medical schools that responded. Topics often not taught included pediatric GI diseases, surgery and trauma, food allergies/intolerances, and obesity. Gastroenterology was taught primarily by gastroenterologists and surgeons. Didactic and small group teaching was the most employed teaching method. Conclusion. This study is the first step in examining the Canadian gastroenterology curriculum at a preclinical level. The data can be used to inform curriculum development so that topics generally lacking are better incorporated in the curriculum. The study can also be used as a guide for further curriculum design and alignment across the country.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Efficacy of Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation versus Nissen Fundoplication
           for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Short Term: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The efficacy of Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation (MSA) and its outcomes for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) are uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to summarize and analyze the efficacy of two treatments for GERD. Methods. The meta-analysis search was performed, using four databases. All studies from 2005 to 2016 were included. Pooled effect was calculated using either the fixed or random effects model. Results. A total of 4 trials included 624 patients and aimed to evaluate the differences in proton-pump inhibitor use, complications, and adverse events. MSA had a shorter operative time (MSA and NF: RR = −18.80, 95% CI: −24.57 to −13.04, and ) and length of stay (RR = −14.21, 95% CI: −24.18 to −4.23, and ). Similar proton-pump inhibitor use, complication (), and severe dysphagia for dilation were shown in both groups. Although there is no difference between the MSA and NF in the number of adverse events, the incidence of postoperative gas or bloating (RR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54–0.94, and ) showed significantly different results. However, there is no significant difference in ability to belch and ability to vomit. Conclusions. MSA can be recommended as an alternative treatment for GERD according to their short-term studies, especially in main-features of gas-bloating, due to shorter operative time and less complication of gas or bloating.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Incidence and Predictors of Advanced Liver Fibrosis by a Validated Serum
           Biomarker in Liver Transplant Recipients

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Serum fibrosis biomarkers have shown good accuracy in the liver transplant (LT) population. We employed a simple serum biomarker to elucidate incidence and predictors of advanced fibrosis after LT over a long follow-up period. Methods. We included 440 consecutive patients who underwent LT between 1991 and 2013. Advanced liver fibrosis was defined as FIB-4 > 3.25 beyond 12 months after LT. Results. Over 2030.5 person-years (PY) of follow-up, 189 (43%) developed FIB-4 > 3.25, accounting for an incidence of 9.3/100 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–10.7). Advanced fibrosis was predicted by chronic HCV infection (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.96, 95% CI 2.92–5.36, < 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (aHR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.72–3.09; < 0.001), and hyponatremia (aHR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.09–2.01; = 0.01). LT recipients with more than 1 predictor had a higher incidence of advanced fibrosis, the highest being when all 3 predictors coexisted (log-rank: < 0.001). Conclusions. Chronic HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia predict progression to advanced liver fibrosis following LT. Patients with these risk factors should be serially monitored using noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers and prioritized for interventions.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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