Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0835-7900 - ISSN (Online) 2291-2797
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Living with Hepatitis C Virus: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis
of Qualitative Literature
Abstract: Background and Aims. The lived experience of HCV has not been well documented in the literature. The aim of this systematic review was to understand the experiences of living with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Methods. Five databases were searched from inception until January 19, 2015. Studies were included if they focused on adults diagnosed with HCV; reported experience living with HCV; and described original research. Results. 46 studies were included. Studies found that participants had reduced quality of life due to physical symptoms. Due to physical symptoms and discrimination, many participants switched to part-time work or quit their jobs. Many individuals reported negative experiences with the healthcare system; themes of feeling unsupported, not having adequate information, and not feeling involved in decisions were reported. Stigma significantly impacted those living with HCV. Conclusions. Published literature indicates that those with HCV often feel stigmatized and unsupported in their care, relationships, and work environments, while simultaneously coping with physical and psychological symptoms. This synthesis points to areas where greater education, compassion, and patient-centered healthcare could improve the experience of people living with HCV.
PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 09:50:05 +000
- Comparison of Fecal Calprotectin Methods for Predicting Relapse of
Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Abstract: Background. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is on the rise worldwide. Endoscopies are necessary for IBD assessment but are invasive, expensive, and inconvenient. Recently, fecal calprotectin (FCal) was proposed as a noninvasive and specific marker of gut inflammation. We evaluated the analytical performance of three FCal assays and their clinical performance in predicting relapse in pediatric IBD. Methods. This study used 40 pediatric IBD and 40 random non-IBD patients’ fecal samples. Two automated ELISAs (Bühlmann and PhiCal® Calprotectin-EIA) and an EliA (Phadia 250 EliA-Calprotectin) were used to evaluate the analytical performance. The clinical performance was assessed by PhiCal Calprotectin-EIA, EliA-Calprotectin, and Bühlmann immunochromatographic point-of-care test (POCT). Results. All assays displayed acceptable analytical performance below and above the medical decision cut-off [imprecision (CV < 10% intra-assay;
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Blood Urea Nitrogen as a Predictor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis Based on
the Revised Atlanta Criteria: Timing of Measurement and Cutoff Points
Abstract: Background and Aims. This study evaluated the prognostic accuracy of BUN for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in terms of the best timing for BUN measurement and the optimal BUN cutoff points. Methods. BUN determinants at the time of admission and 24 hrs after hospital admission were recorded and analyzed statistically. The ability of BUN in predicting the SAP and the occurrence of IHM were assessed using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results. For SAP, AUC of BUN at admission and 24 hrs after hospital admission was 0.75 and 0.80, respectively. For IHM in acute pancreatitis, it was 0.86 at admission and 0.84 after 24 hrs of hospital admission, respectively. The optimal cutoff point of BUN 24 hrs after hospital admission for SAP and at admission for IHM was 8.3 mmol/L and 13.3 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion. BUN determination after 24 hrs of hospital admission has high accuracy for prediction of SAP while BUN at initial admission has high accuracy for prediction of IHM.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Gastroenterology Curriculum in the Canadian Medical School System
Abstract: Background and Purpose. Gastroenterology is a diverse subspecialty that covers a wide array of topics. The preclinical gastroenterology curriculum is often the only formal training that medical students receive prior to becoming residents. There is no Canadian consensus on learning objectives or instructional methods and a general lack of awareness of curriculum at other institutions. This results in variable background knowledge for residents and lack of guidance for course development. Objectives. (1) Elucidate gastroenterology topics being taught at the preclinical level. (2) Determine instructional methods employed to teach gastroenterology content. Results. A curriculum map of gastroenterology topics was constructed from 10 of the medical schools that responded. Topics often not taught included pediatric GI diseases, surgery and trauma, food allergies/intolerances, and obesity. Gastroenterology was taught primarily by gastroenterologists and surgeons. Didactic and small group teaching was the most employed teaching method. Conclusion. This study is the first step in examining the Canadian gastroenterology curriculum at a preclinical level. The data can be used to inform curriculum development so that topics generally lacking are better incorporated in the curriculum. The study can also be used as a guide for further curriculum design and alignment across the country.
PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Efficacy of Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation versus Nissen Fundoplication
for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Short Term: A Meta-Analysis
Abstract: Background. The efficacy of Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation (MSA) and its outcomes for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) are uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to summarize and analyze the efficacy of two treatments for GERD. Methods. The meta-analysis search was performed, using four databases. All studies from 2005 to 2016 were included. Pooled effect was calculated using either the fixed or random effects model. Results. A total of 4 trials included 624 patients and aimed to evaluate the differences in proton-pump inhibitor use, complications, and adverse events. MSA had a shorter operative time (MSA and NF: RR = −18.80, 95% CI: −24.57 to −13.04, and ) and length of stay (RR = −14.21, 95% CI: −24.18 to −4.23, and ). Similar proton-pump inhibitor use, complication (), and severe dysphagia for dilation were shown in both groups. Although there is no difference between the MSA and NF in the number of adverse events, the incidence of postoperative gas or bloating (RR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.54–0.94, and ) showed significantly different results. However, there is no significant difference in ability to belch and ability to vomit. Conclusions. MSA can be recommended as an alternative treatment for GERD according to their short-term studies, especially in main-features of gas-bloating, due to shorter operative time and less complication of gas or bloating.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Incidence and Predictors of Advanced Liver Fibrosis by a Validated Serum
Biomarker in Liver Transplant Recipients
Abstract: Background and Aims. Serum fibrosis biomarkers have shown good accuracy in the liver transplant (LT) population. We employed a simple serum biomarker to elucidate incidence and predictors of advanced fibrosis after LT over a long follow-up period. Methods. We included 440 consecutive patients who underwent LT between 1991 and 2013. Advanced liver fibrosis was defined as FIB-4 > 3.25 beyond 12 months after LT. Results. Over 2030.5 person-years (PY) of follow-up, 189 (43%) developed FIB-4 > 3.25, accounting for an incidence of 9.3/100 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.1–10.7). Advanced fibrosis was predicted by chronic HCV infection (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 3.96, 95% CI 2.92–5.36, < 0.001), hypoalbuminemia (aHR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.72–3.09; < 0.001), and hyponatremia (aHR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.09–2.01; = 0.01). LT recipients with more than 1 predictor had a higher incidence of advanced fibrosis, the highest being when all 3 predictors coexisted (log-rank: < 0.001). Conclusions. Chronic HCV infection, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia predict progression to advanced liver fibrosis following LT. Patients with these risk factors should be serially monitored using noninvasive fibrosis biomarkers and prioritized for interventions.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Hepatitis C Educational Needs Assessment of Canadian Healthcare
Abstract: Background and Aim. Despite advances in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC), it remains a major public health problem in Canada and globally. The knowledge of healthcare providers (HCPs) is critical to improve the care of CHC in Canada. To assess the current knowledge and educational needs of healthcare providers (HCPs) in the area of CHC management a national online survey was conducted. Method. An interprofessional steering committee designed a 29-question survey distributed through various direct and electronic routes. The survey assessed several domains (e.g., participant and practice demographics, access to resources, knowledge of new treatments, and educational preferences). Results. A total of 163 HCPs responded to the survey. All hepatologists and 8% of primary care providers (PCPs) reported involvement in treatment of CHC. Physicians most frequently screened patients who had abnormal liver enzymes, while nurses tended to screen based on lifestyle factors. More than 70% of PCPs were not aware of new medications and their mechanisms. Conclusion. Overall, the needs assessment demonstrated that there was a need for further education, particularly for primary care physicians, to maximize the role that they can play in screening, testing, and treatment of hepatitis C in Canada.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 08:27:44 +000
- The Efficacy and Safety of 12 Weeks of Sofosbuvir and Ledipasvir versus
Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir, and Ribavirin in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis
C, Genotype 1, Who Have Cirrhosis and Have Failed Prior Therapy: A
Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Abstract: Background. The recommended therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), genotype 1, who have cirrhosis and have failed prior therapy is 12 weeks of sofosbuvir (SOF), ledipasvir (LDV), and ribavirin (RBV). This recommendation is based on expert opinion, and the efficacy of 12 weeks of SOF/LDV compared to SOF/LDV/RBV in this patient population has not yet been established. Methods. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Two investigators independently searched electronic databases and relevant conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials comparing rates of sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) when using 12 weeks of SOF/LDV versus 12 weeks of SOF/LDV/RBV in patients with CHC, genotype 1, who have cirrhosis and failed previous therapy. Results. Our search strategy yielded 596 studies of which four met criteria for inclusion. The pooled RR of not achieving SVR12 with SOF/LDV versus SOF/LDV/RBV was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.42–3.48). Adverse events were lower in the SOF/LDV compared to the SOF/LDV/RBV arms (pooled RR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.04–0.29). Conclusions. Our findings suggest that 12 weeks of SOF/LDV cannot be considered noninferior to 12 weeks of SOF/LDV/RBV to achieve SVR12 in patients with CHC who have cirrhosis and failed prior therapy.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 08:46:47 +000
- Vonoprazan-Based Regimen Is More Useful than PPI-Based One as a First-Line
Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Abstract: Background. A new agent, potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan (VPZ) has potent acid-inhibitory effects and may offer advantages over conventional H. pylori eradication therapies. We aimed to compare the eradication rate between VPZ-based treatment and PPI-based one. Methods. This randomized controlled trial was designed to assign 141 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis to VPZ group (VPZ 20 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg twice daily for 7 days) or PPI group (rabeprazole 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 750 mg, and clarithromycin 200 or 400 mg twice daily for 7 days). Primary endpoints were eradication rates and adverse events. Results. Seventy of 72 patients in VPZ group and 63 of 69 patients in PPI group completed the treatment after 7 days. The eradication rate was significantly higher in VPZ group than PPI group by intention-to-treat analysis (95.8% versus 69.6%, , 95% confidence interval [CI] 88.3-99.1% versus 57.3-80.1%) and per-protocol analysis (95.7% versus 71.4%, , 95% CI 88.0-99.1% versus 58.7-82.1%). The incidence of adverse events was not different between the groups (26.3% in VPZ group versus 37.7% in PPI group, ). Conclusion. VPZ-based regimen is more useful than that PPI-based regimen as a first-line H. pylori eradication therapy.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Safety Profile of Liver FibroScan in Patients with Cardiac Pacemakers or
Abstract: Background. Emerging evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with coronary artery diseases and arrhythmias. The FibroScan (Echosens, France), a widely available, noninvasive device, is able to detect liver fibrosis and steatosis within this patient population. However, the FibroScan is currently contraindicated in patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). Objective. To determine the safety profile of FibroScan testing in patients with PM or ICD. Methods. Consecutive outpatients undergoing routine device interrogations at a tertiary level teaching hospital underwent simultaneous liver stiffness measurements. PM or ICD performance data, device types, patient demographics, medical history, and previous laboratory and conventional liver imaging results were collected. Results. Analysis of 107 subjects with 33 different types of implanted cardiac devices, from 5 different companies (Medtronic, Sorin, ELA Medical, Boston Scientific, and St. Jude), did not demonstrate any adverse events as defined by abnormal device sensing/pacing or ICD firing. This population included high risk subjects undergoing active pacing () and with right pectoral PM placement (). None of the subjects had any clinical signs of decompensated congestive heart failure or cirrhosis during the exam. Conclusion. TE with FibroScan can be safely performed in patients with PM or ICD.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 10:37:42 +000
- Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases
Abstract: Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 07:40:11 +000
- Response to: Comment on “Assessment of Liver Stiffness in Pediatric
Fontan Patients Using Transient Elastography”
PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 13:13:31 +000
- Treatment Algorithm for Chronic Idiopathic Constipation and
Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Derived from a Canadian
National Survey and Needs Assessment on Choices of Therapeutic Agents
Abstract: Background. Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) are common functional lower gastrointestinal disorders that impair patients’ quality of life. In a national survey, we aimed to evaluate (1) Canadian physician practice patterns in the utilization of therapeutic agents listed in the new ACG and AGA guidelines; (2) physicians satisfaction with these agents for their CIC and IBS-C patients; and (3) the usefulness of these new guidelines in their clinical practice. Methods. A 9-item questionnaire was sent to 350 Canadian specialists to evaluate their clinical practice for the management of CIC and IBS-C. Results. The response rate to the survey was 16% (). Almost all (96%) respondents followed a standard, stepwise approach for management while they believed that only 24% of referring physicians followed the same approach. Respondents found guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) agonist most satisfying when treating their patients. Among the 69% of respondents who were aware of published guidelines, only 50% found them helpful in prioritizing treatment choices and 69% of respondents indicated that a treatment algorithm, applicable to Canadian practice, would be valuable. Conclusion. Based on this needs assessment, a treatment algorithm was developed to provide clinical guidance in the management of IBS-C and CIC in Canada.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Aseptic Abscesses and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Two Cases and Review of
Abstract: Background. Aseptic abscesses (AA) are sterile lesions that represent an extraintestinal manifestation (EIM) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though Canada has the highest prevalence of IBD in the world, reports of IBD-associated AA are absent in Canada. This may represent a different IBD phenotype or underrecognition and underreporting. Purpose. To explore AA as a possible EIM of IBD and evaluate clinical and investigative findings among patients with IBD-associated AA. Methods. Retrospective chart and literature reviews were performed to find cases of IBD-associated AA at our institution and in the literature. Results. We identified 2 cases of IBD-associated AA in our institution. Both patients had ulcerative colitis and presented with fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Radiological workup and aspiration showed sterile splenic abscesses. The AA were unresponsive to antibiotics. One patient improved on corticosteroids and one underwent splenectomy. We retrieved 37 cases of IBD-associated AA from the literature. All patients showed no evidence of infection, failed to resolve with antibiotics, and, if attempted, improved on corticosteroids. Conclusions. Our cases are the first reported in Canada. They support literature which suggests AA as an EIM of IBD and may help increase recognition and reporting of this phenomenon.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Public versus Private Drug Insurance and Outcomes of Patients Requiring
Biologic Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Abstract: Background. Antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy is a highly effective but costly treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of IBD patients who were prescribed anti-TNF therapy (2007–2014) in Ontario. We assessed if the insurance type was a predictor of timely access to anti-TNF therapy and nonroutine health utilization (emergency department visits and hospitalizations). Results. There were 268 patients with IBD who were prescribed anti-TNF therapy. Public drug coverage was associated with longer median wait times to first dose than private one (56 versus 35 days, ). After adjusting for confounders, publicly insured patients were less likely to receive timely access to anti-TNF therapy compared with those privately insured (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45–0.95). After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, publicly funded subjects were more than 2-fold more likely to require hospitalization (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.30; 95% CI: 1.19–4.43) and ED visits (IRR 2.42; 95% CI: 1.44–4.08) related to IBD. Conclusions. IBD patients in Ontario with public drug coverage experienced greater delays in access to anti-TNF therapy than privately insured patients and have a higher rate of hospitalizations and ED visits related to IBD.
PubDate: Mon, 23 Jan 2017 07:51:37 +000
- Assessment of School Readiness in Chronic Cholestatic Liver Disease: A
Pilot Study Examining Children with and without Liver Transplantation
Abstract: Background. Assessment of school readiness evaluates physical, social-emotional, and neuropsychological domains essential for educational success. Cognitive testing of preschool aged children with chronic liver disease may guide more timely interventions and focused efforts by health care providers. Patients and Methods. Children with chronic cholestatic liver disease diagnosed as an infant and still with their native liver (NL) and children who received a liver transplant (LT) before age of 2 years underwent testing with a battery of well-validated pediatric psychometric measures. Results. Eighteen (13 LT, 5 NL) patients (median age of 4.45 and 4.05 years, resp.) were tested. Median Full-Scale IQ was 98 (range 102–116) for LT and 116 [(range 90–106), , NS] for NL subjects. LT recipients had significantly greater visual based difficulties, poorer caregiver rated daily living skills (), and higher levels of executive function based difficulties (e.g., inattention, inhibition). Conclusion. This pilot study highlights the risk of neuropsychological difficulties in early school age children who were under 2 years of age at time of LT. Comprehensive early school age assessment should integrate psychometric measures to identify children at greatest risk, thus allowing for proactive educational intervention.
PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Anti-TNF-Mediated Modulation of Prohepcidin Improves Iron Availability in
Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in an IL-6-Mediated Fashion
Abstract: Background. Anaemia is common in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), frequently resulting from a combination of iron deficiency and of anaemia of chronic disease (ACD). ACD is characterized by macrophage iron retention induced by proinflammatory cytokines. Hepcidin is the master inducer of iron accumulation during ACD, and its production is mainly regulated by IL-6 and the novel erythroid hormone erythroferrone (ERFE). This study evaluates whether anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies therapy modurates hepcidin production and the levels of its main regulators, leading to a restoration of iron homeostasis. Methods. Sera were collected from 21 IBD patients, before each anti-TNF administration, for the first 6 weeks of therapy. Prohepcidin, erythropoietin, erythroferrone, C reactive protein, interleukin-6, iron markers, and haemoglobin levels were measured and clinical activity indexes were evaluated. Results. Serum prohepcidin, IL-6, CRP, and ferritin were significantly reduced after 6-week treatment; an increase in serum iron and total transferrin was observed. No changes in the EPO-ERFE axis were found. Remarkably, haemoglobin was significantly increased. Conclusions. Anti-TNF therapy improves iron metabolism and, subsequently, anaemia in IBD. This effect appears to be related to the modulation of the cytokine network and specifically IL-6 leading to a relevant decrease of hepcidin, a master regulator of ACD.
PubDate: Mon, 16 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Prevalence and Anatomic Distribution of Serrated and Adenomatous Lesions
in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Abstract: Background. Sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) and traditional serrated adenomas (TSAs) have not been well characterized in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study assesses the prevalence and anatomic distribution of SSA/Ps, TSAs, and conventional adenomas/dysplasia (Ad/Ds) in IBD patients. Methods. IBD patients with serrated, adenomatous, or hyperplastic lesions between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the regional tertiary-care hospital database. Clinicopathological information was reviewed and the histology of biopsies was reevaluated. Results. Ninety-six Ad/Ds, 25 SSA/Ps, and 4 TSAs were identified in 83 patients. Compared to Ad/Ds, serrated lesions were more prevalent in females (). The prevalence of Ad/Ds was 4.95%, SSA/Ps was 1.39%, and TSAs was 0.31%. No relationship was identified between lesion type and IBD type. Comparing all IBD patients, the distribution of lesion types was significantly different () with Ad/Ds more common distally, SSA/Ps more common proximally, and TSAs evenly distributed. Among Crohn’s disease (CD) patients, a similar distribution difference was noted (). However, ulcerative colitis (UC) patients had a uniform distribution of lesion types (). Conclusions. IBD patients have a lower prevalence of premalignant lesions compared to the general population, and the anatomic distribution of lesions differed between CD and UC patients. These findings may indicate an interaction between lesion and IBD pathogenesis with potential clinical implications.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Grazoprevir and Elbasvir in Patients with Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Virus
Infection: A Comprehensive Efficacy and Safety Analysis
Abstract: Background. It is urgent for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to find a safe, effective, and interferon-free regimen to optimize therapy. A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the grazoprevir combined with elbasvir, with or without ribavirin (RBV), in 777 treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 1 infection from 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Method. We collected data from the following trials: C-WORTHY (NCT01717326), C-SALVAGE (NCT02105454), and C-EDGE (NCT02105467). All patients received grazoprevir plus elbasvir with or without RBV for 12 or 18 weeks. The sustained virological response (SVR) 12 weeks after end of treatment was calculated for overall and subgroups. Results. 568 (73%) patients were treatment-naive. Overall, 95% (95% CI: 93–96) patients achieved SVR12, 95% (95% CI: 92–96) for treatment-naive and 96% (95% CI: 92–98) for previously treated patients, respectively. Treatment duration and treatment regimen did not have great difference in SVR12 rates. The most common AEs were fatigue (18%–29%), headache (20%), nausea (8%–14%), and asthenia (4%–12%). One patient (
PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2017 11:49:44 +000
- Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in Fatty Liver Disease Linked to Hyperplastic
Abstract: Aim. Our study aims to determine possible association between biopsy-proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hyperplastic polyps (HP) of the colon. Methods. A retrospective cohort observational study. All subjects underwent screening colonoscopy within two years. Data were extracted from the patient charts including demographic, anthropometric measurement, vital signs, underlying diseases, medical therapy, laboratory data, results of the liver biopsy with degree of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity, the colonoscopy report, and the pathological report of the extracted polyp. Results. A total of 223 patients were included in our study, 123 patients with biopsy-proven NASH and 100 patients without NASH who served as the control group matched for age. 14 colonic adenomas (11% of patients) were found in the NASH group compared with 16 adenomas (16% of patients) found in the control group (). 28 HPs were found in the NASH group (22.7%) compared with only 8 HPs in the control group (8%) (). 21 from the 28 (75%) HPs diagnosed in the NASH group were observed in the high degree fibrosis patients (Fibrosis Stages 3 and 4), 6 HPs (21%) were associated with Fibrosis Stages 1 and 2, and single HP (4%) was associated with Fibrosis Stage 0. Conclusions. Our study showed an association between biopsy-proven steatohepatitis and the burden of hyperplastic polyp. The severity of hepatic fibrosis may play important role in the increased occurrence of HPs.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 14:11:40 +000
- Changes in Cardiac Varices and Their Clinical Significance after
Eradication of Esophageal Varices by Band Ligation
Abstract: Background and Aims. Cardiac varices (CVs) in patients with type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1s) usually disappear with treatment for esophageal varices (EVs) by endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). However, whether this applies to patients treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for EVs remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of EVs eradication by EBL on CVs. Methods. We included cirrhotic patients whose EVs had been eradicated using EBL and excluded those who had been treated using EIS, those who had received endoscopic therapy for CVs, and those who were combined with hepatocellular carcinoma. Results. A total of 123 patients were enrolled. The age was 59.7 ± 11.7 years, and 96 patients (78.0%) were men. Thirty-eight patients (30.9%) had EVs only, while 85 (69.1%) had GOV1s. After EVs eradication, the CVs disappeared in 55 patients (64.7%). EVs recurred in 40 patients, with recurrence rates at 1, 2, and 3 years of 16.0%, 29.6%, and 35.6%, respectively, the recurrence being more frequent in patients who had undergone EBL for secondary prophylaxis and in those with persisting CVs after EVs eradication (). Conclusions. CVs frequently disappeared when EVs were eradicated using EBL in patients with GOV1s. Persistence of CVs after EVs eradication by EBL was associated with EVs recurrence.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 06:53:26 +000
- Correlating Quantitative Fecal Immunochemical Test Results with Neoplastic
Findings on Colonoscopy in a Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening
Program: A Prospective Study
Abstract: Background and Aims. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) recommends a fecal immunochemical test- (FIT-) positive predictive value (PPV) for all adenomas of ≥50%. We sought to assess FIT performance among average-risk participants of the British Columbia Colon Screening Program (BCCSP). Methods. From Nov-2013 to Dec-2014 consecutive participants of the BCCSP were assessed. Data was obtained from a prospectively collected database. A single quantitative FIT (NS-Plus, Alfresa Pharma Corporation, Japan) with a cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL) was used. Results. 20,322 FIT-positive participants underwent CSPY. At a FIT cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL) the PPV for all adenomas was 52.0%. Increasing the FIT cut-off to ≥20 μg/g (≥100 ng/mL) would increase the PPV for colorectal cancer (CRC) by 1.5% and for high-risk adenomas (HRAs) by 6.5% at a cost of missing 13.6% of CRCs and 32.4% of HRAs. Conclusions. As the NS-Plus FIT cut-off rises, the PPV for CRC and HRAs increases but at the cost of missed lesions. A cut-off of ≥10 μg/g (≥50 ng/mL) produces a PPV for all adenomas exceeding national recommendations. Health authorities need to take into consideration endoscopic resources when selecting a FIT positivity threshold.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 06:19:52 +000
- Hepatitis B Stigma and Knowledge among Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and
Abstract: Stigma regarding viral hepatitis and liver disease has psychological and social consequences including causing negative self-image, disrupting relationships, and providing a barrier to prevention, testing, and treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare HBV knowledge and stigma in Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago and to begin to evaluate the cultural context of HBV stigma. Methods. A written survey including knowledge questions and a validated HBV stigma questionnaire was distributed to Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago. 842 surveys from Ho Chi Minh City and 170 from Chicago were analyzed. Results. Vietnamese living in Chicago had better understanding of HBV transmission and that HBV can cause chronic infection and liver cancer. Vietnamese in Chicago had higher stigma scores on a broad range of items including guilt and shame about HBV and were more likely to feel that persons with HBV can bring harm to others and should be isolated. Conclusions. Vietnamese in Ho Chi Minh City and Chicago have knowledge deficits about HBV, particularly regarding modes of transmission. Persons in Ho Chi Minh City expressed lower levels of HBV stigma than Vietnamese living in Chicago, likely reflecting changing cultural attitudes in Vietnam. Culturally appropriate educational initiatives are needed to address the problem of HBV stigma.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2016 13:06:12 +000
- Colectomy Rates for Ulcerative Colitis Differ between Ethnic Groups:
Results from a 15-Year Nationwide Cohort Study
Abstract: Introduction. Previous epidemiological studies suggest a higher rate of pancolonic disease in South Asians (SA) compared with White Europeans (WE). The aim of the study was to compare colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) in SA to those of WE. Methods. Patients with UC were identified from a national administrative dataset (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) between 1997 and 2012 according to ICD-10 diagnosis code K51 for UC. The colectomy rate for each ethnic group was calculated as the proportion of patients who underwent colectomy from the total UC cases for that group. Results. Of 212,430 UC cases, 73,318 (35.3%) were coded for ethnicity. There was no significant difference in the colectomy rate between SA and WE (6.93% versus 6.90%). Indians had a significantly higher colectomy rate than WE (9.8% versus 6.9%, ). Indian patients were 21% more likely to require colectomy for UC compared with WE group (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04–1.42, and ). Conclusions. Given the limitations in coding, the colectomy rate in this cohort was higher in Indians compared to WE. A prospectively recruited ethnic cohort study will decipher whether this reflects a more aggressive phenotype or is due to other confounding factors.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 11:39:43 +000
- More Frequent Clinic Visits Are Associated with Improved Outcomes for
Children with NAFLD
Abstract: Objective. Adult data suggest that frequent monitoring of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be associated with improved outcomes. The optimal frequency of outpatient visits for the management of pediatric NAFLD remains unknown. Study Design. In this retrospective study, two cohorts of patients with NAFLD, one followed on a yearly basis and one followed on 3-month intervals, were included. Both received similar advice regarding lifestyle changes. Primary outcome was change in BMI z-scores over a year. Secondary outcomes were the change in serum transaminases and markers of metabolic dysregulation. Results. Fifty-six patients were included (28 per group). The majority (71%) were male with a mean (±SD) age of 12.2 (±2.7) years. At baseline, there were no differences in BMI z-scores (2.8 versus 2.9; ) and ALT levels (101 versus 100 U/L; ) between the groups (yearly versus three-month, resp.). Twelve months later, those followed on a 3-month basis demonstrated a significant decrease in BMI (net BMI z-score change = −0.06; ), accompanied by a significant improvement in serum ALT (−25 U/L; ) and AST (−13 U/L; ) levels. There were no differences in fasting lipid profiles. Conclusion. Frequent clinic visits are associated with improved outcomes in pediatric NAFLD.
PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 10:52:59 +000
- Modern Treatments and Stem Cell Therapies for Perianal Crohn’s
Abstract: Crohn’s disease (CD) is a complex disorder with important incidence in North America. Perianal fistulas occur in about 20% of patients with CD and are almost always classified as complex fistulas. Conventional treatment options have shown different success rates, yet there are data indicating that these approaches cannot achieve total cure and may not improve quality of life of these patients. Fibrin glue, fistula plug, topical tacrolimus, local injection of infliximab, and use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are newly suggested therapies with variable success rates. Here, we aim to review these novel therapies for the treatment of complex fistulizing CD. Although initial results are promising, randomized studies are needed to prove efficacy of these approaches in curing fistulizing perianal CD.
PubDate: Wed, 07 Dec 2016 06:02:15 +000
- Comparison of One versus Two Fecal Immunochemical Tests in the Detection
of Colorectal Neoplasia in a Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening
Abstract: Objective. To determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of two versus one abnormal FIT in the detection of colorectal neoplasia in a Canadian population. Methods. Three communities enrolled in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening pilot program from 01/2009 to 04/2013 using 2 FITs. Data collected included demographics, colonoscopy, pathology, and FIT results. Participants completed both FITs and had one positive FIT and colonoscopy. PPV of one versus two abnormal FITs was calculated using a weighted-generalized score statistic. A two-sided 5% significance level was used. Results. 1576 of 17,031 average-risk participants, 50–75 years old, had a positive FIT. Colonoscopy revealed 58 (3.7%) cancers, 419 (31.6%) high-risk polyps, and 374 (23.7%) low-risk polyps as the most significant lesion. PPV of one versus two positive FITs for cancer, high-risk polyps, and any neoplasia were 1% versus 8%, 20% versus 40%, and 48% versus 67%, respectively ( value < 0.0001). When the first FIT was negative, the second positive FIT detected 7 CRCs and 98 high-risk polyps. Conclusions. PPV of two positive FITs is superior to one positive FIT for CRC and high-risk polyps. The added value of the second FIT was 12% of total CRCs and 23% of total high-risk polyps.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Dec 2016 11:27:15 +000
- Concomitant Prevalence of Low Serum Diamine Oxidase Activity and
Abstract: The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the concomitant prevalence rates for lactose malabsorption (LM), fructose malabsorption (FM), and histamine intolerance (HI) in patients with so far unexplained gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A total of 439 outpatients, who presented unclear abdominal discomfort, underwent lactose (50 g) and fructose (25 g) hydrogen (H2) breath tests. Additionally, serum diamine oxidase (DAO) measurements were performed. Individuals with low serum DAO activity (
PubDate: Wed, 30 Nov 2016 06:10:59 +000
- Comment on “Assessment of Liver Stiffness in Pediatric Fontan Patients
Using Transient Elastography”
PubDate: Tue, 29 Nov 2016 06:23:42 +000
- Preassessment Interview Improves the Efficacy and Safety of Bowel
Preparation for Colonoscopy
Abstract: Aim. To determine whether preassessment improves bowel preparation quality and prevents renal deterioration for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods. Data was collected prospectively starting in January 2011 for 12 months. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of preassessment and stratified to one of three risk groups based on patient’s comorbidities and identified risk factors for poor bowel preparation; group 1 had no risk factors, group 2 had 1 risk factor, and group 3 patients had 2 or more risk factors. The association between preassessment and bowel preparation quality was analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results. 1840 colonoscopies were carried out during the period. Total number analyzed was 1704. 404 patients were preassessed. Preassessment patients had significantly better bowel preparation across all groups (OR 1.605; ). Group 3 patients were 52% more likely to have good bowel preparation () if they had been preassessed. Eighty-eight patients were identified with an eGFR < 60 mL/min. There was a significant difference in the eGFR percentage change between patients with preassessment and those without (). Conclusions. Face-to-face preassessment appears to improve the quality of bowel preparation and aids in minimizing the risk of renal injury in patients with CKD.
PubDate: Sun, 27 Nov 2016 09:26:49 +000