Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 231)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.867
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2291-2789 - ISSN (Online) 2291-2797
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) in HCV-Positive
           Egyptian Patients Treated with Sofosbuvir

    • Abstract: Background. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) made a drastic change in the management of HCV infection. Sofosbuvir is one of the highly potent DAAs, eliminated mainly through the kidney. But concerns about renal safety during treatment may limit its use. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been proven as a predictor of renal tubular injury. Hence, the aim of this work was to assess serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in HCV-positive patients before and after treatment with the sofosbuvir-based antiviral regimen. Methods. This prospective study included 87 Egyptian patients with chronic HCV infection treated with sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks. Serum NGAL was measured before and at the end of treatment (EOT). Analysis of NGAL and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) evolution was done. Results. Our results showed a statistically significant decrease in serum NGAL () with a nonsignificant reduction in eGFR (). Moreover, changes in serum NGAL levels (baseline compared to EOT) in patients ranked by KDIGO-CKD classification showed a significant decrease in stages 1 and 2 ( and 0.034, respectively) and a nonsignificant decrease in stage 3 (). Also, eGFR changes after treatment in patients ranked by the same classifications showed a nonsignificant reduction in all stages ().Conclusions. Sofosbuvir appears to have no nephrotoxic effects and is safe to treat patients with chronic HCV infection.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 13:50:00 +000
  • Natural History of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Implications for
           Clinical Practice and an Individualized Approach

    • Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming the most prevalent liver disease worldwide, associated with epidemics of overweight and resulting metabolic syndrome (MetS). Around 20–30% of patients with NAFLD develop progressive liver fibrosis, which is the most important predictor of liver-related and overall morbidity and mortality. In contrast to classical understanding, no significant association has been demonstrated between the inflammatory component of NAFLD, i.e., nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and the adverse clinical outcomes. Older age (>50 years) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, in addition to some genetic variants, are most consistently reported indicators of increased risk of having liver fibrosis. However, critical driving force for the progression of fibrosis and risk factors for this have still not been fully elucidated. Apart from the genetic profile, gut dysbiosis, weight gain, worsening of insulin resistance, and worsening of liver steatosis represent candidate factors associated with unfavourable development of liver disease. Cardiovascular events, extrahepatic malignancies, and liver-related deaths are the leading causes of mortality in NAFLD. As patients with advanced fibrosis are under highest risk of adverse clinical outcomes, efforts should be made to recognize individuals under risk and rule out the presence of this stage of fibrosis, preferably by using simple noninvasive tools. This process should start at the primary care level by using validated biochemical tests, followed by direct serum tests for fibrosis or elastography in the remaining patients. Patients with advanced fibrosis should be referred to hepatologists for aggressive lifestyle modification and correction of the components of MetS, and cirrhotic patients should be screened for hepatocellular carcinoma and oesophageal varices.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 13:35:03 +000
  • Effectiveness of Conservative Treatment without Early Colonoscopy in
           Patients with Colonic Diverticular Hemorrhage

    • Abstract: Aim. This study was aimed to clarify the effectiveness of conservative treatment without performing early colonoscopy and the indications for early colonoscopy in patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Methods. This retrospective study included 142 participants who were urgently hospitalized due to bloody stools and were diagnosed with colonic diverticular hemorrhage between April 2012 and December 2016. At the time of hospital visit, only when both shock based on vital signs and intestinal extravasation on abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography were observed, early colonoscopy was performed within 24 hours after hospitalization. However, in other cases, patients were conservatively treated without undergoing early colonoscopy. In cases of initial treatment failure in patients with shock, interventional radiology (IVR) was performed without undergoing early colonoscopy. Results. Conservative treatment was performed in 137 (96.5%) patients, and spontaneous hemostasis was achieved in all patients. By contrast, urgent hemostasis was performed in five (3.5%) patients; three and two attained successful hemostasis via early colonoscopy and IVR, respectively. There were no significant differences between two groups in terms of early rebleeding (7.3% vs. 0%,) and recurrent bleeding (22.7% vs. 20.0%, ). The factors associated with the cumulative recurrent bleeding rates were a previous history of colonic diverticular hemorrhage (hazard ratio 5.63, 95% confidence interval 2.68–12.0, ) and oral administration of thienopyridine derivative (hazard ratio 3.05, 95% confidence interval 1.23–7.53, ).Conclusions. In this series, conservative treatment without early colonoscopy was successful in patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jan 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Clinicopathological Features, Treatment Strategy, and Prognosis of Primary
           Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of the Duodenum: A SEER Database Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. Primary duodenum lymphoma (PDL) is extremely rare with limited data available in the literature. In this study, we sought to describe clinical features and identify factors affecting survival in patients with PDL using a large population cohort. Methods. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried from 1998 to 2015. Results. A total of 1060 cases of PDLs were identified. Clinicopathological features as well as survival data of PDLs were analyzed and compared with 10573 primary gastric lymphomas (PGLs) and 3239 primary small intestinal lymphomas (PSILs) from the SEER database. PDL patients were younger in age (60.96 ± 15.205), and the proportion of stage I (53.21%) was higher in Ann Arbor staging. The proportion of PDLs treated by surgery (8.68%) is the lowest among PDLs, PGLs, and PSILs. The DSS of PDLs were significantly better than those of PGLs and PSILs, respectively (10-year survival rate: 21.24% vs. 20.40%, ; 10-year survival rate: 21.24% vs. 16.79%, ). Age, gender, Ann Arbor staging, and histological type were regarded as independent prognostic factor for the DSS by multivariate analysis (all ). Patients with
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 13:50:12 +000
  • Intestinal Microbiome Changes in Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) vs. FMT
           Enriched with Lactobacillus in the Treatment of Recurrent Clostridioides
           difficile Infection

    • Abstract: Aim. In this study, we conducted a comparative study to explore the differences in therapeutic efficacy and intestinal microbiome of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) vs. FMT in addition with Lactobacillus (FMT-L) for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (R-CDI). Methods. We designed a double-blinded randomized comparative two-arm pilot multicenter study to assess the efficacy and impact in the intestinal microbiome of standard capsules of FMT vs. FMT-L enriched with 3 species of Lactobacillus for patients with R-CDI. A 90-day follow-up of 21 patients was performed, starting at the beginning of the study. From the selected patients, fecal samples were obtained at days 0, 3, 7, and 28 after treatment. Fecal samples and FMT were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Results. We included 21 patients (13 in the FMT group and 8 in the FMT-L group). Overall, both groups had a reduction in bowel movements per day, from 8.6 to 3.2 in the first 48 h (62.7% reduction, ). No severe adverse reactions or recurrences were recorded. Firmicutes were the most abundant phylum in donors. A low relative abundance of Proteobacteria was detected and mostly found in patients even at higher proportions than the donor. The donor’s pool also had relatively few Bacteroidetes, and some patients showed a higher abundance of this phylum. Based on the ANOSIM R values, there is a significant difference between the microbial communities of basal samples and samples collected on day 7 () and at day 28 (0.041). Conclusion. Fecal microbiota transplant by capsules was clinically and genomically similar between traditional FMT and enriched FMT with Lactobacillus spp. Restoration of bacterial diversity and resolution of dysbiosis at days 7 and 28 were observed. Patients with a first episode of recurrence treated with FMT had an excellent response without severe adverse events; FMT should be considered as an early treatment during R-CDI.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Dec 2019 03:05:02 +000
  • Deficiency of Dietary Fiber in Slc5a8-Null Mice Promotes Bacterial
           Dysbiosis and Alters Colonic Epithelial Transcriptome towards
           Proinflammatory Milieu

    • Abstract: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the intestinal tract due to disruption of the symbiotic relationship between the host immune system and microbiota. Various factors alter the gut microbiota which lead to dysbiosis; in particular, diet and dietary fibers constitute important determinants. Dietary fiber protects against IBD; bacteria ferment these dietary fibers in colon and generate short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which mediate the anti-inflammatory actions of dietary fibers. SLC5A8 is a high-affinity transporter in the apical membrane of colonic epithelium which mediates the entry of SCFAs from the lumen into cells in Na+-coupled manner. Due to the unique transport kinetics, the function of the transporter becomes important only under conditions of low dietary fiber intake. Here, we have examined the impact of dietary fiber deficiency on luminal microbial composition and transcriptomic profile in colonic epithelium in wild-type (WT) and Slc5a8-null (KO) mice. We fed WT and KO mice with fiber-containing diet (FC-diet) or fiber-free diet (FF-diet) and analyzed the luminal bacterial composition by sequencing 16S rRNA gene in feces. Interestingly, results showed significant differences in the microbial community depending on dietary fiber content and on the presence or absence of Slc5a8. There were also marked differences in the transcriptomic profile of the colonic epithelium depending on the dietary fiber content and on the presence or absence of Slc5a8. We conclude that absence of fiber in diet in KO mice causes bacterial dysbiosis and alters gene expression in the colon that is conducive for inflammation.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Dec 2019 02:50:01 +000
  • Association between Hemoglobin Glycation Index and NAFLD in Chinese
           Nondiabetic Individuals

    • Abstract: Purpose. Limited studies have preliminarily identified a positive association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hemoglobin glycation index (HGI). However, this association has not been fully established. We aim to investigate the association between NAFLD and HGI in Chinese nondiabetic individuals and to construct a risk score based on HGI to predict a person’s risk of NAFLD. Methods. After strict exclusion criteria, 5,903 individuals were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. We randomly selected 1,967 subjects in the enrollment to obtain an equation of linear regression, which was used to calculate predicted HbA1c and drive HGI. The other subjects were classified into four categories according to HGI level (≤−0.22, −0.21∼0.02, 0.03∼0.28, and ≥0.29). All subjects retrospectively reviewed the baseline characteristics, laboratory examinations, and abdominal ultrasonography. Results. The prevalence of NAFLD in this population was 20.7%, which increases along with the growth of HGI levels (). Adjusted to multiple factors, this trend still remained significant (OR: 1.172 (95% CI, 1.074–1.279)). The combined NAFLD risk score based on HGI resulted in an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.85 provided sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and a negative predictive value for NAFLD of 84.4%, 71.3%, 65.0%, and 88.0%, respectively. Conclusions. NAFLD is independently associated with HGI levels in Chinese nondiabetic individuals. And, NAFLD risk score may be used as one of the risk predictors of NAFLD in nondiabetic population.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Dec 2019 02:05:02 +000
  • A Randomized Placebo-Controlled N-of-1 Trial: The Effect of Proton Pump
           Inhibitor in the Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most frequent chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is defined as a condition developed when the reflux of gastric contents causes troublesome symptoms (heartburn and regurgitation). This requires adequate treatment since it can lead to long-term complications including esophagus adenocarcinoma. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are generally used to treat GERD due to their high-security profile and efficiency on most patients. However, recurrent reflux despite initial treatment is frequent. N-of-1 trial is a study that allows the identification of the best treatment for each patient. The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of standard dose with double dosage of esomeprazole, to improve the GERD symptoms in a single patient. Methods. A single-patient trial, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, was carried out from September 25th, 2012, to April 26th, 2013. It included one outpatient at the gastroenterology service in a fourth-level hospital, diagnosed with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). Yet, his symptoms were heartburn and reflux, and his endoscopic results were normal esophageal mucosa, without hiatal hernia, though pathological pH values. A no-obese male without any tobacco or alcohol usage received esomeprazole 40 mg/day and 40 mg/bid for 24 weeks. A standardized gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GerdQ) was used weekly to evaluate symptom frequency and severity. The consumption of 90% of the capsules was considered as an adequate treatment adherence. D’agostino–Pearson and Wilcoxon test were used to determine normal or nonnormal distribution and compare both treatments, respectively, both with a significant statistical difference of .Results. The patient completed the study with 96% of adherence. The double dosage of esomeprazole did not improve the control of symptoms compared with the standard dosage. Mean symptomatic score was 9.5±0.5 and 10.2±0.6 for each treatment, respectively ().Conclusion. There was no significant improvement in the patient GERD symptoms increasing the dose of oral esomeprazole during the 6 months of study. N-of-1 trials in chronic pathologies including GERD are recommended due to their potential value as systematic methods that evaluate therapies without strong scientific evidence.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 08:20:00 +000
  • Clinical Features of Liver Injury Induced by Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
           in Japanese Patients

    • Abstract: Aim. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved the survival rate of patients carrying various malignant neoplasms. Despite their efficacy, ICIs occasionally induce liver injury as an immune-related adverse event (irAE). This study aimed to reveal the clinical features of the hepatic irAE in Japanese patients. Methods. Among 387 patients treated with ICIs, those who developed drug-induced liver injury were investigated. We also describe the histological findings and clinical courses of four patients with hepatic irAE who underwent liver biopsy. Results. Among the 56 patients with all-grade liver injury, only 11 (19.6%) showed hepatocellular-type liver injury, which resembled autoimmune hepatitis. Thirty-four patients (60.7%) developed cholestatic or mixed-type liver injury, although only one patient showed abnormal image findings in the bile duct. Most patients with grade ≤2 liver injury improved spontaneously, while two patients with biliary dysfunction required ursodeoxycholic acid or prednisolone. Among eight patients with grade ≥3 liver injury, three required no immunosuppressants and five were treated with prednisolone (three of five patients required other types of immunosuppressants). Four patients in the case series showed diverse clinical features in terms of hepatotoxic pattern, symptoms, and the interval time between the initiation of immunotherapy and the onset of the hepatic irAE. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that ICIs could cause microscopic biliary disorder without any abnormal image finding. Because the hepatic irAE presents diverse clinical features, liver biopsy is recommended to provide appropriate treatments.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Dec 2019 07:50:03 +000
  • Expression Analysis of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ABCB11 and ABCB4
           in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Variety of Pediatric and Adult
           Cholestatic and Noncholestatic Liver Diseases

    • Abstract: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are the members of the efflux pumps that are responsible for the removal of cytotoxic substances by active transport. ABCB11, the bile salt efflux pump of hepatocytes, coordinates cellular excretion of numerous conjugated bile salts into the bile canaliculi, whereas ABCB4 acts as an ATP-dependent floppase translocating phosphatidylcholine from the inner to the outer leaflet of the bile canalicular membrane. Loss of functional ABCB11 and ABCB4 proteins causes early-onset refractory cholestasis or cholangiopathy. In this study, we investigated the expression and localization pattern of ABCB11 and ABCB4 using immunohistochemistry and RNA profiling in liver samples from patients with different types and stages of chronic cholestatic liver disease, with emphasis on primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), compared to a variety of cholestatic and noncholestatic hepatopathies. Therefore, ABCB11 and ABCB4 expressions were investigated on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) material in a patient cohort of total 43 patients with or without cholestatic liver diseases, on protein level using immunohistochemistry and on RNA level using nanoString technology. Intriguingly, our results demonstrated increased expression of ABCB11 and ABCB4 on protein as well as RNA level in PSC, and the expression pattern correlated with disease progression. We concluded from our study that patients with PSC demonstrate altered expression levels and pattern of ABCB11 and ABCB4 which correlated with disease progression; thereby, ABCB11 and ABCB4 analysis may be a useful tool for assessment of disease stages in PSC.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Dec 2019 14:05:05 +000
  • In Vivo Evaluation of Histopathological Alterations and Trace Metals
           Estimation of the Small Intestine in Bisphenol A-Intoxicated Rats

    • Abstract: BPA, a ubiquitously used plasticizer, has become one of the contaminants of emerging concern and causes many serious health implications in humans due to multiple exposure pathways. The current study was aimed at investigating the deformities of structures that arise by exposure of the small intestine to BPA through trace elements estimation of tissues as well as the study of serum profile. Two major groups of Wistar rats were established: one control group and the other experimental group, which was further divided into four groups based on dose (10 mg/kg/bodyweight and 25 mg/kg/bodyweight, respectively) and duration of exposure (6 and 12 weeks, respectively). Histological study of the small intestine showed the distorted structures in the experimental groups. The special staining performed illustrated the accumulation of calcium deposits in the small intestinal tissue in treated groups. Trace metals estimation showed a significant increase in the metallic content of sodium and iron and a decrease in the calcium content in the experimental groups (). Serum profiling illustrated an increase in total iron-binding capacity and glucose levels and a decrease in the serum total iron level (). An increased expression of a proinflammatory cytokine (IFN-α) was observed in the liver. From all these findings, it was inferred that BPA caused many structural alterations in the small intestinal tissue, which further affected its functioning. The calcium deposits seen through special staining affected the motility of the small intestine and caused its dysfunction. It was also induced from serum profiling that BPA affected the homeostasis of iron and glucose and caused its imbalance. Also, as BPA got absorbed from the small intestine and reached the liver via the blood stream, it caused hepatoxicity in the liver and led to increased inflammatory response by IFN-α against the toxicant.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Dec 2019 16:05:00 +000
  • Long Noncoding RNA GATA3-AS1 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Metastasis in
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Suppression of PTEN, CDKN1A, and TP53

    • Abstract: Background. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been known to play important roles in the progression of various types of human cancer. LncRNA GATA3 antisense RNA 1, GATA3-AS1, has been reported to be associated with T-cell development and differentiation. However, the expression pattern and function of GATA3-AS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. Methods. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was conducted to detect GATA3-AS1 expression levels in 80 cases of pairs HCC tissues and matched normal tissues. Chi-squared (χ2) test was used to analyze the correlation between GATA3-AS1 expression and clinicopathologic variables. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method and were compared via the log-rank test. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and wound scratch assays were applied to detect the effect of GATA3-AS1 knockdown and overexpression on cell growth and migration of HCC. RT-qPCR was performed for the detection of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) expression in HCC cells after GATA3-AS1 knockdown and overexpression. Results. GATA3-AS1 was significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared with matched normal tissues. The high expression of GATA3-AS1 was significantly correlated with larger tumor size, advanced TNM stage, and more lymph node metastasis. High GATA3-AS1 expression was markedly correlated with shorter overall survival times of HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of GATA3-AS1 obviously inhibited Hep3B and HCCLM3 cell growth and migration, whereas overexpression of GATA3-AS1 had the opposite effects. In addition, GATA3-AS1 knockdown resulted in upregulated expression levels of tumor-suppressive genes, PTEN, CDKN1A, and TP53, in Hep3B and HCCLM3 cells, while restoration of GATA3-AS1 decreased PTEN, CDKN1A, and TP53 expression levels. Conclusion. Our data suggested that GATA3-AS1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis of HCC by suppression of PTEN, CDKN1A, and TP53.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 12:05:12 +000
  • Association between Serum Uric Acid and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
           according to Different Menstrual Status Groups

    • Abstract: Objective. The present study aimed to explore the association between SUA and NAFLD in women with different menstrual statuses. Methods. A total of 6043 women were selected from the Jidong and Kailuan communities for inclusion in the present study. The SUA levels of participants were divided into quartiles. NAFLD was determined by abdominal ultrasonography. Data from laboratory tests and clinical examination were collected, and basic information was obtained from standardized questionnaires. The menstrual status was stratified into menstrual period, menopause transition period, and postmenopause. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the relationship between menstrual status, SUA, and NAFLD. Results. The levels of SUA in subjects with NAFLD in the menstrual period, menopause transition period, and postmenopause were 268.0 ± 71.1, 265.6 ± 67.8, and 286.7 ± 75.8 (mmol/L), respectively, and were higher than those in subjects without NAFLD. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for NAFLD among participants in the menopause transition period and postmenopausal period were 1.10 (0.89–1.37) and 1.28 (1.04–1.58), respectively, compared with the menstrual period women. Compared to the lowest quartile of SUA, the adjusted ORs with 95% CI of the highest quartile for NAFLD were 2.24 (1.69–2.99) for females in the menstrual period, 1.92 (1.10–3.37) for females in the menopause transition period, and 1.47 (1.06–2.03) for females in postmenopause. Conclusions. Menstrual status was significantly correlated with NAFLD. High levels of SUA were associated with NAFLD in females during the three menstrual periods.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Nov 2019 08:05:04 +000
  • Blueberry Attenuates Liver Fibrosis, Protects Intestinal Epithelial
           Barrier, and Maintains Gut Microbiota Homeostasis

    • Abstract: Objective. Recently, blueberry has been identified as a candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Given the role of gut-liver axis in liver fibrosis and the importance of the gut microbiota homeostasis to the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier, this study aimed to investigate whether blueberry could attenuate liver fibrosis and protect the intestinal epithelial barrier by maintaining the homeostasis of the gut microbiota. Method. A CCl4-induced rat liver fibrosis model was used to detect the roles of blueberry in liver fibrosis and intestinal epithelial barrier. The liver weight and body weight were measured, the liver function was monitored by ALT and AST activity, protein and mRNA were determined by western blot and RT-qPCR, and the gut microbiome was detected by Miseq. Results. The results showed that blueberry could reduce the rate of liver weight/body weight gain (), ALT () and AST () activity, and the expression of collagen I (), collagen IV (), and α-SMA () expression in CCl4-induced rat liver. CCl4 impaired the intestinal epithelial barrier and decreased the expression of the tight junction protein. Blueberry restored the intestinal epithelial barrier and increased the expression of the tight junction protein. The gut microbiota homeostasis was impaired by CCl4, but after treatment with blueberry, the intestinal flora returned to normal. Conclusion. Blueberry attenuated liver fibrosis, protected intestinal epithelial barrier, and maintained the homeostasis of the gut microbiota in a CCl4-induced injury rat model.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Nov 2019 08:05:23 +000
  • A Prospective, Randomized Comparison of Duodenoscope Reprocessing
           Surveillance Methods

    • Abstract: Duodenoscope use in healthcare facilities has been associated with transmission of multidrug resistant pathogens between patients. To assist healthcare facilities in monitoring the quality of their duodenoscope reprocessing procedures and limit patient risk of infection, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) deployed voluntary interim duodenoscope sampling and culturing surveillance protocols in 2015. Though the interim methods were widely adopted, alternative surveillance protocols were developed and implemented at individual institutions. Here, we compared two sampling methods—the 2015 CDC interim protocol and an alternative protocol developed by the University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics (UWHC). We hypothesized that the UWHC protocol would detect a higher incidence of bacterial contamination from reprocessed duodenoscopes. A total of 248 sampling events were performed at UWHC. The CDC protocol (n = 129 sampling events) required culturing samples collected from each duodenoscope after brushing its terminal end and flushing its lumen with sterile water. The UWHC protocol (n = 119 sampling events) required culturing samples collected from each duodenoscope after swabbing its elevator, immersing its terminal end into broth and flushing its lumen with saline. With the CDC method, 8.53% (n = 11) of the duodenoscopes sampled were positive for bacterial growth with 15 isolates recovered. Using the UWHC method, 15.13% (n = 18) of cultures were positive for bacterial growth with 20 isolates recovered. The relative risk of identifying a contaminated duodenoscope using the CDC interim method, however, was not different than when using the UWHC protocol. Mean processing time (27.35 and 5.11 minutes, ) and total cost per sample event ($17.87 and $15.04) were lower using the UWHC method. As the UWHC protocol provides similar detection rates as the CDC protocol, the UWHC method is useful, provided the shorter processing time and lower cost to perform.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Nov 2019 08:05:15 +000
  • Simple Bedside Predictors of Survival after Percutaneous Gastrostomy Tube

    • Abstract: Background. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion is an increasingly used minimally invasive method for long-term enteral feeding. Identification of simple predictors for short-term mortality (up to one month) after PEG insertion is of paramount importance. Aim. We aimed to explore a simple noninvasive parameter that would predict survival following PEG insertion. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of all patients who underwent PEG insertion at the Galilee Medical Center from January 1, 2014 to December 30, 2018. We collected simple clinical and laboratory parameters and survival data and looked for predictors of short-term mortality. Results. A total of 272 patients who underwent PEG insertion were included. Sixty-four patients (23.5%) died within one month after PEG insertion compared to 208 patients (76.5%) who survived for more than one month. Univariate analysis revealed several short-term mortality-related predictors, including older age (OR 1.1, ), ischemic heart disease (OR 2, ), higher creatinine level (OR 2.3, ), and elevated CRP level and CRP-to-albumin ratio (OR 1.1, ; OR 1.0031, , respectively). In multivariate logistic analysis, older age (OR 1.1, ), higher creatinine level (OR 1.6, ), and elevated CRP-to-albumin ratio (OR 1.1, ) remained significant predictors of short-term mortality after PEG insertion with an ROC of 0.7274. Conclusion. We could identify several simple parameters associated with high risk of mortality, and we recommend considering using these parameters in decision-making regarding PEG insertion. Further prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 13:05:05 +000
  • As Clinical Markers, Hand-Foot-Skin Reaction and Diarrhea Can Predict
           Better Outcomes for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving
           Transarterial Chemoembolization plus Sorafenib

    • Abstract: Background. Combination therapy of transarterial chemoembolization plus sorafenib (TACE-S) has been proven to be safe and effective for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, this combination therapy is associated with a high incidence of adverse events (AEs). Our study focused on the relationships between AEs and treatment outcomes and aimed to discover AE-based clinical markers that can predict the survival benefits of combination treatment. Methods. From January 2010 to June 2014, a total of 235 HCC patients treated with TACE-S were retrospectively enrolled. Major sorafenib-related AEs were prospectively recorded, and their correlations with overall survival (OS) were analysed using time-dependent covariate Cox regression analyses. Results. The majority of the patients (200, 85.1%) were male, and the median age was 51 years old. After two years of follow-up, the median OS of the study population reached 12.4 months. In all, 218 patients (92.8%) presented at least one AE, and 174 (74.0%) suffered AEs ≥2 grade. Based on time-dependent multivariate analyses, the development of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) ≥2 grade (HR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.32–0.58, ) and diarrhoea ≥1 grade (HR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53–0.97, ) were identified as independent predictors of prolonged OS. Moreover, patients who developed both HFSR ≥2 grade and diarrhoea ≥1 grade achieved better outcomes than those patients who developed either or neither of these AEs (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.11–2.06, ).Conclusions. The development of HFSR ≥2 grade or diarrhoea ≥1 grade during TACE-S treatment indicated prolonged OS, and these AEs should be considered important clinical markers for predicting patient prognoses.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 16:05:16 +000
  • The Impact of Revascularisation on Quality of Life in Chronic Mesenteric

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is characterized by long-standing abdominal symptoms due to insufficient mesenteric circulation. Data on the effect of revascularisation on quality of life (QoL) for CMI are scarce. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of revascularisation on quality of life. Methods. Seventy-nine patients with CMI or acute-on-chronic mesenteric ischemia (AoCMI) underwent an intervention of one or more mesenteric arteries between January 2010 and July 2012. QoL before and after intervention was measured with the EuroQol-5D. Preintervention questionnaires were of standard care. Postintervention data were obtained by resending a questionnaire to the patients between February and May 2013. To investigate the clinical relevance of our findings, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was used. Since there is no established MCID for CMI, we used the literature reference MCID of inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) of 0.074. Results. Fifty-five (69.6%) of 79 patients returned their questionnaire and 23 (29.1%) were completely filled out. There was a significant increase of the median EQ-index score from 0.70 to 0.81 () and a significant reduction of symptoms in the domains usual activities (34.4%) and pain/discomfort (32.3%). There was a significant improvement of 17% in overall current health condition (VAS) (). The MCID between baseline and postoperative EQ-5D index score was 0.162, indicating a clinically relevant improvement of quality of life after revascularisation. Conclusion. Quality of life of CMI patients is improved after mesenteric artery revascularisation.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 12:05:21 +000
  • Lymphopenia Is Associated with Gross Target Volumes and Fractions in
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with External Beam Radiation
           Therapy and Also Indicates Worse Overall Survival

    • Abstract: Purpose. To investigate whether lymphocyte nadir induced by radiation is associated with survival and explore its underlying risk factors in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods. Total lymphocyte counts were collected from 184 HCC patients treated by radiotherapy (RT) with complete follow-up. Associations between gross tumor volumes (GTVs) and radiation-associated parameters with lymphocyte nadir were evaluated by Pearson/Spearman correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Kaplan–Meier analysis, log-rank test, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox regression were performed to assess the relationship between lymphocyte nadir and overall survival (OS). Results. GTVs and fractions were negatively related with lymphocyte nadir ( and , respectively). Lymphocyte nadir and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage were independent prognostic factors predicting OS of HCC patients (all ). Patients in the GTV ≤55.0 cc and fractions ≤16 groups were stratified by lymphocyte nadir, and the group with the higher lymphocyte counts (LCs) showed longer survival than the group with lower LCs ( and , respectively). Patient distribution significantly differed among the RT fraction groups according to BCLC stage (). However, stratification of patients in the same BCLC stage by RT fractionation showed that the stereotactic body RT (SBRT) group achieved the best survival. Furthermore, there were significant differences in lymphocyte nadir among patients in the SBRT group. Conclusions. A lower lymphocyte nadir during RT was associated with worse survival among HCC patients. Smaller GTVs and fractions reduced the risk of lymphopenia.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Oct 2019 00:06:10 +000
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Esophageal Candidiasis: Current Updates

    • Abstract: Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is the most common type of infectious esophagitis. In the gastrointestinal tract, the esophagus is the second most susceptible to candida infection, only after the oropharynx. Immunocompromised patients are most at risk, including patients with HIV/AIDS, leukemia, diabetics, and those who are receiving corticosteroids, radiation, and chemotherapy. Another group includes those who used antibiotics frequently and those who have esophageal motility disorder (cardiac achalasia and scleroderma). Patients complained of pain on swallowing, difficulty swallowing, and pain behind the sternum. On physical examination, there is a plaque that often occurs together with oral thrush. Endoscopic examination is the best approach to diagnose this disease by directly observing the white mucosal plaque-like lesions and exudates adherent to the mucosa. These adherent lesions cannot be washed off with water from irrigation. This disease is confirmed histologically by taking the biopsy or brushings of yeast and pseudohyphae invading mucosal cells. The treatment is by systemic antifungal drugs given orally in a defined course. It is important to differentiate esophageal candidiasis from other forms of infectious esophagitis such as cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, medication-induced esophagitis, radiation-induced esophageal injury, and inflammatory conditions such as eosinophilic esophagitis. Except for a few complications such as necrotizing esophageal candidiasis, fistula, and sepsis, the prognosis of esophageal candidiasis has been good.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 00:07:14 +000
  • Plasma α-Glutathione S-Transferase Evaluation in Patients with Acute
           and Chronic Liver Injury

    • Abstract: High concentration of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (α-GST) in the liver and its short half-life make this enzyme clinically useful in assessing hepatocellular damage. We aimed to investigate the significance of α-GST evaluation in monitoring of liver injury in acute and chronic liver diseases. 20 healthy volunteers and 52 patients were included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups: group I (acute viral hepatitis B or C), group II (chronic hepatitis B or C), and group III (chronic liver disease or cirrhosis with different etiologies). The concentration of α-GST and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured in all examined groups. α-GST, ALT, and AST were statistically higher in all patient groups than in the control group. Statistically higher values of all assessed parameters were observed in group I compared with remaining patients. Statistically higher activities of ALT and AST are observed in group III compared with group II. Significant positive correlations were noted between α-GST and ALT/AST in groups I and III. The results indicate that the assay of α-GST in combination with the other conventional markers may be found as a confirmatory test for hepatocellular damage.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Oct 2019 00:07:13 +000
  • Association between Smoking and Liver Fibrosis among Patients with
           Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    • Abstract: Objective. We aimed at analyzing the role of smoking in hepatic fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and at exploring the related risk factors. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study that included a total of 225 patients with NAFLD. Among them, 127 were nonsmokers and 98 were smokers. Liver significant fibrosis was diagnosed when the liver stiffness (LS) value was higher than 7.4 kPa. The diagnostic criterion for NAFLD was a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) value of>238 dB/m. The CAP and LS values were measured using FibroScan. Results. FibroScan showed that the LS value in the smokers was significantly higher than that in the nonsmokers (10.12 ± 10.38 kPa vs. 7.26 ± 6.42 kPa, ). The proportions of patients with liver significant fibrosis and advanced liver fibrosis among the smokers were significantly higher than those among the nonsmokers (). Univariate analysis showed that age, weight, high AST level, low PLT level, and smoking were the risk factors associated with liver fibrosis in the smokers with NAFLD while multivariate analysis showed that age (OR = 1.029, ), high AST level (OR = 1.0121, ), and smoking (OR = 1.294, ) were the independent risk factors associated with liver fibrosis in the patients with NAFLD. Moreover, high AST level (OR = 1.040, ), smoking index (OR = 1.220, ), and diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.054, ) were the independent risk factors for liver fibrosis among the smokers with NAFLD. Conclusion. This study showed that smoking was closely associated with liver fibrosis among the patients with NAFLD. For patients with NAFLD who smoke, priority screening and timely intervention should be provided if they are at risk of liver fibrosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 15:05:02 +000
  • The Triglyceride and Glucose Index Is a Predictor of Incident Nonalcoholic
           Fatty Liver Disease: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. The triglyceride and glucose index (TyG), defined as the product of triglycerides (TG) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), is reported as a surrogate index for insulin resistance. Although a cross-sectional study revealed the association between the TyG-index and the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), few studies have investigated the association between the TyG-index and incident NAFLD. Here we investigated whether the TyG-index can be used to predict incident NAFLD. Methods. This historical cohort study included 16,093 apparently healthy Japanese individuals. The TyG-index was calculated by the established formula: TyG = Ln [TG (mg/dl) ×  FPG (mg/dl)/2]. Fatty liver was diagnosed based on the subjects’ abdominal ultrasonography results. We divided the subjects into tertiles according to the levels of TyG-index. Hazard ratios (HRs) of the TyG-index for incident NAFLD were calculated by a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. During the observation period, 27.4% of the men and 11.0% of the women developed NAFLD. The highest TyG-index tertile (men, 8.48 ≤ TyG and women, 7.97 ≤ TyG) (adjusted HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.44–1.94, in the men and 2.06, 1.59–2.70, in the women) and the middle TyG-index tertile (men, 8.00 
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Oct 2019 00:06:29 +000
  • Renal Dysfunction is a Risk Factor of Death after Gastric Endoscopic
           Submucosal Dissection in Elderly Patients Aged ≥80 Years

    • Abstract: Introduction. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) is well accepted. However, its adaptation for elderly patients is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prognosis and long-term outcomes of ESD for EGC in elderly patients aged ≥80 years by comparing their findings to the findings of patients aged
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Sep 2019 08:05:11 +000
  • Circulating miRNAs as Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers in Nonalcoholic Fatty
           Liver Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Recent studies have indicated that circulating miRNAs could serve as accurate biomarkers for diagnosing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to assess the evidence on the probability of circulating miRNAs as new diagnostic biomarkers in patients with NAFLD. Methods. We comprehensively retrieved relevant English literature from the databases of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from 2000 to 1 January 2019. The diagnostic accuracy of circulating miRNAs as markers for NAFLD was analyzed. Moreover, we evaluated the methodological quality of the included article. STATA was applied to perform statistical analyses. Results. In this meta-analysis, 17 studies that enrolled 1408 patients of NAFLD and 926 healthy people from 6 articles were analyzed. We constructed a summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curve of all circulating miRNAs, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.83, with the pooled sensitivity (SEN) 0.70 and the pooled specificity (SPE) 0.82 in distinguishing patients with NAFLD from healthy controls. Among them, miR-122 showed high diagnostic accuracy, with the diagnostic index of pooled SEN, SPE, and AUC being 0.88, 0.66, and 0.86, respectively. We then performed subgroup analyses based on the mode of miRNA regulation, countries, miRNA profiling, sample size, and male proportion. We then did a regression analysis and found the cause of heterogeneity might be miRNA profiling. Finally, publication bias was not found, and Fagan’s nomogram showed valuable clinical utility. Conclusion. Circulating miRNAs, especially miR-122, might be promising diagnostic biomarkers for NAFLD with high-accuracy, and more large-sample studies are required to support the above findings in the future.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Aug 2019 13:05:23 +000
  • Analysis of Mortality and Survival Rate of Liver Cancer in Zhejiang
           Province in China: A General Population-Based Study

    • Abstract: Background. Few accurate up-to-date studies provide liver cancer mortality and survival information in Zhejiang province. This research aimed to depict the mortality and survival of liver cancer in Zhejiang province in China during 2005-2010. Methods. The data were collected from the Zhejiang Chronic Disease Surveillance Information and Management System, and the mortality rates of liver cancer were calculated by gender, age, and areas. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi’s world population were used for age-standardized mortality rate. The observed and relative survival rates of liver cancer patients were analyzed. Results. The crude mortality rate of liver cancer was 32.11/105. The age-standardized mortality rate was 17.39/105 and 23.07/105 by Chinese population (ASIRC) and Segi’s world population (ASIRW), respectively. The crude liver cancer mortality rate and age-standardized rate in urban areas were lower than those of rural areas. The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year observed survival (OS) rates of liver cancer patients were 38.61%, 21.65%, and 16.83%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival (RS) rates of liver cancer patients were 39.49%, 23.27%, and 19.09%, respectively. Survival rate decreased obviously within 1 to 5 years and then leveled off. It was shown that the male overall survival rate was higher than the female one and the difference was statistically significant (P
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jul 2019 13:05:05 +000
  • Telbivudine Treatment during Late Pregnancy Prevents Mother-to-Child
           Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. To investigate the efficacy of telbivudine (LdT) in blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) during late pregnancy. Methods. A total of 651 pregnant women aged 18-40 in Nantong Third People’s Hospital and Hospital affiliated to Nantong University with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA were enrolled between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients with HBV DNA≥106 copies/mL (n=251) received LdT during late pregnancy according to the patients’ will, while 136 high viral patients with HBV DNA≥106 copies/mL who did not take LdT therapy and 268 low viral patients with HBV DNA
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jul 2019 13:05:04 +000
  • Causes and Clinical Profiles of Ascites at University of Gondar Hospital,
           Northwest Ethiopia: Institution-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Ascites is a common clinical condition encountered by physicians in day-to-day practice. It is caused by various underlying diseases. Knowing the etiologies is vital because further investigations and definitive treatment largely rely on the specific disease entity considered. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of causes of ascites and complications among patients with ascites from the medical department at the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods. Data on sociodemography, major symptoms, and signs, risk factors, past medical illnesses, and results of important investigations were collected using pretested questionnaires among all patients with ascites in the University of Gondar Hospital in a sample size of 52. Data were collected by well-trained physicians and analyzed by using SPSS 16. Results were depicted descriptively with measures of central tendency, dispersion, and using tables and graphs. Results. A total of 52 patients were included in this study from November 1, 2018 to March 30, 2019. Thirty (57.7%) of them were males and the majority (77%) of the participants were fifty years old or younger. The mean age was 43.8 (± 14). The majority (86.5%) of the participants were from a rural area. Thirty-eight (73%) patients take alcohol occasionally while 11(21.2%) patients take alcohol frequently or massively. Eight (15.4%) patients reported a history of multiple sexual partners. Herbal medicine use was reported by 28 patients (53.8%). Only 5 (9.6%) patients were overweight. Chronic liver disease (CLD) was the major cause of ascites in this study in 24 (46.2%) patients. The other main causes of ascites were heart failure from various causes (19.2%), tuberculosis and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis contributing to 11.5% each and chronic kidney disease (5.8%). Five (20.8%) CLD patients had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis as a complication. Five (20.8%) and 4 (16.7%) CLD patients had hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic encephalopathy as complications, respectively. Nine (17.3%) patients had variceal bleeding; six of the patients were diagnosed to have CLD while the remaining patients were having hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Conclusion. In conclusion, liver cirrhosis is the major cause of ascites in Gondar, Ethiopia, while chronic viral hepatitis infections (hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses) are the main causes of liver cirrhosis. The other major causes included heart failure, tuberculosis, and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. It is wise to consider and give priority to these diseases whenever one is evaluating a patient with ascites.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jul 2019 14:05:00 +000
  • An Update on Clinicopathological and Molecular Features of Plexiform

    • Abstract: Plexiform fibromyxoma is a rare and newly described gastric mesenchymal tumor with only 121 reported cases in the literature. Our understanding of plexiform fibromyxoma requires updating since the first case has been reported by Takahashi et al. 12 years ago. The present review summarized reported cases in the literature, and both clinical and pathological aspects of plexiform fibromyxoma were comprehensively discussed. Plexiform fibromyxoma usually causes nonspecific or bleeding signs or symptoms, and therefore clinical recognition of the disease is challenging. Plexiform fibromyxoma is of benign nature without any metastasis or recurrence reported, and more conservative surgical treatment should be considered.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Jul 2019 14:05:01 +000
  • Helicobacter pylori Mutations Conferring Resistance to Fluoroquinolones
           and Clarithromycin among Dyspeptic Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital,

    • Abstract: Objectives. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates resistant to clarithromycin and quinolones are increasing worldwide. Data regarding the magnitude of H. pylori resistance are limited in developing countries. Here, we report the prevalence of mutations conferring resistance to clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones among dyspeptic patients attending a tertiary hospital, Tanzania. Methods. Between August 2014 and August 2016, patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Bugando Medical Centre were enrolled. Biopsies were taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing to detect mutations conferring resistance to clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones. Results. A total of 208 nonrepetitive biopsies were examined of which 188 (90.4%) tested positive for H. pylori specific 23S rRNA PCR. Clarithromycin resistance mutations were detected in 54/188 (28.7%) of patients tested. The most frequently detected mutation was A2143G (30) followed by A2142G (20). Out of 131 nonrepetitive biopsies tested for fluoroquinolones resistance mutations, 77/131 (58.8%) were positive, with N87I (20) mutation being the most frequently detected mutation followed by A92T mutation which was detected in 16 samples. Conclusion. A significant proportion of dyspeptic patients attending tertiary hospital in Tanzania are infected with H. pylori strains harbouring clarithromycin or fluoroquinolones resistance mutations. Detection of more than 50% of strains with fluoroquinolones resistance mutations makes the H. pylori second line treatment questionable in our setting. There is a need of surveillance of H. pylori resistance patterns in Tanzania to provide data that can guide empirical treatment to reduce associated morbidity of H. pylori infections. The correlation between A92T fluoroquinolone mutation and phenotypic resistance requires further investigations.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 10:05:02 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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