Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Food Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.44
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 5  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-5765
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Characterization of Nutritional, Antinutritional, and Mineral Contents of
           Thirty-Five Sorghum Varieties Grown in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: An experiment was carried out to characterize the proximate compositions and antinutritional and mineral contents of sorghum varieties released for production by the Ethiopian sorghum improvement programme. Sorghum is an extensively researched crop in Ethiopia. However, comprehensive information on nutritional, antinutritional, and mineral content has not been generated. In the present study, thirty-five sorghum varieties released by the national sorghum improvement programme were used and evaluated for their proximate compositions, tannin, and mineral nutrient. AOAC methods of analysis were used for proximate compositions and mineral content together, i.e., whereas for tannin, vanillin-HCL assay methods of analysis were used. Differences between sorghum varieties were significant () for all measured parameters. Proximate composition values such as moisture, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, and CHO varied from 9.66 to 12.94, 1.12 to 2.29, 2.48 to 4.60, 2.17 to 8.59, 8.20 to 16.48, and 67.56 to 76.42, respectively. The highest mineral content of P (367.965), Na (6.151), Mg (207.526), K (314.011), Ca (67.159), Fe (14.018), and Zn (6.484) as measured by mg/100 g was found from the varieties Macia, Abshir, Chiro, Birmash, Dagem, and Assossa-1 (Fe and Zn), respectively. Maximum tannin values of 3337.200 and 2474.7 mg/100 g were obtained from Lalo and Dano, respectively. The varieties such as Miskir, Abshir, ESH-1, Meko-1, Red Swazi, and Karimtams have higher nutritional and mineral and lower antinutritional values among the tested varieties. The abovementioned varieties should be considered for food product development due to their nutritional qualities.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Mar 2020 08:06:01 +000
  • Mass Transfer and Colour Analysis during Vacuum Frying of Colombian
           Coastal Carimañola

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at analysing the effect of vacuum frying on the kinetic parameters of mass transfer, the CIE colour parameters of the Carimañola. For the kinetic analysis, the moisture and oil content were measured by means of an experimental design consisting of two factors: frying time with seven levels (60, 120, 180, 240, 300, 420, and 540 s) and frying temperature with three levels (120, 130, and 140°C). The diffusivity coefficient, the moisture transfer rate, and the oil adsorption rate, with their respective activation energies, were calculated. For the colour analysis, the reflectance technique was used to determine the colour coordinates of the CIE space, and the general colour change was calculated (). Concerning the kinetics, the increase in temperature and frying time reduced the moisture content, while the oil content decreased with the increase in temperature and increases with frying time. The diffusivity ranged from  m2/s at 120°C to  m2/s at 140°C. The mass transfer coefficients for moisture ranged from  m/s at 120°C to  m/s at 140°C. The values of the oil uptake rate were from 0.0022 s-1 at 120°C to 0.0018 s-1 at 140°C. Finally, the luminosity parameter shows a decrease with the increase in temperature, although the first 240 s shows a rise and then begins to decrease. Vacuum frying allowed Carimañolas to be obtained with a lower oil and moisture content, with an appropriate colouring, eye-catching and visually attractive to consumers.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Mar 2020 05:50:03 +000
  • Assessment of Enzymatic Browning and Evaluation of Antibrowning Methods on

    • Abstract: Dates’ color is known to play a crucial role in determining the value and quality of the fruit. The color changes from the natural accepted golden color to unfavorable dark brown color during storage. In this study, the effect of different color preservation methods (modified atmosphere packaging, cold storage (4°C), sulfur dioxide gas (SO2), and blanching) and its relation to darkening due to action of the browning enzymes and melanin production were investigated. Polyphenol oxidase was shown to be active in all treatments except the samples treated with SO2 gas and steam blanching for ten minutes. Likewise, peroxidase activity showed a similar trend in all samples, but a decrease in activity was observed in sulfated samples and total inactivation in steam blanching for ten minutes. Moreover, sulfated samples have shown improvement in color compared to all other treatments, whereas the steamed samples showed the highest color deterioration. Concurrently, melanin content increased in all samples over the period of storage except in the sulfated samples. FTIR analyses of dates’ melanin have revealed similar structural feature to the reference melanin; however, some differences were noticed in the regions 2850–2950 cm-1 and 1690–1705 cm-1 which indicated major structural difference between the two melanin samples. More work is suggested to reveal structural and functional properties of dates’ melanin.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Feb 2020 08:05:10 +000
  • Progressive Freeze Concentration of Coconut Water and Use of Partial Ice
           Melting Method for Yield Improvement

    • Abstract: Coconut water is a highly nutritious liquid food which is a by-product of the desiccated coconut industry. Freeze concentration is the most suitable concentration method for coconut water since the low-temperature operation for concentration does not deteriorate the original quality of coconut water. Suspension freeze concentration (SFC) and progressive freeze concentration (PFC) are the available FC methods, and SFC is a complex and expensive method compared with PFC. PFC is a novel freeze concentration technique to concentrate liquid food by using a simple system. The limitation of PFC is the lower product yield than SFC, and to overcome the problem, the partial ice-melting technique can be used. A simple cylindrical apparatus was used for PFC which consists of a sample vessel, agitator system, and a cooling bath (at temperature). The final concentration of the liquid product was directly affected by the apparatus agitator speed and sample vessel dipping speed. PFC agitator speed of 290 rpm and dipping speed of 1.3 cm h-1 were reported as the optimum operating conditions to achieve the highest concentration for the PFC apparatus used in this study. Using optimized agitation speed and dipping speed, coconut water was concentrated up to Brix 8.5° from the initial concentration of Brix 3.5°. PFC coconut water achieved 73.56% of total yield, 2.42 of concentration ratio, 0.7° of ice phase concentration, and 0.08 of effective partition coefficient. The partial melting technique was successfully explored by recovering initial ice fractions with high solute concentrations, and the total yield was improved up to 80%.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 06:50:04 +000
  • Determinants of Microbial Contamination of Street-Vended Chicken Products
           Sold in Nairobi County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Food safety problems pose a great threat to the health of consumers with the greatest burden in developing countries. Street-vended foods play a key role in providing many urban dwellers with cheap, nutritious, and accessible food, but when prepared in an unhygienic and unregulated environment, they could contribute to increased food safety burden. The study investigated the microbiological recovery of work surfaces and chicken sold in Korogocho and Kariobangi North slums in Nairobi County as well as evaluating vendors’ hygiene and food safety practices. This is a cross-sectional study on an exhaustive sample size of 15 vendors, and swabs of the equipment and work surfaces and chicken were taken for microbial analysis. An exhaustive sample size of 15 vendors was selected for the study. The results showed that most vendors operate under unhygienic conditions. Microbial results revealed that raw portions of chicken had the highest contamination with all the four tested microorganisms (). The level of E. coli ranged from to ;Salmonella spp., to ;Staphylococcus aureus, to ; and Campylobacter jejuni, to log CFU/g in raw and cooked chicken samples, respectively. The predictors of E. coli contamination were the presence of pests and flies, unclean vending place, vending environment littered with waste, washing of hands by the vendor, and lack of appropriate clothing among the vendors at of 0.33. The vendor practices and environmental hygiene of the vending place would not significantly () predict contamination with Campylobacter and Staphylococcus. Consequently, there is a need to regulate the informal food processing and marketing channels, besides trainings, infrastructural development, and code of practice and inspections which are recommended in order to enhance the quality and safety standards of street-vended chicken products.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2020 06:05:05 +000
  • Effect of Size and Drying Time on the Rehydration and Sensory Properties
           of Freeze-Dried Snails (Achatina achatina)

    • Abstract: Snails, a delicacy in most tropical communities, are highly perishable and seasonal. Employed preservative methods are highly temperature dependent, adversely affecting their nutritional value and sensory properties. This study was aimed at determining the effect of size and drying time on the rehydration and sensory properties of freeze-dried snails. Snails were sized into three categories with average weights: 7.59 g (quarter-sized), 14.41 g (half-sized), and 30.71 g (whole), and freeze-dried for 15, 20, and 25 h. The moisture content and percent rehydration of the dried samples were determined by standard methods and sensory properties assessed by an in-house panel of 30 using a 5-point hedonic scale. The moisture content of the fresh and freeze-dried samples ranged from 65.80 to 75.20% and 3.25 to 10.24%, respectively. Freeze-dried samples had higher percent rehydration (27 to 102%) than the control; smoked snails (21 to 32%). Size had a significant () effect on the rehydration ability of the samples with the half-sized and freeze-dried for 15 h samples having the highest. The freeze-dried samples generally had higher consumer preference than the control in all attributes assessed. The findings show that freeze-drying snails (approximate weight of 14.4 g) for 15 h could be a consumer-preferred alternative preservative method for extending the shelf life of snails.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Feb 2020 02:35:01 +000
  • Effect of Steam Blanching, Dehydration Temperature & Time, on the Sensory
           and Nutritional Properties of a Herbal Tea Developed from Moringa oleifera

    • Abstract: The core purpose of the current study is to explore the use of Moringa oleifera leaves, to produce a herbal tea with acceptable sensory properties and nutritional properties by utilizing the steam blanching technique, different dehydration temperatures and time, which can be accepted in the Sri Lankan market. Six sets of samples were prepared where temperature and time combinations were 55°C—6 h, 60°C—4.30 h, 65°C—3 h for the unblanched samples & 55°C—6 h, 60°C—5.30 h & 65°C—4 h for the steam blanched samples. These samples were evaluated, employing a trained panel of 5 tea tasters and a semi trained panel of 35 members. The sample code 706 (steam blanched, 65°C—4 h) was selected as the sample with best sensory attributes. The blanched and unblanched samples dried at 65°C were tested for their proximate, mineral, vitamin, antioxidant and phytochemical contents. The effects of steam blanching on these two samples were evaluated & compared. This study highlights that steam blanching significantly increased the carbohydrates, fat, Mn, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin E and the DPPH scavenging activity whereas steam blanching significantly reduced the protein, fiber, Na, K, Ca, Total phenolic contents and flavonoids content but vitamin C, Zn, Cu and Mg contents were unaffected by steam blanching.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Feb 2020 00:05:07 +000
  • Physicochemical, Rheological, and Morphological Characteristics of
           Products from Traditional and Extrusion Nixtamalization Processes and
           Their Relation to Starch

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical, rheological, and morphological characteristics of corn, nixtamalized flour, masa, and tortillas from the traditional nixtamalization process (TNP) and the extrusion nixtamalization process (ENP) and their relationship with starch. The traditional and extrusion processes were carried out using the same variety of corn. From both processes, samples of ground corn, nixtamalized flour, masa, and tortillas were obtained. The extrusion process produced corn flour with particle sizes smaller (particle size index, PSI = 51) than that of flour produced by the traditional nixtamalization process (PSI = 44). Masa from the TNP showed higher modulus of elasticity () and viscosity () values than that off masa from the ENP. Furthermore, in a temperature sweep test, masa from the TNP showed a peak in and , while the masa from the ENP did not display these peaks. The ENP-produced tortillas had higher resistant starch contents and comparable firmness and rollability to those from the TNP but lower quality parameter values. A comparison of the products’ physicochemical properties obtained by the two processes shows the importance of controlling the damage to starch during the milling and extrusion processes to obtain tortillas of better quality. For the first time, we propose the measurement of the viscoelastic parameters and in temperature sweep mode to monitor changes in the degree of starch damage.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jan 2020 16:05:11 +000
  • Chemical and Antioxidant Charaterization of Native Corn Germplasm from Two
           Regions of Costa Rica: A Conservation Approach

    • Abstract: The cultivation of native corn has decreased in favor of the cultivation of improved commercial corn varieties. This study seeks to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of 36 samples of native corn germplasm from the Brunca (BR) and Chorotega (CR) regions of Costa Rica. The main parameters of comparison were the composition of antioxidant compounds, antiradical activity, and microbicidal effect. The total amount of polyphenols in the germplasm (120 mg GAE/100 g d.w.) was not related to the regions from which the samples were obtained. The overall average for antioxidant capacity was 21.20 μmol TE/g d.w. Accessions from the CR region had higher antioxidant capacity. Anthocyanin content was higher in purple accessions and undetectable in white germplasm. Antioxidant capacity was statistically related to polyphenols content (,). The most promising corn accessions in terms of nutraceutical value came from the CR region.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jan 2020 16:05:09 +000
  • Phytochemicals in Leaves and Roots of Selected Kenyan Orange Fleshed Sweet
           Potato (OFSP) Varieties

    • Abstract: This study reports the inherent phytochemical contents in leaves and roots of nine sweet potato varieties from Kenya. Results indicated that vitamin C content varied significantly () among the sweet potato varieties regardless of the plant part, leaves having significantly () higher levels than in the roots. Total flavonoids and phenolic compounds differed significantly () among varieties, higher values were found in leaves than in roots. Flavonoid contents in roots ranged from below detectable limits (Whitesp) to 25.8 mg CE/100 g (SPK031), while in leaves it ranged from 4097 to 7316 mg CE/100 g in SPK4 and Kenspot 5, respectively. Phenolic content was below detectable limits in the roots of whitesp but it was in substantial amounts in orange fleshed varieties. The β-carotene content was significantly () higher in leaves (16.43–34.47 mg/100 g dry weight) than in roots (not detected—11.1 mg/100 g dry weight). Total and phytic phosphorus were directly correlated with phytate contents in leaves and the roots. Tannins and soluble oxalates varied significantly () with variety and plant part being higher in leaves. The current information is important for ration formulations and dietary recommendations utilizing sweet potato leaves and roots. Future studies on effects of processing methods on these phytochemicals are recommended.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jan 2020 11:50:08 +000
  • Methanol Extract of Coleus amboinicus (Lour) Exhibited Antiproliferative
           Activity and Induced Programmed Cell Death in Colon Cancer Cell WiDr

    • Abstract: Coleus amboinicus(Lour) (CA) has been reported to possess many pharmacological activities. In this study, evaluation of cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay and MTT assay using WiDr cell lines was carried out. The expression of several genes responsible for programmed cell death of the methanol extract of CA was also investigated. The morphology of the cells undergoing apoptosis was detected using Hoechst staining assay. The gene expression of BAX, BCL2, P53, Caspase 1, 7, 8, and 9 of treated samples with different concentrations (10, 15, 25 & 50 µg/ml) were measured with RT PCR. The phytochemical profiles were investigated using LC MS. The results showed that the lethality concentration (LC50) of methanol extract using brine shrimp was 34.545 µg/ml and the extract exhibited good antiproliferative activity against cancer cells WiDr with IC50 value (8.598 ± 2.68 µg/ml) as compared to standard drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 value 1.839 ± 0.03 µg/ml). There was apoptotic evidences from the morphology of treated cells. The expressions of BAX,P53, and Caspase 9 were upregulated in lower concentration of the extract (10 and 15 µg/ml) but downregulated in higher concentration (25 and 50 µg/ml). BCL2 as anti-apoptotic gene was downregulated in all concentrations. Caspase 1 and Caspase 7 were upregulated in high concentration (25 and 50 µg/ml), but downregulated in lower concentrations. These data provide a mode of cell death for the methanol extract of CA in low concentrations corresponding to apoptosis with intrinsic pathway. Many valuable compounds identified including caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, malic acid, eicosapentanoic acid, benserazide, alpha-linolenic acid, betaine, Salvanolic B, 4-hydroxibenzoic acid and firulic acid have been previously reported as being active agents against many cancer cells. This study suggested that CA might become an effective ingredient for health-beneficial foods to prevent colon cancer.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jan 2020 23:05:09 +000
  • Foodborne Pathogen Assessment in Raw Milk Cheeses

    • Abstract: General hygienic parameters and selected foodborne pathogens in raw milk cheeses at the retail level were evaluated. A total of 245 raw milk cheese samples were analysed for total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, coagulase-positive Staphylococci, and staphylococcal enterotoxin. Results showed only 3 samples that were not compliant with European rules on staphylococcal enterotoxin, but coagulase-positive Staphylococci were evidenced in all samples tested. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were never detected whereas E. coli was evidenced in 20 samples. Results suggest a need for improvement of good manufacturing practice and milking operation.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 06:50:09 +000
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus Reduces Blood Glucose Level through Downregulation
           of Gluconeogenesis Gene Expression in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are observed to be potential probiotics with functional properties such as lowering fasting blood glucose (FBG), as a promising hyperglycemia management. This study investigated the ability and mechanism of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BSL and Lactobacillus rhamnosus R23 on lowering FBG in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ). The rats were orally administered with L. rhamnosus BSL and L. rhamnosus R23 by giving 1 mL cell suspension (109 CFU/mL) daily for 30 days. The body weight (BW) was recorded once in three days, and FBG was recorded once in six days. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was measured 1 week after injection with STZ and before sacrifice. Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 15, and 30 for LAB population and identification, performed by PCR detecting 16S rRNA. Oral administration of L. rhamnosus BSL and L. rhamnosus R23 decreased FBG and improved glucose tolerance via downregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc) expression by 0.57- and 0.60-fold change, respectively (). The lipid profiles, BUN, creatinine, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly () different between normal and diabetic rats, but they were not significantly () different among diabetic rats. Both strains were effective in increasing fecal LAB population. Molecular identification of the isolated LAB from fecal sample indicated that they were able to survive and pass through the digestive tract. These results suggested that both strains have the ability to manage blood glucose level and become a promising agent to manage hyperglycemia and diabetes.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jan 2020 04:05:05 +000
  • Response Surface Optimization of Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) with
           Lantana camara (L. camara) Fruit Fermentation Process for Quality Wine

    • Abstract: Fermenting blended fruits has been used to improve fruit wine quality. Cactus pear and Lantana camara fruits have well-known nutritive and health benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate cactus wine quality improvement by applying response surface optimization method of cactus pear and Lantana camara fruits juice fermentation process. Wine quality responses were optimized at an experimental strategy developed using central composite rotatory design by varying fermentation process variable temperature, inoculum, and Lantana camara fruit juice concentration for six days. The developed fermentation models were significant () to predict alcohol, total phenol content, and sensory property of the final wine accurately. From the statistics calculations, fermentation temperature of 24.8°C, inoculum concentration 10.16% (), and Lantana camara fruit juice concentration of 10.66% () were the overall optimum values to produce cactus pear fruit wine with alcohol (), total phenol content (mg L-1 equivalent to gallic acid), and sensory value of . The Lantana camara fruit juice concentration added had shown significant () enhancement on total phenol content and sensory values of the final wine. The results can be used for large-scale wine production in order to reduce its postharvest losses.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 15:20:02 +000
  • Concentrations of Metals in Tissues of Cockle Anadara granosa (Linnaeus,
           1758) from East Java Coast, Indonesia, and Potential Risks to Human Health

    • Abstract: This study reports the presence of Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, Cu, and Cr in the cockles (Anadara granosa, Linnaeus, 1758) harvested along the East Java Coast, Indonesia. The concentrations of metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometer and expressed in mg kg-1 wet weight. The concentrations of metals ranged from 0.11 to 0.82 mg kg−1 for Cd, 0.10 to 0.54 mg kg−1 for Pb, 10.22 to 19.04 mg kg−1 for Zn, 0.02 to 1.47 mg kg−1 for Hg, 1.79 to 4.76 mg kg−1 for Cu, and 1.64 to 3.79 mg kg−1 for Cr. The metal concentrations in the whole tissues of cockles were in the order Zn>Cu>Cr>Hg>Cd>Pb. The Cd and Pb levels in cockles were found to be higher than the permissible limit for human consumption according to EC and FAO; the levels of Hg exceeded the EC, Hong Kong, Australia, and Indonesia standards; and the levels of Cr exceeded the Hong Kong standard. The estimated weekly intake (EWI) of cockles indicates that the concentrations of Cd and Hg in the cockle tissues from Gresik were higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI); meanwhile, the concentrations of Cr of cockles from all locations were higher than and close to the PTWI. The THQ values for Cd at Gresik, for Hg at Gresik, Surabaya, and Pasuruan, and for Cr at all locations were higher than one indicating that these metals pose potential noncarcinogenic effects to consumers. Reducing the consumption of cockles should be done in order to minimize the adverse effects of metals especially Cd, Hg, and Cr to human health.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jan 2020 11:20:02 +000
  • The Impact of Food Service Attributes on Customer Satisfaction in a Rural
           University Campus Environment

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine different food service attributes that have an impact on customers’ overall satisfaction at a rural university cafeteria. Over 5 weeks, 676 cafeteria users, including academics, staff, and students, were selected through convenience sampling. They completed an anonymous-designed survey with closed questions () assessing quality of food and beverages, quality of service and setting, and satisfaction with food service attributes. In order to measure the existence and degree of significant relationships between different research variables, Pearson correlation coefficients were employed to analyse the data. Means of scores and frequencies were calculated. Results indicated that customers’ satisfaction with different service attributes was above average. All service attributes had a significant and positive effect on the overall satisfaction. Since most customers (62.9%) would like to continue eating at the cafeteria, the most common improvements suggested to the university management included among others, improving diet quality by offering more nutritious food. Gaining insight into the different food service attributes can enable the university management to meet the needs and expectations of its academics, staff, and students in order to increase their confidence in the food provided.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Dec 2019 15:35:05 +000
  • Microbiological Safety of Leafy Vegetables Produced at Houeyiho and
           Sèmè-Kpodji Vegetable Farms in Southern Benin: Risk Factors for
           Campylobacter spp.

    • Abstract: Foodborne infections, mainly those attributable to Campylobacter, are one of the most common causes of intestinal diseases, of bacterial origin in humans. Although the vehicle of transmission is not always identified, the most common vehicles are poultry, poultry products, and contaminated water. In Southern Benin, an excessive use of poultry manure as fertilizer in vegetable farms was noted. This survey aimed to determine the prevalence and concentration of Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, in selected environmental samples (poultry manure, and irrigation water) and freshly harvested leafy vegetables in two (Houeyiho and Sèmè-Kpodji) vegetable farms in southern Benin. To achieve this objective, we analyzed 280 samples, including 224 samples of leafy vegetables (Solanum macrocarpon and Lactuca sativa capita), 28 samples of irrigation water, and 28 samples of poultry manure. The analysis of the samples taken was carried out according to the modified NF EN ISO 10272-1 standard. Of the 280 samples analyzed in this survey, 63 were positive for Campylobacter contamination. For leafy vegetable samples analyzed in this survey, the contamination rate was of 15.63%. 60.71% of poultry manure samples analyzed were contaminated with Campylobacter spp. and 39.29% of irrigation water samples were contaminated. The statistical analysis of these results showed that there is a correlation between the contamination of leafy vegetables, poultry manure, and irrigations ().Campylobacter jejuni (53.97%) was more involved in contaminations than Campylobacter coli (36.57%). This study has shown that there is a real risk of food poisoning by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli among consumers of leafy vegetables in southern Benin. The origin of contamination of these leafy vegetables is poultry manure used as fertilizer in vegetable gardens and irrigation water used.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Dec 2019 08:05:10 +000
  • Effect of HTST Thermal Treatments on End-Use Quality Characteristics of
           Goat Milk

    • Abstract: Goat milk samples were pasteurized at high-temperature (72°C, 75°C, and 81°C) and in short-time (15 s and 25 s) combinations. Physical, chemical and microbial qualities of the pasteurized milk samples were evaluated 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage at 4°C. Despite the different thermal treatments, specific-gravity and viscosity were comparatively stable immediately after pasteurization (IAP). The viscosity of pasteurized milk at 81°C showed significant increase () from 1.58 ± 0.18 to 2.30 ± 0.15 mPa s during four weeks of storage. Relative lightness “L” value decreased by about 10% during the storage period of 81°C pasteurization samples. Acidity increased with heat treatment irrespective of holding time, but in 81°C pasteurized sample higher acidity was developed at end of the storage. Fat oxidation 2-3 times higher at 81°C than 72°C pasteurized samples. Total protein (TP%) and nonprotein nitrogen contents were stable IAP but TP reduced significantly () at two weeks storage. The whey protein denaturation increased with pasteurization treatments and storage time. Antioxidant activity of raw goat milk was 34.8 ± 5.01 μmol l−1 and was decreased by 20–43% IAP compared to raw milk samples, but gradually increased during storage. IAP, mesophilic counts were in the range of 980–110 cfu ml−1 (72°C/15–81°C/25 s) and increased from 2236 to 680 cfu ml−1 samples stored at 4 weeks. Results showed that best quality stability of pasteurized goat milk achieved by heat treatments between 72°C/25 s and 75°C/25 s heat treatments up to 3 weeks of storage under 4°C.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 14:05:08 +000
  • Development of Pasta Products with Nonconventional Ingredients and Their
           Effect on Selected Quality Characteristics: A Brief Overview

    • Abstract: Pasta is a widely consumed food in all over the world. Coarse semolina obtained from durum wheat and water are the main ingredients of conventional pasta products. The amount of gluten and quality level of durum wheat, are two important factors for the superiority of finished pasta. Market price of durum wheat is higher than the common wheat and it contributes no more than 5% of the world wheat production. Thus, to come across the challenge of emerging pasta consumption, new field of research that is dealing with the incorporation of nonconventional ingredients to the conventional formula of pasta has initiated. The compositions of raw materials which are used for pasta preparation directly affect the physical, chemical, and textural properties of the product. Therefore, incorporation of nonconventional ingredients can lead to a contradictory effect of pasta quality. This review will focus on the various types of nonconventional ingredients that are being incorporated in pasta products and their effect on the quality attributes of different pasta products.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2019 10:05:21 +000
  • High Throughput Sequencing Technologies as a New Toolbox for Deep
           Analysis, Characterization and Potentially Authentication of Protection
           Designation of Origin Cheeses'

    • Abstract: Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) labeling of cheeses has been established by the European Union (EU) as a quality policy that assures the authenticity of a cheese produced in a specific region by applying traditional production methods. However, currently used scientific methods for differentiating and establishing PDO are limited in terms of time, cost, accuracy and their ability to identify through quantifiable methods PDO fraud. Cheese microbiome is a dynamic community that progressively changes throughout ripening, contributing via its metabolism to unique qualitative and sensorial characteristics that differentiate each cheese. High Throughput Sequencing (HTS) methodologies have enabled the more precise identification of the microbial communities developed in fermented cheeses, characterization of their population dynamics during the cheese ripening process, as well as their contribution to the development of specific organoleptic and physio-chemical characteristics. Therefore, their application may provide an additional tool to identify the key microbial species that contribute to PDO cheeses unique sensorial characteristics and to assist to define their typicityin order to distinguish them from various fraudulent products. Additionally, they may assist the cheese-makers to better evaluate the quality, as well as the safety of their products. In this structured literature review indications are provided on the potential for defining PDO enabling differentiating factors based on distinguishable microbial communities shaped throughout the ripening procedures associated to cheese sensorial characteristics, as revealed through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies. Conclusively, HTS applications, even though still underexploited, have the potential to demonstrate how the cheese microbiome can affect the ripening process and sensorial characteristics formation via the catabolism of the available nutrients and interplay with other compounds of the matrix and/or production of microbial origin metabolites and thus their further quality enhancement.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 12:05:12 +000
  • Proximate, Mineral and Antinutrient Contents of Cocoyam (Xanthosoma
           sagittifolium (L.) Schott) from Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) is an important food crop especially in the tropics and subtropics. Its cormels and leaves are eaten after cooking in the rural areas in Ethiopia. There is lack of information on the nutritional composition of cocoyam grown in the country. In this study, cormels of green- and purple- cocoyams were analyzed to determine proximate and mineral contents and antinutritional factors. The moisture contents (%) of green- and purple-cocoyams were 61.91 and 63.53, respectively. Crude protein (10.10%) and fiber (2.66%) contents of purple cocoyam were significantly higher than crude protein (8.48%) and fiber (2.14%) contents of green cocoyam. Fat contents (%) of the green- and purple cocoyam were 0.85 and 0.22, respectively. Ash content of green cocoyam (3.25%) was significantly higher than the ash content of purple cocoyam (2.27%). The carbohydrate contents (%) and gross energy values (kcal/100 g) of green- and purple-cocoyam, respectively, were 85.36 and 378.47 and 84.76 and 380.27, showing that cocoyam grown in Ethiopia can be a good source of energy. Mineral contents (mg/100 g) of green cocoyam were determined as Fe (8.20), Zn (3.07), Cu (1.04), Mg (78.77), Mn (2.48), P (120.93), Na (29.22), K (1085.70) and Ca (56.57) while purple cocoyam had Fe (9.88), Zn (3.12), Cu (1.14), Mg (82.00), Mn (3.74), P (129.87), Na (24.33), K (1223.30) and Ca (44.90). High antinutritional factors (phytate and tannin) (mg/100 g) were determined from both green- and purple-cocoyam genotypes with significantly higher quantities in purple cocoyam (187.57 phytate and 156.1 tannin) than the green cocoyam (167.76 phytate and 139.62 tannin). This study provided important information about the nutritional composition of cocoyam from Ethiopia, which can help to develop cocoyam food products and to promote production and utilization of cocoyam by encouraging its sustainable use. More detailed analyses including processing and sensory testing are suggested for further investigation in order to obtain healthful and comfortable cocoyam products.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Nov 2019 10:05:10 +000
  • Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Chemically Pretreated Ndou
           Sweet Potato Flour

    • Abstract: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) is a nutritious crop abundant in calories and bioactive compounds such as beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, and dietary fibre. This study investigated the effect of pretreatments on the physicochemical and functional properties of Ndou sweet potato (NSP) flour. Flour samples were prepared by randomly assigning NSP slices to two treatments (citric acid and sodium metabisulphite) at 5, 10, and 15 g/L concentration for 10 min. Distilled water was used as control. The moisture content (7.70%) of NSP flour treated with citric acid was significantly () higher than that of the flour treated with sodium metabisulphite (5.54%) as the concentration level increased. The treatments did not significantly () affect the protein and fat contents of the NSP flour and protein increased from 2.54 to 2.82%, while fat decreased from 0.69 to 0.61%. Sodium metabisulphite treated samples had a higher value, ash, and pH level than citric acid treated samples. However, pH was slightly decreased by both treatments from 6.05 to 5.09. Citric acid treated samples had higher and values than sodium metabisulphite treated samples. In terms of the functional properties of NSP flour, the treatments significantly () affected the water absorption capacity, viscosity, swelling power, solubility index, and thermal properties although the bulk density and least gelation concentration were not significantly () affected. Sodium metabisulphite was very effective in improving physicochemical and functional properties of NSP flour as compared to citric acid. The findings of this study show the possibilities of using NSP flour in food systems as gelling agent, fat replacer, and thickeners.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Nov 2019 12:05:01 +000
  • Functional Cereal Products in the Diet for Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes has become one of the major health problems of the modern world. It is assumed that environmental factors have a significant impact on the development of the disease, and great importance is ascribed to the diet, which can be modified accordingly. The diet can exert prophylactic and therapeutic effects; changes in the diet in advanced disease can improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and minimise the risk of complications, which are the direct cause of diabetes-related death. Functional food, which has a potentially health-enhancing effect in addition to its nutritional value, has been increasingly recognised and required. Cereal products are crucial in diabetic nutrition. Their function can additionally be enhanced by fortification with compounds with proven hypoglycaemic effects. Pasta has a low glycaemic index and is a good carrier of fortifying substances; hence, it can be highly recommended in diets for diabetic patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Oct 2019 09:05:13 +000
  • Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of a Chagalapoli Fruit
           (Ardisia compressa) Beverage Fermented Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Abstract: Chagalapoli fruit (Ardisia compressa) is similar to Vaccinium myrtillus (berries) with high-polyphenol content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of Chagalapoli fruit and to determine the conditions for the preparation of a fermented beverage using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, evaluating the impact on sensory properties. The fermentation process lasted 4 days at 27°C, with absence of light and a fixed pH of 3.8. The phenolic contents obtained in samples were 1.27 epicatechin mg/mL in filtered juice, 1.59 epichatechin mg/mL in filtered fermented beverage, 1.91 epichatechin mg/mL in partially filtered juice and 3.19 epichatechin mg/mL in partially filtered fermented beverage. An affective test was carried out to determine the sensory acceptability of the final product, evaluating the flavor, color and aroma parameters. The fermented beverage with the greatest preference on color and flavor attributes was the partially filtered fermented beverage.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:08:20 +000
  • Validation of a Simple and Robust Liebermann–Burchard Colorimetric
           Method for the Assay of Cholesterol in Selected Milk Products in Ghana

    • Abstract: Cholesterol plays a key role in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones in the human body. However, excessively high levels are usually implicated in cardiovascular diseases. For this reason, it is essential to monitor exposure to high levels of it in products meant for human consumption, and this calls for the need to develop analytical methods to detect them. The use of Liebermann–Burchard reaction in this study has been explored to develop a simple, reliable, and robust quantitative colorimetric method to assay cholesterol, and hence provide a good alternative to chromatographic methods. The developed method was validated and used to determine the contents of cholesterol in selected dairy products on the Kumasi Metropolis market. The method demonstrated a good linearity () over concentration range of 0.01–0.08 mg/ml. It was also shown to be precise and robust. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were determined to be 0.00430 mg/ml and 0.01304 mg/ml, respectively. Ten selected brands of canned milk (B1–B5) and fresh yoghurt products (A1–A5) were then assayed using the developed method. The results showed that three products from each category had cholesterol contents above the allowable content of 5 mg/100 g in dairy products. The study thus has proposed a simple colorimetric method that can be adopted by dairy products manufacturing facilities to rapidly determine cholesterol contents during manufacturing in order to monitor the safe consumption of their products, and eliminate or minimize possible future health hazards.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:08:19 +000
  • Effect of Chronic Consumption of Sweeteners on Microbiota and Immunity in
           the Small Intestine of Young Mice

    • Abstract: The consumption of sweeteners has increased as a measure to reduce the consumption of calories and thus combat obesity and diabetes. Sweeteners are found in a large number of products, so chronic consumption has been little explored. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of chronic sweetener consumption on the microbiota and immunity of the small intestine in young mice. We used 72 CD1 mice of 21 days old, divided into 3 groups: (i) No treatment, (ii) Group A (6 weeks of treatment), and (iii) Group B (12 weeks of treatment). Groups A and B were divided into 4 subgroups: Control (CL), Sucrose (Suc), Splenda® (Spl), and Svetia® (Sv). The following were determined: anthropometric parameters, percentage of lymphocytes of Peyer’s patches and lamina propria, IL-6, IL-17, leptin, resistin, C-peptide, and TNF-α. From feces, the microbiota of the small intestine was identified. The BMI was not modified; the mice preferred the consumption of Splenda® and Svetia®. The percentage of CD3+ lymphocytes in Peyer’s patches was increased. In the lamina propria, Svetia® increased the percentage of CD3+ lymphocytes, but Splenda® decreases it. The Splenda® and Svetia® subgroups elevate leptin, C-peptide, IL-6, and IL-17, with reduction of resistin. The predominant genus in all groups was Bacillus. The chronic consumption of sweeteners increases the population of lymphocytes in the mucosa of the small intestine. Maybe, Bacillus have the ability to adapt to sweeteners regardless of the origin or nutritional contribution of the same.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Aug 2019 00:05:08 +000
  • Plant Enzymes Decrease Prostate Cancer Cell Numbers and Increase TNF-α In
           Vivo: A Possible Role in Immunostimulatory Activity

    • Abstract: Increased caloric intake and Westernized dietary choices may be contributing toward a recent rising trend of incidences of chronic lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer properties of Plant Enzyme Validux (PEV) using a mouse model. Five-week-old male C3H mice were randomly distributed into four experimental groups: Control, PEV only, 6Gy irradiation only, and PEV + 6Gy. PEV was orally administered daily at 500 mg/kg for 14 days prior to three rounds of 2Gy irradiation. We focused on the anticancer action and immunostimulatory effects of PEV with and without irradiation. Oncogene suppression was observed after PEV treatment as was an increase in TNF-α, suggesting an antitumor effect. PEV administration also appeared to reduce oxidative stress as evidenced by a decrease in lipid peroxidation. In addition, PEV confirmed radioprotective effect by radical blocking ability by radiation irradiation. Immunological responses to PEV administration were evidenced by an increase in number of total white blood cells and T lymphocytes. Immunotherapy is drawing more and more attention as a treatment for prostate cancer, suggesting that there will be a need for the identification of specific targets for prostate cancer and for more basic research on the genetic aspects of immunotherapy. Thus, PEV may be of use as a radioprotective supplement during radiotherapy for tumor treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jul 2019 09:05:14 +000
  • Relationship between Hedonic Hunger and Health Interest on Habit and
           Sodium Intake Patterns in Food Consumption

    • Abstract: Many people are motivated to eat healthily but find it difficult to override established and less healthy habits. Habits, by their nature, are unconscious and cued by the environment, thus making them powerful determinants of behavior. This study examined how hedonic hunger and health interest are related to habit and whether sodium consumption is mediated by hedonic hunger, health interest, and habit. A total of 117 students of Universitas Brawijaya took part in the study. Data analysis were done using Partial Least Square (PLS) and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ). PLS was used to analyze the influence of the relationship between independent and dependent variables. SQ-FFQ was used to determine sodium intake in grams/day. The average sodium intake in this study was 2.47 grams/day. This analysis shows that hedonic hunger and health interest had a significant impact on health habits but not on sodium intake.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jul 2019 00:05:19 +000
  • Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Annatto Seeds,
           Evaluation of Their Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity, and
           Identification of Main Compounds by LC/ESI-MS Analysis

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity (i.e., against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and the antioxidant activity (i.e., ABTS, FRAP, and DPPH) of annatto seeds extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction. A response surface design with three levels such as pH (2-11), solvent concentration (50-96 %), seed-to-solvent ratio (1:2–1:10), and treatment time (0-30 min) was employed to determine the optimal experimental conditions. Thus, a pH of 7.0, seed-to-solvent ratio of 1:7, and treatment time of 20 min were selected as optimal rendering an extract having a 0.62% of bixin, 3.81 mg gallic acid/mg equivalent of polyphenol compounds (ABTS 1035.7, FRAP 424.7, and DPPH 1161.5 μM trolox/L), and a minimal inhibitory concentration against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus of 32 and 16 mg/L, respectively. Further, the main bioactive compounds identified by LC/ESI-MS were bixin and catechin, chlorogenic acid, chrysin, butein, hypolaetin, licochalcone A, and xanthohumol.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jul 2019 08:05:13 +000
  • Molecular Characterization of Fermenting Yeast Species from Fermented Teff
           Dough during Preparation of Injera Using ITS DNA Sequence

    • Abstract: Identification of the yeast responsible for Injera fermentation is important in order to be more consistent and for scale-up of Injera production. In this study, yeast were isolated and identified from fermenting teff dough sample collected from household, hotels, and microenterprises, Addis Ababa. Initially, the yeast obtained from fermenting teff dough of different sources were selected on the basis of their CO2 production potentials. Its DNA sequencing of isolated yeast identified Pichia fermentans, Pichia occidentalis, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Kazachstania bulderi. The association of identified yeast to their sources indicated the presence of Pichia fermentans in fermenting dough samples collected from all sources whereas Kazachstania bulderi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida humilis were shown to be present in samples collected from households, hotels, and microenterprises, respectively. The phenotypes and CO2 production potentials of this yeast were also documented. This study has confirmed the presence of different yeast species in the fermentation of teff dough and hinted the complex nature of Injera dough fermentation.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 10:05:15 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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