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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 282 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 275 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  

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Journal Cover Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
  [SJR: 0.932]   [H-I: 34]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [282 journals]
  • Integrating a 19F MRI Tracer Agent into the Clinical Scale Manufacturing
           of a T-Cell Immunotherapy

    • Abstract: Leukocyte immunotherapies have made great progress in the treatment of cancer. Recent reports on the treatment of B-cell malignancies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor and affinity enhanced T-Cell Receptor therapies have demonstrated encouraging clinical results. As investigators begin to explore the treatment of solid tumors with these cells, the hurdle of evaluating T-cell homing to and persistence at the site of disease remain. Significant challenges regarding the GMP manufacture and administration of a therapeutic dose of millions to billions of transduced T-cells remain. Here we report on the application of a clinically authorized 19F MRI tracer agent to human T-cells, employing state-of-the-art methods and equipment in the manufacture of a cellular therapy. Using a general T-cell expansion protocol and clinical scale industrial bioreactors, we show 19F labeling without detriment to the product +/− cryopreservation. While the incorporation of the 19F tracer is not trivial, it is just one of the many steps that can aid in progression of a therapeutic to and though the clinic. Combining the MRI tracking capabilities, safety profiles, and clinical sensitivity of this method, this application demonstrates the ability of 19F MRI to be used in industrial scale applications to visualize the spatial fate of cellular therapeutics.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 07:42:08 +000
       
  • Use of Cyclic Backbone NGR-Based SPECT to Increase Efficacy of
           Postmyocardial Infarction Angiogenesis Imaging

    • Abstract: As CD13 is selectively expressed in angiogenesis, it can serve as a target for molecular imaging tracers to noninvasively visualize angiogenic processes in vivo. The CD13-targeting moiety NGR was synthesized and cyclized by native chemical ligation (NCL) instead of disulfide bridging, leading to a cyclic peptide backbone: cyclo(Cys-Asn-Gly-Arg-Gly) (coNGR). Beside this new monomeric coNGR, a tetrameric NGR peptide co(NGR)4 was designed and synthesized. After radiolabeling, their in vitro and in vivo characteristics were determined. Both coNGR-based imaging agents displayed considerably higher standardized uptake values (SUVs) at infarcted areas compared to the previously reported disulfide-cyclized cNGR imaging agent. Uptake patterns of 111In-coNGR and 111In-co(NGR)4 coincided with CD13 immunohistochemistry on excised hearts. Blood stability tests indicated better stability for both novel imaging agents after 50 min blood incubation compared to the disulfide-cyclized cNGR imaging agent. In mice, both coNGR peptides cleared rapidly from the blood mainly via the kidneys. In addition, co(NGR)4 showed a significantly higher specific uptake in infarcted myocardium compared to coNGR and thus is a promising sensitive imaging agent for detection of angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Associations between 18F-FDG-PET, DWI, and DCE Parameters in Patients with
           Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Depend on Tumor Grading

    • Abstract: Our purpose was to analyze associations between positron emission tomography (PET), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study involved 34 patients (9 women, 25 men, mean age: years). In all patients a simultaneous 18F-FDG-PET/MR was performed. DWI was obtained by using of an axial EPI sequence. Minimal ADC values (), mean ADC values (), and maximal ADC values () were estimated. DCE MRI was performed by using dynamic T1w DCE sequence. The following parameters were estimated: ,, and . Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. In overall sample, correlated significantly with and , correlated with , and correlated with and . tended to correlate slightly with . In G1/2 tumors, only correlated well with and . In G3 tumors, correlated well with and . showed significant correlations with and . correlated with . was higher in cancers with N2/3 stages. Tumor metabolism, water diffusion, and tumor perfusion have complex relationships in HNSCC. Furthermore, these associations depend on tumor grading. may predict lymphonodal metastasizing.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Theranostic Probes for Cancer Imaging

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • MR Assessment of Acute Pathologic Process after Myocardial Infarction in a
           Permanent Ligation Mouse Model: Role of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Contrasted
           MRI

    • Abstract: We evaluated the relationship between myocardial infarct size and inflammatory response using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mouse model. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in 14 mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and magnetofluorescent nanoparticle MRI (MNP-MRI) were performed 1, 2, and 3 days after MI, respectively. The size of the enhanced lesion was quantitatively determined using Otsu’s thresholding method in area-based and sector-based approaches and was compared statistically. Linear correlation between the enhanced lesion sizes was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Differences were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. The size of the inflammatory area determined by MNP-MRI (57.1 ± 10.1%) was significantly larger than that of the infarct area measured by LGE (40.8 ± 11.7%, ) and MEMRI (44.1 ± 14.9%, ). There were significant correlations between the sizes of the infarct and inflammatory lesions (MNP-MRI versus LGE: , ; MNP-MRI versus MEMRI: , ). MNP-MRI provides information about inflammatory responses in a mouse model of AMI. Thus, MNP-MRI associated with LGE and MEMRI may play an important role in monitoring the disease progression in MI.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Head-to-Head Comparison of 68Ga-Citrate and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detection
           of Infectious Foci in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    • Abstract: Purpose. This study evaluated the potential of 68Ga-citrate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the detection of infectious foci in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by comparing it with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy--glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT. Methods. Four patients admitted to hospital due to S. aureus bacteraemia underwent both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate whole-body PET/CT scans to detect infectious foci. Results. The time from hospital admission and the initiation of antibiotic treatment to the first PET/CT was 4–10 days. The time interval between 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate PET/CT was 1–4 days. Three patients had vertebral osteomyelitis (spondylodiscitis) and one had osteomyelitis in the toe; these were detected by both 18F-FDG (maximum standardised uptake value [] ) and 68Ga-citrate (  , ). Three patients had soft tissue infectious foci, with more intense 18F-FDG uptake () than 68Ga-citrate uptake (, ). Conclusions. Our small cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteraemia revealed that 68Ga-citrate PET/CT is comparable to 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of osteomyelitis, whereas 18F-FDG resulted in a higher signal for the detection of soft tissue infectious foci.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 06:16:27 +000
       
  • In Vivo Quantification of Myocardial Infarction in Mice Using Micro-CT and
           a Novel Blood Pool Agent

    • Abstract: We herein developed a micro-CT method using the innovative contrast agent ExiTron™ MyoC 8000 to longitudinally monitor cardiac processes in vivo in small animals. Experiments were performed on healthy mice and mice with myocardial infarction inflicted by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Time-dependent signal enhancement in different tissues of healthy mice was measured and various contrast agent doses were investigated so as to determine the minimum required dose for imaging of the myocardium. Due to its ability to be taken up by healthy myocardium but not by infarct tissue, ExiTron MyoC 8000 enables detection of myocardial infarction even at a very low dose. The signal enhancement in the myocardium of infarcted mice after contrast agent injection was exploited for quantification of infarct size. The values of infarct size obtained from the imaging method were compared with those obtained from histology and showed a significant correlation (). Thus, the developed micro-CT method allows for monitoring of a variety of processes such as cardiac remodeling in longitudinal studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in
           Cancer: A Survey

    • Abstract: Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Detecting Triple-Vessel Disease with Cadmium Zinc Telluride-Based
           Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Using the Intensity
           Signal-to-Noise Ratio between Rest and Stress Studies

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a novel parameter, the stress-to-rest ratio of the signal-to-noise ratio (RSNR) obtained with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) SPECT scanner, could be used to distinguish triple-vessel disease (TVD) patients. Methods. One hundred and two patients with suspected coronary artery disease were retrospectively involved. Each subject underwent a Tl-201 SPECT scan and subsequent coronary angiography. Subjects were separated into TVD () and control () groups based on coronary angiography results using 50% as the stenosis cutoff. The RSNR was calculated by dividing the stress signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by the rest SNR. Summed scores were calculated using quantitative perfusion SPECT (QPS) for all subjects. Results. The RSNR in the TVD group was found to be significantly lower than that in the control group (0.83 ± 0.15 and 1.06 ± 0.17, resp.; ). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that RSNR can detect TVD more accurately than the summed difference score with higher sensitivity (85% versus 68%), higher specificity (90% versus 72%), and higher accuracy (88% versus 71%). Conclusion. The RSNR may serve as a useful index to assist the diagnosis of TVD when a fully automatic quantification method is used in CZT-based SPECT studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Intensity of 18F-FDG PET Uptake in Culture-Negative and Culture-Positive
           Cases of Chronic Osteomyelitis

    • Abstract: Microbiologic cultures are not infrequently negative in patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis. Culture-negative cases may represent low-grade infections with a lower metabolic activity than culture-positive cases. 18F-FDG PET could potentially detect such a difference. We determined whether the level of 18F-FDG PET uptake differs in patients with culture-negative and culture-positive osteomyelitis. We reviewed the clinical charts of 40 consecutive patients, who had diagnostic 18F-FDG PET for a suspected bone infection. Twenty-six patients were eligible with a confirmed diagnosis based on microbiologic cultures and/or histopathologic examination. Sixteen of 26 patients had chronic osteomyelitis. Eight of them had positive cultures, seven had negative cultures, and one patient had no cultures of the biopsy specimen. The patients with histologically and/or microbiologically proven osteomyelitis were correctly interpreted as true positive in the routine clinical reading of 18F-FDG PET images. There was no relationship between the level of 18F-FDG PET uptake and the presence of positive or negative bacterial cultures. The result favors the concept that that culture-negative cases of osteomyelitis are false-negative infections due to nonculturable microbes. 18F-FDG PET may help to confirm the presence of metabolically active infection in these patients and guide their appropriate treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kinetic Modelling of Infection Tracers [18F]FDG, [68Ga]Ga-Citrate,
           [11C]Methionine, and [11C]Donepezil in a Porcine Osteomyelitis Model

    • Abstract: Introduction. Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly applied for infection imaging using [18F]FDG as tracer, but uptake is unspecific. The present study compares the kinetics of [18F]FDG and three other PET tracers with relevance for infection imaging. Methods. A juvenile porcine osteomyelitis model was used. Eleven pigs underwent PET/CT with 60-minute dynamic PET imaging of [18F]FDG, [68Ga]Ga-citrate, [11C]methionine, and/or [11C]donepezil, along with blood sampling. For infectious lesions, kinetic modelling with one- and two-tissue-compartment models was conducted for each tracer. Results. Irreversible uptake was found for [18F]FDG and [68Ga]Ga-citrate; reversible uptake was found for [11C]methionine (two-tissue model) and [11C]donepezil (one-tissue model). The uptake rate for [68Ga]Ga-citrate was slow and diffusion-limited. For the other tracers, the uptake rate was primarily determined by perfusion (flow-limited uptake). Net uptake rate for [18F]FDG and distribution volume for [11C]methionine were significantly higher for infectious lesions than for correspondingly noninfected tissue. For [11C]donepezil in pigs, labelled metabolite products appeared to be important for the analysis. Conclusions. The kinetics of the four studied tracers in infection was characterized. For clinical applications, [18F]FDG remains the first-choice PET tracer. [11C]methionine may have a potential for detecting soft tissue infections. [68Ga]Ga-citrate and [11C]donepezil were not found useful for imaging of osteomyelitis.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cancer Metabolism and Tumor Heterogeneity: Imaging Perspectives Using MR
           Imaging and Spectroscopy

    • Abstract: Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to maintain viability via genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations, expressing overall dynamic heterogeneity. The complex relaxation mechanisms of nuclear spins provide unique and convertible tissue contrasts, making magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) pertinent imaging tools in both clinics and research. In this review, we summarized MR methods that visualize tumor characteristics and its metabolic phenotypes on an anatomical, microvascular, microstructural, microenvironmental, and metabolomics scale. The review will progress from the utilities of basic spin-relaxation contrasts in cancer imaging to more advanced imaging methods that measure tumor-distinctive parameters such as perfusion, water diffusion, magnetic susceptibility, oxygenation, acidosis, redox state, and cell death. Analytical methods to assess tumor heterogeneity are also reviewed in brief. Although the clinical utility of tumor heterogeneity from imaging is debatable, the quantification of tumor heterogeneity using functional and metabolic MR images with development of robust analytical methods and improved MR methods may offer more critical roles of tumor heterogeneity data in clinics. MRI/MRS can also provide insightful information on pharmacometabolomics, biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis and prognosis, and treatment response. With these future directions in mind, we anticipate the widespread utilization of these MR-based techniques in studying in vivo cancer biology to better address significant clinical needs.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Gd3+-Asparagine-Anionic Linear Globular Dendrimer Second-Generation G2
           Complexes: Novel Nanobiohybrid Theranostics

    • Abstract: Designing a unique theranostic biocompatible, biodegradable, and cost-effective agent which is easy to be synthesized as a biohybrid material was the aim of this study. In this matter, asparagine attached to anionic linear globular dendrimer G2 (as a biocompatible, biodegradable, and cost-effective agent which is negatively charged nanosized and water soluble polymer that outweighs other traditionally used dendrimers) and finally contrast agent (Gd3+) was loaded (which made complexes) in synthesized asparagine-dendrimer. Observations revealed that, in addition to successful colon cancer and brain targeting, Gd3+-dendrimer-asparagine, the proposed theranostic agent, could increase T1 MR relaxation times, decrease T2 MR relaxation times significantly, and improve contrast of image as well as illustrating good cellular uptake based on florescent microscopy/flow cytometry and ICP-mass data. In addition to that, it increased tumor growth inhibition percentage (TGI%) significantly compared to FDA approved contrast agent, Magnevist. Totally, Gd3+-anionic linear globular dendrimer G2-asparagine could be introduced to the cancer imaging/therapy (theranostics) protocols after in vivo MR and fluorescent analysis and passing clinical trials. Hence, this nanotheranostic agent would be a promising candidate for brain drug delivery and imaging in the future.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 09:40:25 +000
       
  • Preliminary 19F-MRS Study of Tumor Cell Proliferation with
           3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine and Its Metabolite (FLT-MP)

    • Abstract: The thymidine analogue 3′-deoxy-3′-[18F]fluorothymidine, or [18F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT), is used to measure tumor cell proliferation with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technology in nuclear medicine. FLT is phosphorylated by thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and then trapped inside cells; it is not incorporated into DNA. Imaging with 18F-radiolabeled FLT is a noninvasive technique to visualize cellular proliferation in tumors. However, it is difficult to distinguish between [18F]FLT and its metabolites by PET imaging, and quantification has not been attempted using current imaging methods. In this study, we successfully acquired in vivo spectra of natural or nonradioactive 3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine ([19F]FLT) and its monophosphate metabolite (FLT-MP) in a tumor xenograft mouse model using 9.4T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This preliminary result demonstrates that 19F magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) with FLT is suitable for the in vivo assessment of tumor aggressiveness and for early prediction of treatment response.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluation of Peripheral Zone Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness Using the
           Ratio of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Measures

    • Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate the aggressiveness of peripheral zone prostate cancer by correlating the Gleason score (GS) with the ratio of the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures. Materials and Methods. Forty-two peripheral zone prostate tumors were imaged using DTI. Regions of interest focusing on the center of tumor foci and noncancerous tissue were used to extract statistical measures of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotroy (FA). Measure ratio was calculated by dividing tumor measure by noncancerous tissue measure. Results. Strong correlations are observable between GS and MD measures while weak correlations are present between GS and FA measures. Minimum tumor MD () and the ratio of minimum MD () show the same highest correlation with GS (both ). Between GS ≤ 7 (3 + 4) and GS ≥ 7 (4 + 3), differences are significant for all MD measures but for some FA measures. MD measures perform better than FA measures in discriminating GS ≥ 7 (4 + 3). Conclusion. Ratios of MD measures can be used in evaluation of peripheral zone prostate cancer aggressiveness; however tumor MD measures alone perform similarly.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • TSPO PET Imaging: From Microglial Activation to Peripheral Sterile
           Inflammatory Diseases'

    • Abstract: Peripheral sterile inflammatory diseases (PSIDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that gathers several chronic insults involving the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal system and wherein inflammation is the cornerstone of the pathophysiology. In PSID, timely characterization and localization of inflammatory foci are crucial for an adequate care for patients. In brain diseases, in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) exploration of inflammation has matured over the last 20 years, through the development of radiopharmaceuticals targeting the translocator protein-18 kDa (TSPO) as molecular biomarkers of activated microglia. Recently, TSPO has been introduced as a possible molecular target for PSIDs PET imaging, making this protein a potential biomarker to address disease heterogeneity, to assist in patient stratification, and to contribute to predicting treatment response. In this review, we summarized the major research advances recently made in the field of TSPO PET imaging in PSIDs. Promising preliminary results have been reported in bowel, cardiovascular, and rheumatic inflammatory diseases, consolidated by preclinical studies. Limitations of TSPO PET imaging in PSIDs, regarding both its large expression in healthy peripheral tissues, unlike in central nervous system, and the production of peripheral radiolabeled metabolites, are also discussed, regarding their possible consequences on TSPO PET signal’s quantification.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 08:15:07 +000
       
  • Correlation of 18F-FDG PET/MRE Metrics with Inflammatory Biomarkers in
           Patients with Crohn’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. To investigate the association between 18F-FDG (Fluorodeoxyglucose) PET (positron emission tomography)/MRE (magnetic resonance enterography) metrics with the inflammatory biomarkers fecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods. This prospective pilot study was institutional review board (IRB) approved with informed consent obtained. Consecutive CD patients were referred to 18F-FDG PET/MRE. Patients in whom colonoscopy was performed and CRP and fecal calprotectin levels were measured were included. CRP and fecal calprotectin were regarded as positive for inflammation if they were greater than 0.5 mg/dl and 150 mcg/g, respectively. Correlation of quantitative variables was performed using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to evaluate the accuracy of PET and MRE metrics in determining the presence of inflammation evaluated by calprotectin and CRP levels. Results. Analysis of 21 patients (16 women and 5 men, years) was performed. Magnetic resonance index of activity (MaRIA) score had an AUC of 0.63 associated with fecal calprotectin and CRP. Adding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and metabolic inflammatory volume (MIV) to MaRIA score resulted in an AUC of 0.92 with a cutoff value of 447 resulting in 83% and 100% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion. The addition of ADC and MIV to the MaRIA score increases the accuracy for discrimination of disease activity in patients with CD. Trial registration number is 2015062.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2017 07:39:15 +000
       
  • Ventilation Series Similarity: A Study for Ventilation Calculation Using
           Deformable Image Registration and 4DCT to Avoid Motion Artifacts

    • Abstract: The major problem with ventilation distribution calculations using DIR and 4DCT is the motion artifacts in 4DCT. Quite often not all phases would exhibit mushroom motion artifacts. If the ventilation series similarity is sufficiently robust, the ventilation distribution can be calculated using only the artifact-free phases. This study investigated the ventilation similarity among the data derived from different respiration phases. Fifteen lung cancer cases were analyzed. In each case, DIR was performed between the end-expiration phase and all other phases. Ventilation distributions were then calculated using the deformation matrices. The similarity was compared between the series ventilation distributions. The correlation between the majority phases was reasonably good, with average SCC values between 0.28 and 0.70 for the original data and 0.30 and 0.75 after smoothing. The better correlation between the neighboring phases, with average SCC values between 0.55 and 0.70 for the original data, revealed the nonlinear property of the dynamic ventilation. DSC analysis showed the same trend. To reduce the errors if motion artifacts are present, the phases without serious mushroom artifacts may be used. To minimize the effect of the nonlinearity in dynamic ventilation, the calculation phase should be chosen as close to the end-inspiration as possible.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multimodal Imaging Nanoparticles Derived from Hyaluronic Acid for
           Integrated Preoperative and Intraoperative Cancer Imaging

    • Abstract: Surgical resection remains the most promising treatment strategy for many types of cancer. Residual malignant tissue after surgery, a consequence in part due to positive margins, contributes to high mortality and disease recurrence. In this study, multimodal contrast agents for integrated preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative fluorescence image-guided surgery (FIGS) are developed. Self-assembled multimodal imaging nanoparticles (SAMINs) were developed as a mixed micelle formulation using amphiphilic HA polymers functionalized with either GdDTPA for contrast-enhanced MRI or Cy7.5, a near infrared fluorophore. To evaluate the relationship between MR and fluorescence signal from SAMINs, we employed simulated surgical phantoms that are routinely used to evaluate the depth at which near infrared (NIR) imaging agents can be detected by FIGS. Finally, imaging agent efficacy was evaluated in a human breast tumor xenograft model in nude mice, which demonstrated contrast in both fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 07:17:53 +000
       
  • Assessing the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Using a Finger Stick
           Analysis in Recalls from Breast Screening: The CINFIBS Explorative Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate whether a handheld point-of-care (POC) device is able to predict and discriminate patients at potential risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) prior to iodine-based contrast media delivery. Methods and Materials. Between December 2014 and June 2016, women undergoing contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) with an iodine-based contrast agent were asked to have their risk of CIN assessed by a dedicated POC device (StatSensor CREAT) and a risk factor questionnaire based on national guidelines. Prior to contrast injection, a venous blood sample was drawn to compare the results of POC with regular laboratory testing. Results. A total of 351 patients were included; 344 were finally categorized as low risk patients by blood creatinine evaluation. Seven patients had a eGFR below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, necessitating additional preparation prior to contrast delivery. The POC device failed to categorize six out of seven patients (86%), leading to (at that stage) unwanted contrast administration. Two patients subsequently developed CIN after 2–5 days, which was self-limiting after 30 days. Conclusion. The POC device tested was not able to reliably assess impairment of renal function in our patient cohort undergoing CESM. Consequently, we still consider classic clinical laboratory testing preferable in patients at potential risk for developing CIN.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Post Mortem Leukocyte Scintigraphy in Juvenile Pigs with Experimentally
           Induced Osteomyelitis

    • Abstract: We have previously demonstrated that 111In-labeled autologous leukocyte scintigraphy is able to detect osteomyelitis in living juvenile pigs. In animal research studies, it may well be an advantage if the animals could be scanned after euthanasia. Applying traditional scanning of living animals to euthanized animals will render anaesthesia unnecessary and be ideal for obtaining good and reliable scans for the correct interpretation of imaging afterwards, since the animals do not move. The autologous leukocytes of the pigs were collected, marked with 111In, and reinjected into the pigs and allowed for homing to the site of infections as usual while the pigs were alive. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform SPECT/CT with 111In-labelled autologous leukocytes almost 24 hrs after euthanasia with the same detectability of osteomyelitic lesions as in living pigs (78% versus 79%). The pigs in this study had exactly the same experimental conditions as the living pigs and were examined in parallel with the living pigs except for euthanasia prior to the leukocyte scan and that no PET/CT scans were performed.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Head and Neck Cancer Tumor Segmentation Using Support Vector Machine in
           Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI

    • Abstract: Objective. We aimed to propose an automatic method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) to segment the tumor lesions of head and neck cancer (HNC). Materials and Methods. 120 DCE-MRI samples were collected. Five curve features and two principal components of the normalized time-intensity curve (TIC) in 80 samples were calculated as the dataset in training three SVM classifiers. The other 40 samples were used as the testing dataset. The area overlap measure (AOM) and the corresponding ratio (CR) and percent match (PM) were calculated to evaluate the segmentation performance. The training and testing procedure was repeated for 10 times, and the average performance was calculated and compared with similar studies. Results. Our method has achieved higher accuracy compared to the previous results in literature in HNC segmentation. The average AOM with the testing dataset was 0.76 ± 0.08, and the mean CR and PM were 79 ± 9% and 86 ± 8%, respectively. Conclusion. With improved segmentation performance, our proposed method is of potential in clinical practice for HNC.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Method for Manufacturing Oncological Phantoms for the Quantification of
           18F-FDG PET and DW-MRI Studies

    • Abstract: The aim of this work was to develop a method to manufacture oncological phantoms for quantitation purposes in 18F-FDG PET and DW-MRI studies. Radioactive and diffusion materials were prepared using a mixture of agarose and sucrose radioactive gels. T2 relaxation and diffusion properties of gels at different sucrose concentrations were evaluated. Realistic oncological lesions were created using 3D-printed plastic molds filled with the gel mixture. Once solidified, gels were extracted from molds and immersed in a low-radioactivity gel simulating normal background tissue. A breast cancer phantom was manufactured using the proposed method as an exploratory feasibility study, including several realistic oncological configurations in terms of both radioactivity and diffusion. The phantom was acquired in PET with 18F-FDG, immediately after solidification, and in DW-MRI the following day. Functional volumes characterizing the simulated BC lesions were segmented from PET and DW-MRI images. Measured radioactive uptake and ADC values were compared with gold standards. Phantom preparation was straightforward, and the time schedule was compatible with both PET and MRI measurements. Lesions appeared on 18F-FDG PET and DW-MRI images as expected, without visible artifacts. Lesion functional parameters revealed the phantom’s potential for validating quantification methods, in particular for new generation hybrid PET-MRI systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • PET Imaging of FSHR Expression in Tumors with 68Ga-Labeled FSH1 Peptide

    • Abstract: FSHR is an appealing target for cancer theranostics. Radiolabeled FSH1 and its derivatives have shown potential to in vivo detect FSHR expression. However, moderate labeling yields (~50% nondecay-corrected) may partially limit their wide use. 68Ga is an excellent PET nuclide due to availability, nearly quantitative reaction, and short physical half-life. In this study, 68Ga labeled FSH1 peptide was developed for imaging of FSHR in cancers. In vitro studies and MicroPET imaging were performed in PC-3 prostate tumor model. [68Ga] Ga-NOTA-MAL-FSH1 can be produced within 20 min with yield and the radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. It showed that [68Ga] Ga-NOTA-MAL-FSH1 possessed FSHR binding affinities. The tracer was stable in PBS and human serum for at least 2 hours. MicroPET imaging revealed that the PC-3 xenografts were clearly visualized and the tumor uptakes were , , and % ID/g at 0.5, 1 h, and 2 h postinjection. The corresponding tumor to blood and tumor to muscle ratios were , , and and , , and , respectively. FSHR binding specificity was also demonstrated by reduced tumor uptake of [68Ga] Ga-NOTA-MAL-FSH1 after coinjecting excess unlabeled FSH1 peptide. The favorable characters of [68Ga] Ga-NOTA-MAL-FSH1 such as convenient synthesis and specific tumor uptake warrant its further investigation for FSHR expression imaging.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using
           Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26

    • Abstract: High gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression is associated with numerous cancers including prostate and breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to develop a 55Co-labeled PET agent based on GRPR antagonist RM26 for visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. Labeling with 57Co and 55Co, stability, binding specificity, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics of 57Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 were studied. NOTA-PEG2-RM26 was successfully radiolabeled with 57Co and 55Co with high yields and demonstrated high stability. The radiopeptide showed retained binding specificity to GRPR in vitro and in vivo. 57Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 biodistribution in mice was characterized by rapid clearance of radioactivity from blood and normal non-GRPR-expressing organs and low hepatic uptake. The clearance was predominantly renal with a low degree of radioactivity reabsorption. Tumor-to-blood ratios were approximately 200 (3 h pi) and 1000 (24 h pi). The favorable biodistribution of cobalt-labeled NOTA-PEG2-RM26 translated into high contrast preclinical PET/CT (using 55Co) and SPECT/CT (using 57Co) images of PC-3 xenografts. The initial biological results suggest that 55Co-NOTA-PEG2-RM26 is a promising tracer for PET visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2017 10:01:21 +000
       
  • Correlation of Somatostatin Receptor-2 Expression with
           Gallium-68-DOTA-TATE Uptake in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models

    • Abstract: Peptide-receptor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as 68Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE have become an effective treatment option for SSTR-positive neuroendocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) expression with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy in neuroblastoma (NB) xenograft models. We demonstrated variable SSTR2 expression profiles in eight NB cell lines. From micro-PET imaging and autoradiography, a higher uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE was observed in SSTR2 high-expressing NB xenografts (CHLA-15) compared to SSTR2 low-expressing NB xenografts (SK-N-BE(2)). Combined autoradiography-immunohistochemistry revealed histological colocalization of SSTR2 and 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake in CHLA-15 tumors. With a low dose of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (20 MBq/animal), tumor growth inhibition was achieved in the CHLA-15 high SSTR2 expressing xenograft model. Although, in vitro, NB cells showed variable expression levels of norepinephrine transporter (NET), a molecular target for 131I-MIBG therapy, low 123I-MIBG uptake was observed in all selected NB xenografts. In conclusion, SSTR2 expression levels are associated with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and antitumor efficacy of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET is superior to 123I-MIBG SPECT imaging in detecting NB tumors in our model. Radiolabeled DOTA-TATE can be used as an agent for NB tumor imaging to potentially discriminate tumors eligible for 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A First Report on [18F]FPRGD2 PET/CT Imaging in Multiple Myeloma

    • Abstract: An observational study was set up to assess the feasibility of FPRG PET/CT for imaging patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to compare its detection rate with low dose CT alone and combined NaF/FDG PET/CT images. Four patients (2 newly diagnosed patients and 2 with relapsed MM) were included and underwent whole-body PET/CT after injection of FPRG. The obtained images were compared with results of low dose CT and already available results of a combined NaF/FDG PET/CT. In total, 81 focal lesions (FLs) were detected with PET/CT and an underlying bone destruction or fracture was seen in 72 (89%) or 8 (10%) FLs, respectively. Fewer FLs (54%) were detected by FPRG PET/CT compared to low dose CT (98%) or NaF/FDG PET/CT (70%) and all FLs detected with FPRG PET were associated with an underlying bone lesion. In one newly diagnosed patient, more FPRG positive lesions were seen than NaF/FDG positive lesions. This study suggests that FPRG PET/CT might be less useful for the detection of myeloma lesions in patients with advanced disease as all FLs with FPRG uptake were already detected with CT alone.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preclinical Evaluation and Monitoring of the Therapeutic Response of a
           Dual Targeted Hyaluronic Acid Nanodrug

    • Abstract: Chemotherapy is a powerful cancer treatment but suffers from poor biocompatibility and a lack of tumor targeting. Here, we developed a CD44-targeted polymeric nanocomplex by encapsulating 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) into hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HANP) for targeted cancer therapy. In vitro, the HANP/HCPT showed improved cytotoxicity to five cancer cell lines including HT29, A549, MDA-MB-231, HepG2, and MDA-MB-435 versus free HCPT. After systemic administration into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft, tumor growth was significantly inhibited 5.25 ± 0.21 times in the HANP/HCPT treated group relative to the nontreated group. In addition, the treatment response was also accessed and confirmed by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The MDA-MB-231 tumors responded to HANP/HCPT 7 days after the first treatment, which benefits treatment strategy adjustment and personalization. No apparent systemic toxic effects were seen in mice treated with HANP/HCPT. In summary, the HANPs have great promise as a targeted drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy. Our HANP platform can also deliver other hydrophobic chemotherapy agents.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jul 2017 07:09:14 +000
       
  • An Individually Optimized Protocol of Contrast Medium Injection in
           Enhanced CT Scan for Liver Imaging

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of a new individualized contrast medium injection protocol for enhanced liver CT scan. Methods. 324 patients who underwent plain and dual phase enhanced liver CT were randomly assigned to 2 groups: G1 (, individualized contrast medium injection protocol); G2 (, standard contrast medium injection with a dose of 1.5 ml/kg). CT values and ΔHU (CT values difference between plain and enhanced CT) of liver parenchyma and tumor-liver contrast (TLC) during hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) and contrast medium dose were measured. The tumor conspicuity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between two groups was independently evaluated by two radiologists. Results. The mean contrast medium dose of G1 was statistically lower than that of G2. There were no significantly statistical differences in CT values and ΔHU of liver parenchyma during HAP, TLC values during HAP, and PVP between two groups. The CT values and ΔHU of liver parenchyma during PVP of G2 were significantly higher than those of G1. Two independent radiologists were both in substantial conformity in grading tumor conspicuity. Conclusion. Using the individually optimized injection protocol might reduce contrast medium dose without impacting on the imaging quality in enhanced liver CT.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 07:59:43 +000
       
  • Comparison of Diagnostic Performance of Three-Dimensional Positron
           Emission Mammography versus Whole Body Positron Emission Tomography in
           Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Objective. To compare the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) positron emission mammography (PEM) versus whole body positron emission tomography (WBPET) for breast cancer. Methods. A total of 410 women with normal breast or benign or highly suspicious malignant tumors were randomized at 1 : 1 ratio to undergo 3D-PEM followed by WBPET or WBPET followed by 3D-PEM. Lumpectomy or mastectomy was performed on eligible participants after the scanning. Results. The sensitivity and specificity of 3D-PEM were 92.8% and 54.5%, respectively. WBPET showed a sensitivity of 95.7% and specificity of 56.8%. After exclusion of the patients with lesions beyond the detecting range of the 3D-PEM instrument, 3D-PEM showed higher sensitivity than WBPET (97.0% versus 95.5%, P = 0.913), particularly for small lesions (
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 07:28:38 +000
       
 
 
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