Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 233)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Preoperatively Grading Rectal Cancer with the Combination of Intravoxel
           Incoherent Motions Imaging and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging

    • Abstract: Purpose. To combine Intravoxel Incoherent Motions (IVIM) imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) which can aid in the quantification of different biological inspirations including cellularity, vascularity, and microstructural heterogeneity to preoperatively grade rectal cancer. Methods. A total of 58 rectal patients were included into this prospective study. MRI was performed with a 3T scanner. Different combinations of IVIM-derived and DKI-derived parameters were performed to grade rectal cancer. Pearson correlation coefficients were applied to evaluate the correlations. Binary logistic regression models were established via integrating different DWI parameters for screening the most sensitive parameter. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for evaluating the diagnostic performance. Results. For individual DWI-derived parameters, all parameters except the pseudodiffusion coefficient displayed the capability of grading rectal cancer (). The better discrimination between high- and low-grade rectal cancer was achieved with the combination of different DWI-derived parameters. Similarly, ROC analysis suggested the combination of D (true diffusion coefficient), f (perfusion fraction), and Kapp (apparent kurtosis coefficient) yielded the best diagnostic performance (AUC = 0.953, ). According to the result of binary logistic analysis, cellularity-related D was the most sensitive predictor (odds ratio: 9.350 ± 2.239) for grading rectal cancer. Conclusion. The combination of IVIM and DKI holds great potential in accurately grading rectal cancer as IVIM and DKI can provide the quantification of different biological inspirations including cellularity, vascularity, and microstructural heterogeneity.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Oct 2020 16:35:01 +000
       
  • New Strategies in the Design of Paramagnetic CAs

    • Abstract: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the first diagnostic imaging modality for numerous indications able to provide anatomical information with high spatial resolution through the use of magnetic fields and gradients. Indeed, thanks to the characteristic relaxation time of each tissue, it is possible to distinguish between healthy and pathological ones. However, the need to have brighter images to increase differences and catch important diagnostic details has led to the use of contrast agents (CAs). Among them, Gadolinium-based CAs (Gd-CAs) are routinely used in clinical MRI practice. During these last years, FDA highlighted many risks related to the use of Gd-CAs such as nephrotoxicity, heavy allergic effects, and, recently, about the deposition within the brain. These alerts opened a debate about the opportunity to formulate Gd-CAs in a different way but also to the use of alternative and safer compounds to be administered, such as manganese- (Mn-) based agents. In this review, the physical principle behind the role of relaxivity and the T1 boosting will be described in terms of characteristic correlation times and inner and outer spheres. Then, the recent advances in the entrapment of Gd-CAs within nanostructures will be analyzed in terms of relaxivity boosting obtained without the chemical modification of CAs as approved in the chemical practice. Finally, a critical evaluation of the use of manganese-based CAs will be illustrated as an alternative ion to Gd due to its excellent properties and endogenous elimination pathway.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Sep 2020 13:50:03 +000
       
  • Delayed 18F-FDG PET/CT Appearance of Urachal Adenocarcinomas

    • Abstract: Background. Urachal carcinoma is a rare urological malignancy. Use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in urological oncology has developed slowly because of the urinary elimination of 18F-FDG. We investigated whether delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used for diagnosing urachal carcinoma. Methods. This retrospective study included 6 patients who underwent delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of urachal carcinoma. The delayed postdiuretic PET/CT parameters and clinical characteristics of urachal carcinoma were investigated. Results. There was no significant difference in the SUVmax between the primary tumors and the urine in the bladder before delayed diuresis (25.4 ± 19.5 vs. 42.9 ± 31.1, ). However, the SUVmax of the primary tumors was significantly higher than the SUVmax of urine after delayed diuresis (25.4 ± 19.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, ). Diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in all patients when compared with normal liver tissues or urine after delayed diuresis. The SUVmax, TLR, and TUR of the primary tumors were 25.4 (range: 7.2–58.9), 7.0 (range: 1.8–14.7), and 6.8 (range: 3.8–11.3), respectively. Delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT had a negative predictive value of 100% (5/5) for predicting lymph node metastasis. One patient received chemotherapy after radical resection of urachal carcinoma because 18F-FDG PET/CT found lung metastases, and one patient only received chemotherapy because PET/CT found peritoneal and skeletal metastases. Conclusions. Delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool for the preoperative evaluation of urachal carcinoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT may improve clinical decision making and management of urachal carcinomas.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Sep 2020 14:20:01 +000
       
  • MnDPDP: Contrast Agent for Imaging and Protection of Viable Tissue

    • Abstract: The semistable chelate manganese (Mn) dipyridoxyl diphosphate (MnDPDP, mangafodipir), previously used as an intravenous (i.v.) contrast agent (Teslascan™, GE Healthcare) for Mn-ion-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), should be reappraised for clinical use but now as a diagnostic drug with cytoprotective properties. Approved for imaging of the liver and pancreas, MnDPDP enhances contrast also in other targets such as the heart, kidney, glandular tissue, and potentially retina and brain. Transmetallation releases paramagnetic Mn2+ for cellular uptake in competition with calcium (Ca2+), and intracellular (IC) macromolecular Mn2+ adducts lower myocardial T1 to midway between native values and values obtained with gadolinium (Gd3+). What is essential is that T1 mapping and, to a lesser degree, T1 weighted imaging enable quantification of viability at a cellular or even molecular level. IC Mn2+ retention for hours provides delayed imaging as another advantage. Examples in humans include quantitative imaging of cardiomyocyte remodeling and of Ca2+ channel activity, capabilities beyond the scope of Gd3+ based or native MRI. In addition, MnDPDP and the metabolite Mn dipyridoxyl diethyl-diamine (MnPLED) act as catalytic antioxidants enabling prevention and treatment of oxidative stress caused by tissue injury and inflammation. Tested applications in humans include protection of normal cells during chemotherapy of cancer and, potentially, of ischemic tissues during reperfusion. Theragnostic use combining therapy with delayed imaging remains to be explored. This review updates MnDPDP and its clinical potential with emphasis on the working mode of an exquisite chelate in the diagnosis of heart disease and in the treatment of oxidative stress.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 14:50:01 +000
       
  • Current Status and Future Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence in
           Magnetic Resonance Breast Imaging

    • Abstract: Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning (DL) have impacted many scientific fields including biomedical maging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established method in breast imaging with several indications including screening, staging, and therapy monitoring. The rapid development and subsequent implementation of AI into clinical breast MRI has the potential to affect clinical decision-making, guide treatment selection, and improve patient outcomes. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current status and future perspectives of AI in breast MRI. We will review DL applications and compare them to standard data-driven techniques. We will emphasize the important aspect of developing quantitative imaging biomarkers for precision medicine and the potential of breast MRI and DL in this context. Finally, we will discuss future challenges of DL applications for breast MRI and an AI-augmented clinical decision strategy.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 13:05:04 +000
       
  • A Nomogram Based on Radiomics with Mammography Texture Analysis for the
           Prognostic Prediction in Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Objectives. To develop and validate a radiomics-based nomogram with texture features from mammography for the prognostic prediction in patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods. The study included 200 consecutive patients with TNBC (training cohort: n = 133, validation cohort: n = 67). A total of 136 mammography-derived textural features were extracted, and LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was applied to select features for building the radiomics score (Rad-score). After univariate and multivariate logistic regression, a radiomics-based nomogram was constructed with independent prognostic factors. The discrimination and calibration power were assessed, and further the clinical applicability of the nomograms was evaluated. Results. Among the 136 mammography-derived textural features, fourteen were used to build the Rad-score after LASSO regression. A radiomics nomogram that incorporates Rad-score and pN stage was constructed. This nomogram achieved a C-index of 0.873 (95% CI: 0.758–0.989) for predicting iDFS (invasive disease-free survival), which outperformed the clinical model. Moreover, it is feasible to stratify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the optimal cut-off point of Rad-score. The validations of the nomogram confirmed favorable discrimination and considerable predictive efficiency. Conclusions. The radiomics nomogram that incorporates Rad-score and pN stage exhibited favorable performance in the prediction of iDFS in patients with early-stage TNBCs.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Aug 2020 13:05:06 +000
       
  • Texture Analysis Improves the Value of Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in
           Predicting Interim Response of Primary Gastrointestinal Diffuse Large
           B-Cell Lymphoma

    • Abstract: Objectives. To explore the application of pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) texture analysis (TA) in predicting the interim response of primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PGIL-DLBCL). Methods. Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images of 30 PGIL-DLBCL patients were studied retrospectively. The interim response was evaluated after 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response (CR) rates in patients with different clinicopathological characteristics were compared by Fisher’s exact test. The differences in the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and texture features between the CR and non-CR groups were compared by the Mann–Whitney U test. Feature selection was performed according to the results of the Mann–Whitney U test and feature categories. The predictive efficacies of the SUVmax, MTV, and the selected texture features were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A prediction probability was generated by binary logistic regression analysis. Results. The SUVmax, MTV, some first-order texture features, volume, and entropy were significantly higher in the non-CR group. The energy was significantly lower in the non-CR group. The SUVmax, volume, and entropy were excellent predictors of the interim response, and the areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.850, 0.805, and 0.800, respectively. The CR rate was significantly lower in patients with intestinal involvement. The prediction probability generated from the combination of the SUVmax, entropy, volume, and intestinal involvement had a higher AUC (0.915) than all single parameters. Conclusions. TA has potential in improving the value of pretreatment PET/CT in predicting the interim response of PGIL-DLBCL. However, prospective studies with large sample sizes and validation analyses are needed to confirm the current results.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2020 12:20:11 +000
       
  • Detection Rate of 18F-Fluorethylcholine-PET/CT in relation to PSA Value in
           PCA Patients Referred with Biochemical Relapse

    • Abstract: Attempts to predict the likelihood of positive morphological imaging related with PSA value in patients referred with biochemical recurrence were the focus of many studies. Using nuclear medicine modalities, numerous studies likewise had been performed for the same purpose, however mostly using C-11-labeled choline. For this purpose, we selected 193 prostate cancer patients from our database between 2006 and 2010. They had been referred to our department to undergo 18F-fluorethylcholine (FECH)-PET/CT due to biochemical recurrence after potentially curative procedures. As a result, in 84 out of 193 patients, 18F-FECH-PET demonstrated positive findings with an overall detection rate of 44%. Statistically, there was a significant difference in PSA values in positive findings vs. negative findings (), and there was a linear correlation between the detection rate and PSA value (r = 0.91). Moreover, there was a relation between initial therapy and recurrence type. So, the local relapse was the most frequent recurrence (>70%) after radiation therapy alone. By contrast, patients after radical prostatectomy followed by salvage radiotherapy showed a low likelihood of local recurrence. In conclusion, PSA value was confirmed to have a determinant role in 18F-FECH-PET outcome. Moreover, there was a link between recurrence type and initial therapy, which—if prospectively confirmed—may play a guiding role in selecting the appropriate diagnostic methods.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Distinguishing Lymphomatous and Cancerous Lymph Nodes in
           18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography by
           Radiomics Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend excisional biopsies for the diagnosis of lymphomas. However, resection biopsies in all patients who are suspected of having malignant lymph nodes may cause unnecessary injury and increase medical costs. We investigated the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography- (18F-FDG-PET/CT-) based radiomics analysis for differentiating between lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLNs) and cancerous lymph nodes (CLNs). Methods. Using texture analysis, radiomic parameters from the 18F-FDG-PET/CT images of 492 lymph nodes (373 lymphomatous lymph nodes and 119 cancerous lymph nodes) were extracted with the LIFEx package. Predictive models were generated from the six parameters with the largest area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) in PET or CT images in the training set (70% of the data), using binary logistic regression. These models were applied to the test set to calculate predictive variables, including the combination of PET and CT predictive variables (PREcombination). The AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were used to compare the differentiating ability of the predictive variables. Results. Compared with the pathological diagnosis of the patient’s primary tumor, the AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PREcombination in differentiating between LLNs and CLNs were 0.95, 91.67%, 94.29%, and 92.96%, respectively. Moreover, PREcombination could effectively distinguish LLNs caused by various lymphoma subtypes (Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) from CLNs, with the AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy being 0.85 and 0.90, 77.78% and 77.14%, 97.22% and 88.89%, and 90.74% and 83.10%, respectively. Conclusions. Radiomics analysis of 18F-FDG-PET/CT images may provide a noninvasive, effective method to distinguish LLN and CLN and inform the choice between fine-needle aspiration and excision biopsy for sampling suspected lymphomatous lymph nodes.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 08:35:00 +000
       
  • Relationship between SP142 PD-L1 Expression and 18F-FDG Uptake in
           Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    • Abstract: Objectives. Immune checkpoint blockers constitute the first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ≥50% PD-L1 expression. In NSCLC, PD-L1 positivity is correlated with high 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake. However, these studies only included patients undergoing surgical resection, almost all in their early stages. Moreover, differences in 18F-FDG uptake between NSCLC with high (≥50%) and low (49%) PD-L1 expression remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between metabolic parameter 18F-FDG uptake and PD-L1 expression status in NSCLC patients. Methods. From February 2017 to June 2018, 428 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and SP142 PD-L1 expression analysis were retrospectively assessed. The association between clinicopathological characteristics and PD-L1 expression was examined. Results. The frequency of PD-L1-positive tumors was 38.1% (163/428), 28.5% (91/319), and 64.2% (61/95) for NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (ADC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively. Maximal standard uptake (SUVmax) was significantly higher in PD-L1-positive than in PD-L1-negative NSCLC (), ADC (), and SCC (). SUVmax was significantly higher in NSCLC () and ADC () with high rather than low PD-L1 expression. The receiver operating characteristic curve yielded area under the curve values of 0.726 (95% CI, 0.679–0.774, ), 0.694 (95% CI, 0.634–0.755, ), and 0.625 (95% CI, 0.513–0.738, ) for NSCLC, ADC, and SCC, respectively. Conclusion. 18F-FDG tumor uptake is strongly, positively correlated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC and significantly differs between high and low PD-L1-expressing individuals.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 14:50:02 +000
       
  • Is 18F-FDG PET/CT an Accurate Way to Detect Lymph Node Metastasis in
           Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Aims. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for detection of lymph node (LN) metastasis of colorectal cancer. Material and Methods. A computerized search was performed to determine the relevant articles, published before October 2019. Stata Statistical Software, version 15.0, and Meta-Disc (version 1.4) were used for the meta-analysis. Results. the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 0.65, 0.75, 4.57, and 0.37 respectively. Studies that used SUVmax cut-off value () demonstrated the best accuracy. Conclusion. 18F-FDG PET/CT shows a low sensitivity and high specificity for detecting the metastasis of LNs in patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 16:05:02 +000
       
  • Detection of Pulmonary Embolism with Gallium-68 Macroaggregated Albumin
           Perfusion PET/CT: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    • Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of detecting pulmonary embolism (PE) using the Technegas SPECT/CT combined with 68Ga PET/CT in a rabbit model. One hour after artificial PE (n = 6) and sham (n = 6) models were created, Technegas SPECT/CT ventilation and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT perfusion scan (V/Q scan) were performed. Ventilation imaging was performed first on all cases. Technegas SPECT/CT and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT images were evaluated by a nuclear medicine physician who recorded the presence, number, and location of PE on a per-lobe basis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Technegas SPECT/CT and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT for detecting PE were calculated using a histopathological evaluation as a reference standard. A total of 60 lung lobes were evaluated in 12 rabbits, and PE was detected in 20 lobes in V/Q scans and histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, for both the Technegas SPECT/CT and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT V/Q scans. Technegas/68Ga-MAA V/Q scans have good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the detection of PE in this animal model study.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:05:03 +000
       
  • The Mechanism of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Its Association
           with Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is the third most common hospital-acquired AKI after AKI induced by renal perfusion insufficiency and nephrotoxic drugs, taking great adverse effects on the prognosis and increasing hospital stay and medical cost. Diabetes nephropathy (DN) is a common chronic complication of DM (diabetes mellitus), and DN is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CI-AKI. The incidence of CI-AKI significantly increases in patients with renal injury, especially in DM-related nephropathy. The etiology of CI-AKI is not fully clear, and research studies on how DM becomes a facilitated factor of CI-AKI are limited. This review describes the mechanism from three aspects. ① Pathophysiological changes of CI-AKI in kidney under high-glucose status (HGS). HGS can enhance the oxidative stress and increase ROS which next causes stronger vessel constriction and insufficient oxygen supply in kidney via vasoactive substances. HGS also aggravates some ion pump load and the latter increases oxygen consumption. CI-AKI and HGS are mutually causal, making the kidney function continue to decline. ② Immunological changes of DM promoting CI-AKI. Some innate immune cells and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in DM and/or DN may respond to some damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) formed by CI-AKI. These effects overlap with some pathophysiological changes in hyperglycemia. ③ Signaling pathways related to both CI-AKI and DM. These pathways involved in CI-AKI are closely associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and ROS production, and some studies suggest that these pathways may be potential targets for alleviating CI-AKI. In conclusion, the pathogenesis of CI-AKI and the mechanism of DM as a predisposing factor for CI-AKI, especially signaling pathways, need further investigation to provide new clinical approaches to prevent and treat CI-AKI.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jun 2020 06:50:02 +000
       
  • MRI-Based Texture Features as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers in
           Anaplastic Astrocytoma Patients Undergoing Surgical Treatment

    • Abstract: Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether texture features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were associated with the overall survival (OS) of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) patients undergoing surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 51 qualified patients who were diagnosed with AA and underwent surgical interventions in our institution were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were followed up for at least 30 months or until death. Texture features derived from histogram-based matrix (HISTO) and grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Each texture feature was dichotomized based on its optimal cutoff value calculated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Kaplan–Meier analysis and log rank test were conducted to compare the 30-month OS between the dichotomized subgroups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. Results. Three HISTO-derived features (HISTO-Energy, HISTO-Entropy, and HISTO-Skewness) and five GLCM-derived features (GLCM-Contrast, GLCM-Energy, GLCM-Entropy, GLCM-Homogeneity, and GLCM-Dissimilarity) were found to be significantly correlated with 30-month OS. Moreover, GLCM-Homogeneity (, hazard ratio = 6.351) was suggested to be the independent predictor of the patient survival. Conclusion. MRI-based texture features have the potential to be applied as prognostic biomarkers in AA patients undergoing surgical treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 08:50:01 +000
       
  • Hybrid (2D/3D) Dosimetry of Radiolabeled Gold Nanoparticles for Sentinel
           Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Previously, we reported the preparation and preclinical studies of 99mTc-labeled gold nanoparticles-mannose (99mTc-AuNP-mannose) with potential for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection by using nuclear medicine procedures. This study aimed to evaluate the biokinetics and hybrid (2D/3D) dosimetry of 99mTc-AuNP-mannose in five patients with breast cancer under a sentinel lymph node detection protocol. Anterior and posterior whole-body planar images (2D, at 0.5, 2, 6, and 24 h) and single-photon emission computed tomography (3D at 6.5 h)/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images were acquired after 99mTc-AuNP-mannose administration (37 MBq). Through a hybrid quantification method, activity in tissues of interest at the different acquisition times was determined and integrated over time to obtain the total nuclear transformations (N), as well as the mean residence time, in each tissue. N values and the OLINDA code were used for estimating the internal radiation absorbed doses. Results demonstrated that 99mTc-AuNP-mannose successfully accumulates and remains up to 24 h in the sentinel lymph node without detectable migration to other lymph nodes and no side effects on patients. Negligible absorption of the radiolabeled nanoparticles into the circulatory system was observed, from which the radio-nanosystem is rapidly eliminated by kidneys. Hybrid (2D/3D) dosimetry evaluations showed equivalent doses to SLN, breast, and kidneys of 172.34, 5.32, and 0.08 mSv/37 MBq, respectively, with an effective dose of 2.05E − 03 mSv/MBq. The mean effective residence time in SLN was 0.92 h. This preliminary study indicates that the use of 99mTc-AuNP-mannose for successful SLN detection in patients is safe, producing an effective dose at the level recommended for diagnostic studies (
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 10:35:03 +000
       
  • Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Contrast Agents for Assessment
           of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has taken an important role in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the wake of current advances in nanotechnology, the drug delivery industry has seen a surge of nanoparticles advertising high specificity in target imaging. Given the rapid development of the field, this review has assembled related articles to explore whether molecular contrast agents can improve the diagnostic capability on gastrointestinal imaging, especially for IBD. Methods. Relevant articles published between 1998 and 2018 from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE were reviewed. Data extraction was performed on the studies’ characteristics, experimental animals, modelling methods, nanoparticles type, magnetic resonance methods, and means of quantitative analysis. Results. A total of 8 studies were identified wherein the subjects were animals, and all studies employed MR equipment. One group utilized a perfluorocarbon solution and the other 7 groups used either magnetic nanoparticles or gadolinium- (Gd-) related nanoparticles for molecular contrast. With ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles and Gd-related nanoparticles, signal enhancements were found in the mucosa or with focal lesion of IBD-related model in T1-weighted images (T1WI), whereas superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles showed a signal decrease in the intestinal wall of the model in T1WI or T2-weighted images. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was employed to analyze bowel intensity in 3 studies. And the percentage of normalized enhancement was used in 1 study for assessing the severity of inflammation. Conclusion. Molecular MRI with contrast agents can improve the early diagnosis of IBD and quantitate the severity of inflammation in experimental studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2020 14:35:03 +000
       
  • Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Navigation

    • Abstract: Partial nephrectomy (PN) is a recommended type of treatment of localised renal tumors. Real-time intraoperative imaging technique, such as fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) administration helps to improve intraoperative and postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent PN. Our work presents results of patients who underwent robotic PN with ICG navigation. A total of 37 patients underwent robotic PN with application of ICG between April 2015 and May 2019. A total amount of 5 mg of ICG was applied intravenously, and then robotic PN was performed with fluorescent imaging. ICG was used by the surgeon’s decision according to unfavourable anatomical properties of tumor or to high R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. An exact border between perfused and nonperfused tissue was detected, and exact tumor’s branch of the renal artery was clamped. Robotic PN with ICG-fluorescence imaging navigation was performed in 37 cases with a preoperative average diameter of tumor of 31 mm. The mean surgery time was 133 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 190 mL. Arterial clamping was performed in 35 cases. The mean duration of warm ischemia was 14 minutes. Application of ICG enabled specific tumor-supplying vessel clamping in 25 cases. Two complications of grade II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification occurred intraoperatively, and one complication of grade III was observed. Renal function changes showed favourable results for the cases with superselective clamping. Finally, an administration of ICG eases superselective clamping of tumor-specific branch of renal artery and helps to preserve normal renal function with acceptable oncological results.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 13:35:02 +000
       
  • 99mTc-CXCR4-L for Imaging of the Chemokine-4 Receptor Associated with
           Brain Tumor Invasiveness: Biokinetics, Radiation Dosimetry, and Proof of
           Concept in Humans

    • Abstract: Overexpression of the chemokine-4 receptor (CXCR4) in brain tumors is associated with high cancer cell invasiveness. Recently, we reported the preclinical evaluation of 99mTc-CXCR4-L (cyclo-D-Tyr-D-[NMe]Orn[EDDA-99mTc-6-hydrazinylnicotinyl]-Arg-NaI-Gly) as a SPECT radioligand capable of specifically detecting the CXCR4 protein. This research aimed to estimate the biokinetic behavior and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-CXCR4-L in healthy subjects, as well as to correlate the radiotracer uptake by brain tumors in patients, with the histological grade of differentiation and CXCR4 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry. 99mTc-CXCR4-L was obtained from freeze-dried kits prepared under GMP conditions (radiochemical purities >97%). Whole-body scans from six healthy volunteers were acquired at 0.3, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after 99mTc-CXCR4-L administration (0.37 GBq). Time-activity curves of different source organs were obtained from the image sequence to adjust the biokinetic models. The OLINDA/EXM code was employed to calculate the equivalent and effective radiation doses. Nine patients with evidence of brain tumor injury (6 primaries and 3 recurrent), determined by MRI, underwent cerebral SPECT at 3 h after administration of 99mTc-CXCR4-L (0.74 GBq). Data were expressed as a T/B (tumor uptake/background) ratio. Biopsy examinations included histological grading and anti-CXCR4 immunohistochemistry. Results showed a fast blood activity clearance (T1/2α = 0.81 min and T1/2β = 12.19 min) with renal and hepatobiliary elimination. The average equivalent doses were 6.10E − 04, 1.41E − 04, and 3.13E − 05 mSv/MBq for the intestine, liver, and kidney, respectively. The effective dose was 3.92E − 03 mSv/MBq. SPECT was positive in 7/9 patients diagnosed as grade II oligodendroglioma (two patients), grade IV glioblastoma (two patients), grade IV gliosarcoma (one patient), metastasis, and diffuse astrocytoma with T/B ratios of 1.3, 2.3, 13, 7, 19, 5.5, and 3.9, respectively, all of them with positive immunohistochemistry. A direct relationship between the grade of differentiation and the expression of CXCR4 was found. The two negative SPECT studies showed negative immunohistochemistry with a diagnosis of reactive gliosis. This “proof-of-concept” research warrants further clinical studies to establish the usefulness of 99mTc-CXCR4-L in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 14:20:03 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Performance of PET or PET/CT with Different Radiotracers in
           Patients with Suspicious Lung Cancer or Pleural Tumours according to
           Published Meta-Analyses

    • Abstract: Purpose. Several meta-analyses have reported data about the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET or PET/CT) with different radiotracers in patients with suspicious lung cancer (LC) or pleural tumours (PT). This review article aims at providing an overview on the recent evidence-based data in this setting. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of meta-analyses published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library database from January 2010 through March 2020 about the diagnostic performance of PET or PET/CT with different radiotracers in patients with suspicious LC or PT was performed. This combination of keywords was used: (A) “PET” OR “positron emission tomography” AND (B) “lung” OR “pulmonary” OR “pleur∗” AND (C) meta-analysis. Only meta-analyses on PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious LC or PT were selected. Results. We have summarized the diagnostic performance of PET or PET/CT with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and other radiotracers taking into account 17 meta-analyses. Evidence-based data demonstrated a good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for the characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) or pleural lesions with overall higher sensitivity than specificity. Evidence-based data do not support the routine use of dual time point (DTP) 18F-FDG PET/CT or fluorine-18 fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of SPNs. Even if 18F-FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and specificity as a selective screening modality for LC, its role in this setting remains unknown. Conclusions. Evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of PET/CT with different radiotracers for suspicious LC or PT are increasing, with good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT. More prospective multicenter studies and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 15:50:01 +000
       
  • Radiosynthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Preclinical Study of a
           68Ga-Labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide as an Early Diagnostic Agent for
           Overexpressed αvβ3 Integrin Receptors in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    • Abstract: The αvβ3 integrin receptors have high expression on proliferating growing tumor cells of different origins including non-small-cell lung cancer. RGD-containing peptides target the extracellular domain of integrin receptors. This specific targeting makes these short sequences a suitable nominee for theranostic application. DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 was radiolabeled with 68Ga efficiently. The in vivo and in vitro stability was examined in different buffer systems. Metabolic stability was assessed in mice urine. In vitro specific binding, cellular uptake, and internalization were determined. The tumor-targeting potential of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 in a lung cancer mouse model was studied. Besides, the very early diagnostic potential of the 68Ga-labeled RGD peptide was evaluated. The acquisition and reconstruction of the PET-CT image data were also carried out. Radiochemical and radionuclide purity for [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 was >%98 and >%99, respectively. Radiotracer showed high in vivo, in vitro, and metabolic stability which was determined by ITLC. The dissociation constant (Kd) of [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 was 15.28 nM. On average, more than 95% of the radioactivity was specific binding (internalized + surface-bound) to A549 cells. Biodistribution data showed that radiolabeled peptides were accumulated significantly in A549 tumor and excreted rapidly by the renal system. Tumor uptake peaks were at 1-hour postinjection for [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2. The tumor was clearly visualized in all images. [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-E(cRGDfK)2 can be used as a peptide-based imaging agent allowing very early detection of different cancers overexpressing αvβ3 integrin receptors and can be a potential candidate in clinical peptide-based imaging for lung cancer.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 11:20:04 +000
       
  • Multiplexed 129Xe HyperCEST MRI Detection of Genetically Reconstituted
           Bacterial Protein Nanoparticles in Human Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVs) are gas-containing protein assemblies expressed in bacteria and archaea. Recently, GVs have gained considerable attention for biotechnological applications as genetically encodable contrast agents for MRI and ultrasonography. However, at present, the practical use of GVs is hampered by a lack of robust methodology for their induction into mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate the genetic reconstitution of protein nanoparticles with characteristic bicone structures similar to natural GVs in a human breast cancer cell line KPL-4 and genetic control of their size and shape through expression of reduced sets of humanized gas vesicle genes cloned into Tol2 transposon vectors, referencing the natural gas vesicle gene clusters of the cyanobacteria planktothrix rubescens/agardhii. We then report the utility of these nanoparticles as multiplexed, sensitive, and genetically encoded contrast agents for hyperpolarized xenon chemical exchange saturation transfer (HyperCEST) MRI.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Mar 2020 14:50:01 +000
       
  • Radiomic Analysis of Craniopharyngioma and Meningioma in the
           Sellar/Parasellar Area with MR Images Features and Texture Features: A
           Feasible Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. To investigate the ability of qualitative Magnetic Resonance (MR) images features and quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) texture features in the contrastive analysis between craniopharyngioma and meningioma. Method. A total number of 127 patients were included in this study (craniopharyngioma = 63; meningioma = 64). All the features analyzed in this study were acquired from preoperative MRI images. Qualitative MR images features were evaluated with chi-square tests or Fisher exact test, while MRI texture features were evaluated with the Mann–Whitney U test with the Benjamini–Hochberg method. Then binary logistic regression analysis for texture features was performed to evaluate their ability as independent predictors, and the diagnostic accuracy was calculated next for these texture features with high abilities as independent predictors using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results. Four qualitative MR images features showed significant difference between craniopharyngioma and meningioma, but only cystic alteration could be considered as diagnostic independent predictors. Meanwhile, three quantitative parameters, histogram-based matrix- (HISTO-) Skewness, Grey-level co-occurrence matrix- (GLCM-) Contrast on contrast-enhanced images, and HISTO-Skewness on images of T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), showed promising abilities in the contrastive analysis. Besides, these texture features were found significantly to be relative to cystic alteration. Conclusion. MR images features and texture features were useful in the contrastive analysis of craniopharyngioma and meningioma. Furthermore, qualitative MR images features and MRI texture features could be related to each other.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Feb 2020 07:20:02 +000
       
  • Use of Animal Models in Molecular Imaging

    • PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 13:50:01 +000
       
  • In Vivo Imaging of Inflammation and Infection 2019

    • PubDate: Tue, 11 Feb 2020 14:05:02 +000
       
  • 99mTc-68Ga-ICG-Labelled Macroaggregates and Nanocolloids of Human Serum
           Albumin: Synthesis Procedures of a Trimodal Imaging Agent Using Commercial
           Kits

    • Abstract: Recent developments in sentinel lymph node (SLN) and radio occult lesion localization (ROLL) highlight the need for a multimodal contrast agent, providing better presurgical PET imaging and improved intraoperative mapping thanks to fluorescence detection. For this reason, we have studied a trimodal SLN/ROLL targeting agent (99mTc-68Ga-ICG) with commercially available kits of macroaggregated or nanocolloidal albumin (MA/NC-HSA). 68Ga PET imaging does provide better spatial resolution and makes it possible to predict signal intensity during surgery. The presence of 99mTc assesses the efficacy of these compounds in vitro and also during the surgery procedure. The aim of this study was to optimise the labelling and tagging of these two radiopharmaceuticals and assess their yields and stability. Kits of MA/NC-HSA particles (Pulmocis® and NanoAlbumon®) were used for sequential radiolabelling with 99mTc and 68Ga. Fluorescent tagging was performed using indocyanine green, a tricarbocyanine dye. The ITLC radiochemical purity of the trilabelled MA/NC-HSA was >95%. Fluorescent purity was measured by scanning the strips with a PhotoDynamicEye probe. Finally, in vitro stability tests, performed with DTPA and human serum solutions, assessed the efficacy of fluorescent tagging and radiolabelling.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 06:50:06 +000
       
  • Personalization of CM Injection Protocols in Coronary Computed Tomographic
           Angiography (People CT Trial)

    • Abstract: Aim. To evaluate the performance of three contrast media (CM) injection protocols for cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) based on body weight (BW), lean BW (LBW), and cardiac output (CO). Materials and methods. A total of 327 consecutive patients referred for CCTA were randomized into one of the three CM injection protocols, where CM injection was based on either BW (112 patients), LBW (108 patients), or CO (107 patients). LBW and CO were calculated via formulas. All scans were ECG-gated and performed on a third-generation dual-source CT with 70–120 kV (automated tube voltage selection) and 100 kVqual.ref/330 mAsqual.ref. CM injection protocols were also adapted to scan time and tube voltage. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with optimal intravascular attenuation (325–500 HU). Secondary outcomes were mean and standard deviation of intravascular attenuation values (HU), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and subjective image quality with a 4-point Likert scale (1 = poor/2 = sufficient/3 = good/4 = excellent). The t-test for independent samples was used for pairwise comparisons between groups, and a chi-square test (χ2) was used to compare categorical variables between groups. All values were 2-sided, and a was considered statistically significant. Results. Mean overall HU and CNR were 423 ± 60HU/14 ± 3 (BW), 404 ± 62HU/14 ± 3 (LBW), and 413 ± 63HU/14 ± 3 (CO) with a significant difference between groups BW and LBW (). The proportion of patients with optimal intravascular attenuation (325–500 HU) was 83.9%, 84.3%, and 86.9% for groups BW, LBW, and CO, respectively, and between-group differences were small and nonsignificant. Mean CNR was diagnostic (≥10) in all groups. The proportion of scans with good-excellent image quality was 94.6%, 86.1%, and 90.7% in the BW, LBW, and CO groups, respectively. The difference between proportions was significant between the BW and LBW groups. Conclusion. Personalization of CM injection protocols based on BW, LBW, and CO, and scan time and tube voltage in CCTA resulted in low variation between patients in terms of intravascular attenuation and a high proportion of scans with an optimal intravascular attenuation. The results suggest that personalized CM injection protocols based on LBW or CO have no additional benefit when compared with CM injection protocols based on BW.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jan 2020 13:35:02 +000
       
  • Potential Applications of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in the Evaluation of
           Salivary Gland Uptake Function: Preliminary Observations and Comparison
           with 99mTcO4− Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    • Abstract: Purpose. To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility and potential of using 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT in evaluating the function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands in comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate () salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS). Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 15 patients with different degrees of xerostomia and suspected salivary gland dysfunction. Each patient underwent 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT first and SGS the next day, and the findings of both scans were compared. Results. The results of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT and SGS were consistent in 12/15 patients (80%) and were inconsistent in the remaining patients (20%). For 5 (33.3%) of 15 patients, 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT provided more information than did SGS. Additionally, 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT corrected the misdiagnosis by SGS for 1 patient. Conclusions. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT is a potentially useful imaging tool for evaluating the function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT can be a promising supplement to SGS, and its clinical value deserves further study.
      PubDate: Sat, 11 Jan 2020 07:20:05 +000
       
 
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