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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
  [SJR: 0.932]   [H-I: 34]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Brain Network Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease Identified by
           Early-Phase PIB-PET

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the brain networks from early-phase 11C-PIB (perfusion PIB, pPIB) data and to compare the brain networks of patients with differentiating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with cognitively normal subjects (CN) and of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) with CN. Forty participants (14 CN, 12 MCI, and 14 AD) underwent 11C-PIB and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Parallel independent component analysis (pICA) was used to identify correlated brain networks from the 11C-pPIB and 18F-FDG data, and a two-sample t-test was used to evaluate group differences in the corrected brain networks between AD and CN, and between MCI and CN. Our study identified a brain network of perfusion (early-phase 11C-PIB) that highly correlated with a glucose metabolism (18F-FDG) brain network and colocalized with the default mode network (DMN) in an AD-specific neurodegenerative cohort. Particularly, decreased 18F-FDG uptake correlated with a decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions of the DMN. The group comparisons revealed similar spatial patterns of the brain networks derived from the 11C-pPIB and 18F-FDG data. Our findings indicate that 11C-pPIB derived from the early-phase 11C-PIB could provide complementary information for 18F-FDG examination in AD.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 09:30:58 +000
  • Automated Whole-Body Bone Lesion Detection for Multiple Myeloma on
           68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT Imaging Using Deep Learning Methods

    • Abstract: The identification of bone lesions is crucial in the diagnostic assessment of multiple myeloma (MM). 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT can capture the abnormal molecular expression of CXCR-4 in addition to anatomical changes. However, whole-body detection of dozens of lesions on hybrid imaging is tedious and error prone. It is even more difficult to identify lesions with a large heterogeneity. This study employed deep learning methods to automatically combine characteristics of PET and CT for whole-body MM bone lesion detection in a 3D manner. Two convolutional neural networks (CNNs), V-Net and W-Net, were adopted to segment and detect the lesions. The feasibility of deep learning for lesion detection on 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT was first verified on digital phantoms generated using realistic PET simulation methods. Then the proposed methods were evaluated on real 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT scans of MM patients. The preliminary results showed that deep learning method can leverage multimodal information for spatial feature representation, and W-Net obtained the best result for segmentation and lesion detection. It also outperformed traditional machine learning methods such as random forest classifier (RF), -Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), and support vector machine (SVM). The proof-of-concept study encourages further development of deep learning approach for MM lesion detection in population study.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prospective of 68Ga Radionuclide Contribution to the Development of
           Imaging Agents for Infection and Inflammation

    • Abstract: During the last decade, the utilization of 68Ga for the development of imaging agents has increased considerably with the leading position in the oncology. The imaging of infection and inflammation is lagging despite strong unmet medical needs. This review presents the potential routes for the development of 68Ga-based agents for the imaging and quantification of infection and inflammation in various diseases and connection of the diagnosis to the treatment for the individualized patient management.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 09:28:04 +000
  • Spectral Unmixing Imaging for Differentiating Brown Adipose Tissue Mass
           and Its Activation

    • Abstract: Recent large-scale clinical analysis indicates that brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass levels inversely correlate with body-mass index (BMI), suggesting that BAT is associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. PET imaging with 18F-FDG is the most commonly used method for visualizing BAT. However, this method is not able to differentiate between BAT mass and BAT activation. This task, in fact, presents a tremendous challenge with no currently existing methods to separate BAT mass and BAT activation. Our previous results indicated that BAT could be successfully imaged in mice with near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) curcumin analogues. However, the results from conventional NIRF imaging could not reflect what portion of the NIRF signal from BAT activation contributed to the signal observed. To solve this problem, we used spectral unmixing to separate/unmix NIRF signal from oil droplets in BAT, which represents its mass and NIRF signal from blood, which represents BAT activation. In this report, results from our proof-of-concept investigation demonstrated that spectral unmixing could be used to separate NIRF signal from BAT mass and BAT activation.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparison of 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 and 18F-Fluorodeoxyribose-Siglec-9:
           Inflammation Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry

    • Abstract: Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 9 (Siglec-9) is a ligand of inflammation-inducible vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1). We compared 68Ga-DOTA- and 18F-fluorodeoxyribose- (FDR-) labeled Siglec-9 motif peptides for PET imaging of inflammation. Methods. Firstly, we examined 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 and 18F-FDR-Siglec-9 in rats with skin/muscle inflammation. We then studied 18F-FDR-Siglec-9 for the detection of inflamed atherosclerotic plaques in mice and compared it with previous 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 results. Lastly, we estimated human radiation dosimetry from the rat data. Results. In rats, 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 (SUV, ) and 18F-FDR-Siglec-9 (SUV, ) showed comparable () imaging of inflammation. In atherosclerotic mice, 18F-FDR-Siglec-9 detected inflamed plaques with a target-to-background ratio () similar to previously tested 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 (). Human effective dose estimates for 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 and 18F-FDR-Siglec-9 were 0.024 and 0.022 mSv/MBq, respectively. Conclusion. Both tracers are suitable for PET imaging of inflammation. The easier production and lower cost of 68Ga-DOTA-Siglec-9 present advantages over 18F-FDR-Siglec-9, indicating it as a primary choice for clinical studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 08:30:21 +000
  • Gallium-68 Labeled Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Coated with
           2,3-Dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic Acid as a Potential PET/MR Imaging
           Agent: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a dual-modality PET/MR imaging probe by radiolabeling iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IONPs), surface functionalized with water soluble stabilizer 2,3-dicarboxypropane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (DPD), with the positron emitter Gallium-68. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) were synthesized via coprecipitation method and were stabilized with DPD. The Fe3O4-DPD MNPs were characterized based on their structure, morphology, size, surface charge, and magnetic properties. In vitro cytotoxicity studies showed reduced toxicity in normal cells, compared to cancer cells. Fe3O4-DPD MNPs were successfully labeled with Gallium-68 at high radiochemical purity (>91%) and their stability in human serum and in PBS was demonstrated, along with their further characterization on size and magnetic properties. The ex vivo biodistribution studies in normal Swiss mice showed high uptake in the liver followed by spleen. The acquired PET images were in accordance with the ex vivo biodistribution results. Our findings indicate that -Fe3O4-DPD MNPs could serve as an important diagnostic tool for biomedical imaging.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 09:25:02 +000
  • The Optimal Timing for Pancreatic Islet Transplantation into Subcutaneous
           Scaffolds Assessed by Multimodal Imaging

    • Abstract: Subcutaneously implanted polymeric scaffolds represent an alternative transplantation site for pancreatic islets (PIs) with the option of vascularisation enhancement by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Nevertheless, a proper timing of the transplantation steps is crucial. In this study, scaffolds supplemented with plastic rods were implanted into diabetic rats and two timing schemes for subsequent transplantation of bioluminescent PIs (4 or 7 days after rod removal) were examined by multimodal imaging. The cavities were left to heal spontaneously or with 10 million injected MSCs. Morphological and vascularisation changes were examined by MRI, while the localisation and viability of transplanted islets were monitored by bioluminescence imaging. The results show that PIs transplanted 4 days after rod removal showed the higher optical signal and vascularisation compared to transplantation after 7 days. MSCs slightly improved vascularisation of the graft but hindered therapeutic efficiency of PIs. Long-term glycaemia normalisation (4 months) was attained in 80% of animals. In summary, multimodal imaging confirmed the long-term survival and function of transplanted PIs in the devices. The best outcome was reached with PIs transplanted on day 4 after rod removal and therefore the suggested protocol holds a potential for further applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 09:21:04 +000
  • Synthesis and Bioevaluation of Iodine-131 Directly Labeled Cyclic
           RGD-PEGylated Gold Nanorods for Tumor-Targeted Imaging

    • Abstract: Introduction. Radiolabeled gold nanoparticles play an important role in biomedical application. The aim of this study was to prepare iodine-131 (131I)-labeled gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated with cyclic RGD and evaluate its biological characteristics for targeted imaging of integrin β3-expressing tumors. Methods. HS-PEG(5000)-COOH molecules were applied to replace CTAB covering the surface of bare GNRs for better biocompatibility, and c(RGDfK) peptides were conjugated onto the carboxyl terminal of GNR-PEG-COOH via EDC/NHS coupling reactions. The nanoconjugate was characterized, and 131I was directly tagged on the surface of GNRs via AuI bonds for SPECT/CT imaging. We preliminarily studied the characteristics of the probe and its feasibility for tumor-targeting SPECT/CT imaging. Results. The 131IGNR-PEG-cRGD probe was prepared in a simple and rapid manner and was stable in both PBS and fetal bovine serum. It targeted selectively and could be taken up by tumor cells mainly via integrin β3-receptor-mediated endocytosis. In vivo imaging, biodistribution, and autoradiography results showed evident tumor uptake in integrin β3-expressing tumors. Conclusions. These promising results showed that this smart nanoprobe can be used for angiogenesis-targeted SPECT/CT imaging. Furthermore, the nanoprobe possesses a remarkable capacity for highly efficient photothermal conversion in the near-infrared region, suggesting its potential as a multifunctional theranostic agent.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Dec 2017 07:39:42 +000
  • The Spatial Relationship between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and
           Standardized Uptake Value of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Has a Crucial
           Influence on the Numeric Correlation of Both Parameters in PET/MRI of Lung

    • Abstract: The minimum apparent diffusion coefficient () derived from diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and the maximum standardized uptake value () of FDG-PET are markers of aggressiveness in lung cancer. The numeric correlation of the two parameters has been extensively studied, but their spatial interplay is not well understood. After FDG-PET and DW-MRI coregistration, values and location of - and -voxels were analyzed. The upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for registration accuracy of sequential PET/MRI was 12 mm, and the mean distance () between - and -voxels was 14.0 mm (average of two readers). Spatial mismatch ( > 12 mm) between and was found in 9/25 patients. A considerable number of mismatch cases (65%) was also seen in a control group that underwent simultaneous PET/MRI. In the entire patient cohort, no statistically significant correlation between and was seen, while a moderate negative linear relationship () between and was observed in tumors with a spatial match ( ≤ 12 mm). In conclusion, spatial mismatch between and is found in a considerable percentage of patients. The spatial connection of the two parameters and has a crucial influence on their numeric correlation.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 09:25:11 +000
  • The Application of Functional Imaging in the Diagnosis of Tumors

    • PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Brain Tumor Diagnostics and Therapeutics with Superparamagnetic Ferrite

    • Abstract: Ferrite nanoparticles (F-NPs) can transform both cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Superparamagnetic F-NPs exhibit high magnetic moment and susceptibility such that in presence of a static magnetic field transverse relaxation rate of water protons for MRI contrast is augmented to locate F-NPs (i.e., diagnostics) and exposed to an alternating magnetic field local temperature is increased to induce tissue necrosis (i.e., thermotherapy). F-NPs are modified by chemical synthesis of mixed spinel ferrites as well as their size, shape, and coating. Purposely designed drug-containing nanoparticles (D-NPs) can slowly deliver drugs (i.e., chemotherapy). Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of D-NPs with MRI guidance improves glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) treatment. MRI monitors the location of chemotherapy when D-NPs and F-NPs are coadministered with CED. However superparamagnetic field gradients produced by F-NPs complicate MRI readouts (spatial distortions) and MRS (extensive line broadening). Since extracellular pH () is a cancer hallmark, imaging is needed to screen cancer treatments. Biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS) extrapolates from paramagnetically shifted signals and the accuracy remains unaffected by F-NPs. Hence effect of both chemotherapy and thermotherapy can be monitored (by BIRDS), whereas location of F-NPs is revealed (by MRI). Smarter tethering of nanoparticles and agents will impact GBM theranostics.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Positron Emission Tomography of
           Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Tumor Metabolism

    • Abstract: The presence of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is significantly associated with poor prognosis of tumors. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI-) based TAM imaging methods that use nanoparticles such as superparamagnetic iron oxide and perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions are available for quantitative monitoring of TAM burden in tumors. However, whether MRI-based measurements of TAMs can be used as prognostic markers has not been evaluated yet. In this study, we used positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) as a radioactive tracer and fluorine-19- (19F-) MRI for imaging mouse breast cancer models to determine any association between TAM infiltration and tumor metabolism. Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions were intravenously administered to track and quantify TAM infiltration using a 7T MR scanner. To analyze glucose uptake in tumors, 18F-FDG-PET images were acquired immediately after 19F-MRI. Coregistered 18F-FDG-PET and 19F-MR images enabled comparison of spatial patterns of glucose uptake and TAM distribution in tumors. 19F-MR signal intensities from tumors exhibited a strong inverse correlation with 18F-FDG uptake while having a significant positive correlation with tumor growth from days 2 to 7. These results show that combination of 19F-MRI and 18F-FDG-PET can improve our understanding of the relationship between TAM and tumor microenvironment.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 08:24:16 +000
  • Key Parameters on the Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Magnetic
           Nanoparticles for MRI Contrast Agents

    • Abstract: Uniform iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized using a microwave assisted synthesis method in organic media and their colloidal, magnetic, and relaxometric properties have been analyzed after its transference to water and compared with those nanoparticles prepared by thermal decomposition in organic media. The novelty of this synthesis relies on the use of a solid iron oleate as precursor, which assures the reproducibility and scalability of the synthesis, and the microwave heating that resulted in being faster and more efficient than traditional heating methods, and therefore it has a great potential for nanoparticle industrial production. The effect of different experimental conditions such as the solvent, precursor, and surfactant concentration and reaction time as well as the transference to water is analyzed and optimized to obtain magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with sizes between 8 and 15 nm and finally colloids suitable for their use as contrast agents on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The relaxivity values normalized to the square of the saturation magnetization were shown to be constant and independent of the particle size, which means that the saturation magnetization is the main parameter controlling the efficiency of these magnetic nanoparticles as MRI -contrast agents.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 07:59:06 +000
  • F-18 FP-CIT PET in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type:
           Additional Role in Treatment

    • Abstract: We evaluated the difference in the status of dopamine transporters (DATs) depending on Parkinsonism, cerebellar, and autonomic features using F-18 FP-CIT positron emission tomography (PET) in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C). We also assessed whether the DAT PET could be useful in the management of MSA-C. Forty-nine patients who were clinically diagnosed as possible to probable MSA-C were included. Based on the F-18 FP-CIT PET results, patients were classified into normal () and abnormal () scan groups. There were statistically significant differences in rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability, asymmetry, and specific uptake ratio (SUR) between the two groups but no significant differences in tremor and cerebellar/autonomic symptoms. Dopaminergic medications were administered to 22 patients. All seven patients with normal scans showed no change, while 10 of the 15 patients with abnormal scans showed clinical improvement. There was a trend of a negative correlation between levodopa equivalent dose and SUR, but it was not statistically significant. DAT imaging, such as F-18 FP-CIT PET, may be useful in predicting the response to dopaminergic medication regardless of cerebellar/autonomic symptoms in MSA-C. In addition to being used for the diagnosis of the disease, it may be used as a treatment decision index.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Time-Resolved Three-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance
           Angiography in Patients with Chronic Expanding and Stable Aortic

    • Abstract: Objective. To prospectively evaluate our hypothesis that three-dimensional time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (TR-MRA) is able to detect hemodynamic alterations in patients with chronic expanding aortic dissection compared to stable aortic dissections. Materials and Methods. 20 patients with chronic or residual aortic dissection in the descending aorta and patent false lumen underwent TR-MRA of the aorta at 1.5 T and repeated follow-up imaging (mean follow-up 5.4 years). 7 patients showed chronic aortic expansion and 13 patients had stable aortic diameters. Regions of interest were placed in the nondissected ascending aorta and the false lumen of the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm (FL-diaphragm level) resulting in respective time-intensity curves. Results. For the FL-diaphragm level, time-to-peak intensity and full width at half maximum were significantly shorter in the expansion group compared to the stable group ( and ), and upward and downward slopes of time-intensity curves were significantly steeper ( and ). The delay of peak intensity in the FL-diaphragm level compared to the nondissected ascending aorta was significantly shorter in the expansion group compared to the stable group (). Conclusions. 3D TR-MRA detects significant alterations of hemodynamics within the patent false lumen of chronic expanding aortic dissections compared to stable aortic dissections.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 08:21:50 +000
  • Ultrasonographic Findings of Renal Cell Carcinomas Associated with Xp11.2
           Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion

    • Abstract: Objective. This study was to investigate the features of renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions (Xp11.2-RCC) on conventional ultrasound (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Methods. US and CEUS features of twenty-two cases with histopathologically proven Xp11.2-RCC were retrospectively reviewed. Results. 22 patients (11 males, 11 females) were included in this study, with a mean age of 28.3 ± 20.4 years. Eight tumors (36.3%, 8/22) were in left kidney, and 14 tumors (63.7%, 14/22) were in right kidney. All tumors (100%, 22/22) were mixed echogenicity type. 13 tumors (59.1%, 13/22) presented small dotted calcifications. The boundary of 14 tumors (63.6%, 14/22) was sharp and the other 8 tumors’ (36.4%, 8/22) boundary was blurry. By CEUS, in early phase, the solid element of all tumors showed obvious enhancement. In delayed phase, 13 tumors showed hypoenhancement, seven tumors showed isoenhancement, and 2 tumors showed hyperenhancement. There were irregular nonenhancement areas in all tumors inside. Conclusions. By US and CEUS, when children and adolescents were found to have hyperechoic mixed tumor in kidney with sharp margin and calcification, and the tumors showed obvious enhancement and hypoenhancement with irregular nonenhancement areas in the tumor in early phase and delayed phase, respectively, Xp11.2-RCC should be suspected.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Mapping Extracellular pH of Gliomas in Presence of Superparamagnetic
           Nanoparticles: Towards Imaging the Distribution of Drug-Containing
           Nanoparticles and Their Curative Effect on the Tumor Microenvironment

    • Abstract: Since brain’s microvasculature is compromised in gliomas, intravenous injection of tumor-targeting nanoparticles containing drugs (D-NPs) and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO-NPs) can deliver high payloads of drugs while allowing MRI to track drug distribution. However, therapeutic effect of D-NPs remains poorly investigated because superparamagnetic fields generated by SPIO-NPs perturb conventional MRI readouts. Because extracellular pH () is a tumor hallmark, mapping is critical. Brain is measured by biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts (BIRDS) with lanthanide agents, by detecting paramagnetically shifted resonances of nonexchangeable protons on the agent. To test the hypothesis that BIRDS-based readout remains uncompromised by presence of SPIO-NPs, we mapped in glioma-bearing rats before and after SPIO-NPs infusion. While SPIO-NPs accumulation in the tumor enhanced MRI contrast, the inside and outside the MRI-defined tumor boundary remained unchanged after SPIO-NPs infusion, regardless of the tumor type (9L versus RG2) or agent injection method (renal ligation versus coinfusion with probenecid). These results demonstrate that we can simultaneously and noninvasively image the specific location and the healing efficacy of D-NPs, where MRI contrast from SPIO-NPs can track their distribution and BIRDS-based can map their therapeutic impact.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Iron Oxide Nanoradiomaterials: Combining Nanoscale Properties with
           Radioisotopes for Enhanced Molecular Imaging

    • Abstract: The combination of the size-dependent properties of nanomaterials with radioisotopes is emerging as a novel tool for molecular imaging. There are numerous examples already showing how the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles and the incorporation of a radioisotope in the nanostructure offer new features beyond the simple addition of different components. Among the different nanomaterials, iron oxide-based nanoparticles are the most used in imaging because of their versatility. In this review, we will study the different radioisotopes for biomedical imaging, how to incorporate them within the nanoparticles, and what applications they can be used for. Our focus is directed towards what is new in this field, what the nanoparticles can offer to the field of nuclear imaging, and the radioisotopes hybridized with nanomaterials for use in molecular imaging.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • In Vivo PET Imaging of Adenosine 2A Receptors in Neuroinflammatory and
           Neurodegenerative Disease

    • Abstract: Adenosine receptors are G-protein coupled P1 purinergic receptors that are broadly expressed in the peripheral immune system, vasculature, and the central nervous system (CNS). Within the immune system, adenosine 2A () receptor-mediated signaling exerts a suppressive effect on ongoing inflammation. In healthy CNS, receptors are expressed mainly within the neurons of the basal ganglia. Alterations in receptor function and expression have been noted in movement disorders, and in Parkinson’s disease pharmacological receptor antagonism leads to diminished motor symptoms. Although receptors are expressed only at a low level in the healthy CNS outside striatum, pathological challenge or inflammation has been shown to lead to upregulation of receptors in extrastriatal CNS tissue, and this has been successfully quantitated using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and receptor-binding radioligands. Several radioligands for PET imaging of receptors have been developed in recent years, and receptor-targeting PET imaging may thus provide a potential additional tool to evaluate various aspects of neuroinflammation in vivo. This review article provides a brief overview of receptors in healthy brain and in a selection of most important neurological diseases and describes the recent advances in receptor-targeting PET imaging studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Erbium-Based Perfusion Contrast Agent for Small-Animal Microvessel Imaging

    • Abstract: Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) facilitates the visualization and quantification of contrast-enhanced microvessels within intact tissue specimens, but conventional preclinical vascular contrast agents may be inadequate near dense tissue (such as bone). Typical lead-based contrast agents do not exhibit optimal X-ray absorption properties when used with X-ray tube potentials below 90 kilo-electron volts (keV). We have developed a high-atomic number lanthanide (erbium) contrast agent, with a K-edge at 57.5 keV. This approach optimizes X-ray absorption in the output spectral band of conventional microfocal spot X-ray tubes. Erbium oxide nanoparticles (nominal diameter < 50 nm) suspended in a two-part silicone elastomer produce a perfusable fluid with viscosity of 19.2 mPa-s. Ultrasonic cavitation was used to reduce aggregate sizes to 4000 Hounsfield units, and perfusion of vessels < 10 m in diameter was demonstrated in kidney glomeruli. The described new contrast agent facilitated the visualization and quantification of vessel density and microarchitecture, even adjacent to dense bone. Erbium’s K-edge makes this contrast agent ideally suited for both single- and dual-energy micro-CT, expanding potential preclinical research applications in models of musculoskeletal, oncological, cardiovascular, and neurovascular diseases.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 08:36:36 +000
  • One-Pot Aqueous Synthesis of Fluorescent Ag-In-Zn-S Quantum Dot/Polymer
           Bioconjugates for Multiplex Optical Bioimaging of Glioblastoma Cells

    • Abstract: Cancer research has experienced astonishing advances recently, but cancer remains a major threat because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor, where the early diagnosis is vital for longer survival. Thus, this study reports the synthesis of novel water-dispersible ternary AgInS2 (AIS) and quaternary AgInS2-ZnS (ZAIS) fluorescent quantum dots using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as ligand for multiplexed bioimaging of malignant glioma cells (U-87 MG). Firstly, AgInS2 core was prepared using a one-pot aqueous synthesis stabilized by CMC at room temperature and physiological pH. Then, an outer layer of ZnS was grown and thermally annealed to improve their optical properties and split the emission range, leading to core-shell alloyed nanostructures. Their physicochemical and optical properties were characterized, demonstrating that luminescent monodispersed AIS and ZAIS QDs were produced with average sizes of 2.2 nm and 4.3 nm, respectively. Moreover, the results evidenced that they were cytocompatible using in vitro cell viability assays towards human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293T) and U-87 MG cells. These AIS and ZAIS successfully behaved as fluorescent nanoprobes (red and green, resp.) allowing multiplexed bioimaging and biolabeling of costained glioma cells using confocal microscopy.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 09:18:51 +000
  • Application of Image Processing Techniques in Molecular Imaging of Cancer

    • PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 08:41:19 +000
  • Integrating a 19F MRI Tracer Agent into the Clinical Scale Manufacturing
           of a T-Cell Immunotherapy

    • Abstract: Leukocyte immunotherapies have made great progress in the treatment of cancer. Recent reports on the treatment of B-cell malignancies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor and affinity enhanced T-Cell Receptor therapies have demonstrated encouraging clinical results. As investigators begin to explore the treatment of solid tumors with these cells, the hurdle of evaluating T-cell homing to and persistence at the site of disease remain. Significant challenges regarding the GMP manufacture and administration of a therapeutic dose of millions to billions of transduced T-cells remain. Here we report on the application of a clinically authorized 19F MRI tracer agent to human T-cells, employing state-of-the-art methods and equipment in the manufacture of a cellular therapy. Using a general T-cell expansion protocol and clinical scale industrial bioreactors, we show 19F labeling without detriment to the product +/− cryopreservation. While the incorporation of the 19F tracer is not trivial, it is just one of the many steps that can aid in progression of a therapeutic to and though the clinic. Combining the MRI tracking capabilities, safety profiles, and clinical sensitivity of this method, this application demonstrates the ability of 19F MRI to be used in industrial scale applications to visualize the spatial fate of cellular therapeutics.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 07:42:08 +000
  • Use of Cyclic Backbone NGR-Based SPECT to Increase Efficacy of
           Postmyocardial Infarction Angiogenesis Imaging

    • Abstract: As CD13 is selectively expressed in angiogenesis, it can serve as a target for molecular imaging tracers to noninvasively visualize angiogenic processes in vivo. The CD13-targeting moiety NGR was synthesized and cyclized by native chemical ligation (NCL) instead of disulfide bridging, leading to a cyclic peptide backbone: cyclo(Cys-Asn-Gly-Arg-Gly) (coNGR). Beside this new monomeric coNGR, a tetrameric NGR peptide co(NGR)4 was designed and synthesized. After radiolabeling, their in vitro and in vivo characteristics were determined. Both coNGR-based imaging agents displayed considerably higher standardized uptake values (SUVs) at infarcted areas compared to the previously reported disulfide-cyclized cNGR imaging agent. Uptake patterns of 111In-coNGR and 111In-co(NGR)4 coincided with CD13 immunohistochemistry on excised hearts. Blood stability tests indicated better stability for both novel imaging agents after 50 min blood incubation compared to the disulfide-cyclized cNGR imaging agent. In mice, both coNGR peptides cleared rapidly from the blood mainly via the kidneys. In addition, co(NGR)4 showed a significantly higher specific uptake in infarcted myocardium compared to coNGR and thus is a promising sensitive imaging agent for detection of angiogenesis in infarcted myocardium.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Associations between 18F-FDG-PET, DWI, and DCE Parameters in Patients with
           Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Depend on Tumor Grading

    • Abstract: Our purpose was to analyze associations between positron emission tomography (PET), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The study involved 34 patients (9 women, 25 men, mean age: years). In all patients a simultaneous 18F-FDG-PET/MR was performed. DWI was obtained by using of an axial EPI sequence. Minimal ADC values (), mean ADC values (), and maximal ADC values () were estimated. DCE MRI was performed by using dynamic T1w DCE sequence. The following parameters were estimated: ,, and . Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. In overall sample, correlated significantly with and , correlated with , and correlated with and . tended to correlate slightly with . In G1/2 tumors, only correlated well with and . In G3 tumors, correlated well with and . showed significant correlations with and . correlated with . was higher in cancers with N2/3 stages. Tumor metabolism, water diffusion, and tumor perfusion have complex relationships in HNSCC. Furthermore, these associations depend on tumor grading. may predict lymphonodal metastasizing.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Theranostic Probes for Cancer Imaging

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • MR Assessment of Acute Pathologic Process after Myocardial Infarction in a
           Permanent Ligation Mouse Model: Role of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Contrasted

    • Abstract: We evaluated the relationship between myocardial infarct size and inflammatory response using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mouse model. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in 14 mice by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), and magnetofluorescent nanoparticle MRI (MNP-MRI) were performed 1, 2, and 3 days after MI, respectively. The size of the enhanced lesion was quantitatively determined using Otsu’s thresholding method in area-based and sector-based approaches and was compared statistically. Linear correlation between the enhanced lesion sizes was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Differences were compared using Bland-Altman analysis. The size of the inflammatory area determined by MNP-MRI (57.1 ± 10.1%) was significantly larger than that of the infarct area measured by LGE (40.8 ± 11.7%, ) and MEMRI (44.1 ± 14.9%, ). There were significant correlations between the sizes of the infarct and inflammatory lesions (MNP-MRI versus LGE: , ; MNP-MRI versus MEMRI: , ). MNP-MRI provides information about inflammatory responses in a mouse model of AMI. Thus, MNP-MRI associated with LGE and MEMRI may play an important role in monitoring the disease progression in MI.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Head-to-Head Comparison of 68Ga-Citrate and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detection
           of Infectious Foci in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    • Abstract: Purpose. This study evaluated the potential of 68Ga-citrate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the detection of infectious foci in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia by comparing it with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy--glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT. Methods. Four patients admitted to hospital due to S. aureus bacteraemia underwent both 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate whole-body PET/CT scans to detect infectious foci. Results. The time from hospital admission and the initiation of antibiotic treatment to the first PET/CT was 4–10 days. The time interval between 18F-FDG and 68Ga-citrate PET/CT was 1–4 days. Three patients had vertebral osteomyelitis (spondylodiscitis) and one had osteomyelitis in the toe; these were detected by both 18F-FDG (maximum standardised uptake value [] ) and 68Ga-citrate (  , ). Three patients had soft tissue infectious foci, with more intense 18F-FDG uptake () than 68Ga-citrate uptake (, ). Conclusions. Our small cohort of patients with S. aureus bacteraemia revealed that 68Ga-citrate PET/CT is comparable to 18F-FDG PET/CT for detection of osteomyelitis, whereas 18F-FDG resulted in a higher signal for the detection of soft tissue infectious foci.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 06:16:27 +000
  • In Vivo Quantification of Myocardial Infarction in Mice Using Micro-CT and
           a Novel Blood Pool Agent

    • Abstract: We herein developed a micro-CT method using the innovative contrast agent ExiTron™ MyoC 8000 to longitudinally monitor cardiac processes in vivo in small animals. Experiments were performed on healthy mice and mice with myocardial infarction inflicted by ligation of the left anterior descending artery. Time-dependent signal enhancement in different tissues of healthy mice was measured and various contrast agent doses were investigated so as to determine the minimum required dose for imaging of the myocardium. Due to its ability to be taken up by healthy myocardium but not by infarct tissue, ExiTron MyoC 8000 enables detection of myocardial infarction even at a very low dose. The signal enhancement in the myocardium of infarcted mice after contrast agent injection was exploited for quantification of infarct size. The values of infarct size obtained from the imaging method were compared with those obtained from histology and showed a significant correlation (). Thus, the developed micro-CT method allows for monitoring of a variety of processes such as cardiac remodeling in longitudinal studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Application of Deep Learning in Automated Analysis of Molecular Images in
           Cancer: A Survey

    • Abstract: Molecular imaging enables the visualization and quantitative analysis of the alterations of biological procedures at molecular and/or cellular level, which is of great significance for early detection of cancer. In recent years, deep leaning has been widely used in medical imaging analysis, as it overcomes the limitations of visual assessment and traditional machine learning techniques by extracting hierarchical features with powerful representation capability. Research on cancer molecular images using deep learning techniques is also increasing dynamically. Hence, in this paper, we review the applications of deep learning in molecular imaging in terms of tumor lesion segmentation, tumor classification, and survival prediction. We also outline some future directions in which researchers may develop more powerful deep learning models for better performance in the applications in cancer molecular imaging.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
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