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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 90)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 214)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Toward the Optimization of (+)-[11C]PHNO Synthesis: Time Reduction
           and Process Validation

    • Abstract: (+)-[11C]PHNO, a dopamine D2/3 receptor agonistic radiotracer, is applied for investigating the dopaminergic system via positron emission tomography (PET). An improved understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysfunctions in the dopamine system and the underlying mechanism is a necessity in order to promote the development of new potential therapeutic drugs. In contrast to other broadly applied 11C-radiopharmaceuticals, the production of this radiotracer requires a challenging four-step radiosynthesis involving harsh reaction conditions and reactants as well as an inert atmosphere. Consequently, the production is prone to errors and troubleshooting after failed radiosyntheses remains time consuming. Hence, we aimed to optimize the radiosynthesis of (+)-[11C]PHNO for achieving better activity yields without loss of product quality. Therefore, we synthesized (+)-[11C]PHNO and omitted all heating and cooling steps leading to higher activity yields. As a result, radiosynthesis fully conducted at room temperature led to a time-reduced production procedure that saves about 5 min, which is an appreciable decay-prevention of around 15% of the activity yield. Additionally, we established a troubleshooting protocol by investigating reaction intermediates, byproducts, and impurities. Indeed, partial runs enabled the assignment of byproducts to their associated error source. Finally, we were able to generate a decision tree facilitating error detection in (+)-[11C]PHNO radiosynthesis.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 09:05:07 +000
  • 99mTc-Labeled LyP-1 for SPECT Imaging of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most aggressive breast cancer type, is associated with high mortality and recurrence rates. An active-targeted strategy based on homing peptides is an effective approach to diagnose and treat cancer as it can deliver imaging agents or therapeutic drugs into desired tissues and accumulate less into off-target tissues. As a homing peptide, LyP-1 has shown properties of targeting, internalization, and proapoptosis to TNBC. In the study, we designed a Technetium-99m- (99mTc-) labeled LyP-1 and investigated its feasibility for targeted single-positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of TNBC. The results showed that the LyP-1 peptide had acceptable biocompatibility in the studied concentration range and could specifically bind to TNBC cells in vitro. 99mTc-labeled LyP-1 showed high radiochemical purity and stability and could be used as a probe for targeted SPECT imaging of TNBC cells in vitro and in a TNBC tumor-bearing mouse model. Our findings indicate that this active-targeted strategy has great potential to be developed into a new imaging tool for TNBC diagnosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Sep 2019 08:05:06 +000
  • Radiosynthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of 11C-VA426, a Cyclooxygenase-2
           Selective Ligand

    • Abstract: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in the inflammatory response, and its recurrent overexpression in cancers as well as in neurodegenerative disorders has made it an important target for therapy. For this reason, noninvasive imaging of COX-2 expression may represent an important diagnostic tool. In this work, a COX-2 inhibitor analogue, VA426 [1-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-(2-methoxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-(4-(methylsulfonil)phenyl)-1H-pyrrole], was synthesized and radiolabelled with the 11C radioisotope. The ex vivo biodistribution profile of 11C-VA426 was evaluated in the brain and periphery of healthy rats and mice and in brain and periphery of inflammation models, based on the administration of LPS. 11C-VA426 synthesis with the tBuOK base showed optimal radiochemical yield (15 ± 2%) based on triflate activity, molar activity (range 37–148 GBq/μmol), and radiochemical purity (>95%). Ex vivo biodistribution studies showed a fast uptake of radioactivity but a rapid washout, except in regions expressing COX-2 (lungs, liver, and kidney) both in rats and in mice, with maximum values at 30 and 10 minutes p.i., respectively. LPS administration did not show significant effect on radioactivity accumulation. Celecoxib competition experiments performed in rats and mice treated with LPS produced a general target unrelated reduction of radioactivity concentration in all peripheral tissues and brain areas examined. Finally, in agreement with the negative results obtained from biodistribution experiments, radiometabolites analysis revealed that 11C-VA426 is highly unstable in vivo. This study indicates that the compound 11C-VA426 is not currently suitable to be used as radiopharmaceutical for PET imaging. This family of compounds needs further implementation in order to improve in vivo stability.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Sep 2019 08:05:12 +000
  • T2 Relaxation Time Obtained from Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Liver
           Is a Useful Parameter for Use in the Construction of a Murine Model of
           Iron Overload

    • Abstract: Aim. Iron overload is a life-threatening disorder that can increase the risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver cirrhosis. There is also a risk of iron overload in patients with chronic kidney disease. In patients with renal failure, iron storage is increased due to inadequate iron utilization associated with decreased erythropoiesis and also to the inflammatory status. To evade the risk of iron overload, an accurate and versatile indicator of body iron storage in patients with iron overload is needed. In this study, we aimed to find useful iron-related parameters that could accurately reflect body iron storage in mice in order to construct a murine model of iron overload. Methods. To select an appropriate indicator of body iron status, a variety of parameters involved in iron metabolism were evaluated. Noninvasively measured parameters were R1, R2, and derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Invasively measured parameters included serum hepcidin levels, serum ferritin levels, and liver iron contents. Histopathological analysis was also conducted. Results/Conclusion. Among the several parameters evaluated, the MRI relaxation time was able to detect iron storage in the liver as sensitively as serum ferritin levels. Moreover, it is expected that using an MRI parameter will allow accurate evaluation of body iron storage in mice over time.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Sep 2019 00:06:26 +000
  • Preclinical Molecular Imaging for Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer
           Mouse Models

    • Abstract: Precision and personalized medicine is gaining importance in modern clinical medicine, as it aims to improve diagnostic precision and to reduce consequent therapeutic failures. In this regard, prior to use in human trials, animal models can help evaluate novel imaging approaches and therapeutic strategies and can help discover new biomarkers. Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, accounting for 25% of cases of all cancers and is responsible for approximately 500,000 deaths per year. Thus, it is important to identify accurate biomarkers for precise stratification of affected patients and for early detection of responsiveness to the selected therapeutic protocol. This review aims to summarize the latest advancements in preclinical molecular imaging in breast cancer mouse models. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging remains one of the most common preclinical techniques used to evaluate biomarker expression in vivo, whereas magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences, has been demonstrated as capable of distinguishing responders from nonresponders for both conventional and innovative chemo- and immune-therapies with high sensitivity and in a noninvasive manner. The ability to customize therapies is desirable, as this will enable early detection of diseases and tailoring of treatments to individual patient profiles. Animal models remain irreplaceable in the effort to understand the molecular mechanisms and patterns of oncologic diseases.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Sep 2019 00:06:23 +000
  • 18F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging in Advanced Glottic Cancer: A Tool for Clinical
           Decision in Comparison with Conventional Imaging

    • Abstract: This study assessed the role of 18F-FDG PET-CT (PET/CT) to detect the cartilage and paraglottic infiltration in advanced glottic cancer comparing the results with those of conventional imaging (CI) (contrast-enhanced computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance). In addition, we assessed the prognostic value of quantitative parameters, measured on baseline PET/CT, in terms of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). We retrospectively analyzed 27 patients with glottic squamous cell carcinoma stage III and IVA, treated in our institute between 2010 and 2016, comparing PET/CT, performed for staging and radiotherapy planning, and CI findings. Cohen’s K was used to compare concordance between PET/CT and CI. Imaging findings were correlated with endoscopic evaluation and histological reports (gold standard (GS)). All lesions shown by CI were also detected by PET/CT imaging, and in 5 cases, a better definition of local infiltration was achieved with PET/CT than CI (5 CT). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET/CT and CT were 95%, 86%, and 93% and 70%, 86%, and 74% for, respectively. MRI showed sensitivity and specificity of 100%. One false-negative (FN) cases and 1 false-positive (FP) case were observed with PET/CT with no difference compared to MRI (10 cases). Six FN cases and 1 FP case were observed with CT. Cohen’s K was 0.60 (PET vs. CI) and 0.80 (PET vs. GS). Patients were followed-up for at least 24 months to calculate EFS and OS. 13 local recurrence and 7 deaths were recorded. Among quantitative PET parameters, baseline MTV was the most powerful predictor of outcome. Our data suggest a reliable sensitivity and accuracy of PET/CT in the evaluation of local extension, proving a useful method for initial local staging in addition to the well-established role in lymph-node and distant sites assessment. Furthermore, pretreatment MTV provides better prognostic information than other PET/CT parameters.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Sep 2019 10:05:11 +000
  • The Clinical Impact of Using 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the Diagnosis of Suspected
           Vasculitis: The Effect of Dose and Timing of Glucocorticoid Treatment

    • Abstract: 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) with computed tomography (CT) is effective for diagnosing large vessel vasculitis, but its usefulness in accurately diagnosing suspected, unselected vasculitis remains unknown. We evaluated the feasibility of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in real-life cohort of patients with suspicion of vasculitis. The effect of the dose and the timing of glucocorticoid (GC) medication on imaging findings were in special interest. 82 patients with suspected vasculitis were evaluated by whole-body 18F-FDG-PET/CT. GC treatment as prednisolone equivalent doses at the scanning moment and before imaging was evaluated. 38/82 patients were diagnosed with vasculitis. Twenty-one out of 38 patients had increased 18F-FDG accumulation in blood vessel walls indicating vasculitis in various sized vessels. Vasculitis patients with a positive vasculitis finding in 18F-FDG-PET/CT had a significantly shorter duration of GC use (median = 4.0 vs 7.0 days, ), and they used lower GC dose during the PET scan (median dose = 15.0 mg/day vs 40.0 mg/day, ) compared to 18F-FDG-PET/CT-negative patients. Vasculitis patients with a positive 18F-FDG-PET/CT result had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than patients with a negative 18F-FDG-PET/CT finding (mean value = 154.5 vs 90.4 mg/L, ). We found that 18F-FDG-PET/CT positivity was significantly associated with a lower dose and shorter duration of GC medication and higher CRP level in vasculitis patients. 18F-FDG-PET/CT revealed clinically significant information in over half of the patients and was effective in confirming the final diagnosis.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Aug 2019 11:05:07 +000
  • MRI Tracking of SPIO- and Fth1-Labeled Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal
           Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Stroke

    • Abstract: We aimed to identify a suitable method for long-term monitoring of the migration and proliferation of mesenchymal stromal cells in stroke models of rats using ferritin transgene expression by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) were transduced with a lentivirus containing a shuttle plasmid (pCDH-CMV-MCS-EF1-copGFP) carrying the ferritin heavy chain 1 (Fth1) gene. Ferritin expression in stromal cells was evaluated with western blotting and immunofluorescent staining. The iron uptake of Fth1-BMSCs was measured with Prussian blue staining. Following surgical introduction of middle cerebral artery occlusion, Fth1-BMSCs and superparamagnetic iron oxide- (SPIO-) labeled BMSCs were injected through the internal jugular vein. The imaging and signal intensities were monitored by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in vitro and in vivo. Pathology was performed for comparison. We observed that the MRI signal intensity of SPIO-BMSCs gradually reduced over time. Fth1-BMSCs showed the same signal intensity between 10 and 60 days. SWI showed hypointense lesions in the SPIO-BMSC (traceable for 30 d) and Fth1-BMSC groups. T2WI was not sensitive enough to trace Fth1-BMSCs. After transplantation, Prussian blue-stained cells were observed around the infarction area and in the infarction center in both transplantation models. Fth1-BMSCs transplanted for treating focal cerebral infarction were safe, reliable, and traceable by MRI. Fth1 labeling was more stable and suitable than SPIO labeling for long-term tracking. SWI was more sensitive than T2W1 and suitable as the optimal MRI-tracking sequence.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Aug 2019 10:05:10 +000
  • A Window on the Lung: Molecular Imaging as a Tool to Dissect
           Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Acute Lung Disease

    • Abstract: In recent years, imaging has given a fundamental contribution to our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung diseases. Several methods have been developed based on computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow regional, in vivo measurement of variables such as lung strain, alveolar size, metabolic activity of inflammatory cells, ventilation, and perfusion. Because several of these methods are noninvasive, they can be successfully translated from animal models to patients. The aim of this paper is to review the advances in knowledge that have been accrued with these imaging modalities on the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Aug 2019 00:05:52 +000
  • Pretargeted Nuclear Imaging and Radioimmunotherapy Based on the Inverse
           Electron-Demand Diels–Alder Reaction and Key Factors in the Pretargeted
           Synthetic Design

    • Abstract: The exceptional speed and biorthogonality of the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder (IEDDA) click chemistry between 1,2,4,5-tetrazines and strained alkene dienophiles have made it promising in the realm of pretargeted imaging and therapy. During the past 10 years, the IEDDA-pretargeted strategies have been tested and have already proven capable of producing images with high tumor-to-background ratios and improving therapeutic effect. This review will focus on recent applications of click chemistry ligations in the pretargeted imaging studies of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and pretargeted radioimmunotherapy investigations. Additionally, the influence factors of stability, reactivity, and pharmacokinetic properties of TCO tag modified immunoconjugates and radiolabeled Tz derivatives were also summarized in this article, which should be carefully considered in the system design in order to develop a successful pretargeted methodology. We hope that this review will not only equip readers with a knowledge of pretargeted methodology based on IEDDA click chemistry but also inspire synthetic chemists and radiochemists to develop pretargeted radiopharmaceutical components in a more innovative way with various influence factors considered.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Aug 2019 00:05:50 +000
  • Medical Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Feedback Mechanism CNN

    • Abstract: With the development of computer vision and image segmentation technology, medical image segmentation and recognition technology has become an important part of computer-aided diagnosis. The traditional image segmentation method relies on artificial means to extract and select information such as edges, colors, and textures in the image. It not only consumes considerable energy resources and people’s time but also requires certain expertise to obtain useful feature information, which no longer meets the practical application requirements of medical image segmentation and recognition. As an efficient image segmentation method, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been widely promoted and applied in the field of medical image segmentation. However, CNNs that rely on simple feedforward methods have not met the actual needs of the rapid development of the medical field. Thus, this paper is inspired by the feedback mechanism of the human visual cortex, and an effective feedback mechanism calculation model and operation framework is proposed, and the feedback optimization problem is presented. A new feedback convolutional neural network algorithm based on neuron screening and neuron visual information recovery is constructed. So, a medical image segmentation algorithm based on a feedback mechanism convolutional neural network is proposed. The basic idea is as follows: The model for obtaining an initial region with the segmented medical image classifies the pixel block samples in the segmented image. Then, the initial results are optimized by threshold segmentation and morphological methods to obtain accurate medical image segmentation results. Experiments show that the proposed segmentation method has not only high segmentation accuracy but also extremely high adaptive segmentation ability for various medical images. The research in this paper provides a new perspective for medical image segmentation research. It is a new attempt to explore more advanced intelligent medical image segmentation methods. It also provides technical approaches and methods for further development and improvement of adaptive medical image segmentation technology.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2019 01:05:19 +000
  • Prognostic Value of Functional Parameters of 18F-FDG-PET Images in
           Patients with Primary Renal/Adrenal Lymphoma

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study is to explore the textural features that may identify the morphological changes in the lymphoma region and predict the prognosis of patients with primary renal lymphoma (PRL) and primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL). Methods. This retrospective study comprised nineteen non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) patients undergoing 18F-FDG-PET/CT at West China Hospital from December 2013 to May 2017. 18F-FDG-PET images were reviewed independently by two board certificated radiologists of nuclear medicine, and the texture features were extracted from LifeX packages. The prognostic value of PET FDG-uptake parameters, patients’ baseline characteristics, and textural parameters were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to identify the independent prognostic factors among the imaging and clinical features. Results. The overall survival of included patients was 18.84 ± 13.40 (mean ± SD) months. Univariate Cox analyses found that the tumor stage, GLCM (gray-level co-occurrence matrix) entropy, GLZLM_GLNU (gray-level nonuniformity), and GLZLM_ZLNU (zone length nonuniformity), values were significant predictors for OS. Among them, GLRLM_RLNU ≥216.6 demonstrated association with worse OS at multivariate analysis (HR 9.016, 95% CI 1.041–78.112, ).Conclusions. The texture analysis of 18F-FDG-PET images could potentially serve as a noninvasive strategy to predict the overall survival of patients with PRL and PAL.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jul 2019 14:05:18 +000
  • Diagnostic Performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Infectious and Inflammatory
           Diseases according to Published Meta-Analyses

    • Abstract: Purpose. To date, several meta-analyses have reported data about the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory diseases. This article aims to summarize the published evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in this setting. Methods. A comprehensive computer literature search of meta-analyses published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane library database from January 2009 through December 2018 and regarding the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory diseases was carried out. This combination of key words was used: (i) “PET” OR “positron emission tomography” OR “FDG” OR “fluorodeoxyglucose” AND (ii) meta-analysis. Only records on inflammatory or infectious diseases were selected. Results. The diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in detecting inflammatory and infectious diseases has been summarized taking into account 36 meta-analyses published in the literature. Evidence-based data demonstrated good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT for several inflammatory and infectious diseases, in particular cardiovascular infectious and inflammatory diseases and some musculoskeletal infections. Conclusions. Evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT in infectious and inflammatory diseases are increasing, with good diagnostic performance of this imaging method for some indications. More prospective multicenter studies and cost-effective analyses are warranted.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jul 2019 09:05:18 +000
  • Prediction of Chemotherapy Response of Osteosarcoma Using Baseline 18F-FDG
           Textural Features Machine Learning Approaches with PCA

    • Abstract: Purpose. Patients with high-grade osteosarcoma undergo several chemotherapy cycles before surgical intervention. Response to chemotherapy, however, is affected by intratumor heterogeneity. In this study, we assessed the ability of a machine learning approach using baseline 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emitted tomography (PET) textural features to predict response to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma patients. Materials and Methods. This study included 70 osteosarcoma patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Quantitative characteristics of the tumors were evaluated by standard uptake value (SUV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV). Tumor heterogeneity was evaluated using textural analysis of 18F-FDG PET scan images. Assessments were performed at baseline and after chemotherapy using 18F-FDG PET; 18F-FDG textural features were evaluated using the Chang-Gung Image Texture Analysis toolbox. To predict the chemotherapy response, several features were chosen using the principal component analysis (PCA) feature selection method. Machine learning was performed using linear support vector machine (SVM), random forest, and gradient boost methods. The ability to predict chemotherapy response was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results. AUCs of the baseline 18F-FDG features SUVmax, TLG, MTV, 1st entropy, and gray level co-occurrence matrix entropy were 0.553, 0538, 0.536, 0.538, and 0.543, respectively. However, AUCs of the machine learning features linear SVM, random forest, and gradient boost were 0.72, 0.78, and 0.82, respectively. Conclusion. We found that a machine learning approach based on 18F-FDG textural features could predict the chemotherapy response using baseline PET images. This early prediction of the chemotherapy response may aid in determining treatment plans for osteosarcoma patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jul 2019 12:05:11 +000
  • Imaging Characteristics of USPIO Nanoparticles (

    • Abstract: Iron nanoparticles have an increasingly more and more important role in MR molecular imaging due to their novel magnetic and surface chemical properties. They provide new possibilities for noninvasive diagnosis and treatment monitoring, especially for tissues that are rich in macrophages. The smaller size and prolongation of the plasma half-life change the in vivo fate of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles captured by liver in reticuloendothelial system (RES) or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). However, there is still a lack of MR imaging studies on the liver assessing USPIO nanoparticles
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jul 2019 00:05:24 +000
  • Diffusion Kurtosis MR Imaging versus Conventional Diffusion-Weighted
           Imaging for Distinguishing Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Benign Hepatic

    • Abstract: Objectives. To assess the efficacy of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and compare DKI-derived parameters with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for distinguishing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from benign hepatic nodules including focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hemangioma, and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA). Materials and Methods. 151 patients with 182 hepatic nodules (114 HCCs and 68 benign nodules including 33 FNHs, 29 hemangiomas, and 6 HCAs) were analyzed. Preoperative MRI examinations including DKI (b values: 0, 200, 500, 800, 1500, and 2000 sec/mm2) were performed, and kurtosis (K), diffusivity (D), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated. The efficacy of DKI-derived parameters K, D, and ADC for distinguishing HCC from these benign nodules was analyzed. Results. ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) analysis showed the optimal cutoff values of ADC, D, and K for identification of these benign nodules, and HCCs were 1.295 (area under the curve (AUC): 0.826; sensitivity 80.6%; specificity 70.8%), 1.787 (AUC: 0.770; sensitivity 83.6%; specificity 59.6%), and 1.002 (AUC: 0.761; sensitivity 65.5%; specificity 79.0%), respectively. Statistically significant differences were found in ADC, D, and K values between groups of HCC-FNH and HCC-hemangioma (). There were significant differences in K and ADC values between groups of FNH-hemangioma and HCA-hemangioma (), respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, a regression equation was obtained: (X1: ADC; X3: K), and odds ratios (OR) were 0.138 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.052, 0.367), and 8.996 (95% CI: 0.970, 16.460), respectively. Conclusion. Both ADC value and DKI-derived parameters K and D values have demonstrated a higher preoperative efficacy in distinguishing HCC from FNH, hemangioma, and HCA. No evidence was shown to suggest D or K value was superior to the ADC value.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jul 2019 11:05:04 +000
  • Multifunctionalized Microscale Ultrasound Contrast Agents for Precise
           Theranostics of Malignant Tumors

    • Abstract: In ultrasonography, ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) that possess high acoustic impedance mismatch with the bulk medium are frequently employed to highlight the borders between tissues by enhanced ultrasound scattering in a clinic. Typically, the most common UCA, microbubble, is generally close in size to a red blood cell (
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Jul 2019 08:05:13 +000
  • Evaluation of an AI-Powered Lung Nodule Algorithm for Detection and 3D
           Segmentation of Primary Lung Tumors

    • Abstract: Automated detection and segmentation is a prerequisite for the deployment of image-based secondary analyses, especially for lung tumors. However, currently only applications for lung nodules ≤3 cm exist. Therefore, we tested the performance of a fully automated AI-based lung nodule algorithm for detection and 3D segmentation of primary lung tumors in the context of tumor staging using the CT component of FDG-PET/CT and including all T-categories (T1–T4). FDG-PET/CTs of 320 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer performed between 01/2010 and 06/2016 were selected. First, the main primary lung tumor within each scan was manually segmented using the CT component of the PET/CTs as reference. Second, the CT series were transferred to a platform with AI-based algorithms trained on chest CTs for detection and segmentation of lung nodules. Detection and segmentation performance were analyzed. Factors influencing detection rates were explored with binominal logistic regression and radiomic analysis. We also processed 94 PET/CTs negative for pulmonary nodules to investigate frequency and reasons of false-positive findings. The ratio of detected tumors was best in the T1-category (90.4%) and decreased continuously: T2 (70.8%), T3 (29.4%), and T4 (8.8%). Tumor contact with the pleura was a strong predictor of misdetection. Segmentation performance was excellent for T1 tumors (r = 0.908, ) and tumors without pleural contact (r = 0.971, ). Volumes of larger tumors were systematically underestimated. There were 0.41 false-positive findings per exam. The algorithm tested facilitates a reliable detection and 3D segmentation of T1/T2 lung tumors on FDG-PET/CTs. The detection and segmentation of more advanced lung tumors is currently imprecise due to the conception of the algorithm for lung nodules
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 12:05:06 +000
  • Combining Diagnostic Imaging and Pathology for Improving Diagnosis and
           Prognosis of Cancer

    • Abstract: In the era of personalized medicine, the management of oncological patients requires a translational and multidisciplinary approach. During early phases of cancer development, biochemical alterations of cell metabolism occur much before the formation of detectable tumour masses. Current molecular imaging techniques, targeted to the study of molecular kinetics, employ molecular tracers capable of detecting cancer lesions with both high sensitivity and specificity while also providing essential information for both prognosis and therapy. On the contrary, complementary and crucial information is provided by histopathological examination and ancillary techniques such as immunohistochemistry. Thus, the successful collaboration between diagnostic imaging and anatomic pathology can represent a fundamental step in the “tortuous” but decisive path towards personalized medicine.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:05:23 +000
  • Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of the Fibrin-Binding Cyclic Peptide
           18F-iCREKA: Comparison with Its Contrasted Linear Peptide

    • Abstract: Purpose. Cys-Arg-Glu-Lys-Ala (CREKA) is a pentapeptide which can target fibrin-fibronectin complexes. Our previous study has built a probe called iCREKA which was based on CREKA and has proved the feasibility and specificity of iCREKA by the fluorescence experiment. The purpose of this study is to achieve the 18F-labeled iCREKA and make preclinical evaluation of the 18F-iCREKA with comparison of its contrasted linear peptide (LP). Methods. CREKA, LP, and iCREKA were labeled by the Al18F labeling method, respectively. These 18F-labeled peptides were evaluated by the radiochemistry, binding affinity, in vitro stability, in vivo stability, micro-PET imaging, and biodistribution tests. Results. 18F-NOTA-iCREKA was stable both in vitro and in vivo. However, 18F-NOTA-CREKA and 18F-NOTA-LP were both unstable. The FITC or 18F-labeled iCREKA could be abundantly discovered only in matrix metalloproteinases- (MMPs-) 2/9 highly expressed U87MG cells, while the FITC or 18F-labeled LP could also be abundantly discovered in MMP-2/9 lowly expressed Caov3 cells. Biodistribution and micropositron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed that the U87MG xenografts showed a higher uptake of 18F-NOTA-iCREKA than 18F-NOTA-LP while the Caov3 xenografts showed very low uptake of both 18F-NOTA-iCREKA and 18F-NOTA-LP. The tumor-to-muscle (T/M) ratio of 18F-NOTA-iCREKA (9.93 ± 0.42) was obviously higher than 18F-NOTA-LP (2.69 ± 0.35) in U87MG xenografts. Conclusions. The novel CREKA-based probe 18F-NOTA-iCREKA could get a high uptake in U87MG cells and high T/M ratio in U87MG mice. It was more stable and specific than the 18F-NOTA-LP.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jun 2019 12:05:09 +000
  • Gallium-68-Labelled Indocyanine Green as a Potential Liver Reserve Imaging

    • Abstract: Objective. This work evaluated the potential of 68Ga-labelledNOTA-ICG (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid indocyanine green) for liver reserve imaging. Methods. To determine the optimal conditions for generating 68Ga-NOTA-ICG, various reaction parameters were implemented. Quality control analysis was performed using different chromatography techniques. The in vitro and in vivo stability was also measured at specific time points. The radioactivity ratio between n-octanol and water was determined to evaluate the water solubility of 68Ga-NOTA-ICG. The plasma-protein binding rate of the labelled compound was determined by the methanol method. The biodistribution and imaging findings were evaluated in normal animals at different time points after injection. A preliminary imaging evaluation was performed using an animal model of hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which was confirmed by pathology. Results. 68Ga-NOTA-ICG was prepared with very high radiochemical purity (>98%) by reacting at 90°C for 10 min at pH = 3.5∼4.0, with excellent stability in vivo and in vitro (>95% 3 h postpreparation). The in vitro plasma-protein binding rate of 68Ga-NOTA-ICG was 13.01 ± 0.7%, and it showed strong water solubility . We found that in addition to excretion through the biliary tract and intestines, 68Ga-NOTA-ICG can be excreted through the urinary tract. The image quality of 68Ga-NOTA-ICG was very high; imaging agent retained in the area of liver injury could clearly be observed. Conclusion. This is the first report on a 68Ga-labelled NOTA-ICG fragment for liver reserve function studies. This complex has promise as a candidate agent for liver reserve imaging.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jun 2019 09:05:14 +000
  • An Efficient T1 Contrast Agent for Labeling and Tracking Human Embryonic
           Stem Cells on MRI

    • Abstract: Noninvasive cell tracking in vivo has the potential to advance stem cell-based therapies into the clinic. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an excellent image-guidance platform; however, existing MR cell labeling agents are fraught with limited specificity. To address this unmet need, we developed a highly efficient manganese porphyrin contrast agent, MnEtP, using a two-step synthesis. In vitro MRI at 3 Tesla on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) demonstrated high labeling efficiency at a very low dose of 10 µM MnEtP, resulting in a four-fold lower T1 relaxation time. This extraordinarily low dose is ideal for labeling large cell numbers required for large animals and humans. Cell viability and differentiation capacity were unaffected. Cellular manganese quantification corroborated MRI findings, and the agent localized primarily on the cell membrane. In vivo MRI of transplanted hESCs in a rat demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity of MnEtP for noninvasive stem cell tracking.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jun 2019 13:30:04 +000
  • Imaging Diagnostic and Pathology in the Management of Oncological-Patients

    • PubDate: Sun, 16 Jun 2019 10:05:04 +000
  • Neutrophil Elastase Activity Imaging: Recent Approaches in the Design and
           Applications of Activity-Based Probes and Substrate-Based Probes

    • Abstract: The last few decades of protease research has confirmed that a number of important biological processes are strictly dependent on proteolysis. Neutrophil elastase (NE) is a critical protease in immune response and host defense mechanisms in both physiological and disease-associated conditions. Particularly, NE has been identified as a promising biomarker for early diagnosis of lung inflammation. Recent studies have shown an increasing interest in developing methods for NE activity imaging both in vitro and in vivo. Unlike anatomical imaging modalities, functional molecular imaging, including enzymatic activities, enables disease detection at a very early stage and thus constitutes a much more accurate approach. When combined with advanced imaging technologies, opportunities arise for measuring imbalanced proteolytic activities with unprecedented details. Such technologies consist in building the highest resolved and sensitive instruments as well as the most specific probes based either on peptide substrates or on covalent inhibitors. This review outlines strengths and weaknesses of these technologies and discuss their applications to investigate NE activity as biomarker of pulmonary inflammatory diseases by imaging.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jun 2019 00:05:05 +000
  • Labeling Stem Cells with a New Hybrid Bismuth/Carbon Nanotube Contrast
           Agent for X-Ray Imaging

    • Abstract: The poor retention and survival of cells after transplantation to solid tissue represent a major obstacle for the effectiveness of stem cell-based therapies. The ability to track stem cells in vivo can lead to a better understanding of the biodistribution of transplanted cells, in addition to improving the analysis of stem cell therapies’ outcomes. Here, we described the use of a carbon nanotube-based contrast agent (CA) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging as an intracellular CA to label bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Porcine MSCs were labeled without observed cytotoxicity. The CA consists of a hybrid material containing ultra-short single-walled carbon nanotubes (20–80 nm in length, US-tubes) and Bi(III) oxo-salicylate clusters which contain four Bi3+ ions per cluster (Bi4C). The CA is thus abbreviated as Bi4C@US-tubes.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Jun 2019 08:05:20 +000
  • Monitoring the Early Response of Fulvestrant Plus Tanshinone IIA
           Combination Therapy to Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer by
           Longitudinal 18F-FES PET/CT

    • Abstract: Endocrine monotherapy of breast cancers is generally hampered by the primary/acquired resistance and adverse sides in clinical settings. Herein, advantaging the multitargeting antitumor effects and normal organ-protecting roles of Chinese herbal medicine, the aim of this study was to investigate the enhanced synergistic efficacy of fulvestrant plus Tan IIA combination therapy in ER-positive breast cancers and to monitor the early response by longitudinal 18F-FES PET/CT imaging. The experimental results showed FUL + Tan IIA combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth of ER-positive ZR-75-1 tumor xenografts and exhibited distinct antitumor effects at an earlier time point after treatment than did the monotherapy of FUL or Tan IIA. Moreover, 18F-FES PET/CT imaging competently monitored the early response of FUL + Tan IIA combination therapy. The quantitative 18F-FES %ID/gmax in vivo was further confirmed by and correlated well with ERα expression ex vivo. In conclusion, the synergic effect of FUL + Tan IIA combination therapy to ER-positive breast cancers was verified in the preclinical tumor models and the early treatment response could be monitored by 18F-FES PET/CT.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2019 13:05:11 +000
  • Highly Biocompatible Nanoparticles of Au@Fluorescent Polymers as Novel
           Contrast Agent for In Vivo Bimodality NIR Fluorescence/CT Imaging

    • Abstract: In this work, one kind of biocompatible and all-in-one dual-modal nanoprobe, based on Au nanoparticles and NIR emissive semiconducting fluorescence polymers, was developed by the one-step solvent-mediated self-assembly method for in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence bioimaging for the first time. After preparation, a series of comprehensive evaluations were performed, and the nanoprobe exhibited smart size and modification, good compatibility, inducement of autophagy, long blood circulation, unconspicuous in vivo toxicity, and excellent fluorescence/CT imaging effects. Overall, the studies in this work assuredly indicate that the synthesized Au@FP nanoparticles as a noninvasive contrast agent is suitable for in vivo fluorescence/X-ray CT bimodality biomedical imaging and diagnosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2019 10:05:16 +000
  • MR Imaging-Histology Correlation by Tailored 3D-Printed Slicer in
           Oncological Assessment

    • Abstract: 3D printing and reverse engineering are innovative technologies that are revolutionizing scientific research in the health sciences and related clinical practice. Such technologies are able to improve the development of various custom-made medical devices while also lowering design and production costs. Recent advances allow the printing of particularly complex prototypes whose geometry is drawn from precise computer models designed on in vivo imaging data. This review summarizes a new method for histological sample processing (applicable to e.g., the brain, prostate, liver, and renal mass) which employs a personalized mold developed from diagnostic images through computer-aided design software and 3D printing. Through positioning the custom mold in a coherent manner with respect to the organ of interest (as delineated by in vivo imaging data), the cutting instrument can be precisely guided in order to obtain blocks of tissue which correspond with high accuracy to the slices imaged. This approach appeared crucial for validation of new quantitative imaging tools, for an accurate imaging-histopathological correlation and for the assessment of radiogenomic features extracted from oncological lesions. The aim of this review is to define and describe 3D printing technologies which are applicable to oncological assessment and slicer design, highlighting the radiological and pathological perspective as well as recent applications of this approach for the histological validation of and correlation with MR images.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 May 2019 10:05:13 +000
  • MR Angiography of the Head/Neck Vascular System in Mice on a Clinical MRI

    • Abstract: Background. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) represents a clinical reference standard for the in vivo assessment of the vasculature. In this study, the potential of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced angiography of the head/neck vasculature in mice on a clinical MR imaging system was tested. Methods. All in vivo magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a 3T clinical system (Siemens). Non-contrast-enhanced (time-of-flight, TOF) and contrast-enhanced angiography (gadofosveset-trisodium, GdT) were performed in C57BL/6J mouse strain. Lumen-to-muscle ratios (LMRs) and area measurements were assessed. Histology was performed as reference standard of all relevant vascular structures. Results. A close correlation between TOF (R2 = 0.79; ) and contrast-enhanced (GdT) angiography (R2 = 0.92; ) with histological area measurements was found. LMRs were comparable between both sequences. Regarding interobserver reproducibility, contrast-enhanced (GdT) angiography yielded a smaller 95% confidence interval and a closer interreader correlation compared to non-contrast-enhanced (TOF) measurements (−0.73–0.89; R2 = 0.81 vs. −0.55–0.56; R2 = 0.94). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced angiographies of the head/neck vasculature of small animals can reliably performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Contrast-enhanced angiography enables the visualization of vascular structures with higher intravascular contrast and higher reproducibility.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 May 2019 09:05:14 +000
  • Assessment of Body Composition in Health and Disease Using Bioelectrical
           Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA): A
           Critical Overview

    • Abstract: The measurement of body composition (BC) represents a valuable tool to assess nutritional status in health and disease. The most used methods to evaluate BC in the clinical practice are based on bicompartment models and measure, directly or indirectly, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (nowadays considered as the reference technique in clinical practice) are extensively used in epidemiological (mainly BIA) and clinical (mainly DXA) settings to evaluate BC. DXA is primarily used for the measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and density to assess bone health and diagnose osteoporosis in defined anatomical regions (femur and spine). However, total body DXA scans are used to derive a three-compartment BC model, including BMC, FM, and FFM. Both these methods feature some limitations: the accuracy of BIA measurements is reduced when specific predictive equations and standardized measurement protocols are not utilized whereas the limitations of DXA are the safety of repeated measurements (no more than two body scans per year are currently advised), cost, and technical expertise. This review aims to provide useful insights mostly into the use of BC methods in prevention and clinical practice (ambulatory or bedridden patients). We believe that it will stimulate a discussion on the topic and reinvigorate the crucial role of BC evaluation in diagnostic and clinical investigation protocols.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 May 2019 09:05:12 +000
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