Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Predictive Ki-67 Proliferation Index of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma
           Based on IVIM-DWI Combined with Texture Features

    • Abstract: Purpose. This study aims to determine whether IVIM-DWI combined with texture features based on preoperative IVIM-DWI could be used to predict the Ki-67 PI, which is a widely used cell proliferation biomarker in CSCC. Methods. A total of 70 patients were included. Among these patients, 16 patients were divided into the Ki-67 PI
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jan 2021 04:50:00 +000
       
  • Prediction of Histologic Subtype and FNCLCC Grade by SUVmax Measured on
           18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma

    • Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) in differentiating the subtypes and tumor grades of retroperitoneal liposarcoma (RPLS). The data of RPLS patients who underwent surgical resection from November 2013 to December 2019 at the sarcoma center of our institute were reviewed. The demographics, clinical features, and SUVmax of 84 patients who underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were analyzed. Of these, 19 patients (22.6%) were with well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLPS), 60 patients (71.4%) were with dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS), and 5 patients (6.0%) were with pleomorphic liposarcoma (PMLPS). The median SUVmax of WDLPS, DDLPS, and PMLPS groups was 2.8 (IQR: 1.9–3.2), 6.2 (IQR: 4.1–11.3), and 4.5 (IQR: 4.0–7.4). The ROC curve suggested 3.8 as an approximate cutoff value of SUVmax for distinguishing WDLPS and non-WDLPS (sensitivity = 0.769; specificity = 0.895). The median SUVmax for FNCLCC Grades 1, 2, and 3 of RPLS was 2.5 (IQR: 1.9–3.2), 4.5 (IQR: 3.2–6.7), and 9.0 (IQR: 6.0–13.3). The ROC curves suggest that SUVmax of ≤3.8 and >5.3 can be used for predicting FNCLCC Grades 1 and 3, respectively. The result showed that 18F-FDG PET/CT exhibited high sensitivity and specificity for identifying the subtypes and FNCLCC grades of RPLS. Additionally, 18F-FDG PET/CT might be a useful complementary imaging modality for guiding suitable biopsy location of RPLS.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jan 2021 15:50:00 +000
       
  • Amphiphilic Polymer-Modified Uniform CuFeSe2 Nanoparticles for CT/MR
           Dual-Modal Imaging

    • Abstract: Recently, magnetic photothermal nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In this study, we developed the ultrasmall magnetic CuFeSe2 nanoparticles for CT/MR dual-modal imaging. By controlling the reaction time and condition, CuFeSe2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple directly aqueous method. After modification with copolymer methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (MPEG-PCL), the obtained MPEG-PCL@CuFeSe2 nanoparticles showed excellent water solubility, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility. In addition, they also exhibited superparamagnetism and X-ray’s characteristics. For these properties, they will become ideal nanomaterials for CT/MR dual-modal imaging.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2020 15:50:01 +000
       
  • Iron (III)-Quercetin Complex: Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization,
           and MRI Cell Tracking toward Potential Applications in Regenerative
           Medicine

    • Abstract: In cell therapy, contrast agents T1 and T2 are both needed for the labeling and tracking of transplanted stem cells over extended periods of time through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Importantly, the metal-quercetin complex via coordination chemistry has been studied extensively for biomedical applications, such as anticancer therapies and imaging probes. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and labeling of the iron (III)-quercetin complex, “IronQ,” in circulating proangiogenic cells (CACs) and also explore tracking via the use of a clinical 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner. Moreover, IronQ had a paramagnetic T1 positive contrast agent property with a saturation magnetization of 0.155 emu/g at 1.0 T and longitudinal relaxivity (r1) values of 2.29 and 3.70 mM−1s−1 at 1.5 T for water and human plasma, respectively. Surprisingly, IronQ was able to promote CAC growth in conventional cell culture systems without the addition of specific growth factors. Increasing dosages of IronQ from 0 to 200 μg/mL led to higher CAC uptake, and maximum labeling time was achieved in 10 days. The accumulated IronQ in CACs was measured by two methodologies, an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-EOS) and T1-weighted MRI. In our research, we confirmed that IronQ has excellent dual functions with the use of an imaging probe for MRI. IronQ can also act as a stimulating agent by favoring circulating proangiogenic cell differentiation. Optimistically, IronQ is considered beneficial for alternative labeling and in the tracking of circulation proangiogenic cells and/or other stem cells in applications of cell therapy through noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging in both preclinical and clinical settings.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 14:50:00 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of Machine Learning-Based Radiomics in Grading
           Gliomas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Purpose. This study aimed to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of machine learning- (ML-) based radiomics in differentiating high-grade gliomas (HGG) from low-grade gliomas (LGG) and to identify potential covariates that could affect the diagnostic accuracy of ML-based radiomic analysis in classifying gliomas. Method. A primary literature search of the PubMed database was conducted to find all related literatures in English between January 1, 2009, and May 1, 2020, with combining synonyms for “machine learning,” “glioma,” and “radiomics.” Five retrospective designed original articles including LGG and HGG subjects were chosen. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, their 95% confidence interval, area under curve (AUC), and hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic (HSROC) models were obtained. Result. The pooled sensitivity when diagnosing HGG was higher (96% (95% CI: 0.93, 0.98)) than the specificity when diagnosing LGG (90% (95% CI 0.85, 0.93)). Heterogeneity was observed in both sensitivity and specificity. Metaregression confirmed the heterogeneity in sample sizes (), imaging sequence types (), and data sources (), but not for the inclusion of the testing set (), feature extraction number (), and selection of feature number (). The results of subgroup analysis indicate that sample sizes of more than 100 and feature selection numbers less than the total sample size positively affected the diagnostic performance in differentiating HGG from LGG. Conclusion. This study demonstrates the excellent diagnostic performance of ML-based radiomics in differentiating HGG from LGG.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Dec 2020 15:50:01 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Value of Structural and Functional Neuroimaging in Autoimmune
           Epilepsy

    • Abstract: Epilepsy is a common nervous system disease, which affects about 70 million people all over the world. In 2017, the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) considered immune factors as its independent cause, and the concept of autoimmune epilepsy (AE) was widely accepted. Early diagnosis and timely treatment can effectively improve the prognosis of the disease. However, due to the diversity of clinical manifestations, the expensive cost of autoantibody detection, and the increased prevalence in Western China, the difficulty for clinicians in early diagnosis and treatment has increased. Fortunately, convenient and fast imaging examinations are expected to help even more. The imaging manifestations of AE patients were characteristic, especially the combined application of structural and functional neuroimaging, which improved the diagnostic value of imaging. In this paper, several common autoantibodies associated with AE and their structure and function changes in neuroimaging were reviewed to provide help for neurologists to achieve the goal of precision medicine.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Dec 2020 04:20:00 +000
       
  • Current and Potential Applications of Artificial Intelligence in
           Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Imaging

    • Abstract: The most common mesenchymal tumors are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), which have malignant potential and can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal system. Imaging methods are important and indispensable of GISTs in diagnosis, risk staging, therapy, and follow-up. The recommended imaging method for staging and follow-up is computed tomography (CT) according to current guidelines. Artificial intelligence (AI) applies and elaborates theses, procedures, modes, and utilization systems for simulating, enlarging, and stretching the intellectual capacity of humans. Recently, researchers have done a few studies to explore AI applications in GIST imaging. This article reviews the present AI studies in GISTs imaging, including preoperative diagnosis, risk stratification and prediction of prognosis, gene mutation, and targeted therapy response.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 16:35:00 +000
       
  • Longitudinal GluCEST MRI Changes and Cerebral Blood Flow in 5xFAD Mice

    • Abstract: Many of the focal neurological symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are due to synaptic loss. Glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a candidate method to assess synaptic dysfunction. We assessed chronological changes in GluCEST in a 5xFAD mouse model of AD, comparing Glucest effects and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF). GluCEST effects and CBF in 5xFAD mice aged 1–15 months and their littermates (WT) were measured. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) MRI reflecting dendritic/axonal density was also measured and compared with GluCEST in 7-month-old mice. While regional CBF’s decrease began at 7 months, GluCEST-reduction effects preceded hypoperfusion of the temporal cortex and hippocampus. While longitudinal 5xFAD mouse measurements revealed a correlation between the regional GluCEST effects and CBF, a generalized linear mixed model revealed statistically different correlations in cortical and basal brain regions. Further, NODDI-derived neurite density correlated with GluCEST effects in the parietal cortex, but not in the hippocampus, thereby revealing regional differences in pathophysiological mechanisms. Finally, GluCEST’s effects correlated with regional synaptophysin. These results demonstrate that GluCEST can reflect subtle synaptic changes and may be a potential imaging method for AD diagnosis as well as serve as a biomarker of AD progression.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 07:35:01 +000
       
  • Application of Distributed Parameter Model to Assessment of Glioma IDH
           Mutation Status by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • Abstract: Previous studies using contrast-enhanced imaging for glioma isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation assessment showed promising yet inconsistent results, and this study attempts to explore this problem by using an advanced tracer kinetic model, the distributed parameter model (DP). Fifty-five patients with glioma examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging sequence at a 3.0 T scanner were retrospectively reviewed. The imaging data were processed using DP, yielding the following parameters: blood flow F, permeability-surface area product PS, fractional volume of interstitial space Ve, fractional volume of intravascular space Vp, and extraction ratio E. The results were compared with the Tofts model. The Wilcoxon test and boxplot were utilized for assessment of differences of model parameters between IDH-mutant and IDH-wildtype gliomas. Spearman correlation r was employed to investigate the relationship between DP and Tofts parameters. Diagnostic performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and quantified using the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results showed that IDH-mutant gliomas were significantly lower in F ( = 0.018), PS (),Vp (),E (), and Ve ( = 0.002) than IDH-wildtype gliomas. In differentiating IDH-mutant and IDH-wildtype gliomas, Vp had the best performance (AUC = 0.92), and the AUCs of PS and E were 0.82 and 0.80, respectively. In comparison, Tofts parameters were lower in Ktrans ( = 0.013) and Ve () for IDH-mutant gliomas. No significant difference was observed in Kep ( = 0.525). The AUCs of Ktrans, Ve, and Kep were 0.69, 0.79, and 0.55, respectively. Tofts-derived Ve showed a strong correlation with DP-derived Ve (r > 0.9, ).Ktrans showed a weak correlation with F (r  0.16) and a very weak correlation with PS (r  0.8), both of which were not statistically significant. The findings by DP revealed a tissue environment with lower vascularity, lower vessel permeability, and lower blood flow in IDH-mutant than in IDH-wildtype gliomas, being hostile to cellular differentiation of oncogenic effects in IDH-mutated gliomas, which might help to explain the better outcomes in IDH-mutated glioma patients than in glioma patients of IDH-wildtype. The advantage of DP over Tofts in glioma DCE data analysis was demonstrated in terms of clearer elucidation of tissue microenvironment and better performance in IDH mutation assessment.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 07:35:00 +000
       
  • The Use of Carbon Quantum Dot as Alternative of Stannous Chloride
           Application in Radiopharmaceutical Kits

    • Abstract: Even today, technetium-99m is a radionuclide choice for diagnostic in nuclear medicine. The unique chemical and physical properties of technetium-99m make it suitable as an available radionuclide in many centers. In this study, we examined the potential of CQD as a reducing agent in the MDP kit. Citric acid-derived CQD was synthesized and confirmed by FT-IR, TEM, UV-Vis, XPS, and surface analysis. No cytotoxicity was observed by the MTT assay. They were reducing properties of the CQD confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The MDP kit is prepared by evaluating different parameters that affect the radiolabeling yield, including ligand, time, and CQD. The optimum amount of each parameter is obtained by Box–Behnken software. Finally, fluorescent spectroscopy, SPECT imaging, and biodistribution study showed that CQD reduces technetium-99m. Accumulation of radiotracer in the femur showed that CQD could be used in a radiopharmaceutical kit.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Nov 2020 15:35:01 +000
       
  • Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Evaluation of Mifepristone for Treatment of
           Low-Risk Cesarean Scar Pregnancy

    • Abstract: Purpose. The effect of mifepristone for treatment of low-risk cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) was monitored by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Methods. Data were collected from 23 CSP patients with a 10-point risk score 0.05). There was also no significant difference in the rate of effective treatment between the two groups (95.65% in the CSP group vs. 100% in the IUP group; ).Conclusions. Based on monitoring by CEUS, the effect of mifepristone in low-risk CSP was comparable to that in IUP.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Oct 2020 07:50:01 +000
       
  • Preoperatively Grading Rectal Cancer with the Combination of Intravoxel
           Incoherent Motions Imaging and Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging

    • Abstract: Purpose. To combine Intravoxel Incoherent Motions (IVIM) imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) which can aid in the quantification of different biological inspirations including cellularity, vascularity, and microstructural heterogeneity to preoperatively grade rectal cancer. Methods. A total of 58 rectal patients were included into this prospective study. MRI was performed with a 3T scanner. Different combinations of IVIM-derived and DKI-derived parameters were performed to grade rectal cancer. Pearson correlation coefficients were applied to evaluate the correlations. Binary logistic regression models were established via integrating different DWI parameters for screening the most sensitive parameter. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed for evaluating the diagnostic performance. Results. For individual DWI-derived parameters, all parameters except the pseudodiffusion coefficient displayed the capability of grading rectal cancer (). The better discrimination between high- and low-grade rectal cancer was achieved with the combination of different DWI-derived parameters. Similarly, ROC analysis suggested the combination of D (true diffusion coefficient), f (perfusion fraction), and Kapp (apparent kurtosis coefficient) yielded the best diagnostic performance (AUC = 0.953, ). According to the result of binary logistic analysis, cellularity-related D was the most sensitive predictor (odds ratio: 9.350 ± 2.239) for grading rectal cancer. Conclusion. The combination of IVIM and DKI holds great potential in accurately grading rectal cancer as IVIM and DKI can provide the quantification of different biological inspirations including cellularity, vascularity, and microstructural heterogeneity.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Oct 2020 16:35:01 +000
       
  • New Strategies in the Design of Paramagnetic CAs

    • Abstract: Nowadays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the first diagnostic imaging modality for numerous indications able to provide anatomical information with high spatial resolution through the use of magnetic fields and gradients. Indeed, thanks to the characteristic relaxation time of each tissue, it is possible to distinguish between healthy and pathological ones. However, the need to have brighter images to increase differences and catch important diagnostic details has led to the use of contrast agents (CAs). Among them, Gadolinium-based CAs (Gd-CAs) are routinely used in clinical MRI practice. During these last years, FDA highlighted many risks related to the use of Gd-CAs such as nephrotoxicity, heavy allergic effects, and, recently, about the deposition within the brain. These alerts opened a debate about the opportunity to formulate Gd-CAs in a different way but also to the use of alternative and safer compounds to be administered, such as manganese- (Mn-) based agents. In this review, the physical principle behind the role of relaxivity and the T1 boosting will be described in terms of characteristic correlation times and inner and outer spheres. Then, the recent advances in the entrapment of Gd-CAs within nanostructures will be analyzed in terms of relaxivity boosting obtained without the chemical modification of CAs as approved in the chemical practice. Finally, a critical evaluation of the use of manganese-based CAs will be illustrated as an alternative ion to Gd due to its excellent properties and endogenous elimination pathway.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Sep 2020 13:50:03 +000
       
  • Delayed 18F-FDG PET/CT Appearance of Urachal Adenocarcinomas

    • Abstract: Background. Urachal carcinoma is a rare urological malignancy. Use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in urological oncology has developed slowly because of the urinary elimination of 18F-FDG. We investigated whether delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT could be used for diagnosing urachal carcinoma. Methods. This retrospective study included 6 patients who underwent delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of urachal carcinoma. The delayed postdiuretic PET/CT parameters and clinical characteristics of urachal carcinoma were investigated. Results. There was no significant difference in the SUVmax between the primary tumors and the urine in the bladder before delayed diuresis (25.4 ± 19.5 vs. 42.9 ± 31.1, ). However, the SUVmax of the primary tumors was significantly higher than the SUVmax of urine after delayed diuresis (25.4 ± 19.5 vs. 3.5 ± 1.6, ). Diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in all patients when compared with normal liver tissues or urine after delayed diuresis. The SUVmax, TLR, and TUR of the primary tumors were 25.4 (range: 7.2–58.9), 7.0 (range: 1.8–14.7), and 6.8 (range: 3.8–11.3), respectively. Delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT had a negative predictive value of 100% (5/5) for predicting lymph node metastasis. One patient received chemotherapy after radical resection of urachal carcinoma because 18F-FDG PET/CT found lung metastases, and one patient only received chemotherapy because PET/CT found peritoneal and skeletal metastases. Conclusions. Delayed postdiuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT is a useful tool for the preoperative evaluation of urachal carcinoma. 18F-FDG PET/CT may improve clinical decision making and management of urachal carcinomas.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Sep 2020 14:20:01 +000
       
  • MnDPDP: Contrast Agent for Imaging and Protection of Viable Tissue

    • Abstract: The semistable chelate manganese (Mn) dipyridoxyl diphosphate (MnDPDP, mangafodipir), previously used as an intravenous (i.v.) contrast agent (Teslascan™, GE Healthcare) for Mn-ion-enhanced MRI (MEMRI), should be reappraised for clinical use but now as a diagnostic drug with cytoprotective properties. Approved for imaging of the liver and pancreas, MnDPDP enhances contrast also in other targets such as the heart, kidney, glandular tissue, and potentially retina and brain. Transmetallation releases paramagnetic Mn2+ for cellular uptake in competition with calcium (Ca2+), and intracellular (IC) macromolecular Mn2+ adducts lower myocardial T1 to midway between native values and values obtained with gadolinium (Gd3+). What is essential is that T1 mapping and, to a lesser degree, T1 weighted imaging enable quantification of viability at a cellular or even molecular level. IC Mn2+ retention for hours provides delayed imaging as another advantage. Examples in humans include quantitative imaging of cardiomyocyte remodeling and of Ca2+ channel activity, capabilities beyond the scope of Gd3+ based or native MRI. In addition, MnDPDP and the metabolite Mn dipyridoxyl diethyl-diamine (MnPLED) act as catalytic antioxidants enabling prevention and treatment of oxidative stress caused by tissue injury and inflammation. Tested applications in humans include protection of normal cells during chemotherapy of cancer and, potentially, of ischemic tissues during reperfusion. Theragnostic use combining therapy with delayed imaging remains to be explored. This review updates MnDPDP and its clinical potential with emphasis on the working mode of an exquisite chelate in the diagnosis of heart disease and in the treatment of oxidative stress.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 14:50:01 +000
       
  • Current Status and Future Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence in
           Magnetic Resonance Breast Imaging

    • Abstract: Recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) and deep learning (DL) have impacted many scientific fields including biomedical maging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-established method in breast imaging with several indications including screening, staging, and therapy monitoring. The rapid development and subsequent implementation of AI into clinical breast MRI has the potential to affect clinical decision-making, guide treatment selection, and improve patient outcomes. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current status and future perspectives of AI in breast MRI. We will review DL applications and compare them to standard data-driven techniques. We will emphasize the important aspect of developing quantitative imaging biomarkers for precision medicine and the potential of breast MRI and DL in this context. Finally, we will discuss future challenges of DL applications for breast MRI and an AI-augmented clinical decision strategy.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 13:05:04 +000
       
  • A Nomogram Based on Radiomics with Mammography Texture Analysis for the
           Prognostic Prediction in Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Objectives. To develop and validate a radiomics-based nomogram with texture features from mammography for the prognostic prediction in patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Methods. The study included 200 consecutive patients with TNBC (training cohort: n = 133, validation cohort: n = 67). A total of 136 mammography-derived textural features were extracted, and LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was applied to select features for building the radiomics score (Rad-score). After univariate and multivariate logistic regression, a radiomics-based nomogram was constructed with independent prognostic factors. The discrimination and calibration power were assessed, and further the clinical applicability of the nomograms was evaluated. Results. Among the 136 mammography-derived textural features, fourteen were used to build the Rad-score after LASSO regression. A radiomics nomogram that incorporates Rad-score and pN stage was constructed. This nomogram achieved a C-index of 0.873 (95% CI: 0.758–0.989) for predicting iDFS (invasive disease-free survival), which outperformed the clinical model. Moreover, it is feasible to stratify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the optimal cut-off point of Rad-score. The validations of the nomogram confirmed favorable discrimination and considerable predictive efficiency. Conclusions. The radiomics nomogram that incorporates Rad-score and pN stage exhibited favorable performance in the prediction of iDFS in patients with early-stage TNBCs.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Aug 2020 13:05:06 +000
       
  • Texture Analysis Improves the Value of Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT in
           Predicting Interim Response of Primary Gastrointestinal Diffuse Large
           B-Cell Lymphoma

    • Abstract: Objectives. To explore the application of pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) texture analysis (TA) in predicting the interim response of primary gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (PGIL-DLBCL). Methods. Pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT images of 30 PGIL-DLBCL patients were studied retrospectively. The interim response was evaluated after 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response (CR) rates in patients with different clinicopathological characteristics were compared by Fisher’s exact test. The differences in the maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and texture features between the CR and non-CR groups were compared by the Mann–Whitney U test. Feature selection was performed according to the results of the Mann–Whitney U test and feature categories. The predictive efficacies of the SUVmax, MTV, and the selected texture features were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A prediction probability was generated by binary logistic regression analysis. Results. The SUVmax, MTV, some first-order texture features, volume, and entropy were significantly higher in the non-CR group. The energy was significantly lower in the non-CR group. The SUVmax, volume, and entropy were excellent predictors of the interim response, and the areas under the curves (AUCs) were 0.850, 0.805, and 0.800, respectively. The CR rate was significantly lower in patients with intestinal involvement. The prediction probability generated from the combination of the SUVmax, entropy, volume, and intestinal involvement had a higher AUC (0.915) than all single parameters. Conclusions. TA has potential in improving the value of pretreatment PET/CT in predicting the interim response of PGIL-DLBCL. However, prospective studies with large sample sizes and validation analyses are needed to confirm the current results.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2020 12:20:11 +000
       
  • Detection Rate of 18F-Fluorethylcholine-PET/CT in relation to PSA Value in
           PCA Patients Referred with Biochemical Relapse

    • Abstract: Attempts to predict the likelihood of positive morphological imaging related with PSA value in patients referred with biochemical recurrence were the focus of many studies. Using nuclear medicine modalities, numerous studies likewise had been performed for the same purpose, however mostly using C-11-labeled choline. For this purpose, we selected 193 prostate cancer patients from our database between 2006 and 2010. They had been referred to our department to undergo 18F-fluorethylcholine (FECH)-PET/CT due to biochemical recurrence after potentially curative procedures. As a result, in 84 out of 193 patients, 18F-FECH-PET demonstrated positive findings with an overall detection rate of 44%. Statistically, there was a significant difference in PSA values in positive findings vs. negative findings (), and there was a linear correlation between the detection rate and PSA value (r = 0.91). Moreover, there was a relation between initial therapy and recurrence type. So, the local relapse was the most frequent recurrence (>70%) after radiation therapy alone. By contrast, patients after radical prostatectomy followed by salvage radiotherapy showed a low likelihood of local recurrence. In conclusion, PSA value was confirmed to have a determinant role in 18F-FECH-PET outcome. Moreover, there was a link between recurrence type and initial therapy, which—if prospectively confirmed—may play a guiding role in selecting the appropriate diagnostic methods.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Distinguishing Lymphomatous and Cancerous Lymph Nodes in
           18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography by
           Radiomics Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend excisional biopsies for the diagnosis of lymphomas. However, resection biopsies in all patients who are suspected of having malignant lymph nodes may cause unnecessary injury and increase medical costs. We investigated the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission/computed tomography- (18F-FDG-PET/CT-) based radiomics analysis for differentiating between lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLNs) and cancerous lymph nodes (CLNs). Methods. Using texture analysis, radiomic parameters from the 18F-FDG-PET/CT images of 492 lymph nodes (373 lymphomatous lymph nodes and 119 cancerous lymph nodes) were extracted with the LIFEx package. Predictive models were generated from the six parameters with the largest area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) in PET or CT images in the training set (70% of the data), using binary logistic regression. These models were applied to the test set to calculate predictive variables, including the combination of PET and CT predictive variables (PREcombination). The AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were used to compare the differentiating ability of the predictive variables. Results. Compared with the pathological diagnosis of the patient’s primary tumor, the AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PREcombination in differentiating between LLNs and CLNs were 0.95, 91.67%, 94.29%, and 92.96%, respectively. Moreover, PREcombination could effectively distinguish LLNs caused by various lymphoma subtypes (Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma) from CLNs, with the AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy being 0.85 and 0.90, 77.78% and 77.14%, 97.22% and 88.89%, and 90.74% and 83.10%, respectively. Conclusions. Radiomics analysis of 18F-FDG-PET/CT images may provide a noninvasive, effective method to distinguish LLN and CLN and inform the choice between fine-needle aspiration and excision biopsy for sampling suspected lymphomatous lymph nodes.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 08:35:00 +000
       
  • Relationship between SP142 PD-L1 Expression and 18F-FDG Uptake in
           Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    • Abstract: Objectives. Immune checkpoint blockers constitute the first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ≥50% PD-L1 expression. In NSCLC, PD-L1 positivity is correlated with high 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake. However, these studies only included patients undergoing surgical resection, almost all in their early stages. Moreover, differences in 18F-FDG uptake between NSCLC with high (≥50%) and low (49%) PD-L1 expression remain unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between metabolic parameter 18F-FDG uptake and PD-L1 expression status in NSCLC patients. Methods. From February 2017 to June 2018, 428 consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and SP142 PD-L1 expression analysis were retrospectively assessed. The association between clinicopathological characteristics and PD-L1 expression was examined. Results. The frequency of PD-L1-positive tumors was 38.1% (163/428), 28.5% (91/319), and 64.2% (61/95) for NSCLC, adenocarcinoma (ADC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), respectively. Maximal standard uptake (SUVmax) was significantly higher in PD-L1-positive than in PD-L1-negative NSCLC (), ADC (), and SCC (). SUVmax was significantly higher in NSCLC () and ADC () with high rather than low PD-L1 expression. The receiver operating characteristic curve yielded area under the curve values of 0.726 (95% CI, 0.679–0.774, ), 0.694 (95% CI, 0.634–0.755, ), and 0.625 (95% CI, 0.513–0.738, ) for NSCLC, ADC, and SCC, respectively. Conclusion. 18F-FDG tumor uptake is strongly, positively correlated with PD-L1 expression in NSCLC and significantly differs between high and low PD-L1-expressing individuals.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 14:50:02 +000
       
  • Is 18F-FDG PET/CT an Accurate Way to Detect Lymph Node Metastasis in
           Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Aims. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) for detection of lymph node (LN) metastasis of colorectal cancer. Material and Methods. A computerized search was performed to determine the relevant articles, published before October 2019. Stata Statistical Software, version 15.0, and Meta-Disc (version 1.4) were used for the meta-analysis. Results. the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 0.65, 0.75, 4.57, and 0.37 respectively. Studies that used SUVmax cut-off value () demonstrated the best accuracy. Conclusion. 18F-FDG PET/CT shows a low sensitivity and high specificity for detecting the metastasis of LNs in patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 16:05:02 +000
       
  • Detection of Pulmonary Embolism with Gallium-68 Macroaggregated Albumin
           Perfusion PET/CT: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    • Abstract: This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of detecting pulmonary embolism (PE) using the Technegas SPECT/CT combined with 68Ga PET/CT in a rabbit model. One hour after artificial PE (n = 6) and sham (n = 6) models were created, Technegas SPECT/CT ventilation and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT perfusion scan (V/Q scan) were performed. Ventilation imaging was performed first on all cases. Technegas SPECT/CT and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT images were evaluated by a nuclear medicine physician who recorded the presence, number, and location of PE on a per-lobe basis. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Technegas SPECT/CT and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT for detecting PE were calculated using a histopathological evaluation as a reference standard. A total of 60 lung lobes were evaluated in 12 rabbits, and PE was detected in 20 lobes in V/Q scans and histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, for both the Technegas SPECT/CT and 68Ga-MAA PET/CT V/Q scans. Technegas/68Ga-MAA V/Q scans have good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in the detection of PE in this animal model study.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:05:03 +000
       
  • The Mechanism of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Its Association
           with Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is the third most common hospital-acquired AKI after AKI induced by renal perfusion insufficiency and nephrotoxic drugs, taking great adverse effects on the prognosis and increasing hospital stay and medical cost. Diabetes nephropathy (DN) is a common chronic complication of DM (diabetes mellitus), and DN is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and CI-AKI. The incidence of CI-AKI significantly increases in patients with renal injury, especially in DM-related nephropathy. The etiology of CI-AKI is not fully clear, and research studies on how DM becomes a facilitated factor of CI-AKI are limited. This review describes the mechanism from three aspects. ① Pathophysiological changes of CI-AKI in kidney under high-glucose status (HGS). HGS can enhance the oxidative stress and increase ROS which next causes stronger vessel constriction and insufficient oxygen supply in kidney via vasoactive substances. HGS also aggravates some ion pump load and the latter increases oxygen consumption. CI-AKI and HGS are mutually causal, making the kidney function continue to decline. ② Immunological changes of DM promoting CI-AKI. Some innate immune cells and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in DM and/or DN may respond to some damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) formed by CI-AKI. These effects overlap with some pathophysiological changes in hyperglycemia. ③ Signaling pathways related to both CI-AKI and DM. These pathways involved in CI-AKI are closely associated with apoptosis, inflammation, and ROS production, and some studies suggest that these pathways may be potential targets for alleviating CI-AKI. In conclusion, the pathogenesis of CI-AKI and the mechanism of DM as a predisposing factor for CI-AKI, especially signaling pathways, need further investigation to provide new clinical approaches to prevent and treat CI-AKI.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jun 2020 06:50:02 +000
       
  • MRI-Based Texture Features as Potential Prognostic Biomarkers in
           Anaplastic Astrocytoma Patients Undergoing Surgical Treatment

    • Abstract: Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether texture features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were associated with the overall survival (OS) of anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) patients undergoing surgical treatment. Methods. A total of 51 qualified patients who were diagnosed with AA and underwent surgical interventions in our institution were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients were followed up for at least 30 months or until death. Texture features derived from histogram-based matrix (HISTO) and grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted from preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Each texture feature was dichotomized based on its optimal cutoff value calculated by receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Kaplan–Meier analysis and log rank test were conducted to compare the 30-month OS between the dichotomized subgroups. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. Results. Three HISTO-derived features (HISTO-Energy, HISTO-Entropy, and HISTO-Skewness) and five GLCM-derived features (GLCM-Contrast, GLCM-Energy, GLCM-Entropy, GLCM-Homogeneity, and GLCM-Dissimilarity) were found to be significantly correlated with 30-month OS. Moreover, GLCM-Homogeneity (, hazard ratio = 6.351) was suggested to be the independent predictor of the patient survival. Conclusion. MRI-based texture features have the potential to be applied as prognostic biomarkers in AA patients undergoing surgical treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 08:50:01 +000
       
  • Hybrid (2D/3D) Dosimetry of Radiolabeled Gold Nanoparticles for Sentinel
           Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer

    • Abstract: Previously, we reported the preparation and preclinical studies of 99mTc-labeled gold nanoparticles-mannose (99mTc-AuNP-mannose) with potential for sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection by using nuclear medicine procedures. This study aimed to evaluate the biokinetics and hybrid (2D/3D) dosimetry of 99mTc-AuNP-mannose in five patients with breast cancer under a sentinel lymph node detection protocol. Anterior and posterior whole-body planar images (2D, at 0.5, 2, 6, and 24 h) and single-photon emission computed tomography (3D at 6.5 h)/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) images were acquired after 99mTc-AuNP-mannose administration (37 MBq). Through a hybrid quantification method, activity in tissues of interest at the different acquisition times was determined and integrated over time to obtain the total nuclear transformations (N), as well as the mean residence time, in each tissue. N values and the OLINDA code were used for estimating the internal radiation absorbed doses. Results demonstrated that 99mTc-AuNP-mannose successfully accumulates and remains up to 24 h in the sentinel lymph node without detectable migration to other lymph nodes and no side effects on patients. Negligible absorption of the radiolabeled nanoparticles into the circulatory system was observed, from which the radio-nanosystem is rapidly eliminated by kidneys. Hybrid (2D/3D) dosimetry evaluations showed equivalent doses to SLN, breast, and kidneys of 172.34, 5.32, and 0.08 mSv/37 MBq, respectively, with an effective dose of 2.05E − 03 mSv/MBq. The mean effective residence time in SLN was 0.92 h. This preliminary study indicates that the use of 99mTc-AuNP-mannose for successful SLN detection in patients is safe, producing an effective dose at the level recommended for diagnostic studies (
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 10:35:03 +000
       
  • Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Contrast Agents for Assessment
           of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has taken an important role in the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In the wake of current advances in nanotechnology, the drug delivery industry has seen a surge of nanoparticles advertising high specificity in target imaging. Given the rapid development of the field, this review has assembled related articles to explore whether molecular contrast agents can improve the diagnostic capability on gastrointestinal imaging, especially for IBD. Methods. Relevant articles published between 1998 and 2018 from a literature search of PubMed and EMBASE were reviewed. Data extraction was performed on the studies’ characteristics, experimental animals, modelling methods, nanoparticles type, magnetic resonance methods, and means of quantitative analysis. Results. A total of 8 studies were identified wherein the subjects were animals, and all studies employed MR equipment. One group utilized a perfluorocarbon solution and the other 7 groups used either magnetic nanoparticles or gadolinium- (Gd-) related nanoparticles for molecular contrast. With ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles and Gd-related nanoparticles, signal enhancements were found in the mucosa or with focal lesion of IBD-related model in T1-weighted images (T1WI), whereas superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles showed a signal decrease in the intestinal wall of the model in T1WI or T2-weighted images. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was employed to analyze bowel intensity in 3 studies. And the percentage of normalized enhancement was used in 1 study for assessing the severity of inflammation. Conclusion. Molecular MRI with contrast agents can improve the early diagnosis of IBD and quantitate the severity of inflammation in experimental studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2020 14:35:03 +000
       
  • Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Navigation

    • Abstract: Partial nephrectomy (PN) is a recommended type of treatment of localised renal tumors. Real-time intraoperative imaging technique, such as fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) administration helps to improve intraoperative and postoperative outcomes in patients who underwent PN. Our work presents results of patients who underwent robotic PN with ICG navigation. A total of 37 patients underwent robotic PN with application of ICG between April 2015 and May 2019. A total amount of 5 mg of ICG was applied intravenously, and then robotic PN was performed with fluorescent imaging. ICG was used by the surgeon’s decision according to unfavourable anatomical properties of tumor or to high R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. An exact border between perfused and nonperfused tissue was detected, and exact tumor’s branch of the renal artery was clamped. Robotic PN with ICG-fluorescence imaging navigation was performed in 37 cases with a preoperative average diameter of tumor of 31 mm. The mean surgery time was 133 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 190 mL. Arterial clamping was performed in 35 cases. The mean duration of warm ischemia was 14 minutes. Application of ICG enabled specific tumor-supplying vessel clamping in 25 cases. Two complications of grade II according to the Clavien-Dindo classification occurred intraoperatively, and one complication of grade III was observed. Renal function changes showed favourable results for the cases with superselective clamping. Finally, an administration of ICG eases superselective clamping of tumor-specific branch of renal artery and helps to preserve normal renal function with acceptable oncological results.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 13:35:02 +000
       
  • 99mTc-CXCR4-L for Imaging of the Chemokine-4 Receptor Associated with
           Brain Tumor Invasiveness: Biokinetics, Radiation Dosimetry, and Proof of
           Concept in Humans

    • Abstract: Overexpression of the chemokine-4 receptor (CXCR4) in brain tumors is associated with high cancer cell invasiveness. Recently, we reported the preclinical evaluation of 99mTc-CXCR4-L (cyclo-D-Tyr-D-[NMe]Orn[EDDA-99mTc-6-hydrazinylnicotinyl]-Arg-NaI-Gly) as a SPECT radioligand capable of specifically detecting the CXCR4 protein. This research aimed to estimate the biokinetic behavior and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-CXCR4-L in healthy subjects, as well as to correlate the radiotracer uptake by brain tumors in patients, with the histological grade of differentiation and CXCR4 expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry. 99mTc-CXCR4-L was obtained from freeze-dried kits prepared under GMP conditions (radiochemical purities >97%). Whole-body scans from six healthy volunteers were acquired at 0.3, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h after 99mTc-CXCR4-L administration (0.37 GBq). Time-activity curves of different source organs were obtained from the image sequence to adjust the biokinetic models. The OLINDA/EXM code was employed to calculate the equivalent and effective radiation doses. Nine patients with evidence of brain tumor injury (6 primaries and 3 recurrent), determined by MRI, underwent cerebral SPECT at 3 h after administration of 99mTc-CXCR4-L (0.74 GBq). Data were expressed as a T/B (tumor uptake/background) ratio. Biopsy examinations included histological grading and anti-CXCR4 immunohistochemistry. Results showed a fast blood activity clearance (T1/2α = 0.81 min and T1/2β = 12.19 min) with renal and hepatobiliary elimination. The average equivalent doses were 6.10E − 04, 1.41E − 04, and 3.13E − 05 mSv/MBq for the intestine, liver, and kidney, respectively. The effective dose was 3.92E − 03 mSv/MBq. SPECT was positive in 7/9 patients diagnosed as grade II oligodendroglioma (two patients), grade IV glioblastoma (two patients), grade IV gliosarcoma (one patient), metastasis, and diffuse astrocytoma with T/B ratios of 1.3, 2.3, 13, 7, 19, 5.5, and 3.9, respectively, all of them with positive immunohistochemistry. A direct relationship between the grade of differentiation and the expression of CXCR4 was found. The two negative SPECT studies showed negative immunohistochemistry with a diagnosis of reactive gliosis. This “proof-of-concept” research warrants further clinical studies to establish the usefulness of 99mTc-CXCR4-L in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumors.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Apr 2020 14:20:03 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Performance of PET or PET/CT with Different Radiotracers in
           Patients with Suspicious Lung Cancer or Pleural Tumours according to
           Published Meta-Analyses

    • Abstract: Purpose. Several meta-analyses have reported data about the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET or PET/CT) with different radiotracers in patients with suspicious lung cancer (LC) or pleural tumours (PT). This review article aims at providing an overview on the recent evidence-based data in this setting. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of meta-analyses published in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Library database from January 2010 through March 2020 about the diagnostic performance of PET or PET/CT with different radiotracers in patients with suspicious LC or PT was performed. This combination of keywords was used: (A) “PET” OR “positron emission tomography” AND (B) “lung” OR “pulmonary” OR “pleur∗” AND (C) meta-analysis. Only meta-analyses on PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious LC or PT were selected. Results. We have summarized the diagnostic performance of PET or PET/CT with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and other radiotracers taking into account 17 meta-analyses. Evidence-based data demonstrated a good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET or PET/CT for the characterization of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) or pleural lesions with overall higher sensitivity than specificity. Evidence-based data do not support the routine use of dual time point (DTP) 18F-FDG PET/CT or fluorine-18 fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of SPNs. Even if 18F-FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and specificity as a selective screening modality for LC, its role in this setting remains unknown. Conclusions. Evidence-based data about the diagnostic performance of PET/CT with different radiotracers for suspicious LC or PT are increasing, with good diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG PET/CT. More prospective multicenter studies and cost-effectiveness analyses are warranted.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Apr 2020 15:50:01 +000
       
 
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