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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
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J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
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J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
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Journal Cover Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
  [SJR: 0.932]   [H-I: 34]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Exploiting the Concept of Multivalency with 68Ga- and 89Zr-Labelled
           Fusarinine C-Minigastrin Bioconjugates for Targeting CCK2R Expression

    • Abstract: Cholecystokinin-2 receptors (CCK2R) are overexpressed in a variety of malignant diseases and therefore have gained certain attention for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging. Among extensive approaches to improve pharmacokinetics and metabolic stability of minigastrin (MG) based radioligands, the concept of multivalency for enhanced tumour targeting has not been investigated extensively. We therefore utilized fusarinine C (FSC) as chelating scaffold for novel mono-, di-, and trimeric bioconjugates for targeting CCK2R expression. FSC-based imaging probes were radiolabelled with positron emitting radionuclides (gallium-68 and zirconium-89) and characterized in vitro (, IC50, and cell uptake) and in vivo (metabolic stability in BALB/c mice, biodistribution profile, and microPET/CT imaging in A431-CCK2R/A431-mock tumour xenografted BALB/c nude mice). Improved targeting did not fully correlate with the grade of multimerization. The divalent probe showed higher receptor affinity and increased CCK2R mediated cell uptake while the trimer remained comparable to the monomer. In vivo biodistribution studies 1 h after administration of the 68Ga-labelled radioligands confirmed this trend, but imaging at late time point (24 h) with 89Zr-labelled counterparts showed a clearly enhanced imaging contrast of the trimeric probe compared to the mono- and dimer. Furthermore, in vivo stability studies showed a higher metabolic stability for multimeric probes compared to the monomeric bioconjugate. In summary, we could show that FSC can be utilized as suitable scaffold for novel mono- and multivalent imaging probes for CCK2R-related malignancies with partly improved targeting properties for multivalent conjugates. The increased tumour accumulation of the trimer 24 h postinjection (p.i.) can be explained by slower clearance and increased metabolic stability of multimeric conjugates.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Iso-Osmolar Iodixanol Induces Less Increase in Circulating Endothelial
           Microparticles In Vivo and Less Endothelial Apoptosis In Vitro Compared
           with Low-Osmolar Iohexol

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. There is no consensus on whether iodixanol is superior to iohexol. This study aimed to compare the effects of iodixanol and iohexol on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and also their cytotoxic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Methods. 100 CAD patients with DM were randomly assigned to receive iso-osmolar contrast medium iodixanol (group I) or low-osmolar iohexol (group II) during coronary angioplasty. An additional 49 CAD patients without DM receiving iohexol were recruited as group III. Circulating CD31+/CD41a− EMPs, CD62E+ EMPs, and CD31+/CD41a+ platelet microparticles (PMPs) were determined by flow cytometry. In vitro, the cytotoxic effects of iodixanol and iohexol on HUVECs were determined. Results. Circulating CD31+/CD41a− EMPs and PMPs were significantly increased after angioplasty in all 3 groups, while CD62E+ EMPs significantly decreased in group I. CD31+/CD41a− EMPs and PMPs were significantly higher in group II than group I or III. In vitro, both contrast media induced EMP release and inhibited the viability and induced apoptosis of HUVECs, as well as increasing Bax and cleaved caspase-3 and decreasing Bcl-2. The above effects were less evident in iodixanol than in iohexol. Conclusions. Compared with iohexol, iodixanol induces less release of EMPs in both CAD patients with DM during angioplasty and in vitro HUVEC culture, which is associated with less pronounced proapoptotic effects of iodixanol on HUVECs. Clinical Study Registration Number. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005183.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Development and Application of Nanoparticles in Biomedical Imaging

    • PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Assessment of Carbon Dioxide Automated Angiography in Type II
           Endoleaks Detection: Comparison with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

    • Abstract: Introduction. Iodinated contrast media completion angiography (ICM-A) may underestimate the presence of type II endoleak (ELII) after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR), particularly if they are at low flow. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been proposed as the gold standard in ELII detection during EVAR follow-up. Intraprocedural carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography has been shown to be useful in this setting; however no comparative studies including these three techniques are currently available. Our aim was to investigate the accuracy of a new automated CO2 angiographic (CO2-A) system in the detection of ELII, by comparing it with ICM-A and CEUS. Methods. A series of consecutive patients undergoing EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were enrolled and submitted to ICM-A and CO2-A during the procedure. The iodinated contrast media were delivered through an automatic injector connected to a pigtail catheter in the suprarenal aorta. CO2 was delivered through a recently available automatic injector connected to a 10 F sheath positioned in the external iliac artery. All patients were blindly evaluated by CEUS within postoperative day 1. The ICM-A and CO2-A ability to detect ELII was compared with that of CEUS through Cohen’s concordance Index . Results. Twenty-one patients were enrolled in the study. One (5%), seven (33%), and four (19%) ELII were detected by ICM-A, CO2-A, and CEUS, respectively. The only ELII detected by ICM-A was also detected by CO2-A and CEUS. Three cases of ELII detected by CO2-A were not detected by CEUS. All ELII detected by CEUS were visualized by CO2-A. CEUS and ICM-A showed a poor agreement (Cohen’s : 0.35) while CEUS and CO2-A showed a substantial agreement (Cohen’s : 0.65) for ELII detection. Conclusion. CO2-A is safe and effective method for ELII detection in EVAR, with a significantly higher agreement with CEUS if compared with ICM-A. This trial is registered with 155/2015/U/Oss.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 08:04:57 +000
  • In Vivo 6-([18F]Fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide PET Imaging of Altered
           Histone Deacetylase Activity in Chemotherapy-Induced Neurotoxicity

    • Abstract: Background. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate gene expression by changing histone deacetylation status. Neurotoxicity is one of the major side effects of cisplatin, which reacts with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and has excellent antitumor effects. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor with neuroprotective effects against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Purpose. We investigated how cisplatin with and without SAHA pretreatment affects HDAC expression/activity in the brain by using 6-([18F]fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoicanilide ([18F]FAHA) as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agent for HDAC IIa. Materials and Methods. [18F]FAHA and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) PET studies were done in 24 mice on 2 consecutive days and again 1 week later. The mice were divided into three groups according to drug administration between the first and second imaging sessions (Group A: cisplatin 2 mg/kg, twice; Group B: cisplatin 4 mg/kg, twice; Group C: cisplatin 4 mg/kg, twice, and SAHA 300 mg/kg pretreatment, 4 times). Results. The value of [18F]FAHA was increased and the percentage of injected dose/tissue g (% ID/g) of [18F]FDG was decreased in the brains of animals in Groups A and B. The value of [18F]FAHA and % ID/g of [18F]FDG were not significantly different in Group C. Conclusions. [18F]FAHA PET clearly showed increased HDAC activity suggestive of cisplatin neurotoxicity in vivo, which was blocked by SAHA pretreatment.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Noninferiority of 99mTc-Ethylenedicysteine-Glucosamine as an Alternative
           Analogue to 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in the Detection and Staging of
           Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    • Abstract: Objective. Tc-ethylenedicysteine-glucosamine (Tc-EC-G) was developed as a potential alternative to 18F-FDG for cancer imaging. A Phase 2 study was conducted to compare 18F-FDG PET/CT and Tc-EC-G SPECT/CT in the detection and staging of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was aimed to demonstrate that Tc-EC-G SPECT/CT was not inferior to 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with confirmed NSCLC. Methods. Seventeen patients with biopsy proven NSCLC were imaged with Tc-EC-G and 18F-FDG to detect and stage their cancers. Imaging with PET/CT began 45–60 minutes after injection of 18F-FDG. Imaging with Tc-EC-G began at two hours after injection (for 5 patients) or three hours (for 12 patients). SPECT/CT imaging devices from the three major vendors of SPECT/CT systems were used at 6 participating study sites. The image sets were blinded to all clinical information and interpreted by independent PET and SPECT expert readers at a central independent core laboratory. Results. 100% concordance between Tc-EC-G and 18F-FDG for primary lesion detection, lesion location and size, and confidence that the biopsied lesion was malignant. There was 70% agreement between Tc-EC-G and 18F-FDG for metastatic lesion detection, location and size, and confidence that the suspicious lesions were malignant. Conclusions. Evaluation of primary and suspicious metastatic lesions detected by Tc-EC-G and 18F-FDG on 17 patients resulted in excellent agreement for detection of primary and metastatic lesions. The study results indicated that Tc-EC-G SPECT/CT has the potential to be a clinically viable alternative to 18F-FDG PET/CT and Tc-EC-G is not inferior to 18F-FDG PET/CT.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Mar 2018 06:35:21 +000
  • Tumor-Shed Antigen Affects Antibody Tumor Targeting: Comparison of Two
           89Zr-Labeled Antibodies Directed against Shed or Nonshed Antigens

    • Abstract: We investigated the effect of shed antigen mesothelin on the tumor uptake of amatuximab, a therapeutic anti-mesothelin mAb clinically tested in mesothelioma patients. The B3 mAb targeting a nonshed antigen was also analyzed for comparison. The mouse model implanted with A431/H9 tumor, which expresses both shed mesothelin and nonshed Lewis-Y antigen, provided an ideal system to compare the biodistribution and PET imaging profiles of the two mAbs. Our study demonstrated that the tumor and organ uptakes of 89Zr-B3 were dose-independent when 3 doses, 2, 15, and 60 μg B3, were compared at 24 h after injection. In contrast, tumor and organ uptakes of 89Zr-amatuximab were dose-dependent, whereby a high dose (60 μg) was needed to achieve tumor targeting comparable to the low dose (2 μg) of 89Zr-B3, suggesting that shed mesothelin may affect amatuximab tumor targeting as well as serum half-life. The autoradiography analysis showed that the distribution of 89Zr-B3 was nonuniform with the radioactivity primarily localized at the tumor periphery independent of the B3 dose. However, the autoradiography analysis for 89Zr-amatuximab showed dose-dependent distribution profiles of the radiolabel; at 10 μg dose, the radiolabel penetrated toward the tumor core with its activity comparable to that at the tumor periphery, whereas at 60 μg dose, the distribution profile became similar to those of 89Zr-B3. These results suggest that shed antigen in blood may act as a decoy requiring higher doses of mAb to improve serum half-life as well as tumor targeting. Systemic mAb concentration should be at a severalfold molar excess to the shed Ag in blood to overcome the hepatic processing of mAb-Ag complexes. On the other hand, mAb concentration should remain lower than the shed Ag concentration in the tumor ECS to maximize tumor penetration by passing binding site barriers.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Assessment of Liver Function Using Pharmacokinetic Parameters of
           Gd-EOB-DTPA: Experimental Study in Rat Hepatectomy Model

    • Abstract: Objectives. To determine whether the pharmacokinetic parameters of Gd-EOB-DTPA can identify the difference in liver function in a rat hepatectomy model. Methods. A total of 56 eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: control group without hepatectomy (), 70% hepatectomy group (), and 90% hepatectomy group (). On postoperative day 2, Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg) was injected intravenously and serial blood samples were obtained. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a noncompartmental method. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and post hoc pairwise group comparisons. Results. After excluding 6 rats that died unexpectedly, blood samples were obtained from 16, 14, and 20 rats in the control group, 70% hepatectomy group, and 90% hepatectomy group. There was a significant increase in area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to the time of the last measurable concentration between the 70% and 90% hepatectomy group (). The volume of distribution at steady state was significantly decreased between the control and 70% hepatectomy group (). The clearance was significantly different in all pairwise group comparisons (). Conclusions. The vascular clearance of Gd-EOB-DTPA can identify the difference in liver function in a rat hepatectomy model.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Thyroid Cancer Detection by Ultrasound Molecular Imaging with
           SHP2-Targeted Perfluorocarbon Nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Background. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging has been widely used in the ultrasound diagnosis of a variety of tumours with high diagnostic accuracy, especially in patients with hepatic carcinoma, while its application is rarely reported in thyroid cancer. The currently used ultrasound contrast agents, microbubbles, cannot be targeted to molecular markers expressed in tumour cells due to their big size, leading to a big challenge for ultrasound molecular imaging. Phase-changeable perfluorocarbon nanoparticles may resolve the penetrability limitation of microbubbles and serve as a promising probe for ultrasound molecular imaging. Methods. 65 thyroid tumour samples and 40 normal samples adjacent to thyroid cancers were determined for SHP2 expression by IHC. SHP2-targeted PLGA nanoparticles (NPs-SHP2) encapsulating perfluoropentane (PFP) were prepared with PLGA-PEG as a shell material, and their specific target-binding ability was assessed in vitro and in vivo, and the effect on the enhancement of ultrasonic imaging induced by LIFU was studied in vivo. Results. In the present study, we verified that tumour overexpression of SHP2 and other protein tyrosine phosphatases regulated several cellular processes and contributed to tumorigenesis, which could be introduced to ultrasound molecular imaging for differentiating normal from malignant thyroid diagnostic nodes. The IHC test showed remarkably high expression of SHP2 in human thyroid carcinoma specimens. In thyroid tumour xenografts in mice, the imaging signal was significantly enhanced by SHP2-targeted nanoparticles after LIFU induction. Conclusion. This study provides a basis for preclinical exploration of ultrasound molecular imaging with NPs-SHP2 for clinical thyroid nodule detection to enhance diagnostic accuracy.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • NIRF Optical/PET Dual-Modal Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using
           Heptamethine Carbocyanine Dye

    • Abstract: Combining near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and nuclear imaging techniques provides a novel approach for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. Here, we report the synthesis and characteristics of a dual-modality NIRF optical/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probe using heptamethine carbocyanine dye and verify its feasibility in both nude mice and rabbits with orthotopic xenograft liver cancer. This dye, MHI-148, is an effective cancer-specific NIRF imaging agent and shows preferential uptake and retention in liver cancer. The corresponding NIRF imaging intensity reaches 109/cm2 tumor area at 24 h after injection in mice with HCC subcutaneous tumors. The dye can be further conjugated with radionuclide 68Ga (68Ga-MHI-148) for PET tracing. We applied the dual-modality methodology toward the detection of HCC in both patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDX) models and rabbit orthotopic transplantation models. NIRF/PET images showed clear tumor delineation after probe injection (MHI-148 and 68Ga-MHI-148). The tumor-to-muscle (T/M) standardized uptake value (SUV) ratios were obtained from PET at 1 h after injection of 68Ga-MHI-148, which was helpful for effectively capturing small tumors in mice (0.5 cm × 0.3 cm) and rabbits (1.2 cm × 1.8 cm). This cancer-targeting NIRF/PET dual-modality imaging probe provides a proof of principle for noninvasive detection of deep-tissue tumors in mouse and rabbit and is a promising technique for more accurate and early detection of HCC.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • One-Step 18F-Labeling of Estradiol Derivative for PET Imaging of Breast

    • Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a useful method to evaluate in situ estrogen receptor (ER) status for the early diagnosis of breast cancer and optimization of the appropriate treatment strategy. The 18F-labeled estradiol derivative has been successfully used to clinically assess the ER level of breast cancer. In order to simplify the radiosynthesis process, one-step 18F-19F isotope exchange reaction was employed for the 18F-fluorination of the tracer of [18F]AmBF3-TEG-ES. The radiotracer was obtained with the radiochemical yield (RCY) of ~61% and the radiochemical purity (RCP) of >98% within 40 min. Cell uptake and blocking assays indicated that the tracer could selectively accumulate in the ER-positive human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. In vivo PET imaging on the MCF-7 tumor-bearing mice showed relatively high tumor uptake (1.4~2.3 %D/g) and tumor/muscle uptake ratio (4~6). These results indicated that the tracer is a promising PET imaging agent for ER-positive breast cancers.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Construction and Evaluation of the Tumor-Targeting, Cell-Penetrating
           Multifunctional Molecular Probe iCREKA

    • Abstract: A novel tumor stroma targeting and membrane-penetrating cyclic peptide, named iCREKA, was designed and labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and positron emitter 18F to build the tumor-targeting tracers. The FITC-iCREKA was proved to have significantly higher cellular uptake in the glioma U87 cells in the presence of activated MMP-2 than that in absence of activated MMP-2 by cells fluorescence test in vitro. The tumor tissue fluorescence microscope imaging demonstrated that FITC-iCREKA accumulated in the walls of the blood vessels and the surrounding stroma in the glioma tumor at 1 h after intravenous injection. While at 3 h after injection, FITC-iCREKA was found to be uptaken in the tumor cells. However, the control FITC-CREKA can only be found in the tumor stroma, not in the tumor cells, no matter at 1 h or 3 h after injection. The whole-animal fluorescence imaging showed that the glioma tumor could be visualized clearly with high fluorescence signal. The microPET/CT imaging further demonstrated that 18F-iCREKA could target U87MG tumor in vivo from 30 min to 2 h after injection. The present study indicated the iCREKA had the capacity of tumor stroma targeting and the membrane-penetrating. It was potential to be developed as the fluorescent and PET tracers for tumor imaging.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparison among Reconstruction Algorithms for Quantitative Analysis of
           11C-Acetate Cardiac PET Imaging

    • Abstract: Objective. Kinetic modeling of dynamic 11C-acetate PET imaging provides quantitative information for myocardium assessment. The quality and quantitation of PET images are known to be dependent on PET reconstruction methods. This study aims to investigate the impacts of reconstruction algorithms on the quantitative analysis of dynamic 11C-acetate cardiac PET imaging. Methods. Suspected alcoholic cardiomyopathy patients () underwent 11C-acetate dynamic PET imaging after low dose CT scan. PET images were reconstructed using four algorithms: filtered backprojection (FBP), ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM), OSEM with time-of-flight (TOF), and OSEM with both time-of-flight and point-spread-function (TPSF). Standardized uptake values (SUVs) at different time points were compared among images reconstructed using the four algorithms. Time-activity curves (TACs) in myocardium and blood pools of ventricles were generated from the dynamic image series. Kinetic parameters and were derived using a 1-tissue-compartment model for kinetic modeling of cardiac flow from 11C-acetate PET images. Results. Significant image quality improvement was found in the images reconstructed using iterative OSEM-type algorithms (OSME, TOF, and TPSF) compared with FBP. However, no statistical differences in SUVs were observed among the four reconstruction methods at the selected time points. Kinetic parameters and also exhibited no statistical difference among the four reconstruction algorithms in terms of mean value and standard deviation. However, for the correlation analysis, OSEM reconstruction presented relatively higher residual in correlation with FBP reconstruction compared with TOF and TPSF reconstruction, and TOF and TPSF reconstruction were highly correlated with each other. Conclusion. All the tested reconstruction algorithms performed similarly for quantitative analysis of 11C-acetate cardiac PET imaging. TOF and TPSF yielded highly consistent kinetic parameter results with superior image quality compared with FBP. OSEM was relatively less reliable. Both TOF and TPSF were recommended for cardiac 11C-acetate kinetic analysis.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Early Detection of Aβ Deposition in the 5xFAD Mouse by Amyloid PET

    • Abstract: Purpose. 18F-FC119S is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for imaging β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 18F-FC119S in quantitating Aβ deposition in a mouse model of early amyloid deposition (5xFAD) by PET. Method. Dynamic 18F-FC119S PET images were obtained in 5xFAD () and wild-type (WT) mice (). The brain PET images were spatially normalized to the M. Mirrione T2-weighted mouse brain MR template, and the volumes of interest were then automatically drawn on the cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum. The specific binding of 18F-FC119S to Aβ was quantified as the distribution volume ratio using Logan graphical analysis with the cerebellum as a reference tissue. The Aβ levels in the brain were also confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Result. For the 5xFAD group, radioactivity levels in the cortex, the hippocampus, and the thalamus were higher than those for the WT group. In these regions, specific binding was approximately 1.2-fold higher in 5xFAD mice than in WT. Immunohistochemistry supported these findings; the 5xFAD showed severe Aβ deposition in the cortex and hippocampus in contrast to the WT group. Conclusion. These results demonstrated that 18F-FC119S PET can successfully distinguish Aβ depositions in 5xFAD mice from WT.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Preclinical Evaluation of Radioiodinated Hoechst 33258 for Early
           Prediction of Tumor Response to Treatment of Vascular-Disrupting Agents

    • Abstract: This study aimed to explore the use of 131I-Hoechst 33258 (131I-H33258) for early prediction of tumor response to vascular-disrupting agents (VDAs) with combretastatin-A4 phosphate (CA4P) as a representative. Necrosis avidity of 131I-H33258 was evaluated in mouse models with muscle necrosis and blocking was used to confirm the tracer specificity. Therapy response was evaluated by 131I-H33258 SPECT/CT imaging 24 h after CA4P therapy in W256 tumor-bearing rats. Radiotracer uptake in tumors was validated ex vivo using γ-counting, autoradiography, and histopathological staining. Results showed that 131I-H33258 had predominant necrosis avidity and could specifically bind to necrotic tissue. SPECT/CT imaging demonstrated that an obvious “hot spot” could be observed in the CA4P-treated tumor. Ex vivo γ-counting revealed 131I-H33258 uptake in tumors was increased 2.8-fold in rats treated with CA4P relative to rats treated with vehicle. Autoradiography and corresponding H&E staining suggested that 131I-H33258 was mainly localized in necrotic tumor area and the higher overall uptake in the treated tumors was attributed to the increased necrosis. These results suggest that 131I-H33258 can be used to image induction of cell necrosis 24 h after CA4P therapy, which support further molecular design of probes based on scaffold H33258 for monitoring of tumor response to VDAs treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 10:03:37 +000
  • Clinical and Prognostic Value of PET/CT Imaging with Combination of
           68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine

    • Abstract: Background. To evaluate the clinical and prognostic value of PET/CT with combination of 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs). Method. 83 patients of GEP-NENs who underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG PET/CT were enrolled between June 2013 and December 2016. Well-differentiated (WD) NETs are divided into group A (Ki-67 < 10%) and group B (Ki-67 ≥ 10%), and poorly differentiated (PD) NECs are defined as group C. The relationship between PET/CT results and clinicopathological characteristics was retrospectively investigated. Result. For groups A/B/C, the sensitivities of 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG were 78.8%/83.3%/37.5% and 52.0%/72.2%/100.0%. A negative correlation between Ki-67 and of 68Ga-DOTATATE ( = −0.415; ≤ 0.001) was observed, while a positive correlation was noted between Ki-67 and of 18F-FDG ( = 0.683; ≤ 0.001). 62.5% (5/8) of patients showed significantly more lesions in the bone if 68Ga-DOTATATE was used, and 22.7% (5/22) of patients showed more lymph node metastases if 18F-FDG was used. Conclusions. The sensitivity of dual tracers was correlated with cell differentiation, and a correlation between Ki-67 and both of PET-CTs could be observed. 68Ga-DOTATATE is suggested for WD-NET and 18F-FDG is probably suitable for patients with Ki-67 ≥ 10%.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Comparative 68Ga-Citrate and 68Ga-Chloride PET/CT Imaging of
           Staphylococcus aureus Osteomyelitis in the Rat Tibia

    • Abstract: There may be some differences in the in vivo behavior of 68Ga-chloride and 68Ga-citrate leading to different accumulation profiles. This study compared 68Ga-citrate and 68Ga-chloride PET/CT imaging under standardized experimental models. Methods. Diffuse Staphylococcus aureus tibial osteomyelitis and uncomplicated bone healing rat models were used (). Two weeks after surgery, PET/CT imaging was performed on consecutive days using 68Ga-citrate or 68Ga-chloride, and tissue accumulation was confirmed by ex vivo analysis. In addition, peripheral quantitative computed tomography and conventional radiography were performed. Osteomyelitis was verified by microbiological analysis and specimens were also processed for histomorphometry. Results. In PET/CT imaging, the of 68Ga-chloride and 68Ga-citrate in the osteomyelitic tibias (3.6 ± 1.4 and 4.7 ± 1.5, resp.) were significantly higher ( and , resp.) than in the uncomplicated bone healing (2.7 ± 0.44 and 2.5 ± 0.49, resp.). In osteomyelitic tibias, the of 68Ga-citrate was significantly higher than the uptake of 68Ga-chloride (). In animals with uncomplicated bone healing, no difference in the of 68Ga-chloride or 68Ga-citrate was seen in the operated tibias. Conclusions. This study further corroborates the use of 68Ga-citrate for PET imaging of osteomyelitis.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prognostic Value of Volume-Based Positron Emission Tomography/Computed
           Tomography in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients after Comprehensive

    • Abstract: Objective. We assessed the prognostic value of standardized uptake value (SUV) and volume-based methods including whole-body metabolic tumor volume (WBMTV) and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WBTLG) using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after therapy. Methods. A total of 221 posttherapy NPC cases were enrolled, all of whom had undergone PET/CT scanning and follow-up in this retrospective study. The diagnostic results of PET/CT were analyzed and compared with histopathological diagnosis or clinical follow-up. Receiver operator characteristic curves, the Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test were used to assess the optimal cutoff values for WBMTV and WBTLG to identify independent predictors of survival. Results. The detection rates of the threshold SUV were 2.5, 20%, and 40%, and SUV background methods were 65.6% (), 80.2% (), 71.5% (), and 90.4% (), respectively (). Patients with a WBMTV < 8.10 and/or a WBTLG < 35.58 had significantly better 5-year overall survival than those above the cutoffs (90.7% versus 51.2%, ; 91.7% versus 50.4%, ), respectively. Multivariate Cox regression modeling showed both WBTLG (RR, 1.002; ) and age (RR, 1.046; ) could be used to predict overall survival. WBTLG (RR, 1.003; ) may have predictive relevance in estimating disease-free survival. Conclusions. SUV volume-based threshold background methodology had a significantly higher detection rate for metastatic lesions. WBTLG could be used as an independent prognostic indicator for posttherapy NPC.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Imaging and Methotrexate Response Monitoring of Systemic Inflammation in

    • Abstract: Background. In rheumatoid arthritis, articular inflammation is a hallmark of disease, while the involvement of extra-articular tissues is less well defined. Here, we examined the feasibility of PET imaging with the macrophage tracer [18F]fluoro-PEG-folate, targeting folate receptor (FR), to monitor systemic inflammatory disease in liver and spleen of arthritic rats before and after methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Methods. [18F]Fluoro-PEG-folate PET scans (60 min) were acquired in saline- and MTX-treated (1 mg/kg, 4x) arthritic rats, followed by tissue resection and radiotracer distribution analysis. Liver and spleen tissues were stained for ED1/ED2-macrophage markers and FR expression. Results. [18F]Fluoro-PEG-folate PET and ex vivo tissue distribution studies revealed a significant () 2-fold lower tracer uptake in both liver and spleen of MTX-treated arthritic rats. Consistently, ED1- and ED2-positive macrophages were significantly () decreased in liver (4-fold) and spleen (3-fold) of MTX-treated compared with saline-treated rats. Additionally, FR-positive macrophages were also significantly reduced in liver (5-fold, ) and spleen (3-fold, ) of MTX- versus saline-treated rats. Conclusions. MTX treatment reduced activated macrophages in liver and spleen, as markers for systemic inflammation in these organs. Macrophage PET imaging with [18F]fluoro-PEG-folate holds promise for detection of systemic inflammation in RA as well as therapy (MTX) response monitoring.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparing the Differential Diagnostic Values of 18F-Alfatide II PET/CT
           between Tuberculosis and Lung Cancer Patients

    • Abstract: Purpose. To compare the differential diagnostic values of 18F-Alfatide II PET/CT between tuberculosis and lung cancer patients and in patients with sarcoidosis and common inflammation. Methods. Nine inflammation patients (4 tuberculosis, 3 sarcoidosis, and 2 common inflammation) and 11 lung cancer patients were included in this study. All patients underwent 18F-FDG and 18F-Alfatide II PET/CT within 2 weeks, followed by biopsy and surgery. The maximized standard uptake value (SUVmax) and the mean standard uptake value (SUVmean) were evaluated. Results. The active tuberculosis lesions showed a high accumulation of 18F-FDG, but varying degrees of accumulation of 18F-Alfatide II, including negative results. The SUVmax of 18F-Alfatide II in malignant lesions was significantly higher than that in tuberculosis (4.08 ± 1.51 versus 2.63 ± 1.34, = 0.0078). Three patients with sarcoidosis showed negative results in 18F-Alfatide II PET/CT. Conclusions. The expression of is much lower in tuberculosis as compared to that in lung cancer, and accumulation of 18F-Alfatide II varied even in lesions of the same patient. The negative results of sarcoidosis patients led to the speculation that was not expressed in those lesions.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Neural Induction Potential and MRI of ADSCs Labeled Cationic
           Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle In Vitro

    • Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with contrast agents is believed to be useful for stem cell tracking in vivo, and the aim of this research was to investigate the biosafety and neural induction of SD rat-originated adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) using cationic superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle which was synthesized by the improved polyol method, in order to allow visualization using in vitro MRI. The scan protocols were performed with T2-mapping sequence; meanwhile, the ultrastructure of labeled cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) while the iron content was measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). After neural induction, nestin and NSE (neural markers) were obviously expressed. In vitro MRI showed that the cationic PEG/PEI-modified SPIO nanoparticles could achieve great relaxation performance and favourable longevity. And the ICP-AES quantified the lowest iron content that could be detected by MRI as 1.56~1.8 pg/cell. This study showed that the cationic SPIO could be directly used to label ADSCs, which could then inductively differentiate into nerve and be imaged by in vitro MRI, which would exhibit important guiding significance for the further in vivo MRI towards animal models with neurodegenerative disorders.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Do TSH, FT3, and FT4 Impact BAT Visualization of Clinical FDG-PET/CT

    • Abstract: Objective. We retrospectively analyzed activated BAT visualization on FDG-PET/CT in patients with various conditions and TH levels to clarify the relationships between visualization of BAT on FDG-PET/CT and the effect of TH. Methods. Patients who underwent clinical FDG-PET/CT were reviewed and we categorized patients into 5 groups: (i) thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) group; (ii) recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) group; (iii) hypothyroidism group; (iv) hyperthyroidism group; and (v) BAT group. A total of sixty-two FDG-PET/CT imaging studies in fifty-nine patients were performed. To compare each group, gender; age; body weight; serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 levels; and outside temperature were evaluated. Results. No significant visualization of BAT was noted in any of the images in the THW, rhTSH, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism groups. All patients in the BAT group were in a euthyroid state. When the BAT-negative and BAT-positive patient groups were compared, it was noted that the minimum and maximum temperature on the day of the PET study and maximum temperature of the one day before the PET study were significantly lower in BAT-positive group than in all those of other groups. Conclusions. Elevated TSH condition before RIT, hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism did not significantly impact BAT visualization of clinical FDG-PET/CT images.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Preclinical In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of [18F]FE@SUPPY for Cancer
           PET Imaging: Limitations of a Xenograft Model for Colorectal Cancer

    • Abstract: Molecular imaging probes such as PET-tracers have the potential to improve the accuracy of tumor characterization by directly visualizing the biochemical situation. Thus, molecular changes can be detected early before morphological manifestation. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is described to be highly expressed in colon cancer cell lines and human colorectal cancer (CRC), suggesting this receptor as a tumor marker. The aim of this preclinical study was the evaluation of FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC using in vitro imaging and in vivo PET imaging. First, affinity and selectivity of FE@SUPPY and its metabolites were determined, proving the favorable binding profile of FE@SUPPY. The human adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 was characterized regarding its hA3AR expression and was subsequently chosen as tumor graft. Promising results regarding the potential of FE@SUPPY as a PET-tracer for CRC imaging were obtained by autoradiography as ≥2.3-fold higher accumulation of FE@SUPPY was found in CRC tissue compared to adjacent healthy colon tissue from the same patient. Nevertheless, first in vivo studies using HT-29 xenografts showed insufficient tumor uptake due to (1) poor conservation of target expression in xenografts and (2) unfavorable pharmacokinetics of FE@SUPPY in mice. We therefore conclude that HT-29 xenografts are not adequate to visualize hA3ARs using FE@SUPPY.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study of the Influence of Age in 18F-FDG PET Images Using a Data-Driven
           Approach and Its Evaluation in Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Abstract: Objectives. 18F-FDG PET scan is one of the most frequently used neural imaging scans. However, the influence of age has proven to be the greatest interfering factor for many clinical dementia diagnoses when analyzing 18F-FDG PET images, since radiologists encounter difficulties when deciding whether the abnormalities in specific regions correlate with normal aging, disease, or both. In the present paper, the authors aimed to define specific brain regions and determine an age-correction mathematical model. Methods. A data-driven approach was used based on 255 healthy subjects. Results. The inferior frontal gyrus, the left medial part and the left medial orbital part of superior frontal gyrus, the right insula, the left anterior cingulate, the left median cingulate, and paracingulate gyri, and bilateral superior temporal gyri were found to have a strong negative correlation with age. For evaluation, an age-correction model was applied to 262 healthy subjects and 50 AD subjects selected from the ADNI database, and partial correlations between SUVR mean and three clinical results were carried out before and after age correction. Conclusion. All correlation coefficients were significantly improved after the age correction. The proposed model was effective in the age correction of both healthy and AD subjects.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Carboxyl of Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticles of Perfluorooctyl
           Bromide for Ultrasonic Imaging of Tumor

    • Abstract: Perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) enclosed nanoparticles (NPs) as ultrasonic contrasts have shown promising results in the recent years. However, NPs display poor contrast enhancement in vivo. In this work, we used the copolymers poly(lactide-co-glycolide) carboxylic acid (PLGA-COOH) and poly(lactide-co- glycolide) poly(ethylene glycol) carboxylic acid (PLGA-PEG-COOH) as a shell to encapsulate PFOB to prepare a nanoultrasonic contrast agent. The NPs were small and uniform ( nm with a polydispersity index of ) with a complete shell nuclear structure under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro, when concentration of NPs was ≥10 mg/ml and clinical diagnostic frequency was ≥9 MHz, NPs produced intensive enhancement of ultrasonic gray-scale signals. NPs could produce stable and obvious gray enhancement with high mechanical index (MI) (MI > 0.6). In vivo, the NPs offered good ultrasound enhancement in tumor after more than 24 h and optical imaging also indicated that NPs were mainly located at tumor site. Subsequent analysis confirmed that large accumulation of fluorescence was observed in the frozen section of the tumor tissue. All these results caused the conclusion that NPs encapsulated PFOB has achieved tumor-selective imaging in vivo.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Amyloid-Beta Radiotracer [18F]BF-227 Does Not Bind to Cytoplasmic Glial
           Inclusions of Postmortem Multiple System Atrophy Brain Tissue

    • Abstract: The accumulation of aggregated alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in multiple brain regions is a neuropathological hallmark of synucleinopathies. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy characterized by the predominant cerebral accumulation of aggregated α-syn as cytoplasmic glial inclusions (CGI). A premortem diagnosis tool would improve early diagnosis and help monitoring disease progression and therapeutic efficacy. One Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study suggested [11C]BF-227 as a promising radiotracer for monitoring intracellular α-syn deposition in MSA patients. We sought to confirm the binding of this radiotracer to α-syn using state-of-the-art autoradiography. Medulla sections were obtained from 9 MSA patients and 9 controls (London Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain Bank). [18F]BF-227, chemically identical to [11C]BF-227, was used at nanomolar concentrations to perform in vitro autoradiography assays. Autoradiograms were superimposed on fluorescent staining from the conformational anti-α-syn antibody 5G4 and quantified after immunofluorescence-driven definition of regions of interest. Autoradiography showed no specific signals in MSA patients in comparison to controls despite widespread pathology detected by immunofluorescence. Autoradiography does not support a significant binding of [18F]BF-227 to CGI at concentrations typically achieved in PET experiments.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prediction of Microvascular Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma:
           Preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA-Dynamic Enhanced MRI and Histopathological

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the imaging features observed in preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA-dynamic enhanced MRI and correlated with the presence of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Methods. 66 HCCs in 60 patients with preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA-dynamic enhanced MRI were retrospectively analyzed. Features including tumor size, signal homogeneity, tumor capsule, tumor margin, peritumor enhancement during mid-arterial phase, peritumor hypointensity during hepatobiliary phase, signal intensity ratio on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC), T1 relaxation times, and the reduction rate between pre- and postcontrast enhancement images were assessed. Correlation between these features and histopathological presence of MVI was analyzed to establish a prediction model. Results. Histopathology confirmed that MVI were observed in 17 of 66 HCCs. Univariate analysis showed tumor size (), margin (), peritumor enhancement (), and hypointensity during hepatobiliary phase () were associated with MVI. A multiple logistic regression model was established, which showed tumor size, margin, and peritumor enhancement were combined predictors for the presence of MVI (). of this prediction model was 0.353, and the sensitivity and specificity were 52.9% and 93.0%, respectively. Conclusion. Large tumor size, irregular tumor margin, and peritumor enhancement in preoperative Gd-EOB-DTPA-dynamic enhanced MRI can predict the presence of MVI in HCC.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • DCE-MRI Pharmacokinetic-Based Phenotyping of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: A
           Radiomic Study for Prediction of Histological Outcomes

    • Abstract: Breast cancer is a disease affecting an increasing number of women worldwide. Several efforts have been made in the last years to identify imaging biomarker and to develop noninvasive diagnostic tools for breast tumor characterization and monitoring, which could help in patients’ stratification, outcome prediction, and treatment personalization. In particular, radiomic approaches have paved the way to the study of the cancer imaging phenotypes. In this work, a group of 49 patients with diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma was studied. The purpose of this study was to select radiomic features extracted from a DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic protocol, including quantitative maps of ,,, iAUC, and and to construct predictive models for the discrimination of molecular receptor status (ER+/ER, PR+/PR, and HER2+/HER2), triple negative (TN)/non-triple negative (NTN), ki67 levels, and tumor grade. A total of 163 features were obtained and, after feature set reduction step, followed by feature selection and prediction performance estimations, the predictive model coefficients were computed for each classification task. The AUC values obtained were for ER+/ER, for PR+/PR, for HER2+/HER2, for TN/NTN, for ki67+/ki67, and for lowGrade/highGrade. In conclusion, DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic-based phenotyping shows promising for discrimination of the histological outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 Jan 2018 10:11:21 +000
  • Brain Network Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease Identified by
           Early-Phase PIB-PET

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to identify the brain networks from early-phase 11C-PIB (perfusion PIB, pPIB) data and to compare the brain networks of patients with differentiating Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with cognitively normal subjects (CN) and of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) with CN. Forty participants (14 CN, 12 MCI, and 14 AD) underwent 11C-PIB and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans. Parallel independent component analysis (pICA) was used to identify correlated brain networks from the 11C-pPIB and 18F-FDG data, and a two-sample t-test was used to evaluate group differences in the corrected brain networks between AD and CN, and between MCI and CN. Our study identified a brain network of perfusion (early-phase 11C-PIB) that highly correlated with a glucose metabolism (18F-FDG) brain network and colocalized with the default mode network (DMN) in an AD-specific neurodegenerative cohort. Particularly, decreased 18F-FDG uptake correlated with a decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions of the DMN. The group comparisons revealed similar spatial patterns of the brain networks derived from the 11C-pPIB and 18F-FDG data. Our findings indicate that 11C-pPIB derived from the early-phase 11C-PIB could provide complementary information for 18F-FDG examination in AD.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 09:30:58 +000
  • Automated Whole-Body Bone Lesion Detection for Multiple Myeloma on
           68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT Imaging Using Deep Learning Methods

    • Abstract: The identification of bone lesions is crucial in the diagnostic assessment of multiple myeloma (MM). 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT can capture the abnormal molecular expression of CXCR-4 in addition to anatomical changes. However, whole-body detection of dozens of lesions on hybrid imaging is tedious and error prone. It is even more difficult to identify lesions with a large heterogeneity. This study employed deep learning methods to automatically combine characteristics of PET and CT for whole-body MM bone lesion detection in a 3D manner. Two convolutional neural networks (CNNs), V-Net and W-Net, were adopted to segment and detect the lesions. The feasibility of deep learning for lesion detection on 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT was first verified on digital phantoms generated using realistic PET simulation methods. Then the proposed methods were evaluated on real 68Ga-Pentixafor PET/CT scans of MM patients. The preliminary results showed that deep learning method can leverage multimodal information for spatial feature representation, and W-Net obtained the best result for segmentation and lesion detection. It also outperformed traditional machine learning methods such as random forest classifier (RF), -Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), and support vector machine (SVM). The proof-of-concept study encourages further development of deep learning approach for MM lesion detection in population study.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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