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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging as a Prognostic Tool in Early Diagnosis
           of Prostate Cancer: Correlation with PSA and Clinical Stage

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. Although several methods have been developed to predict the outcome of patients with prostate cancer, early diagnosis of individual patient remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to correlate tumor perfusion parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and clinical prognostic factors and further to explore the diagnostic value of DCE-MRI parameters in early stage prostate cancer. Patients and Methods. Sixty-two newly diagnosed patients with histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in our prospective study. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (12 cores, 6 on each lobe) was performed in each patient. Pathology was reviewed and graded according to the Gleason system. DCE-MRI was performed and analyzed using a two-compartmental model; quantitative parameters including volume transfer constant (Ktrans), reflux constant (Kep), and initial area under curve (iAUC) were calculated from the tumors and correlated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical stage. Results. Ktrans (0.11 ± 0.02 min−1 versus 0.16 ± 0.06 min−1; ), Kep (0.38 ± 0.08 min−1 versus 0.60 ± 0.23 min−1; ), and iAUC (14.33 ± 2.66 mmoL/L/min versus 17.40 ± 5.97 mmoL/L/min; ) were all lower in the clinical stage T1c tumors (tumor number, ) than that of tumors in clinical stage T2 (). Serum PSA correlated with both tumor Ktrans (,) and iAUC (,). Conclusions. Our study has confirmed that DCE-MRI is a promising biomarker that reflects the microcirculation of prostate cancer. DCE-MRI in combination with clinical prognostic factors may provide an effective new tool for the basis of early diagnosis and treatment decisions.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Detecting GPC3-Expressing Hepatocellular Carcinoma with L5 Peptide-Guided
           Pretargeting Approach: In Vitro and In Vivo MR Imaging Experiments

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the potential of L5 peptide-guided pretargeting approach to identify GPC3-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) as the MR probe. Methods. Immunofluorescence with carboxyfluorescein- (FAM-) labeled L5 peptide was performed in HepG2 cells. Polyethylene glycol-modified USPIO (PEG-USPIO) and its conjugation with streptavidin (SA-PEG-USPIO) were synthesized, and their hydrodynamic diameters, zeta potential, T2 relaxivity, and cytotoxicity were measured. In vitro and in vivo two-step pretargeting MR imaging was performed on HepG2 cells and tumor-bearing mice after the administration of biotinylated L5 peptide (first step), followed by SA-PEG-USPIO (second step). Prussian blue staining was performed to assess iron deposition in tumors. Results. The high specificity of L5 peptide for GPC3 was demonstrated. Generation of SA-PEG-USPIO nanoparticles with good biocompatibility (an average hydrodynamic diameter of 35.97 nm and a zeta potential of −7.91 mV), superparamagnetism (R2 = 0.1039 × 103 mM−1s−1), and low toxicity was achieved. The pretargeting group showed more enhancement than the nonpretargeting group both in vitro (60% vs 20%, ) and in vivo (32% vs 6%, ). Substantial iron deposition was only observed in HepG2 cells and tumors in the pretargeting group. Conclusion. L5 peptide-guided, two-step pretargeting approach with USPIO as the MR imaging probe is a lucrative strategy to specifically identify GPC3-expressing HCC.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Sep 2018 10:38:46 +000
       
  • Parameters Influencing PET Imaging Features: A Phantom Study with
           Irregular and Heterogeneous Synthetic Lesions

    • Abstract: Aim. To evaluate reproducibility and stability of radiomic features as effects of the use of different volume segmentation methods and reconstruction settings. The potential of radiomics in really capturing the presence of heterogeneous tumor uptake and irregular shape was also investigated. Materials and Methods. An anthropomorphic phantom miming real clinical situations including synthetic lesions with irregular shape and nonuniform radiotracer uptake was used. 18F-FDG PET/CT measurements of the phantom were performed including 38 lesions of different shape, size, lesion-to-background ratio, and radiotracer uptake distribution. Different reconstruction parameters and segmentation methods were considered. COVs were calculated to quantify feature variations over the different reconstruction settings. Friedman test was applied to the values of the radiomic features obtained for the considered segmentation approaches. Two sets of test-retest measurement were acquired and the pairwise intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated. Fifty-eight morphological and statistical features were extracted from the segmented lesion volumes. A Mann–Whitney test was used to evaluate significant differences among each feature when calculated from heterogeneous versus homogeneous uptake. The significance of each radiomic feature in terms of capturing heterogeneity was evaluated also by testing correlation with gold standard indexes of heterogeneity and sphericity. Results. The choice of the segmentation method has a strong impact on the stability of radiomic features (less than 20% can be considered stable features). Reconstruction affects the estimate of radiomic features (only 26% are stable). Thirty-one radiomic features (53%) resulted to be reproducible, 11 of them are able to discriminate heterogeneity. Among these, we found a subset of 3 radiomic features strongly correlated with GS heterogeneity index that can be suggested as good features for retrospective evaluations.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Liver Imaging and Hepatobiliary Contrast Media

    • PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Imaging in Targeted Therapeutics

    • PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of 18F-NaF PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT for Detection of
           Skull-Base Invasion and Osseous Metastases in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Our study aimed at comparing the diagnostic value of 18F-NaF positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT for detection of skull-base invasion and osseous metastases in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our study retrospectively analyzed 45 patients with pathologically proven NPC. They all underwent both 18F-NaF PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT within a 7-day interval. Bone metastases were confirmed by follow-up using PET/CT, enhance-contrast computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance image (MRI). These two examinations were compared using per-patient-based analysis and per-lesion-based analysis. 18F-NaF PET/CT detected 27 patients with skull-base invasion, whereas 18F-FDG PET/CT detected 17 patients. 18F-NaF PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT differed significantly in diagnosing skull-base invasion () and sensitivity (). The sensitivity, specificity, and agreement rate of 18F-NaF PET/CT for detecting bone metastatic lesions were 98.3%, 65.7%, and 92.9%, respectively; these values were 42.9%, 97.1%, and 51.9%, respectively, for 18F-FDG PET/CT. 18F-NaF PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT differed significantly in the number of osseous metastases detected (,) sensitivity () and specificity (). In patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 18F-NaF PET/CT assessed invasion of the skull base better and detected more osseous metastases than 18F-FDG PET/CT.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Targeted Optical Imaging Agents in Cancer: Focus on Clinical Applications

    • Abstract: Molecular imaging is an emerging strategy for in vivo visualization of cancer over time based on biological mechanisms of disease activity. Optical imaging methods offer a number of advantages for real-time cancer detection, particularly in the epithelium of hollow organs and ducts, by using a broad spectral range of light that spans from visible to near-infrared. Targeted ligands are being developed for improved molecular specificity. These platforms include small molecule, peptide, affibody, activatable probes, lectin, and antibody. Fluorescence labeling is used to provide high image contrast. This emerging methodology is clinically useful for early cancer detection by identifying and localizing suspicious lesions that may not otherwise be seen and serves as a guide for tissue biopsy and surgical resection. Visualizing molecular expression patterns may also be useful to determine the best choice of therapy and to monitor efficacy. A number of these imaging agents are overcoming key challenges for clinical translation and are being validated in vivo for a wide range of human cancers.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 07:03:21 +000
       
  • MT1-MMP as a PET Imaging Biomarker for Pancreas Cancer Management

    • Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be one of the deadliest cancers for which optimal diagnostic tools are still greatly needed. Identification of PDAC-specific molecular markers would be extremely useful to improve disease diagnosis and follow-up. MT1-MMP has long been involved in pancreatic cancer, especially in tumour invasion and metastasis. In this study, we aim to ascertain the suitability of MT1-MMP as a biomarker for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Two probes were assessed and compared for this purpose, an MT1-MMP-specific binding peptide (MT1-AF7p) and a specific antibody (LEM2/15), labelled, respectively, with 68Ga and with 89Zr. PET imaging with both probes was conducted in patient-derived xenograft (PDX), subcutaneous and orthotopic, PDAC mouse models, and in a cancer cell line (CAPAN-2)-derived xenograft (CDX) model. Both radiolabelled tracers were successful in identifying, by means of PET imaging techniques, tumour tissues expressing MT1-MMP although they did so at different uptake levels. The 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 probe showed greater specific activity compared to the 68Ga-labelled peptide. The mean value of tumour uptake for the 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 probe (5.67 ± 1.11%ID/g, ) was 25–30 times higher than that of the 68Ga-DOTA-AF7p ones. Tumour/blood ratios (1.13 ± 0.51 and 1.44 ± 0.43 at 5 and 7 days of 89Zr-DFO-LEM2/15 after injection) were higher than those estimated for 68Ga-DOTA-AF7p probes (of approximately tumour/blood ratio = 0.5 at 90 min after injection). Our findings strongly point out that (i) the in vivo detection of MT1-MMP by PET imaging is a promising strategy for PDAC diagnosis and (ii) labelled LEM2/15 antibody is a better candidate than MT1-AF7p for PDAC detection.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Erbium-Based Perfusion Contrast Agent for Small-Animal
           Microvessel Imaging”

    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Multiple Myeloma Staging according to
           IMPeTUs: Comparison of the Durie–Salmon Plus and Other Staging Systems

    • Abstract: We aimed at comparing the Durie–Salmon Plus (DS Plus) staging system based on Italian Myeloma criteria for PET USe (IMPeTUs) with other two staging systems in predicting prognosis of patients with all stages of newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). A total of 33 MM patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. The variation between the DS Plus classification and Durie–Salmon staging system (DSS) or Revised International Staging System (RISS) classification was assessed. When staged by the DSS, patients in stage I and stage II did not reach the median overall survival (OS), and the median OS was 33 months for stage III (). When staged by the DS Plus, patients in stage I did not reach the median OS of stage I, and the median OS for stages II and III was 38 and nine months, respectively (). When staged by the RISS, patients in stage I did not reach the median OS, and the median OS was 33 and 16 months for stage II and stage III, respectively (). The concordances between two staging systems were 0.07 (DS Plus versus DSS) and 0.37 (DS Plus versus RISS), respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that DS Plus stage III (HR: 11.539, ) and the Deauville score of bone marrow ≥4 (HR: 3.487, ) were independent prognostic factors associated with OS. Both the DS Plus based on IMPeTUs and RISS possessed a better potential in characterizing and stratifying MM patients compared with the DSS. Moreover, DS Plus stage III and the Deauville score of bone marrow ≥4 were reliable prognostic factors in newly diagnosed MM patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Quantitative Radiomics: Impact of Pulse Sequence Parameter Selection on
           MRI-Based Textural Features of the Brain

    • Abstract: Objectives. Radiomic features extracted from diverse MRI modalities have been investigated regarding their predictive and/or prognostic value in a variety of cancers. With the aid of a 3D realistic digital MRI phantom of the brain, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of pulse sequence parameter selection on MRI-based textural parameters of the brain. Methods. MR images of the employed digital phantom were realized with SimuBloch, a simulation package made for fast generation of image sequences based on the Bloch equations. Pulse sequences being investigated consisted of spin echo (SE), gradient echo (GRE), spoiled gradient echo (SP-GRE), inversion recovery spin echo (IR-SE), and inversion recovery gradient echo (IR-GRE). Twenty-nine radiomic textural features related, respectively, to gray-level intensity histograms (GLIH), cooccurrence matrices (GLCOM), zone size matrices (GLZSM), and neighborhood difference matrices (GLNDM) were evaluated for the obtained MR realizations, and differences were identified. Results. It was found that radiomic features vary considerably among images generated by the five different T1-weighted pulse sequences, and the deviations from those measured on the T1 map vary among features, from a few percent to over 100%. Radiomic features extracted from T1-weighted spin-echo images with TR varying from 360 ms to 620 ms and TE = 3.4 ms showed coefficients of variation (CV) up to 45%, while up to 70%, for T2-weighted spin-echo images with TE varying over the range 60–120 ms and TR = 6400 ms. Conclusion. Variability of radiologic textural appearance on MR realizations with respect to the choice of pulse sequence and imaging parameters is feature-dependent and can be substantial. It calls for caution in employing MRI-derived radiomic features especially when pooling imaging data from multiple institutions with intention of correlating with clinical endpoints.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preclinical Evaluation of [18F]LCATD as a PET Tracer to Study Drug-Drug
           Interactions Caused by Inhibition of Hepatic Transporters

    • Abstract: The bile acid analogue [18F]LCATD (LithoCholic Acid Triazole Derivative) is transported in vitro by hepatic uptake transporters such as OATP1B1 and NTCP and efflux transporter BSEP. In this in vivo “proof of principle” study, we tested if [18F]LCATD may be used to evaluate drug-drug interactions (DDIs) caused by inhibition of liver transporters. Hepatic clearance of [18F]LCATD in rats was significantly modified upon coadministration of rifamycin SV or sodium fusidate, which are known to inhibit clinically relevant uptake transporters (OATP1B1, NTCP) and canalicular hepatic transporters (BSEP) in humans. Treatment with rifamycin SV (total dose 62.5 mg·Kg−1) reduced the maximum radioactivity of [18F]LCATD recorded in the liver from 14.2 ± 0.8% to 10.2 ± 0.9% and delayed t_max by 90 seconds relative to control rats. AUCliver 0–5 min, AUCbile 0–10 min and hepatic uptake clearance CLuptake,in vivo of rifamycin SV treated rats were significantly reduced, whereas AUCliver 0–30 min was higher than in control rats. Administration of sodium fusidate (30 mg·Kg−1) inhibited the liver uptake of [18F]LCATD, although to a lesser extent, reducing the maximum radioactivity in the liver to 11.5 ± 0.3%. These preliminary results indicate that [18F]LCATD may be a good candidate for future applications as an investigational tracer to evaluate altered hepatobiliary excretion as a result of drug-induced inhibition of hepatic transporters.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Measuring Tumor Metabolism in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma
           Using Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 MR Metabolic Imaging

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using hyperpolarized carbon-13 (13C) metabolic imaging with [1-13C]-labeled pyruvate for evaluating real-time in vivo metabolism of orthotopic diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) xenografts. Materials and Methods. 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data were acquired on a 3T scanner from 8 rats that had been implanted with human-derived DIPG cells in the brainstem and 5 healthy controls, following injection of 2.5 mL (100 mM) hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate. Results. Anatomical images from DIPG-bearing rats characteristically exhibited T2-hyperintensity throughout the cerebellum and pons that was not accompanied by contrast enhancement. Evaluation of real-time in vivo13C spectroscopic data revealed ratios of lactate-to-pyruvate (), lactate-to-total carbon (), and normalized lactate () that were significantly higher in T2 lesions harboring tumor relative to corresponding values of healthy normal brain. Elevated levels of lactate in lesions demonstrated a distinct metabolic profile that was associated with infiltrative, viable tumor recapitulating the histopathology of pediatric DIPG. Conclusions. Results from this study characterized pyruvate and lactate metabolism in orthotopic DIPG xenografts and suggest that hyperpolarized 13C MRSI may serve as a noninvasive imaging technique for in vivo monitoring of biochemical processes in patients with DIPG.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cervical Cancer: Associations between Metabolic Parameters and Whole
           Lesion Histogram Analysis Derived from Simultaneous 18F-FDG-PET/MRI

    • Abstract: Multimodal imaging has been increasingly used in oncology, especially in cervical cancer. By using a simultaneous positron emission (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, PET/MRI) approach, PET and MRI can be obtained at the same time which minimizes motion artefacts and allows an exact imaging fusion, which is especially important in anatomically complex regions like the pelvis. The associations between functional parameters from MRI and 18F-FDG-PET reflecting different tumor aspects are complex with inconclusive results in cervical cancer. The present study correlates histogram analysis and 18F-FDG-PET parameters derived from simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI in cervical cancer. Overall, 18 female patients (age range: 32–79 years) with histopathologically confirmed squamous cell cervical carcinoma were retrospectively enrolled. All 18 patients underwent a whole-body simultaneous 18F-FDG-PET/MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using b-values 0 and 1000 s/mm2. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters included several percentiles, mean, min, max, mode, median, skewness, kurtosis, and entropy. Furthermore, mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were estimated. No statistically significant correlations were observed between SUVmax or SUVmean and ADC histogram parameters. TLG correlated inversely with p25 (), p75 (), p90 (), ADC median (), and ADC mode (). MTV also showed significant correlations with several ADC parameters: mean (), p10 (), p25 (), p75 (), p90 (), ADC median (), and ADC mode (). ADC histogram analysis and volume-based metabolic 18F-FDG-PET parameters are related to each other in cervical cancer.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Noninvasive Monitoring of Liver Disease Regression after Hepatitis C
           Eradication Using Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI

    • Abstract: We evaluated changes in relative liver enhancement (RLE) obtained by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (GA-MRI) in the hepatobiliary phase and changes in splenic volume (SV) after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication as well as their predictive value for the development of (further) hepatic decompensation during follow-up. This retrospective study comprised 31 consecutive patients with HCV-induced advanced chronic liver disease who underwent GA-MRI before and after successful interferon-free treatment, as well as a cohort of 14 untreated chronic HCV-patients with paired GA-MRI. RLE increased by 66% (20%–94%; ) from pre- to posttreatment, while SV decreased by −16% (−28% to −8%; ). However, SV increased in 16% (5/31) of patients, the identical subjects who showed a decrease in RLE (GA-MRI-nonresponse). We observed an inverse correlation between the changes in RLE and SV (). In the untreated patients, there was a decrease in RLE by −11% (−25% to −3%; ) and an increase in SV by 23% (7%–43%; ) (both versus treated patients). Interestingly, GA-MRI-nonresponse was associated with a substantially increased risk of (further) hepatic decompensation 2 years after the end of treatment: 80% versus 8%; . GA-MRI might distinguish between individuals at low and high risk of (further) hepatic decompensation (GA-MRI-nonresponse) after HCV eradication. This could allow for individualized surveillance strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Early Imaging Biomarker of Myocardial Glucose Adaptations in
           High-Fat-Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Model by Using 18F-FDG PET and
           [U-13C]glucose Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tracer

    • Abstract: Background. High-fat diet (HFD) induces systemic insulin resistance leading to myocardial dysfunction. We aim to characterize the early adaptations of myocardial glucose utility to HFD-induced insulin resistance. Methods. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned into two groups, fed a regular chow diet or HFD ad libitum for 10 weeks. We used in vivo imaging of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), 18F-FDG PET, and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic analysis for the carbon-13-labeled glucose ([U-13C]Glc) perfused myocardium. Results. As compared with controls, HFD rats had a higher ejection fraction and a smaller left ventricular end-systolic volume (), with SUVmax of myocardium on 18F-FDG PET significantly increased in 4 weeks (). The [U-13C]Glc probed the increased glucose uptake being metabolized into pyruvate and acetyl-CoA, undergoing oxidative phosphorylation via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and then synthesized into glutamic acid and glutamine, associated with overexpressed LC3B (). Conclusions. HFD-induced IR associated with increased glucose utility undergoing oxidative phosphorylation via the TCA cycle in the myocardium is supported by overexpression of glucose transporter, acetyl-CoA synthase. Noninvasive imaging biomarker has potentials in detecting the metabolic perturbations prior to the decline of the left ventricular function.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Isolated Perfused Rat Livers to Quantify the Pharmacokinetics and
           Concentrations of Gd-BOPTA

    • Abstract: With recent advances in liver imaging, the estimation of liver concentrations is now possible following the injection of hepatobiliary contrast agents and radiotracers. However, how these images are generated remains partially unknown. Most experiments that would be helpful to increase this understanding cannot be performed in vivo. For these reasons, we investigated the liver distribution of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance®, Bracco Imaging) in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRLs). In IPRL, we developed a new set up that quantifies simultaneously the Gd-BOPTA compartment concentrations and the transfer rates between these compartments. Concentrations were measured either by MR signal intensity or by count rates when the contrast agent was labelled by [153Gd]. With this experimental model, we show how the Gd-BOPTA hepatocyte concentrations are modified by temperature and liver flow rates. We define new pharmacokinetic parameters to quantify the canalicular transport of Gd-BOPTA. Finally, we present how transfer rates generate Gd-BOPTA concentrations in rat liver compartments. These findings better explain how liver imaging with hepatobiliary radiotracers and contrast agents is generated and improve the image interpretation by clinicians.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 03:03:30 +000
       
  • Magnetosomes Extracted from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense as
           Theranostic Agents in an Experimental Model of Glioblastoma

    • Abstract: Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with chemically synthesized nanoparticles is currently used in clinical trials as it destroys tumor cells with an extremely localized deposition of thermal energy. In this paper, we investigated an MFH protocol based on magnetic nanoparticles naturally produced by magnetotactic bacteria: magnetosomes. The efficacy of such protocol is tested in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Mice receive a single intratumoral injection of magnetosomes, and they are exposed three times in a week to an alternating magnetic field with concurrent temperature measurements. MRI is used to visualize the nanoparticles and to monitor tumor size before and after the treatment. Statistically significant inhibition of the tumor growth is detected in subjects exposed to the alternating magnetic field compared to control groups. Moreover, thanks to magnetosomes high transversal relaxivity, their effective delivery to the tumor tissue is monitored by MRI. It is apparent that the efficacy of this protocol is limited by inhomogeneous delivery of magnetosomes to tumor tissue. These results suggest that naturally synthesized magnetosomes could be effectively considered as theranostic agent candidates for hyperthermia based on iron oxide nanoparticles.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessment of the Aging of the Brown Adipose Tissue by 18F-FDG PET/CT
           Imaging in the Progeria Mouse Model Lmna−/−

    • Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important energy metabolic organ that is highly implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Aging is one of the most important determinants of BAT activity. In this study, we used 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging to assess BAT aging in Lmna−/− mice. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVMax) of the BAT was measured, and the target/nontarget (T/NT) values of BAT were calculated. The transcription and the protein expression levels of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), beta3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and the PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting or immunohistochemical analysis. Apoptosis and cell senescence rates in the BAT of WT and Lmna−/− mice were determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and by CDKN2A/p16INK4a immunohistochemical staining, respectively. At 14 weeks of age, the BAT SUVMax and the expression levels of UCP1, β3-AR, and PRDM16 in Lmna−/− mice were significantly reduced relative to WT mice. At the same time, the number of p16INK4a and TUNEL positively stained cells (%) increased in Lmna−/− mice. Collectively, our results indicate that the aging characteristics and the aging regulatory mechanism in the BAT of Lmna−/− mice can mimic the normal BAT aging process.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A New High-Performance Gadonanotube-Polymer Hybrid Material for Stem Cell
           Labeling and Tracking by MRI

    • Abstract: A gentle, rapid method has been developed to introduce a polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer coating on the surface of gadonanotubes (GNTs) which significantly increases their dispersibility in water without the need of a surfactant. As a result, the polymer, with its many carboxylic acid groups, coats the surface of the GNTs to form a new GNT-polymer hybrid material (PAA-GNT) which can be highly dispersed in water (ca. 20 mg·mL−1) at physiological pH. When dispersed in water, the new PAA-GNT material is a powerful MRI contrast agent with an extremely short water proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) which results in a T1-weighted relaxivity of 150 mM−1·s−1 per Gd3+ ion at 1.5 T. Furthermore, the PAA-GNTs have been used to safely label porcine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for magnetic resonance imaging. The labeled cells display excellent image contrast in phantom imaging experiments, and transmission electron microscopy images of the labeled cells reveal the presence of highly dispersed PAA-GNTs within the cytoplasm with 1014 Gd3+ ions per cell.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for Retroperitoneal/Intra-Abdominal Soft Tissue
           Sarcomas

    • Abstract: Rationale. To assess the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for different retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and other similar tumors. To analyze the predictive value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for histological grade and main prognostic factors. Methods. 195 patients with 44 different diseases have been included. Relationship between SUVmax, Clinical, pathological, and prognostic information has been analyzed. Results. Malignant tumors do not show higher SUVmax than benign ones (). We divided all 44 different diseases into two groups; SUVmax of group 1 is significantly higher than group 2 (). The ROC curve suggests 4.35 is the cutoff value to distinguish groups 1 and 2 (sensitivity = 0.789; specificity = 0.736). SUVmax correlates with Ki-67 index, mitotic count, vascular resection, histological grade, and recurrent STS without considering pathological diagnosis (, resp.). Conclusion. 18F-FDG-PET/CT cannot simply distinguish malignant and benign tumors in retroperitoneal/intra-abdominal cavity; however, the SUVmax of malignant tumors, inflammatory pseudotumor, and PPGL group is higher than the SUVmax of benign tumors, lymph node metastasis, hematoma, and low malignant STS group. Guidance of “SUVmax location” may be helpful for biopsy and pathology dissection.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation on the Neural Mechanism of Hypnosis-Based Respiratory
           Control Using Functional MRI

    • Abstract: Respiratory control is essential for treatment effect of radiotherapy due to the high dose, especially for thoracic-abdomen tumor, such as lung and liver tumors. As a noninvasive and comfortable way of respiratory control, hypnosis has been proven effective as a psychological technology in clinical therapy. In this study, the neural control mechanism of hypnosis for respiration was investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Altered spontaneous brain activity as well as neural correlation of respiratory motion was detected for eight healthy subjects in normal state (NS) and hypnosis state (HS) guided by a hypnotist. Reduced respiratory amplitude was observed in HS (mean ± SD: 14.23 ± 3.40 mm in NS, 12.79 ± 2.49 mm in HS, ), with mean amplitude deduction of 9.2%. Interstate difference of neural activity showed activations in the visual cortex and cerebellum, while deactivations in the prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCu/PCC) in HS. Within these regions, negative correlations of neural activity and respiratory motion were observed in visual cortex in HS. Moreover, in HS, voxel-wise neural correlations of respiratory amplitude demonstrated positive correlations in cerebellum anterior lobe and insula, while negative correlations were shown in the prefrontal cortex and sensorimotor area. These findings reveal the involvement of cognitive, executive control, and sensorimotor processing in the control mechanisms of hypnosis for respiration, and shed new light on hypnosis performance in interaction of psychology, physiology, and cognitive neuroscience.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo MRI of Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Brain
           Inflammation

    • Abstract: Microglia are intrinsic components of the brain immune system and are activated in many central nervous system disorders. The ability to noninvasively image these cells would provide valuable information for both research and clinical applications. Today, most imaging probes for activated microglia are mainly designed for positron emission tomography (PET) and target translocator proteins that also reside on other cerebral cells. The PET images obtained are not specific for microglia-driven inflammation. Here, we describe a potential PET/MRI multimodal imaging probe that selectively targets the scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) expressed on activated microglia. These sulfated dextran-coated iron oxide (SDIO) nanoparticles are avidly taken up by microglia and appear to be nontoxic when administered intravenously in a mouse model. Intravenous administration of this SDIO demonstrated visualization by -weighted MRI of microglia activated by intracerebral administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The contrast was significantly enhanced by SDIO, whereas there was little to no contrast change in animals treated with nontargeted nanoparticles or untreated controls. Thus, SR-A targeting represents a promising strategy to image activated microglia in the brain.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Imaging of Aminopeptidase N in Cancer and Angiogenesis

    • Abstract: This review focuses on recent advances in the molecular imaging of aminopeptidase N (APN, also known as CD13), a zinc metalloenzyme that cleaves N-terminal neutral amino acids. It is overexpressed in multiple cancer types and also on the surface of vasculature undergoing angiogenesis, making it a promising target for molecular imaging and targeted therapy. Molecular imaging probes for APN are divided into two large subgroups: reactive and nonreactive. The structures of the reactive probes (substrates) contain a reporter group that is cleaved and released by the APN enzyme. The nonreactive probes are not cleaved by the enzyme and contain an antibody, peptide, or nonpeptide for targeting the enzyme exterior or active site. Multivalent homotopic probes utilize multiple copies of the same targeting unit, whereas multivalent heterotopic molecular probes are equipped with different targeting units for different receptors. Several recent preclinical cancer imaging studies have shown that multivalent APN probes exhibit enhanced tumor specificity and accumulation compared to monovalent analogues. The few studies that have evaluated APN-specific probes for imaging angiogenesis have focused on cardiac regeneration. These promising results suggest that APN imaging can be expanded to detect and monitor other diseases that are associated with angiogenesis.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Recent Advances in Quantitative Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    • PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Light-Triggered Radiochemical Synthesis: A Novel 18F-Labelling Strategy
           Using Photoinducible Click Reaction to Prepare PET Imaging Probes

    • Abstract: Novel probe development for positron emission tomography (PET) is leading to expanding the scope of molecular imaging. To begin responding to challenges, several biomaterials such as natural products and small molecules, peptides, engineered proteins including affibodies, and antibodies have been used in the development of targeted molecular imaging probes. To prepare radiotracers, a few bioactive materials are unique challenges to radiolabelling because of their complex structure, poor stability, poor solubility in aqueous or chemical organic solutions, and sensitivity to temperature and nonphysiological pH. To overcome these challenges, we developed a new radiolabelling strategy based on photoactivated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between alkene dipolarophile and tetrazole moiety containing compounds. Herein, we describe a light-triggered radiochemical synthesis via photoactivated click reaction to prepare 18F-radiolabelled PET tracers using small molecular and RGD peptide.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Differential Diagnosis between Low-Grade and High-Grade Astrocytoma Using
           System A Amino Acid Transport PET Imaging with C-11-MeAIB: A Comparison
           Study with C-11-Methionine PET Imaging

    • Abstract: Introductions. [N-methyl-C-11]α-Methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) is an artificial amino acid radiotracer used for PET study, which is metabolically stable in vivo. In addition, MeAIB is transported by system A neutral amino acid transport, which is observed ubiquitously in all types of mammalian cells. It has already been shown that MeAIB-PET is useful for malignant lymphoma, head and neck cancers, and lung tumors. However, there have been no reports evaluating the usefulness of MeAIB-PET in the diagnosis of brain tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of system A amino acid transport PET imaging, MeAIB-PET, in clinical brain tumor diagnosis compared to [S-methyl-C-11]-L-methionine (MET)-PET. Methods. Thirty-one consecutive patients (male: 16, female: 15), who were suspected of having brain tumors, received both MeAIB-PET and MET-PET within a 2-week interval. All patients were classified into two groups: Group A as a benign group, which included patients who were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytoma, grade II or less, or other low-grade astrocytoma () and Group B as a malignant group, which included patients who were diagnosed as anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or recurrent GBM despite prior surgery or chemoradiotherapy (). PET imaging was performed 20 min after the IV injection of MeAIB and MET, respectively. Semiquantitative analyses of MeAIB and MET uptake using SUVmax and tumor-to-contralateral normal brain tissue (T/N) ratio were evaluated to compare these PET images. ROC analyses for the diagnostic accuracy of MeAIB-PET and MET-PET were also calculated. Results. In MeAIB-PET imaging, the SUVmax was 1.20 ± 1.29 for the benign group and 2.94 ± 1.22 for the malignant group (), and the T/N ratio was 3.77 ± 2.39 for the benign group and 16.83 ± 2.39 for the malignant group (). In MET-PET, the SUVmax was 3.01 ± 0.94 for the benign group and 4.72 ± 1.61 for the malignant group (), and the T/N ratio was 2.64 ± 1.40 for the benign group and 3.21 ± 1.14 for the malignant group (n.s.). For the analysis using the T/N ratio, there was a significant difference between the benign and malignant groups with MeAIB-PET with . The result of ROC analysis using the T/N ratio indicated a better diagnosis accuracy for MeAIB-PET for brain tumors than MET-PET (). Conclusions. MeAIB, a system A amino acid transport-specific radiolabeled agents, could provide better assessments for detecting malignant type brain tumors. In a differential diagnosis between low-grade and high-grade astrocytoma, MeAIB-PET is a useful diagnostic imaging tool, especially in evaluations using the T/N ratio. Clinical trial registration. This trial was registered with UMIN000032498.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Presurgical Identification of Uterine Smooth Muscle Malignancies through
           the Characteristic FDG Uptake Pattern on PET Scans

    • Abstract: The unidentified presence of uterine smooth muscle malignancies poses a tremendous risk in women planning surgery for presumed benign leiomyomas. We sought to investigate whether preoperative FDG PET may be useful to identify leiomyosarcomas (LMS) and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Methods. We investigated patients with rapidly growing uterine masses which were suspected of being malignant on ultrasound or MRI. Among the 21 patients who underwent FDG PET, we identified 7 LMS, 1 STUMP, and 13 leiomyomas. PET-derived parameters and FDG uptake patterns were analyzed retrospectively. Results. The SUVmax values of LMS/STUMP (range: 3.7–11.8) were significantly higher than those observed in leiomyomas (range: 2.0–9.4; ) despite a significant overlap. The metabolic tumor/necrosis ratio was significantly higher in LMS/STUMP than in leiomyomas (), with no significant intergroup overlaps. All LMS/STUMP revealed a characteristic pattern of FDG uptake, identifying a specific “hollow ball” sign (corresponding to areas of coagulative tumor necrosis). In contrast, this sign was invariably absent in patients with leiomyomas. Conclusion. The characteristic FDG uptake pattern instead of SUV on PET images allows identifying LMS/STUMP in patients with rapidly growing uterine masses, avoiding the deleterious consequences of regular surgery for presumed benign leiomyomas.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo and In Vitro Characteristics of Radiolabeled Vesamicol Analogs as
           the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Imaging Agents

    • Abstract: The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a presynaptic cholinergic neuron marker, is a potential internal molecular target for the development of an imaging agent for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders with cognitive decline such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since vesamicol has been reported to bind to VAChT with high affinity, many vesamicol analogs have been studied as VAChT imaging agents for the diagnosis of cholinergic neurodeficit disorder. However, because many vesamicol analogs, as well as vesamicol, bound to sigma receptors (σ1 and σ2) besides VAChT, almost all the vesamicol analogs have been shown to be unsuitable for clinical trials. In this report, the relationships between the chemical structure and the biological characteristics of these developed vesamicol analogs were investigated, especially the in vitro binding profile and the in vivo regional brain accumulation.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 07:51:28 +000
       
  • [18F]ML-10 Imaging for Assessment of Apoptosis Response of Intracranial
           Tumor Early after Radiotherapy by PET/CT

    • Abstract: [18F]ML-10 is a novel apoptosis radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET). We assess the apoptosis response of intracranial tumor early after CyberKnife (CK) treatment by [18F]ML-10 PET imaging. 29 human subjects (30 lesions), diagnosed with intracranial tumors, underwent CK treatment at 14–24 Gy in 1–3 fractions, had [18F]ML-10 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before (pre-CK) and 48 hours after (post-CK) CK treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were taken before and 8 weeks after CK treatment. Voxel-based analysis was used for the imaging analysis. Heterogeneous changes of apoptosis in tumors before and after treatment were observed on voxel-based analysis of PET images. A positive correlation was observed between the change in radioactivity (X) and subsequent tumor volume (Y) (,), with a regression equation of . Malignant tumors tend to be more sensitive to CK treatment, but the treatment outcome is not affected by pre-CK apoptotic status of tumor cells; [18F]ML-10 PET imaging could be taken as an assessment 48 h after CK treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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