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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Comparative Evaluation of 68Ga-Citrate PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the
           Diagnosis of Type II Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    • Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by systemic, symmetrical, and erosive synovitis. RA is one of the most common disabling diseases in the clinic. The main clinical intervention strategies are early diagnosis and early treatment. This study aims to predict the diagnostic value of 68Ga-citrate and 18F-FDG PET/CT in RA by comparing and analyzing the value of 68Ga-citrate and 18F-FDG PET/CT for diagnosing type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in rats. Some CIA models were established. Normal rats were selected as the control group, and 23 days and 40 days were selected as the early and late time points of arthritis, respectively. The semiquantitative analysis of CIA rats was carried out with 68Ga-citrate PET/CT and 18F-FDG PET/CT, and the ratio of the maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) values in the regions of interest (ROIs) of the hind foot ankle joint and thigh muscle was calculated and statistically analyzed. The distribution of CIA rats in vivo at the 68Ga-citrate 90 min time point was studied, and the ankle tissues were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. 68Ga-citrate PET/CT is obviously superior to 18F-FDG PET/CT for CIA imaging, and the statistical results show that the difference between the two examination methods is statistically significant (). The uptake of these two radiopharmaceuticals showed the same trend in arthritis rats with different scores. The distribution of 68Ga-citrate at 90 min is consistent with the trend shown by 68Ga-citrate PET/CT. 68Ga-citrate PET/CT can reflect the inflammatory activity of affected joints in CIA rats earlier and more sensitively than 18F-FDG PET/CT, and this imaging advantage continues until the later stage of inflammation. Therefore, 68Ga-citrate PET/CT is worthy of further promotion and application in the clinical diagnosis of RA.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Mar 2019 15:05:04 +000
  • Erratum to “[18F]ML-10 Imaging for Assessment of Apoptosis Response of
           Intracranial Tumor Early after Radiosurgery by PET/CT”

    • PubDate: Tue, 19 Mar 2019 13:05:04 +000
  • Porous Silicon as a Platform for Radiation Theranostics Together with a
           Novel RIB-Based Radiolanthanoid

    • Abstract: Mesoporous silicon (PSi) is biocompatible and tailorable material with high potential in drug delivery applications. Here, we report of an evaluation of PSi as a carrier platform for theranostics by delivering a radioactive ion beam- (RIB-) based radioactive lanthanoid into tumors in a mouse model of prostate carcinoma. Thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon (THCPSi) wafers were implanted with 159Dy at the facility for radioactive ion beams ISOLDE located at CERN, and the resulting [159Dy]THCPSi was postprocessed into particles. The particles were intratumorally injected into mice bearing prostate cancer xenografts. The stability of the particles was studied in vivo, followed by ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiographic studies. We showed that the process of producing radionuclide-implanted PSi particles is feasible and that the [159Dy]THCPSi particles stay stable and local inside the tumor over seven days. Upon release of 159Dy from the particles, the main site of accumulation is in the skeleton, which is in agreement with previous studies on the biodistribution of dysprosium. We conclude that THCPSi particles are a suitable platform together with RIB-based radiolanthanoids for theranostic purposes as they are retained after administration inside the tumor and the radiolanthanoid remains embedded in the THCPSi.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Mar 2019 11:05:01 +000
  • Erratum to “Prostate Osteoblast-Like Cells: A Reliable Prognostic Marker
           of Bone Metastasis in Prostate Cancer Patients”

    • PubDate: Mon, 11 Mar 2019 10:05:13 +000
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of 18F-Labeled Peptide for Gonadotropin-Releasing
           Hormone Receptor Imaging

    • Abstract: The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor is overexpressed in the majority of tumors of the human reproductive system. The purpose of this study was to develop an 18F-labeled peptide for tumor GnRH receptor imaging. In this study, the GnRH (pGlu1-His2-Trp3-Ser4-Tyr5-Gly6-Leu7-Arg8-Pro9-Gly10-NH2) peptide analogues FP-D-Lys6-GnRH (FP = 2-fluoropropanoyl) and NOTA-P-D-Lys6-GnRH (P = ethylene glycol) were designed and synthesized. The IC50 values of FP-D-Lys6-GnRH and NOTA-P-D-Lys6-GnRH were 2.0 nM and 56.2 nM, respectively. 4-Nitrophenyl-2-[18F]fluoropropionate was conjugated to the ε-amino group of the D-lysine side chain of D-Lys6-GnRH to yield the new tracer [18F]FP-D-Lys6-GnRH with a decay-corrected yield of 8 ± 3% and a specific activity of 20−100 GBq/µmol (). Cell uptake studies of [18F]FP-D-Lys6-GnRH in GnRH receptor-positive PC-3 cells and GnRH receptor-negative CHO-K1 cells indicated receptor-specific accumulation. Biodistribution and PET studies in nude mice bearing PC-3 xenografted tumors showed that [18F]FP-D-Lys6-GnRH was localized in tumors with a higher uptake than in surrounding muscle and heart tissues. Furthermore, the metabolic stability of [18F]FP-D-Lys6-GnRH was determined in mouse blood and PC-3 tumor homogenates at 1 h after tracer injection. The presented results indicated a potential of the novel tracer [18F]FP-D-Lys6-GnRH for tumor GnRH receptor imaging.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Mar 2019 16:05:01 +000
  • Assessment of Intratumoral Doxorubicin Penetration after Mild
           Hyperthermia-Mediated Release from Thermosensitive Liposomes

    • Abstract: In solid tumors, rapid local intravascular release of anticancer agents, e.g., doxorubicin (DOX), from thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) can be an option to overcome poor extravasation of drug nanocarriers. The driving force of DOX penetration is the drug concentration gradient between the vascular compartment and the tumor interstitium. In this feasibility study, we used fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) to monitor in real-time DOX penetration in the interstitium of a subcutaneous tumor after its intravascular release from TSLs, Thermodox®. Cell uptake kinetics of the released DOX was quantified, along with an in-depth assessment of released-DOX penetration using an evolution model. A subcutaneous rat R1 rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft was used. The rodent was positioned in a setup including a water bath, and FCFM identification of functional vessels in the tumor tissue was applied based on AngioSense. The tumor-bearing leg was immersed in the 43°C water for preheating, and TSLs were injected intravenously. Real-time monitoring of intratumoral (i.t.) DOX penetration could be performed, and it showed the progressing DOX wave front via its native fluorescence, labeling successively all cell nuclei. Cell uptake rates (1/k) of 3 minutes were found (), and a released-DOX penetration in the range of 2500 µm2·s−1 was found in the tumor extravascular space. This study also showed that not all vessels, identified as functional based on AngioSense, gave rise to local DOX penetration.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Mar 2019 10:05:08 +000
  • In Vivo Detection and Measurement of Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection in
           Mouse Models Using Microcomputed Tomography with Contrast Agent

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) using the intravascular contrast agent ExiTron nano 12000 for aorta imaging and monitoring the dynamic changing process of the aorta in mouse models with aortic aneurysm and dissection. Materials and Methods. Experiments were performed on healthy mice and mice with aortic dissection. Mice that were developing aortic dissection and healthy mice underwent micro-CT imaging after injection of ExiTron nano 12000. Time-dependent signal enhancement (at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours after intravenous injection of the contrast agent, respectively) in the aorta of healthy mice was measured to confirm the optimal imaging time of aorta. Various contrast agent doses (70, 100, and 150 μl per 25 g mouse, respectively) were investigated to determine the optimal required dose for imaging of the aorta. The mice were scanned with micro-CT at 1, 14, and 28 days after onset of aneurysm and dissection to monitor the dynamic changing process of the aorta. Mouse aortas were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and the diameter of the aorta was measured and compared with those obtained by micro-CT. Results. Time-dependent signal enhancement in the aorta shows that the contrast agent has a long blood half-life of 6 hours, with a peak enhancement at 2 hours after injection. Injection of 100 μl ExiTron nano 12000 per 25 g mouse allows for effective visualization of the aorta. Micro-CT combined with contrast agent can monitor the changing process of the aorta in the mouse model of aortic aneurysm and dissection dynamically. The values of the diameter of the aortas obtained from the in vivo micro-CT imaging were compared with those obtained from histology and showed a significant correlation (R2 = 0.96). Conclusions. These data demonstrate that in vivo micro-CT is an accurate and feasible technique to detect aortic aneurysm or dissection in a mouse model, and the micro-CT technique using the innovative contrast agent ExiTron nano 12000 allows for monitoring various processes dynamically such as aortic remodeling in longitudinal studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Mar 2019 15:05:02 +000
  • Accelerated 19F·MRI Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 through
           Responsive Deactivation of Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement

    • Abstract: Paramagnetic gadolinium ions (GdIII), complexed within DOTA-based chelates, have become useful tools to increase the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast in tissues of interest. Recently, “on/off” probes serving as 19F·MRI biosensors for target enzymes have emerged that utilize the increase in transverse ( or T2) relaxation times upon cleavage of the paramagnetic GdIII centre. Molecular 19F·MRI has the advantage of high specificity due to the lack of background signal but suffers from low signal intensity that leads to low spatial resolution and long recording times. In this work, an “on/off” probe concept is introduced that utilizes responsive deactivation of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) to generate 19F longitudinal (T1) relaxation contrast for accelerated molecular MRI. The probe concept is applied to matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a class of enzymes linked with many inflammatory diseases and cancer that modify bioactive extracellular substrates. The presence of these biomarkers in extracellular space makes MMPs an accessible target for responsive PRE deactivation probes. Responsive PRE deactivation in a 19F biosensor probe, selective for MMP-2 and MMP-9, is shown to enable molecular MRI contrast at significantly reduced experimental times compared to previous methods. PRE deactivation was caused by MMP through cleavage of a protease substrate that served as a linker between the fluorine-containing moiety and a paramagnetic GdIII-bound DOTA complex. Ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI and, alternatively, short echo times in standard gradient echo (GE) MRI were employed to cope with the fast 19F transverse relaxation of the PRE active probe in its “on-state.” Upon responsive PRE deactivation, the 19F·MRI signal from the “off-state” probe diminished, thereby indicating the presence of the target enzyme through the associated negative MRI contrast. Null point 1H·MRI, obtainable within a short time course, was employed to identify false-positive 19F·MRI responses caused by dilution of the contrast agent.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Feb 2019 13:05:13 +000
  • Contrast-Enhanced MicroCT for Virtual 3D Anatomical Pathology of
           Biological Tissues: A Literature Review

    • Abstract: To date, the combination of histological sectioning, staining, and microscopic assessment of the 2D sections is still the golden standard for structural and compositional analysis of biological tissues. X-ray microfocus computed tomography (microCT) is an emerging 3D imaging technique with high potential for 3D structural analysis of biological tissues with a complex and heterogeneous 3D structure, such as the trabecular bone. However, its use has been mostly limited to mineralized tissues because of the inherently low X-ray absorption of soft tissues. To achieve sufficient X-ray attenuation, chemical compounds containing high atomic number elements that bind to soft tissues have been recently adopted as contrast agents (CAs) for contrast-enhanced microCT (CE-CT); this novel technique is very promising for quantitative “virtual” 3D anatomical pathology of both mineralized and soft biological tissues. In this paper, we provided a review of the advances in CE-CT since the very first reports on the technology to date. Perfusion CAs for in vivo imaging have not been discussed, as the focus of this review was on CAs that bind to the tissue of interest and that are, thus, used for ex vivo imaging of biological tissues. As CE-CT has mostly been applied for the characterization of musculoskeletal tissues, we have put specific emphasis on these tissues. Advantages and limitations of multiple CAs for different musculoskeletal tissues have been highlighted, and their reproducibility has been discussed. Additionally, the advantages of the “full” 3D CE-CT information have been pinpointed, and its importance for more detailed structural, spatial, and functional characterization of the tissues of interest has been shown. Finally, the remaining challenges that are still hampering a broader adoption of CE-CT have been highlighted, and suggestions have been made to move the field of CE-CT imaging one step further towards a standard accepted tool for quantitative virtual 3D anatomical pathology.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Feb 2019 10:05:14 +000
  • Ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT Radiomic Features to Distinguish Breast
           Carcinoma from Breast Lymphoma

    • Abstract: Purpose. To investigate the value of SUV metrics and radiomic features based on the ability of 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating between breast lymphoma and breast carcinoma. Methods. A total of 67 breast nodules from 44 patients who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT pretreatment were retrospectively analyzed. Radiomic parameters and SUV metrics were extracted using the LIFEx package on PET and CT images. All texture parameters were divided into six groups: histogram (HISTO), SHAPE, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), gray-level run-length matrix (GLRLM), neighborhood gray-level different matrix (NGLDM), and gray-level zone-length matrix (GLZLM). Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were generated to evaluate the discriminative ability of each parameter, and the optimal parameter in each group was selected to generate a new predictive variable by using binary logistic regression. PET predictive variable, CT predictive variable, the combination of PET and CT predictive variables, and SUVmax were compared in terms of areas under the curve (AUCs), sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Results. Except for SUVmin (), the averages of FDG uptake metrics of lymphoma were significantly higher than those of carcinoma (), with the following median values: SUVmean, 4.75 versus 2.38 g/ml (); SUVstd, 2.04 versus 0.88 g/ml (); SUVmax, 10.69 versus 4.76 g/ml (); SUVpeak, 9.15 versus 2.78 g/ml (); TLG, 42.24 versus 9.90 (). In the ROC curves analysis based on radiomic features and SUVmax, the AUC for SUVmax was 0.747, for CT texture parameters was 0.729, for PET texture parameters was 0.751, and for the combination of CT and PET texture parameters was 0.771. Conclusion. The SUV metrics in 18FDG PET/CT images showed a potential ability in the differentiation between breast lymphoma and carcinoma. The combination of SUVmax and PET/CT texture analysis may be promising to provide an effectively discriminant modality for the differential diagnosis of breast lymphoma and carcinoma, even for the differentiation of subtypes of lymphoma.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Feb 2019 11:05:14 +000
  • Imaging Biomarkers in Translational Small Animal Models

    • PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 17:05:00 +000
  • Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR with Quantitative Perfusion Analysis of Small
           Bowel in Vascular Assessment between Inflammatory and Fibrotic Lesions in
           Crohnʼs Disease: A Feasibility Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To assess the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion-MRI in characterization of active small-bowel inflammation and chronic mural fibrosis in patients with Crohnʼs disease (CD). Methods. We analyzed a total of 37 (11 women; 23–69 years) patients with known biopsy proven CD, who underwent MR-enterography (MRE) study, performed on a 1.5 T MRI system (Achieva, Philips), using a phased array sense body multicoil, after oral administration of 1.5–2 L of PEG solution. MRE protocol included T1 weighted, SSh T2, sBTFE, and gadolinium-enhanced THRIVE sequences acquired on coronal and axial planes. A dedicated workstation was used to generate perfusion color maps, on which we drown ROI on normal bowel and on pathological segment, thus obtaining related perfusion parameters: relative arterial, venous, and late enhancement (RAE, RVE, and RLE), maximum enhancement (ME), and time to peak (TTP). Results. Quantitative perfusion analysis showed a good correlation with local degree of Crohn’s inflammation activity. Twenty-nine out of 37 patients showed active inflammatory disease (reference standard of active disease: wall bowel thickness and layered enhancement) with following perfusion parameters: REA (%) = 116.1, RVE (%) = 125.3, RLE (%) = 127.1, ME (%) = 1054.7, TTP (sec) = 157. The same parameters calculated in patients with mural fibrosis were as follows: RAE (%): median = 56.4; RVE (%): 81.2; RLE (%): 85.4; ME (%):809.6; TTP (sec): 203.4. A significant difference () between inflamed and fibrotic bowel wall vascularity, regarding all perfusion parameters evaluated, was found, with higher values in active CD localizations. Conclusion. Vascular assessment of perfusion kinetics of bowel wall by dynamic contrast perfusion-MR analysis may represent a complementary diagnostic tool that enables a quantitative evaluation of local inflammation activity in CD patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 12:05:00 +000
  • Preclinical Imaging Biomarkers for Postischaemic Neurovascular Remodelling

    • Abstract: In the pursuit of understanding the pathological alterations that underlie ischaemic injuries, such as vascular remodelling and reorganisation, there is a need for recognising the capabilities and limitations of in vivo imaging techniques. Thus, this review presents contemporary published research of imaging modalities that have been implemented to study postischaemic neurovascular changes in small animals. A comparison of the technical aspects of the various imaging tools is included to set the framework for identifying the most appropriate methods to observe postischaemic neurovascular remodelling. A systematic search of the PubMed® and Elsevier’s Scopus databases identified studies that were conducted between 2008 and 2018 to explore postischaemic neurovascular remodelling in small animal models. Thirty-five relevant in vivo imaging studies are included, of which most made use of magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, whilst various optical modalities were also utilised. Notably, there is an increasing trend of using multimodal imaging to exploit the most beneficial properties of each imaging technique to elucidate different aspects of neurovascular remodelling. Nevertheless, there is still scope for further utilising noninvasive imaging tools such as contrast agents or radiotracers, which will have the ability to monitor neurovascular changes particularly during restorative therapy. This will facilitate more successful utility of the clinical imaging techniques in the interpretation of neurovascular reorganisation over time.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:07:14 +000
  • Imaging the Proangiogenic Effects of Cardiovascular Drugs in a Diabetic
           Model of Limb Ischemia

    • Abstract: Purpose. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) causes narrowing of arteries in the limbs, leading to tissue ischemia, gangrene, and eventually limb amputation. The presence of diabetes greatly exacerbates the course of PAD, accounting for the majority of lower limb amputations. Therapeutic strategies focussing on macrovascular repair are less effective in diabetic patients where smaller vessels are affected, and proangiogenic therapies offer a viable adjunct to improve vascularisation in these at risk individuals. The purpose of the current study was to assess the proangiogenic effects of drugs routinely used to treat cardiovascular disease in a diabetic murine model of hind limb ischemia longitudinally using multimodal imaging. Procedures. Diabetic mice underwent surgical intervention to induce hind limb ischemia and were treated with simvastatin, metformin, or a combination orally for 28 days and compared to diabetic and nondiabetic mice. Neovascularisation was assessed using [18F]FtRGD PET imaging, and macrovascular volume was assessed by quantitative time of flight MRI. At each imaging time point, VEGF expression and capillary vessel density were quantified using immunohistochemical analysis, and functional recovery and disease progression were assessed. Results. Combined use of simvastatin and metformin significantly increased neovascularisation above levels measured with either treatment alone. Early angiogenic events were accurately assessed using PET [18F]FtRGD, showing maximal retention in the ischemic hind limb by day 8, which translated to a sustained increase in vascular volume at later time points. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that combined therapy significantly increased VEGF expression and capillary density (CD31+) in a similar time course and also slowed disease progression while simultaneously improving functional foot use. Conclusions. Combined treatment with simvastatin and metformin led to a significant improvement in limb angiogenesis, vascular volume, and sustained functional recovery in a diabetic murine model of HLI. PET imaging with [18F]FtRGD provides a robust method for early detection of these proangiogenic effects preclinically and may be useful for the assessment of proangiogenic therapies used clinically to treat diabetic PAD patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Application of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in Lymphomatous Lymph
           Nodes: A Comparison between PET/CT and Contrast-Enhanced CT

    • Abstract: Purpose. We described imaging characteristics of different types of lymphomas using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and summarized some simple criteria to distinguish between normal lymph nodes and lymphomatous lymph nodes for clinical diagnosis. Materials and methods. Sixty-one lymphoma patients from 2014 to 2015 with 140 suspicious lymph nodes, who had been confirmed by histology and underwent chemotherapy, were enrolled in our study. The responses to chemotherapy were recorded by PET/CT, contrast-enhanced CT, or CEUS. Results. We summarized the CEUS enhancement patterns as two types when detecting lymphomatous lymph nodes, which could be the specific diagnostic criteria: (1) rapid well-distributed hyperenhancement, with 83.1% lesions exhibiting a fast-in hyperenhancement pattern in the arterial phase, and (2) rapid heterogeneous hyperenhancement, with 16.9% lesions exhibiting heterogeneous in the arterial phase. Particularly, we found that all the suspicious lesions of indolent lymphomas were rapid well-distributed hyperenhancement. CEUS successfully identified 117 lymphomatous lymph nodes, while PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT detected 124 and 113 lymphomatous lymph nodes, respectively. CEUS had an accuracy of 83.57%, and the accuracy of PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT was 88.57% and 80.71%, respectively (). The false-negative rate was 16.43%, 11.43%, and 19.29%, respectively ().Conclusion. CEUS could be a useful tool in detecting lymphomatous nodes. A rapid well-distributed hyperenhancement pattern in CEUS could be a useful diagnostic criterion in both aggressive lymphoma and indolent lymphoma. These results can help us distinguish between lymphomatous and benign lymph nodes and make better diagnostic and therapeutic decisions.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 17:05:03 +000
  • Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule
           1 as a Molecular Imaging Probe for Colitis Model Rabbit Investigation

    • Abstract: Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) can be a promising target for colitis study because of its critical role in inflammation development. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody presents fast blood clearance when served as an imaging probe. We applied the probe of 99mTc-scFv-VCAM-1 to colitis rabbit to examine its imaging performance. The colitis model rabbit was prepared, and a typical inflammatory lesion was confirmed in the colon. The probe of 99mTc-scFv-VCAM-1 was synthesized and injected into the model animal before imaging examination. Scintigraphy detected colitis lesions in both SPECT planar and SPECT/CT fused images, with higher target-to-nontarget ratios in the model group (2.71 ± 0.31) than those in the control group (1.12 ± 0.10). Biodistribution study determined tracer uptake in different organs, and autoradiography (ARG) confirmed probe accumulation in colon lesions. The uptake ratio of the model colon to the control colon was 4.71 ± 0.61 in quantitative analysis of the ARG regions of interest. Stronger VCAM-1 expression in the model colon than that in the control colon was confirmed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our imaging study indicates molecular imaging with scFv-VCAM-1 as a promising way for inflammatory bowel disease diagnosis and evaluation.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Hybrid PET/MR Kernelised Expectation Maximisation Reconstruction for
           Improved Image-Derived Estimation of the Input Function from the Aorta of

    • Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) provides simple noninvasive imaging biomarkers for multiple human diseases which can be used to produce quantitative information from single static images or to monitor dynamic processes. Such kinetic studies often require the tracer input function (IF) to be measured but, in contrast to direct blood sampling, the image-derived input function (IDIF) provides a noninvasive alternative technique to estimate the IF. Accurate estimation can, in general, be challenging due to the partial volume effect (PVE), which is particularly important in preclinical work on small animals. The recently proposed hybrid kernelised ordered subsets expectation maximisation (HKEM) method has been shown to improve accuracy and contrast across a range of different datasets and count levels and can be used on PET/MR or PET/CT data. In this work, we apply the method with the purpose of providing accurate estimates of the aorta IDIF for rabbit PET studies. In addition, we proposed a method for the extraction of the aorta region of interest (ROI) using the MR and the HKEM image, to minimise the PVE within the rabbit aortic region—a method which can be directly transferred to the clinical setting. A realistic simulation study was performed with ten independent noise realisations while two, real data, rabbit datasets, acquired with the Biograph Siemens mMR PET/MR scanner, were also considered. For reference and comparison, the data were reconstructed using OSEM, OSEM with Gaussian postfilter and KEM, as well as HKEM. The results across the simulated datasets and different time frames show reduced PVE and accurate IDIF values for the proposed method, with 5% average bias (0.8% minimum and 16% maximum bias). Consistent results were obtained with the real datasets. The results of this study demonstrate that HKEM can be used to accurately estimate the IDIF in preclinical PET/MR studies, such as rabbit mMR data, as well as in clinical human studies. The proposed algorithm is made available as part of an open software library, and it can be used equally successfully on human or animal data acquired from a variety of PET/MR or PET/CT scanners.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jan 2019 15:05:02 +000
  • Detection of Active Caspase-3 in Mouse Models of Stroke and Alzheimer’s
           Disease with a Novel Dual Positron Emission Tomography/Fluorescent Tracer

    • Abstract: Apoptosis is a feature of stroke and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet there is no accepted method to detect or follow apoptosis in the brain in vivo. We developed a bifunctional tracer [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA containing a cell-penetrating peptide separated from fluorescent Oregon Green and 68Ga-bound labels by the caspase-3 recognition peptide DEVD. We hypothesized that this design would allow [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA to accumulate in apoptotic cells. In vitro, Ga-TC3-OGDOTA labeled apoptotic neurons following exposure to camptothecin, oxygen-glucose deprivation, and β-amyloid oligomers. In vivo, PET showed accumulation of [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA in the brain of mouse models of stroke or AD. Optical clearing revealed colocalization of [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA and cleaved caspase-3 in brain cells. In stroke, [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA accumulated in neurons in the penumbra area, whereas in AD mice [68Ga]Ga-TC3-OGDOTA was found in single cells in the forebrain and diffusely around amyloid plaques. In summary, this bifunctional tracer is selectively associated with apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo in brain disease models and represents a novel tool for apoptosis detection that can be used in neurodegenerative diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 18:05:01 +000
  • Sequential [18F]FDG-[18F]FMISO PET and Multiparametric MRI at 3T for
           Insights into Breast Cancer Heterogeneity and Correlation with Patient
           Outcomes: First Clinical Experience

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess whether sequential multiparametric 18[F]fluoro-desoxy-glucose (18[F]FDG)/[18F]fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO) PET-MRI in breast cancer patients is possible, facilitates information on tumor heterogeneity, and correlates with prognostic indicators. In this pilot study, IRB-approved, prospective study, nine patients with ten suspicious breast lesions (BIRADS 5) and subsequent breast cancer diagnosis underwent sequential combined [18F]FDG/[18F]FMISO PET-MRI. [18F]FDG was used to assess increased glycolysis, while [18F]FMISO was used to detect tumor hypoxia. MRI protocol included dynamic breast contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Qualitative and quantitative multiparametric imaging findings were compared with pathological features (grading, proliferation, and receptor status) and clinical endpoints (recurrence/metastases and disease-specific death) using multiple correlation analysis. Histopathology was the standard of reference. There were several intermediate to strong correlations identified between quantitative bioimaging markers, histopathologic tumor characteristics, and clinical endpoints. Based on correlation analysis, multiparametric criteria provided independent information. The prognostic indicators proliferation rate, death, and presence/development of recurrence/metastasis correlated positively, whereas the prognostic indicator estrogen receptor status correlated negatively with PET parameters. The strongest correlations were found between disease-specific death and [18F]FDGmean (,) and between the presence/development of metastasis and [18F]FDGmax (,), respectively. This pilot study indicates that multiparametric [18F]FDG/[18F]FMISO PET-MRI might provide complementary quantitative prognostic information on breast tumors including clinical endpoints and thus might be used to tailor treatment for precision medicine in breast cancer.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 11:05:07 +000
  • Cellular MRI Reveals Altered Brain Arrest of Genetically Engineered
           Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells

    • Abstract: Purpose. The combined use of anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cellular MRI, and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) allows for sensitive and improved monitoring of brain metastasis in preclinical cancer models. By using these complementary technologies, we can acquire measurements of viable single cell arrest in the brain after systemic administration, the clearance and/or retention of these cells thereafter, the growth into overt tumours, and quantification of tumour volume and relative cancer cell viability over time. While BLI is very useful in measuring cell viability, some considerations have been reported using cells engineered with luciferase such as increased tumour volume variation, changes in pattern of metastatic disease, and inhibition of in vivo tumour growth. Procedures. Here, we apply cellular and anatomical MRI to evaluate in vivo growth differences between iron oxide labeled naïve (4T1BR5) and luciferase-expressing (4T1BR5-FLuc-GFP) murine brain-seeking breast cancer cells. Balb/C mice received an intracardiac injection of 20,000 cells and were imaged with MRI on days 0 and 14. Mice that received 4T1BR5-FLuc-GFP cells were also imaged with BLI on days 0 and 14. Results. The number of signal voids in the brain (representing iron-labeled cancer cells) on day 0 was significantly higher in mice receiving 4T1BR5 cells compared to mice receiving 4T1BR5-FLuc-GFP cells (). Mice that received 4T1BR5 cells also had significantly higher total brain tumour burden and number of brain metastases than mice that received 4T1BR5-FLuc-GFP cells ().Conclusions. By employing highly sensitive cellular MRI tools, we demonstrate that engineered cells did not form tumours as well as their naïve counterparts, which appear to primarily be due to a reduction in cell arrest. These results indicate that engineering cancer cells with reporter genes may alter their tropism towards particular organs and highlight another important consideration for research groups that use reporter gene imaging to track metastatic cancer cell fate in vivo.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 00:05:08 +000
  • Visualizing the Distribution of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Ischemic
           Brain Using In Vivo 19F-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    • Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) damage the neurovascular unit, promote the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following ischemic stroke, and play essential roles in hemorrhagic transformation (HT), which is one of the most severe side effects of thrombolytic therapy. However, no biomarkers have presently been identified that can be used to track changes in the distribution of MMPs in the brain. Here, we developed a new 19F-molecular ligand, TGF-019, for visualizing the distribution of MMPs in vivo using 19F-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (19F-MRSI). We demonstrated TGF-019 has sufficient sensitivity for the specific MMPs suspected in evoking HT during ischemic stroke, i.e., MMP2, MMP9, and MMP3. We then utilized it to assess those MMPs at 22 to 24 hours after experimental focal cerebral ischemia on MMP2-null mice, as well as wild-type mice with and without the systemic administration of the recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). The 19F-MRSI of TGN-019-administered mice showed high signal intensity within ischemic lesions that correlated with total MMP2 and MMP9 activity, which was confirmed by zymographic analysis of ischemic tissues. Based on the results of this study, 19F-MRSI following TGN-019 administration can be used to assess potential therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Jan 2019 00:05:13 +000
  • Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase 1 Expression Reduces 18F-FDG Uptake in Clear
           Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Purpose. To determine the relationship between fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase 1 (FBP1) expression and fluorine 18 (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), and to investigate how 18F-FDG uptake and FBP1 expression are related to tumor metabolism and tumor differentiation grade. Materials and Methods. A total of 54 patients with ccRCC underwent 18F-FDG combined positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) before tumor resection. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) for the primary tumor was calculated from the 18F-FDG uptake. The relationship between SUVmax of primary tumor and the expression of FBP1, hexokinase 2 (HK2), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) was analyzed via immunohistochemical analysis. Results. We identified an inverse relationship between FBP1 expression and SUVmax (). SUVmax was higher in patients with high-grade ccRCC (mean, 11.6 ± 5.0) than in those with low-grade ccRCC (mean, 3.8 ± 1.6, ). FBP1 expression was significantly lower in patients with high-grade ccRCC (mean, 0.23 ± 0.1) than in those with low-grade ccRCC (mean, 0.57 ± 0.08; ). FBP1 status could be predicted with an accuracy of 66.7% when a SUVmax cutoff value of 3.55 was used. GLUT1 expression in ccRCC was positively correlated with 18F-FDG uptake and FBP1 status, whereas HK2 expression was not. Conclusion. SUVmax in patients with ccRCC is inversely associated with the expression of FBP1, and FBP1 may inhibit 18F-FDG uptake via regulating GLUT1. SUVmax is higher in patients with high-grade ccRCC than in those with low-grade ccRCC, which could be the result of lower FBP1 expression in patients with high-grade ccRCC.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Jan 2019 00:05:11 +000
  • In Vivo Biokinetics of 177Lu-OPS201 in Mice and Pigs as a Model for
           Predicting Human Dosimetry

    • Abstract: Introduction. 177Lu-OPS201 is a high-affinity somatostatin receptor subtype 2 antagonist for PRRT in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The aim is to find the optimal scaling for dosimetry and to compare the biokinetics of 177Lu-OPS201 in animals and humans. Methods. Data on biokinetics of 177Lu-OPS201 were analyzed in athymic nude Foxn1nu mice (28 F, weight: 26 ± 1 g), Danish Landrace pigs (3 F-1 M, weight: 28 ± 2 kg), and patients (3 F-1 M, weight: 61 ± 17 kg) with administered activities of 0.19–0.27 MBq (mice), 97–113 MBq (pigs), and 850–1086 MBq (patients). After euthanizing mice (up to 168 h), the organ-specific activity contents (including blood) were measured. Multiple planar and SPECT/CT scans were performed until 250 h (pigs) and 72 h (patients) to quantify the uptake in the kidneys and liver. Blood samples were taken up to 23 h (patients) and 300 h (pigs). In pigs and patients, kidney protection was applied. Time-dependent uptake data sets were created for each species and organ/tissue. Biexponential fits were applied to compare the biokinetics in the kidneys, liver, and blood of each species. The time-integrated activity coefficients (TIACs) were calculated by using NUKFIT. To determine the optimal scaling, several methods (relative mass scaling, time scaling, combined mass and time scaling, and allometric scaling) were compared. Results. A fast blood clearance of the compound was observed in the first phase (
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jan 2019 18:05:02 +000
  • Paired-Agent Fluorescence Molecular Imaging of Sentinel Lymph Nodes Using
           Indocyanine Green as a Control Agent for Antibody-Based Targeted Agents

    • Abstract: Purpose. Paired-agent molecular imaging methods, which employ coadministration of an untargeted, “control” imaging agent with a targeted agent to correct for nonspecific uptake, have been demonstrated to detect 200 cancer cells in a mouse model of metastatic breast cancer. This study demonstrates that indocyanine green (ICG), which is approved for human use, is an ideal control agent for future paired-agent studies to facilitate eventual clinical translation. Methods. The kinetics of ICG were compared with a known ideal control imaging agent, IRDye-700DX-labeled antibody in both healthy and metastatic rat popliteal lymph nodes after coadministration, intradermally in the footpad. Results. The kinetics of ICG and antibody-based imaging agent in tumor-free rat lymph nodes demonstrated a strong correlation with each other (r = 0.98, ) with a measured binding potential of −0.102 ± 0.03 at 20 min postagent injection, while the kinetics of ICG and targeted imaging agent shows significant separation in the metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion. This study indicated a potential for microscopic sensitivity to cancer spread in sentinel lymph nodes using ICG as a control agent for antibody-based molecular imaging assays.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Jan 2019 18:05:01 +000
  • Frontiers from Radiomics in Molecular Imaging

    • PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:09:43 +000
  • Associations between Histogram Analysis Parameters Derived from DCE-MRI
           and Histopathological Features including Expression of EGFR, p16, VEGF,
           Hif1-alpha, and p53 in HNSCC

    • Abstract: Background. Our purpose was to elucidate possible correlations between histogram parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with several histopathological features in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Methods. Thirty patients with primary HNSCC were prospectively acquired. Histogram analysis was derived from the DCE-MRI parameters: Ktrans, Kep, and Ve. Additionally, in all cases, expression of human papilloma virus (p16) hypoxia-inducible factor-1-alpha (Hif1-alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and tumor suppressor protein p53 were estimated. Results. Kep kurtosis was significantly higher in p16 tumors, and Ve min was significantly lower in p16 tumors compared to the p16 negative tumors. In the overall sample, Kep entropy correlated well with EGFR expression (,). In p16 positive carcinomas, Ktrans max correlated with VEGF expression (,),Ktrans kurtosis correlated with Hif1-alpha expression (,), and Ktrans entropy correlated with EGFR expression (,). Regarding Kep parameters, mode correlated with VEGF expression (,), and entropy correlated with Hif1-alpha expression (,). In p16 negative carcinomas, Kep mode correlated with Her2 expression (,),Ve max correlated with p53 expression (,), and Ve p10 correlated with EGFR expression (,).Conclusion. DCE-MRI can reflect several histopathological features in HNSCC. Associations between DCE-MRI and histopathology in HNSCC depend on p16 status. Kep kurtosis and Ve min can differentiate p16 positive and p16 negative carcinomas.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Jan 2019 09:07:09 +000
  • A Library of Potential Nanoparticle Contrast Agents for X-Ray Fluorescence
           Tomography Bioimaging

    • Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as contrast agents for several bioimaging modalities. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) tomography can provide sensitive and quantitative 3D detection of NPs. With spectrally matched NPs as contrast agents, we demonstrated earlier in a laboratory system that XRF tomography could achieve high-spatial-resolution tumor imaging in mice. Here, we present the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of a library of NPs containing Y, Zr, Nb, Rh, and Ru that have spectrally matched K-shell absorption for the laboratory scale X-ray source. The K-shell emissions of these NPs are spectrally well separated from the X-ray probe and the Compton background, making them suitable for the lab-scale XRF tomography system. Their potential as XRF contrast agents is demonstrated successfully in a small-animal equivalent phantom, confirming the simulation results. The diversity in the NP composition provides a flexible platform for a better design and biological optimization of XRF tomography nanoprobes.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Emergent Techniques for Transporter and Receptor-Based Imaging and
           Interventional Molecular Imaging

    • PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Radiosynthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of
           18F-Fluoropropionyl-Chlorotoxin as a Potential PET Tracer for Glioma

    • Abstract: Purposes. Chlorotoxin can specifically bind to matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), which are overexpressed in the glioma. In this work, radiosynthesis of [18F]-fluoropropionyl-chlorotoxin ([18F]-FP-chlorotoxin) as a novel PET tracer was investigated, and biodistribution in vivo and PET imaging were performed in the C6 glioma model. Procedures. [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin was prepared from the reaction of chlorotoxin with [18F]-NFB (4-nitrophenyl 2-[18F]-fluoropropionate), which was synthesized from multistep reactions. Biodistribution was determined in 20 normal Kunming mice. Small-animal PET imaging with [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin was performed on the same rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma at different time points (60 min, 90 min, and 120 min) after injection and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG). Results. [18F]-FP-Chlorotoxin was successfully synthesized in the radiochemical yield of 41% and the radiochemical purity of more than 98%. Among all the organs, the brain had the lowest and stable uptake of [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin, while the kidney showed the highest uptake. Compared with [18F]-FDG, a low uptake of [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin was detected in normal brain parenchyma and a high accumulation of [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin was found in the gliomas tissue. The glioma to normal brain uptake ratio of [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin was higher than that of [18F]-FDG. Furthermore, the uptake of [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin at 90 min after injection was better than that at 60 min after injection. Conclusions. Compared with [18F]-FDG, [18F]-FP-chlorotoxin has a low and stable uptake in normal brain parenchyma. [18F]-FP-Chlorotoxin seems to be a potential PET tracer with a good performance in diagnosis of the glioma.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Spectral Photon-Counting Molecular Imaging for Quantification of
           Monoclonal Antibody-Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles Targeted to Lymphoma and
           Breast Cancer: An In Vitro Study

    • Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate an in vitro proof of principle that spectral photon-counting CT can measure gold-labelled specific antibodies targeted to specific cancer cells. A crossover study was performed with Raji lymphoma cancer cells and HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells using a MARS spectral CT scanner. Raji cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody-labelled gold, rituximab (specific antibody to Raji cells), and trastuzumab (as a control); HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells were incubated with monoclonal antibody-labelled gold, trastuzumab (specific antibody to HER2-positive cancer cells), and rituximab (as a control). The calibration vials with multiple concentrations of nonfunctionalised gold nanoparticles were used to calibrate spectral CT. Spectral imaging results showed that the Raji cells-rituximab-gold and HER2-positive cells-trastuzumab-gold had a quantifiable amount of gold, 5.97 mg and 0.78 mg, respectively. In contrast, both cell lines incubated with control antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles had less gold attached (1.22 mg and 0.15 mg, respectively). These results demonstrate the proof of principle that spectral molecular CT imaging can identify and quantify specific monoclonal antibody-labelled gold nanoparticles taken up by Raji cells and HER2-positive SKBR3 breast cancer cells. The present study reports the future potential of spectral molecular imaging in detecting tumour heterogeneity so that treatment can be tuned accordingly, leading to more effective personalised medicine.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 07:00:53 +000
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