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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 335 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.842
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1555-4309 - ISSN (Online) 1555-4317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Noninvasive Monitoring of Liver Disease Regression after Hepatitis C
           Eradication Using Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI

    • Abstract: We evaluated changes in relative liver enhancement (RLE) obtained by gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (GA-MRI) in the hepatobiliary phase and changes in splenic volume (SV) after hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication as well as their predictive value for the development of (further) hepatic decompensation during follow-up. This retrospective study comprised 31 consecutive patients with HCV-induced advanced chronic liver disease who underwent GA-MRI before and after successful interferon-free treatment, as well as a cohort of 14 untreated chronic HCV-patients with paired GA-MRI. RLE increased by 66% (20%–94%; ) from pre- to posttreatment, while SV decreased by −16% (−28% to −8%; ). However, SV increased in 16% (5/31) of patients, the identical subjects who showed a decrease in RLE (GA-MRI-nonresponse). We observed an inverse correlation between the changes in RLE and SV (). In the untreated patients, there was a decrease in RLE by −11% (−25% to −3%; ) and an increase in SV by 23% (7%–43%; ) (both versus treated patients). Interestingly, GA-MRI-nonresponse was associated with a substantially increased risk of (further) hepatic decompensation 2 years after the end of treatment: 80% versus 8%; . GA-MRI might distinguish between individuals at low and high risk of (further) hepatic decompensation (GA-MRI-nonresponse) after HCV eradication. This could allow for individualized surveillance strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Early Imaging Biomarker of Myocardial Glucose Adaptations in
           High-Fat-Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance Model by Using 18F-FDG PET and
           [U-13C]glucose Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tracer

    • Abstract: Background. High-fat diet (HFD) induces systemic insulin resistance leading to myocardial dysfunction. We aim to characterize the early adaptations of myocardial glucose utility to HFD-induced insulin resistance. Methods. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned into two groups, fed a regular chow diet or HFD ad libitum for 10 weeks. We used in vivo imaging of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), 18F-FDG PET, and ex vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic analysis for the carbon-13-labeled glucose ([U-13C]Glc) perfused myocardium. Results. As compared with controls, HFD rats had a higher ejection fraction and a smaller left ventricular end-systolic volume (), with SUVmax of myocardium on 18F-FDG PET significantly increased in 4 weeks (). The [U-13C]Glc probed the increased glucose uptake being metabolized into pyruvate and acetyl-CoA, undergoing oxidative phosphorylation via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and then synthesized into glutamic acid and glutamine, associated with overexpressed LC3B (). Conclusions. HFD-induced IR associated with increased glucose utility undergoing oxidative phosphorylation via the TCA cycle in the myocardium is supported by overexpression of glucose transporter, acetyl-CoA synthase. Noninvasive imaging biomarker has potentials in detecting the metabolic perturbations prior to the decline of the left ventricular function.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Isolated Perfused Rat Livers to Quantify the Pharmacokinetics and
           Concentrations of Gd-BOPTA

    • Abstract: With recent advances in liver imaging, the estimation of liver concentrations is now possible following the injection of hepatobiliary contrast agents and radiotracers. However, how these images are generated remains partially unknown. Most experiments that would be helpful to increase this understanding cannot be performed in vivo. For these reasons, we investigated the liver distribution of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance®, Bracco Imaging) in isolated perfused rat livers (IPRLs). In IPRL, we developed a new set up that quantifies simultaneously the Gd-BOPTA compartment concentrations and the transfer rates between these compartments. Concentrations were measured either by MR signal intensity or by count rates when the contrast agent was labelled by [153Gd]. With this experimental model, we show how the Gd-BOPTA hepatocyte concentrations are modified by temperature and liver flow rates. We define new pharmacokinetic parameters to quantify the canalicular transport of Gd-BOPTA. Finally, we present how transfer rates generate Gd-BOPTA concentrations in rat liver compartments. These findings better explain how liver imaging with hepatobiliary radiotracers and contrast agents is generated and improve the image interpretation by clinicians.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 03:03:30 +000
       
  • Magnetosomes Extracted from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense as
           Theranostic Agents in an Experimental Model of Glioblastoma

    • Abstract: Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) with chemically synthesized nanoparticles is currently used in clinical trials as it destroys tumor cells with an extremely localized deposition of thermal energy. In this paper, we investigated an MFH protocol based on magnetic nanoparticles naturally produced by magnetotactic bacteria: magnetosomes. The efficacy of such protocol is tested in a xenograft model of glioblastoma. Mice receive a single intratumoral injection of magnetosomes, and they are exposed three times in a week to an alternating magnetic field with concurrent temperature measurements. MRI is used to visualize the nanoparticles and to monitor tumor size before and after the treatment. Statistically significant inhibition of the tumor growth is detected in subjects exposed to the alternating magnetic field compared to control groups. Moreover, thanks to magnetosomes high transversal relaxivity, their effective delivery to the tumor tissue is monitored by MRI. It is apparent that the efficacy of this protocol is limited by inhomogeneous delivery of magnetosomes to tumor tissue. These results suggest that naturally synthesized magnetosomes could be effectively considered as theranostic agent candidates for hyperthermia based on iron oxide nanoparticles.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessment of the Aging of the Brown Adipose Tissue by 18F-FDG PET/CT
           Imaging in the Progeria Mouse Model Lmna−/−

    • Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important energy metabolic organ that is highly implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Aging is one of the most important determinants of BAT activity. In this study, we used 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging to assess BAT aging in Lmna−/− mice. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVMax) of the BAT was measured, and the target/nontarget (T/NT) values of BAT were calculated. The transcription and the protein expression levels of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), beta3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), and the PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting or immunohistochemical analysis. Apoptosis and cell senescence rates in the BAT of WT and Lmna−/− mice were determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and by CDKN2A/p16INK4a immunohistochemical staining, respectively. At 14 weeks of age, the BAT SUVMax and the expression levels of UCP1, β3-AR, and PRDM16 in Lmna−/− mice were significantly reduced relative to WT mice. At the same time, the number of p16INK4a and TUNEL positively stained cells (%) increased in Lmna−/− mice. Collectively, our results indicate that the aging characteristics and the aging regulatory mechanism in the BAT of Lmna−/− mice can mimic the normal BAT aging process.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A New High-Performance Gadonanotube-Polymer Hybrid Material for Stem Cell
           Labeling and Tracking by MRI

    • Abstract: A gentle, rapid method has been developed to introduce a polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer coating on the surface of gadonanotubes (GNTs) which significantly increases their dispersibility in water without the need of a surfactant. As a result, the polymer, with its many carboxylic acid groups, coats the surface of the GNTs to form a new GNT-polymer hybrid material (PAA-GNT) which can be highly dispersed in water (ca. 20 mg·mL−1) at physiological pH. When dispersed in water, the new PAA-GNT material is a powerful MRI contrast agent with an extremely short water proton spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) which results in a T1-weighted relaxivity of 150 mM−1·s−1 per Gd3+ ion at 1.5 T. Furthermore, the PAA-GNTs have been used to safely label porcine bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for magnetic resonance imaging. The labeled cells display excellent image contrast in phantom imaging experiments, and transmission electron microscopy images of the labeled cells reveal the presence of highly dispersed PAA-GNTs within the cytoplasm with 1014 Gd3+ ions per cell.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Use of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for Retroperitoneal/Intra-Abdominal Soft Tissue
           Sarcomas

    • Abstract: Rationale. To assess the diagnostic value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for different retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and other similar tumors. To analyze the predictive value of 18F-FDG-PET/CT for histological grade and main prognostic factors. Methods. 195 patients with 44 different diseases have been included. Relationship between SUVmax, Clinical, pathological, and prognostic information has been analyzed. Results. Malignant tumors do not show higher SUVmax than benign ones (). We divided all 44 different diseases into two groups; SUVmax of group 1 is significantly higher than group 2 (). The ROC curve suggests 4.35 is the cutoff value to distinguish groups 1 and 2 (sensitivity = 0.789; specificity = 0.736). SUVmax correlates with Ki-67 index, mitotic count, vascular resection, histological grade, and recurrent STS without considering pathological diagnosis (, resp.). Conclusion. 18F-FDG-PET/CT cannot simply distinguish malignant and benign tumors in retroperitoneal/intra-abdominal cavity; however, the SUVmax of malignant tumors, inflammatory pseudotumor, and PPGL group is higher than the SUVmax of benign tumors, lymph node metastasis, hematoma, and low malignant STS group. Guidance of “SUVmax location” may be helpful for biopsy and pathology dissection.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation on the Neural Mechanism of Hypnosis-Based Respiratory
           Control Using Functional MRI

    • Abstract: Respiratory control is essential for treatment effect of radiotherapy due to the high dose, especially for thoracic-abdomen tumor, such as lung and liver tumors. As a noninvasive and comfortable way of respiratory control, hypnosis has been proven effective as a psychological technology in clinical therapy. In this study, the neural control mechanism of hypnosis for respiration was investigated by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Altered spontaneous brain activity as well as neural correlation of respiratory motion was detected for eight healthy subjects in normal state (NS) and hypnosis state (HS) guided by a hypnotist. Reduced respiratory amplitude was observed in HS (mean ± SD: 14.23 ± 3.40 mm in NS, 12.79 ± 2.49 mm in HS, ), with mean amplitude deduction of 9.2%. Interstate difference of neural activity showed activations in the visual cortex and cerebellum, while deactivations in the prefrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (PCu/PCC) in HS. Within these regions, negative correlations of neural activity and respiratory motion were observed in visual cortex in HS. Moreover, in HS, voxel-wise neural correlations of respiratory amplitude demonstrated positive correlations in cerebellum anterior lobe and insula, while negative correlations were shown in the prefrontal cortex and sensorimotor area. These findings reveal the involvement of cognitive, executive control, and sensorimotor processing in the control mechanisms of hypnosis for respiration, and shed new light on hypnosis performance in interaction of psychology, physiology, and cognitive neuroscience.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo MRI of Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Brain
           Inflammation

    • Abstract: Microglia are intrinsic components of the brain immune system and are activated in many central nervous system disorders. The ability to noninvasively image these cells would provide valuable information for both research and clinical applications. Today, most imaging probes for activated microglia are mainly designed for positron emission tomography (PET) and target translocator proteins that also reside on other cerebral cells. The PET images obtained are not specific for microglia-driven inflammation. Here, we describe a potential PET/MRI multimodal imaging probe that selectively targets the scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) expressed on activated microglia. These sulfated dextran-coated iron oxide (SDIO) nanoparticles are avidly taken up by microglia and appear to be nontoxic when administered intravenously in a mouse model. Intravenous administration of this SDIO demonstrated visualization by -weighted MRI of microglia activated by intracerebral administration of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The contrast was significantly enhanced by SDIO, whereas there was little to no contrast change in animals treated with nontargeted nanoparticles or untreated controls. Thus, SR-A targeting represents a promising strategy to image activated microglia in the brain.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Imaging of Aminopeptidase N in Cancer and Angiogenesis

    • Abstract: This review focuses on recent advances in the molecular imaging of aminopeptidase N (APN, also known as CD13), a zinc metalloenzyme that cleaves N-terminal neutral amino acids. It is overexpressed in multiple cancer types and also on the surface of vasculature undergoing angiogenesis, making it a promising target for molecular imaging and targeted therapy. Molecular imaging probes for APN are divided into two large subgroups: reactive and nonreactive. The structures of the reactive probes (substrates) contain a reporter group that is cleaved and released by the APN enzyme. The nonreactive probes are not cleaved by the enzyme and contain an antibody, peptide, or nonpeptide for targeting the enzyme exterior or active site. Multivalent homotopic probes utilize multiple copies of the same targeting unit, whereas multivalent heterotopic molecular probes are equipped with different targeting units for different receptors. Several recent preclinical cancer imaging studies have shown that multivalent APN probes exhibit enhanced tumor specificity and accumulation compared to monovalent analogues. The few studies that have evaluated APN-specific probes for imaging angiogenesis have focused on cardiac regeneration. These promising results suggest that APN imaging can be expanded to detect and monitor other diseases that are associated with angiogenesis.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Recent Advances in Quantitative Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    • PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Light-Triggered Radiochemical Synthesis: A Novel 18F-Labelling Strategy
           Using Photoinducible Click Reaction to Prepare PET Imaging Probes

    • Abstract: Novel probe development for positron emission tomography (PET) is leading to expanding the scope of molecular imaging. To begin responding to challenges, several biomaterials such as natural products and small molecules, peptides, engineered proteins including affibodies, and antibodies have been used in the development of targeted molecular imaging probes. To prepare radiotracers, a few bioactive materials are unique challenges to radiolabelling because of their complex structure, poor stability, poor solubility in aqueous or chemical organic solutions, and sensitivity to temperature and nonphysiological pH. To overcome these challenges, we developed a new radiolabelling strategy based on photoactivated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between alkene dipolarophile and tetrazole moiety containing compounds. Herein, we describe a light-triggered radiochemical synthesis via photoactivated click reaction to prepare 18F-radiolabelled PET tracers using small molecular and RGD peptide.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Differential Diagnosis between Low-Grade and High-Grade Astrocytoma Using
           System A Amino Acid Transport PET Imaging with C-11-MeAIB: A Comparison
           Study with C-11-Methionine PET Imaging

    • Abstract: Introductions. [N-methyl-C-11]α-Methylaminoisobutyric acid (MeAIB) is an artificial amino acid radiotracer used for PET study, which is metabolically stable in vivo. In addition, MeAIB is transported by system A neutral amino acid transport, which is observed ubiquitously in all types of mammalian cells. It has already been shown that MeAIB-PET is useful for malignant lymphoma, head and neck cancers, and lung tumors. However, there have been no reports evaluating the usefulness of MeAIB-PET in the diagnosis of brain tumors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of system A amino acid transport PET imaging, MeAIB-PET, in clinical brain tumor diagnosis compared to [S-methyl-C-11]-L-methionine (MET)-PET. Methods. Thirty-one consecutive patients (male: 16, female: 15), who were suspected of having brain tumors, received both MeAIB-PET and MET-PET within a 2-week interval. All patients were classified into two groups: Group A as a benign group, which included patients who were diagnosed as low-grade astrocytoma, grade II or less, or other low-grade astrocytoma () and Group B as a malignant group, which included patients who were diagnosed as anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or recurrent GBM despite prior surgery or chemoradiotherapy (). PET imaging was performed 20 min after the IV injection of MeAIB and MET, respectively. Semiquantitative analyses of MeAIB and MET uptake using SUVmax and tumor-to-contralateral normal brain tissue (T/N) ratio were evaluated to compare these PET images. ROC analyses for the diagnostic accuracy of MeAIB-PET and MET-PET were also calculated. Results. In MeAIB-PET imaging, the SUVmax was 1.20 ± 1.29 for the benign group and 2.94 ± 1.22 for the malignant group (), and the T/N ratio was 3.77 ± 2.39 for the benign group and 16.83 ± 2.39 for the malignant group (). In MET-PET, the SUVmax was 3.01 ± 0.94 for the benign group and 4.72 ± 1.61 for the malignant group (), and the T/N ratio was 2.64 ± 1.40 for the benign group and 3.21 ± 1.14 for the malignant group (n.s.). For the analysis using the T/N ratio, there was a significant difference between the benign and malignant groups with MeAIB-PET with . The result of ROC analysis using the T/N ratio indicated a better diagnosis accuracy for MeAIB-PET for brain tumors than MET-PET (). Conclusions. MeAIB, a system A amino acid transport-specific radiolabeled agents, could provide better assessments for detecting malignant type brain tumors. In a differential diagnosis between low-grade and high-grade astrocytoma, MeAIB-PET is a useful diagnostic imaging tool, especially in evaluations using the T/N ratio. Clinical trial registration. This trial was registered with UMIN000032498.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Presurgical Identification of Uterine Smooth Muscle Malignancies through
           the Characteristic FDG Uptake Pattern on PET Scans

    • Abstract: The unidentified presence of uterine smooth muscle malignancies poses a tremendous risk in women planning surgery for presumed benign leiomyomas. We sought to investigate whether preoperative FDG PET may be useful to identify leiomyosarcomas (LMS) and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP). Methods. We investigated patients with rapidly growing uterine masses which were suspected of being malignant on ultrasound or MRI. Among the 21 patients who underwent FDG PET, we identified 7 LMS, 1 STUMP, and 13 leiomyomas. PET-derived parameters and FDG uptake patterns were analyzed retrospectively. Results. The SUVmax values of LMS/STUMP (range: 3.7–11.8) were significantly higher than those observed in leiomyomas (range: 2.0–9.4; ) despite a significant overlap. The metabolic tumor/necrosis ratio was significantly higher in LMS/STUMP than in leiomyomas (), with no significant intergroup overlaps. All LMS/STUMP revealed a characteristic pattern of FDG uptake, identifying a specific “hollow ball” sign (corresponding to areas of coagulative tumor necrosis). In contrast, this sign was invariably absent in patients with leiomyomas. Conclusion. The characteristic FDG uptake pattern instead of SUV on PET images allows identifying LMS/STUMP in patients with rapidly growing uterine masses, avoiding the deleterious consequences of regular surgery for presumed benign leiomyomas.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vivo and In Vitro Characteristics of Radiolabeled Vesamicol Analogs as
           the Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter Imaging Agents

    • Abstract: The vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a presynaptic cholinergic neuron marker, is a potential internal molecular target for the development of an imaging agent for early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders with cognitive decline such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since vesamicol has been reported to bind to VAChT with high affinity, many vesamicol analogs have been studied as VAChT imaging agents for the diagnosis of cholinergic neurodeficit disorder. However, because many vesamicol analogs, as well as vesamicol, bound to sigma receptors (σ1 and σ2) besides VAChT, almost all the vesamicol analogs have been shown to be unsuitable for clinical trials. In this report, the relationships between the chemical structure and the biological characteristics of these developed vesamicol analogs were investigated, especially the in vitro binding profile and the in vivo regional brain accumulation.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 07:51:28 +000
       
  • [18F]ML-10 Imaging for Assessment of Apoptosis Response of Intracranial
           Tumor Early after Radiotherapy by PET/CT

    • Abstract: [18F]ML-10 is a novel apoptosis radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET). We assess the apoptosis response of intracranial tumor early after CyberKnife (CK) treatment by [18F]ML-10 PET imaging. 29 human subjects (30 lesions), diagnosed with intracranial tumors, underwent CK treatment at 14–24 Gy in 1–3 fractions, had [18F]ML-10 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before (pre-CK) and 48 hours after (post-CK) CK treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were taken before and 8 weeks after CK treatment. Voxel-based analysis was used for the imaging analysis. Heterogeneous changes of apoptosis in tumors before and after treatment were observed on voxel-based analysis of PET images. A positive correlation was observed between the change in radioactivity (X) and subsequent tumor volume (Y) (,), with a regression equation of . Malignant tumors tend to be more sensitive to CK treatment, but the treatment outcome is not affected by pre-CK apoptotic status of tumor cells; [18F]ML-10 PET imaging could be taken as an assessment 48 h after CK treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Standardized Uptake Values Derived from 18F-FDG PET May Predict Lung
           Cancer Microvessel Density and Expression of KI 67, VEGF, and HIF-1α but
           Not Expression of Cyclin D1, PCNA, EGFR, PD L1, and p53

    • Abstract: Background. Our purpose was to provide data regarding relationships between 18F-FDG PET and histopathological parameters in lung cancer. Methods. MEDLINE library was screened for associations between PET parameters and histopathological features in lung cancer up to December 2017. Only papers containing correlation coefficients between PET parameters and histopathological findings were acquired for the analysis. Overall, 40 publications were identified. Results. Associations between SUV and KI 67 were reported in 23 studies (1362 patients). The pooled correlation coefficient was 0.44. In 2 studies (180 patients), relationships between SUV and expression of cyclin D1 were analyzed (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.05). Correlation between SUV and HIF-1α was investigated in 3 studies (288 patients), and the pooled correlation coefficient was 0.42. In 5 studies (310 patients), associations between SUV and MVD were investigated (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.54). In 6 studies (305 patients), relationships between SUV and p53 were analyzed (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.30). In 6 studies (415 patients), associations between SUV and VEGF expression were investigated (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.44). In 5 studies (202 patients), associations between SUV and PCNA were investigated (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.32). In 3 studies (718 patients), associations between SUV and expression of PD L1 were analyzed (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.36). Finally, in 5 studies (409 patients), associations between SUV and EGFR were investigated (pooled correlation coefficient = 0.38). Conclusion. SUV may predict microvessel density and expression of VEGF, KI 67, and HIF-1α in lung cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jun 2018 08:50:45 +000
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of Radioiodine and Technetium-Labeled DARPin 9_29
           

    • Abstract: High expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in breast and gastroesophageal carcinomas is a predictive biomarker for treatment using HER2-targeted therapeutics (antibodies trastuzumab and pertuzumab, antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab DM1, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib). Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER2 expression might permit stratification of patients for HER2-targeting therapies. In this study, we evaluated a new HER2-imaging probe based on the designed ankyrin repeat protein (DARPin) 9_29. DARPin 9_29 was labeled with iodine-125 by direct radioiodination and with [99mTc]Tc(CO)3 using the C-terminal hexahistidine tag. DARPin 9_29 preserved high specificity and affinity of binding to HER2-expressing cells after labeling. Uptake of [125I]I-DARPin 9_29 and [99mTc]Tc(CO)3-DARPin 9_29 in HER2-positive SKOV-3 xenografts in mice at 6 h after injection was 3.4 ± 0.7 %ID/g and 2.9 ± 0.7 %ID/g, respectively. This was significantly () higher than the uptake of the same probes in HER2-negative Ramos lymphoma xenografts, 0.22 ± 0.09 %ID/g and 0.30 ± 0.05 %ID/g, respectively. Retention of [125I]I-DARPin 9_29 in the lung, liver, spleen, and kidneys was appreciably lower compared with [99mTc]Tc(CO)3-DARPin 9_29, which resulted in significantly () higher tumor-to-organ ratios. The biodistribution data were confirmed by SPECT/CT imaging. In conclusion, radioiodine is a preferable label for DARPin 9_29.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Jun 2018 06:25:35 +000
       
  • Multimodal Molecular Imaging: Current Status and Future Directions

    • Abstract: Molecular imaging has emerged at the end of the last century as an interdisciplinary method involving in vivo imaging and molecular biology aiming at identifying living biological processes at a cellular and molecular level in a noninvasive manner. It has a profound role in determining disease changes and facilitating drug research and development, thus creating new medical modalities to monitor human health. At present, a variety of different molecular imaging techniques have their advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. In order to overcome these shortcomings, researchers combine two or more detection techniques to create a new imaging mode, such as multimodal molecular imaging, to obtain a better result and more information regarding monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment. In this review, we first describe the classic molecular imaging technology and its key advantages, and then, we offer some of the latest multimodal molecular imaging modes. Finally, we summarize the great challenges, the future development, and the great potential in this field.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling with Dynamic PET Data to
           Study the In Vivo Effects of Transporter Inhibition on Hepatobiliary
           Clearance in Mice

    • Abstract: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling (PBPK) is a powerful tool to predict in vivo pharmacokinetics based on physiological parameters and data from in vivo studies and in vitro assays. In vivo PBPK modelling in laboratory animals by noninvasive imaging could help to improve the in vivo-in vivo translation towards human pharmacokinetics modelling. We evaluated the feasibility of PBPK modelling with PET data from mice. We used data from two of our PET tracers under development, [11C]AM7 and [11C]MT107. PET images suggested hepatobiliary excretion which was reduced after cyclosporine administration. We fitted the time-activity curves of blood, liver, gallbladder/intestine, kidney, and peripheral tissue to a compartment model and compared the resulting pharmacokinetic parameters under control conditions ([11C]AM7 ; [11C]MT107, ) and after administration of cyclosporine ([11C]MT107, ). The modelling revealed a significant reduction in [11C]MT107 hepatobiliary clearance from to  μl/min after cyclosporine administration. The excretion profile of [11C]MT107 was shifted from predominantly hepatobiliary (/ = ) to equal hepatobiliary and renal clearance (/ = ). Our results show the potential of PBPK modelling for characterizing the in vivo effects of transporter inhibition on whole-body and organ-specific pharmacokinetics.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of Macrophages in Atherosclerosis
           with 18F-GE-180, a Radiotracer for Translocator Protein (TSPO)

    • Abstract: Intraplaque inflammation plays an important role in the progression of atherosclerosis. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) expression is upregulated in activated macrophages, representing a potential target to identify inflamed atherosclerotic plaques. We preclinically evaluated 18F-GE-180, a novel third-generation TSPO radioligand, in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods. Nine hypercholesterolemic mice deficient in low density lipoprotein receptor and apolipoprotein B48 (LDLR−/−ApoB100/100) and six healthy C57BL/6N mice were injected with 10 MBq of 18F-GE-180. Specificity of binding was demonstrated in three LDLR−/−ApoB100/100 mice by injection of nonradioactive reference compound of 18F-GE-180 before 18F-GE-180. Dynamic 30-minute PET was performed followed by contrast-enhanced CT, and the mice were sacrificed at 60 minutes after injection. Tissue samples were obtained for ex vivo biodistribution measurements, and aortas were cut into serial cryosections for digital autoradiography. The presence of macrophages and TSPO was studied by immunohistochemistry. The 18F-GE-180 retention in plaque areas with different macrophage densities and lesion-free vessel wall were compared. Results. The LDLR−/−ApoB100/100 mice showed large, inflamed plaques in the aorta. Autoradiography revealed significantly higher 18F-GE-180 retention in macrophage-rich plaque areas than in noninflamed areas (count densities 150 ± 45 PSL/mm2 versus 51 ± 12 PSL/mm2, ). Prominent retention in the vessel wall without plaque was also observed (220 ± 41 PSL/mm2). Blocking with nonradioactive GE-180 diminished the difference in count densities between macrophage-rich and noninflamed areas in atherosclerotic plaques and lowered the count density in vessel wall without plaque. Conclusion. 18F-GE-180 shows specific uptake in macrophage-rich areas of atherosclerotic plaques in mice. However, retention in atherosclerotic lesions does not exceed that in lesion-free vessel wall. The third-generation TSPO radioligand 18F-GE-180 did not show improved characteristics for imaging atherosclerotic plaque inflammation compared to previously studied TSPO-targeting tracers.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Place of PET to Assess New Therapeutic Effectiveness in
           Neurodegenerative Diseases

    • Abstract: In vivo exploration of neurodegenerative diseases by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has matured over the last 20 years, using dedicated radiopharmaceuticals targeting cellular metabolism, neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, or abnormal protein aggregates (beta-amyloid and intracellular microtubule inclusions containing hyperphosphorylated tau). The ability of PET to characterize biological processes at the cellular and molecular levels enables early detection and identification of molecular mechanisms associated with disease progression, by providing accurate, reliable, and longitudinally reproducible quantitative biomarkers. Thus, PET imaging has become a relevant imaging method for monitoring response to therapy, approved as an outcome measure in bioclinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the current inputs of PET in the assessment of therapeutic effectiveness in neurodegenerative diseases connected by common pathophysiological mechanisms, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and also in psychiatric disorders. We also discuss opportunities for PET imaging to drive more personalized neuroprotective and therapeutic strategies, taking into account individual variability, within the growing framework of precision medicine.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 09:21:50 +000
       
  • In Vivo Imaging of Inflammation and Infection

    • PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 09:16:41 +000
       
  • Overview and Critical Appraisal of Arterial Spin Labelling Technique in
           Brain Perfusion Imaging

    • Abstract: Arterial spin labelling (ASL) allows absolute quantification of CBF via a diffusible intrinsic tracer (magnetically labelled blood water) that disperses from the vascular system into neighbouring tissue. Thus, it can provide absolute CBF quantification, which eliminates the need for the contrast agent, and can be performed repeatedly. This review will focus on the common ASL acquisition techniques (continuous, pulsed, and pseudocontinuous ASL) and how ASL image quality might be affected by intrinsic factors that may bias the CBF measurements. We also provide suggestions to mitigate these risks, model appropriately the acquired signal, increase the image quality, and hence estimate the reliability of the CBF, which consists an important noninvasive biomarker. Emerging methodologies for extraction of new ASL-based biomarkers, such as arterial arrival time (AAT) and arterial blood volume (aBV), will be also briefly discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 09:17:34 +000
       
  • Presaturation Power Adjusted Pulsed CEST: A Method to Increase
           Independence of Target CEST Signals

    • Abstract: Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging has been demonstrated to discuss the concentration changes of amide proton, glutamate, creatine, or glucose measured at 3.5, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0–1.2 ppm. However, these peaks in z-spectra are quite broad and overlap with each other, and thus, the independence of a CEST signal on any specific metabolite is still open to question. Here, we described whether there was interference among the CEST signals and how these CEST signals behave when the power of the presaturation pulse was changed. Based on these results, further experiments were designed to investigate a method to increase the independence of the CEST signal in both phantoms and animals. The result illustrates a clear interference among CEST signals. A presaturation power adjusted pulsed- (PPAP-) CEST method which was designed based on the exchange rates of the metabolites can be used to remove contributions from other exchanging species in the same sample. Further, the method was shown to improve the independence of the glutamate signal in vivo in the renal medulla in mice. The PPAP-CEST method has the potential to increase the independence of any target CEST signals in vivo by choosing the appropriate combination of pulse amplitudes and durations.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Reveals an Importance of Saturable
           Liver Uptake Transport for the Pharmacokinetics of Metoclopramide

    • Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [11C]metoclopramide, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, was used to investigate the contribution of transport processes to metoclopramide liver clearance. The liver kinetics obtained after injection of [11C]metoclopramide were measured using PET in rats () in the absence (tracer dose) and the presence of a pharmacologic dose of metoclopramide (3 mg/kg), with or without P-gp inhibition using i.v. tariquidar (8 mg/kg). Corresponding [11C]metoclopramide kinetics and metabolism in plasma () were measured using radio-HPLC analysis. [11C]metoclopramide exposure to the liver and plasma was described by the area under the time-activity curve (AUC) of the radioactivity kinetics in the liver and parent [11C]metoclopramide kinetics in plasma, respectively. The pharmacologic dose of metoclopramide resulted in a ∼2.2-fold increase in [11C]metoclopramide AUCplasma, while P-gp inhibition did not. AUCliver was lower using the pharmacologic dose (42.9 ± 13.8 SUV·min) compared with the tracer dose (210.0 ± 32.4 SUV·min). P-gp inhibition enhanced the liver exposure in the pharmacologic condition only (81.0 ± 3.1 SUV·min). [11C]metoclopramide PET imaging suggests an unpredicted role for hepatocyte uptake transporter(s) in controlling metoclopramide pharmacokinetics in addition to the known contribution of the metabolic enzymes and the P-gp.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multimodality Molecular Imaging-Guided Tumor Border Delineation and
           Photothermal Therapy Analysis Based on Graphene Oxide-Conjugated Gold
           Nanoparticles Chelated with Gd

    • Abstract: Tumor cell complete extinction is a crucial measure to evaluate antitumor efficacy. The difficulties in defining tumor margins and finding satellite metastases are the reason for tumor recurrence. A synergistic method based on multimodality molecular imaging needs to be developed so as to achieve the complete extinction of the tumor cells. In this study, graphene oxide conjugated with gold nanostars and chelated with Gd through 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N,N′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) (GO-AuNS-DOTA-Gd) were prepared to target HCC-LM3-fLuc cells and used for therapy. For subcutaneous tumor, multimodality molecular imaging including photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the related processing techniques were used to monitor the pharmacokinetics process of GO-AuNS-DOTA-Gd in order to determine the optimal time for treatment. For orthotopic tumor, MRI was used to delineate the tumor location and margin in vivo before treatment. Then handheld photoacoustic imaging system was used to determine the tumor location during the surgery and guided the photothermal therapy. The experiment result based on orthotopic tumor demonstrated that this synergistic method could effectively reduce tumor residual and satellite metastases by 85.71% compared with the routine photothermal method without handheld PAI guidance. These results indicate that this multimodality molecular imaging-guided photothermal therapy method is promising with a good prospect in clinical application.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prediction of Chemoresistance in Women Undergoing Neo-Adjuvant
           Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Volumetric Analysis of
           First-Order Textural Features Extracted from Multiparametric MRI

    • Abstract: Purpose. To assess correlations between volumetric first-order texture parameters on baseline MRI and pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer (BC). Materials and Methods. 69 patients with locally advanced BC candidate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent MRI within 4 weeks from the start of therapeutic regimen. T2, DWI, and DCE sequences were analyzed and maps were generated for Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC), T2 signal intensity, and the following dynamic parameters: -trans, peak enhancement, area under curve (AUC), time to maximal enhancement (TME), wash-in rate, and washout rate. Volumetric analysis of these parameters was performed, yielding a histogram analysis including first-order texture kinetics (percentiles, maximum value, minimum value, range, standard deviation, mean, median, mode, skewness, and kurtosis). Finally, correlations between these values and response to NAC (evaluated on the surgical specimen according to RECIST 1.1 criteria) were assessed. Results. Out of 69 tumors, 33 (47.8%) achieved complete pathological response, 26 (37.7%) partial response, and 10 (14.5%) no response. Higher levels of AUCmax ( value = 0.0338), AUCrange ( value = 0.0311), and TME75 ( value = 0.0452) and lower levels of washout10 ( value = 0.0417), washout20 ( value = 0.0138), washout25 ( value = 0.0114), and washout30 ( value = 0.05) were predictive of noncomplete response. Conclusion. Histogram-derived texture analysis of MRI images allows finding quantitative parameters predictive of nonresponse to NAC in women affected by locally advanced BC.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluation of 99mTc-HYNIC-VCAM-1scFv as a Potential Qualitative and
           Semiquantitative Probe Targeting Various Tumors

    • Abstract: Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is overexpressed in varieties of cancers. This study aimed to evaluate the application of a single chain variable fragment (scFv) of anti-VCAM-1 antibody labeled with 99mTc as a possible imaging agent in several tumors. VCAM-1 scFv was labeled with 99mTc using succinimidyl 6-hydrazinium nicotinate hydrochloride, and 99mTc-HYNIC-VCAM-1scFv was successfully synthesized with a high radiolabeling yield. VCAM-1 expression was evaluated in six cell lines by immunofluorescence staining. In vitro binding assays showed different binding affinities of 99mTc-HYNIC-VCAM-1scFv in different tumor cell lines, with high uptake in B16F10 melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, which was consistent with immunofluorescence staining results. In vivo SPECT planar imaging demonstrated that B16F10 and HT1080 tumors could be clearly visualized. Less intense uptake was observed in human SKOV3.ip ovarian tumor, and weak uptake was observed in human A375m melanoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and 786-O renal tumors. These findings were confirmed by biodistribution and immunofluorescence studies. High uptake by B16F10 tumors was inhibited by excess unlabeled VCAM-1scFv. 99mTc-HYNIC-VCAM-1scFv, which selectively binds to VCAM-1, can provide a qualitative and semiquantitative method for noninvasive evaluation of VCAM-1 expression by tumors.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation of Newly Prepared Biodegradable 32P-chromic
           Phosphate-polylactide-co-glycolide Seeds and Their Therapeutic Response
           Evaluation for Glioma Brachytherapy

    • Abstract: 32P high-dose rate brachytherapy allows high-dose radiation delivery to target lesions with less damage to adjacent tissues. The early evaluation of its therapeutic effect on tumours is vital for the optimization of treatment regimes. The most commonly used 32P-CP colloid tends to leak with blind therapeutic area after intratumour injection. We prepared 32P-chromic phosphate-polylactide-co-glycolide (32P-CP-PLGA) seeds with biodegradable PLGA as a framework and investigated their characteristics in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the therapeutic effect of 32P-CP-PLGA brachytherapy for glioma with the integrin αvβ3-targeted radiotracer 68Ga-3PRGD2. 32P-CP-PLGA seeds (seed group, SG, 185 MBq) and 32P-CP colloid (colloid group, CG, 18.5 MBq) were implanted or injected into human glioma xenografts in nude mice. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the seeds, micro-SPECT imaging, and biodistribution studies were performed at different time points. The tumour volume was measured using a caliper, and 68Ga-3PRGD2 micro-PET-CT imaging was performed to evaluate the therapeutic effect after 32P intratumour administration. The delayed release of 32P-CP was observed with biodegradation of vehicle PLGA. Intratumoural effective half-life of 32P-CP in the SG () d was longer than that in the CG () d (), with liver appearance in the CG on SPECT. A radioactivity gradient developed inside the tumour in the SG, as confirmed by micro-SPECT and SEM. Tumour uptake of 68Ga-3PRGD2 displayed a significant increase on day 0.5 in the SG and decreased earlier (on day 2) than the volume reduction (on day 8). Thus, 32P-CP-PLGA seeds, controlling the release of entrapped 32P-CP particles, are promising for glioma brachytherapy, and 68Ga-3PRGD2 imaging shows potential for early response evaluation of 32P-CP-PLGA seeds brachytherapy.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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