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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
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J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
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J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
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J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Bacteriology
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  • Tuberculosis among Jimma University Undergraduate Students: First Insight
           about the Burden of Tuberculosis in Ethiopia
           Universities—Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Ethiopian universities are facilities where students live in relative overcrowding condition. This might favor the chance of tuberculosis transmission among students. This study was done to determine the magnitude and associated factors of tuberculosis among Jimma University students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done from February 2015 to July 2015. Hundred twenty-nine consented participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Biological specimens were collected and cultured on Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex verification was done by SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT64 Rapid test. Frequency distribution, logistic regression, and independent sample -test were used to analyze the data using SPSS Version 20. Result. Magnitude of all forms of tuberculosis among Jimma University undergraduate students was 209.1 per 100000-student population. Contact history [AOR: 4.76, 95% CI (1.31–17.31)], smoking [AOR: 6.67, 95% CI (1.51–29.44)], khat chewing [AOR: 5.56, 95% CI (1.66–18.69)], and low body mass index [AOR: 5.37, 95% CI (1.46–19.78)] were determinants of tuberculosis. Conclusion. The magnitude of tuberculosis among Jimma University undergraduate students is high. TB is associated with previous tuberculosis patient contact and behavioral factors. Hence, students with these risk factors should be given enough attention for the control of TB in Jimma University.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Tuberculosis in Prisons Settings of
           East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Tuberculosis, mainly in prisoners, is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where there is no medical screening during prison admission. This creates scarcity of TB data in such settings. Objective. To determine prevalence and associated factors of TB in prisons in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to May 2016 among 265 prisoners in three prison sites. Sputum was processed using GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariable logistic regression was used; values = 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Of 265 prisoners, 9 (3.4%) were TB positive (males); 77.8%, 55.6%, and 55.6% of cases were rural dwellers, married, and farmers, respectively. Seven (2.6%) prisoners were HIV positive, and 3 (1.13%) had TB/HIV coinfection. One (0.4%) TB case was rifampicin resistant. Marriage (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.7, 13.03), HIV (AOR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17), and sharing of rooms (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI: 2.6, 10.20) were predictors for TB. Conclusion. Nine prisoners were TB positive. One case showed rifampicin resistance and three had TB/HIV coinfection. Marriage, HIV, and sharing of rooms were predictors for TB. Prevention/control and monitoring are mandatory in such settings.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Characterization of Salmonella from Human and Animal Origins in
           Uganda

    • Abstract: Sporadic Salmonella outbreaks with varying clinical presentations have been on the rise in various parts of Uganda. The sources of outbreaks and factors underlying the different clinical manifestation are curtailed by paucity of information on Salmonella genotypes and the associated virulence genes. This study reports molecular diversity of Salmonella enterica and their genetic virulence profiles among human and animal isolates. Characterization was done using Kauffman-White classification scheme and virulence genes analysis using multiplex PCR. Overall, 52% of the isolates belonged to serogroup D, 16% to serogroup E, 15% to poly F, H-S, and 12% to serogroup B. Serogroups A, C1, and C2 each consisted of only one isolate representing 5%. Virulence genes located on SPI-1 [spaN and sipB] and on SPI-2 [spiA] in addition to pagC and msgA were equally distributed in isolates obtained from all sources. Plasmid encoded virulence gene spvB was found in
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 10:48:43 +000
       
  • A Review of Research Conducted with Probiotic E. coli Marketed as
           Symbioflor

    • Abstract: This review article summarizes the scientific literature that is currently available about a probiotic E. coli that is known under the name Symbioflor E. coli. The probiotic is marketed for human use and has been subjected to over 20 years of scientific research. As is presented here, the available literature not only contains multiple works to investigate and analyse the probiotic activity of this E. coli, but also describes a variety of other research experiments, dealing with a surprising and interesting range of subjects. By compiling all these works into one review article, more insights into this interesting probiotic E. coli were obtained.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Nov 2016 13:55:32 +000
       
  • Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Hormozgan Province
           of Iran Based on 15-Locus MIRU-VNTR and Spoligotyping

    • Abstract: Background. Considering that Hormozgan province in Iran (southern part of Iran on the Persian Gulf) is among the areas with high prevalence of MDR-MTB and attracts so many sailors and tourists, genetic diversity of MTB isolates circulating in this part of Iran was evaluated. Pattern of TB transmission was also examined. Methods and Material. A total of 38 isolates of MTB were cultured from TB patients from Hormozgan province of Iran and standard MIRU-VNTR typing and spoligotyping were applied to genotype these isolates. Drug susceptibility testing was performed using proportion method. Results. There were 28 VNTR profiles comprising 5 clusters and 23 unique isolates compared to 21 spoligotyping profiles, which contained 9 clusters and 12 unique isolates. Latin American-Mediterranean (, 23.6%) was found to be the most predominant lineage. MIRU-VNTR analysis, with an HGDI of 0.975, was more discriminating than spoligotyping, which had an HGDI of 0.955. The estimated proportion of TB cases due to recent transmission was 26.3% and 44.7% by MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping, respectively. The rates of monodrug resistance and MDR were 15.8% and 7.9%, respectively. Two of 3 MDR strains were found to be related to MIRU-VNTR and belonged to the same spoligotyping cluster characterized with T1/SIT53 genotype. Conclusions. The high genetic diversity among MTB isolates suggests that transmission occurred from different sources to this area. Reactivation of a priori, latent MTB infection was found to contribute mainly to TB cases in this geographic region.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Oct 2016 08:25:45 +000
       
  • Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of
           Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir
           Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2016 08:48:15 +000
       
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Recovered from Healthcare- and
           Community-Associated Infections in Egypt

    • Abstract: Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has created significant epidemiological, infection-control, and therapeutic management challenges during the past three decades. Aim. To analyze the pattern of resistance of healthcare- and community-associated MRSA in Egypt and the trend of resistance of HA-MRSA over time (2005–2013). Methods. MRSA isolates were recovered from healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections. They were tested against 11 antimicrobial discs and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin was determined. Inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) was also screened using D-test. Findings. Of 631 S. aureus, MRSA was identified in 343 (76.6%) and 21 (11.5%) of HA and CA S. aureus isolates, respectively. The proportion of HA-MRSA increased significantly from 48.6% in 2005 to 86.8% in 2013 ( value < 0.001). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 85.8% of HA-MRSA and 48.6% of CA-MRSA. Vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) was detected in 1.2% of HA-MRSA and none was detected in CA-MRSA. Among HA-MRSA strains, 5.3% showed iMLSB compared to 9.5% among CA-MRSA. Conclusion. The upsurge of the prevalence rates of HA-MRSA over time is alarming and urges for an effective infection control strategy and continuous monitoring of antimicrobial use.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2016 07:52:33 +000
       
  • Occurrence of Potential Bacterial Pathogens and Their Antimicrobial
           Susceptibility Patterns Isolated from Herbal Medicinal Products Sold in
           Different Markets of Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of the world’s population uses herbal medicine to treat various illnesses as means of primary healthcare. However, during preparation, herbal plants may be exposed to contamination by potential pathogens, and this may lead to infections. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial contamination of herbal medicinal products and to assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to May 25, 2013, at Gondar Town. A total of 55 samples used as oral, local, and intranasal routes of administration were collected from the herbalists. Results. In the present study the total aerobic bacterial count ranges from zero to  CFU/g with mean count of  CFU/g or mL while the total coliform count showed an average of  CFU/g or mL with a range of zero to  CFU/g. The most common bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. followed by Enterobacter spp., Shigella dysenteriae, and Salmonella spp. Multiple drug resistance was not uncommon and it was found that 125 (83.4%) of the isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Conclusion. Herbal medicinal preparations were highly contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms with high microbial load. Most of the isolates have multiple drug resistance. Using those contaminated herbal medicines may lead to infection of other health related risks. Therefore, this warrants urgent training of herbalists and management scale-up for quality and safety of medicinal plants.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2016 08:04:13 +000
       
  • Direct Electrical Current Reduces Bacterial and Yeast Biofilm Formation

    • Abstract: New strategies are needed for prevention of biofilm formation. We have previously shown that 24 hr of 2,000 µA of direct current (DC) reduces Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation in vitro. Herein, we examined the effect of a lower amount of DC exposure on S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes, and Candida albicans biofilm formation. 12 hr of 500 µA DC decreased S. epidermidis, S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on Teflon discs by 2, 1, 1, and 2 log10 cfu/cm2, respectively (). Reductions in S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and E. coli biofilm formation were observed with as few as 12 hr of 200 µA DC (2, 2 and 0.4 log10 cfu/cm2, resp.); a 1 log10 cfu/cm2 reduction in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was observed at 36 hr. 24 hr of 500 µA DC decreased C. albicans biofilm formation on Teflon discs by 2 log10 cfu/cm2. No reduction in P. acnes biofilm formation was observed. 1 and 2 log10 cfu/cm2 reductions in E. coli and S. epidermidis biofilm formation on titanium discs, respectively, were observed with 12 hr of exposure to 500 µA. Electrical current is a potential strategy to reduce biofilm formation on medical biomaterials.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Mar 2016 06:50:36 +000
       
  • Retracted: Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates

    • PubDate: Thu, 03 Mar 2016 10:52:46 +000
       
  • Role of Burkholderia pseudomallei Sigma N2 in Amino Acids Utilization and
           in Regulation of Catalase E Expression at the Transcriptional Level

    • Abstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. The complete genome sequences of this pathogen have been revealed, which explain some pathogenic mechanisms. In various hostile conditions, for example, during nitrogen and amino acid starvation, bacteria can utilize alternative sigma factors such as RpoS and RpoN to modulate genes expression for their adaptation and survival. In this study, we demonstrate that mutagenesis of rpoN2, which lies on chromosome 2 of B. pseudomallei and encodes a homologue of the sigma factor RpoN, did not alter nitrogen and amino acid utilization of the bacterium. However, introduction of B. pseudomallei rpoN2 into E. coli strain deficient for rpoN restored the ability to utilize amino acids. Moreover, comparative partial proteomic analysis of the B. pseudomallei wild type and its rpoN2 isogenic mutant was performed to elucidate its amino acids utilization property which was comparable to its function found in the complementation assay. By contrast, the rpoN2 mutant exhibited decreased katE expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Our finding indicates that B. pseudomallei RpoN2 is involved in a specific function in the regulation of catalase E expression.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2015 14:28:45 +000
       
  • Antibacterial Effects of Cissus welwitschii and Triumfetta welwitschii
           Extracts against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus

    • Abstract: Antibiotic resistance has increased sharply, while the pace for the development of new antimicrobials has slowed down. Plants provide an alternative source for new drugs. This study aimed to screen extracts from Cissus welwitschii and Triumfetta welwitschii for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The tests conducted included a susceptibility determination test, analysis of the effect of T. welwitschii on cell wall integrity, and transport across the membrane. It was found that the T. welwitschii methanol extracts were more effective than the water extracts and had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration at 0.125 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively, against E. coli and B. cereus. The C. welwitschii extract caused the most drug accumulation in E. coli. In B. cereus, no significant drug accumulation was observed. Nucleic acid leakage in B. cereus and E. coli and protein leakage in E. coli were observed after exposure to the T. welwitschii extract. The extracts from T. welwitschii had greater antibacterial activity than the extracts from C. welwitschii. T. welwitschii may be a potential source of lead compounds for that could be developed into antibacterial agents.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Nov 2015 14:24:42 +000
       
  • Bacterial Contamination of Medical Doctors and Students White Coats at
           Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania

    • Abstract: Background. Microbial transmission from patient to patient has been linked to transient colonization of health care workers attires. Contamination of health care workers’ clothing including white coats may play a big role in transmission of microbes. Study Objective. This study was conducted to determine the type of bacterial contamination on the white coats of medical doctors and students and associated factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling of the bacterial contamination of white coats was undertaken. Demographic variables and white coats usage details were captured: when the coat was last washed, frequency of washing, washing agents used, and storage of the white coats. Swabs were collected from the mouth of left and right lower pockets, sleeves, and lapels of white coat in sterile techniques. Results. Out of 180 participants involved in the current study, 65.6% were males. Most of the coats were contaminated by staphylococci species and other bacteria such as Gram negative rods. Conclusion and Recommendations. White coats are potential source of cross infection which harbour bacterial agents and may play a big role in the transmission of nosocomial infection in health care settings. Effort should be made to discourage usage of white coats outside clinical areas.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2015 09:35:41 +000
       
  • Hyaluronidase in Clinical Isolates of Propionibacterium acnes

    • Abstract: Objectives. We sought to describe the prevalence of a hyaluronidase gene and hyaluronidase production in 197 clinical isolates of P. acnes; we assessed kinetics of hyaluronidase production in a subset of three isolates. Methods. The hyaluronidase gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Hyaluronidase production was detected by growing isolates on BHI agar containing 400 μg/mL hyaluronic acid and 1% albumin and flooding plates with 2 N glacial acetic acid to precipitate unbound hyaluronic acid, with a zone of clearing representing a positive phenotype. Hyaluronidase production kinetics were measured as a function of hyaluronic acid digestion over time in a liquid medium. Results. A hyaluronidase gene and hyaluronidase production were detected in 100 and 97% of P. acnes isolates, respectively. Hyaluronidase production in liquid medium was detectable after 96 hours of growth. Conclusions. Hyaluronidase production is nearly universal among P. acnes isolates. Three days appear to be required for significant hyaluronidase production in a liquid medium. Detection of hyaluronidase in tissue specimens may be a strategy to differentiate P. acnes infection from colonization when P. acnes is isolated from a clinical specimen.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Feb 2015 06:30:27 +000
       
  • Review on the Antimicrobial Resistance of Pathogens from Tracheal and
           Endotracheal Aspirates of Patients with Clinical Manifestations of
           Pneumonia in Bacolod City in 2013

    • Abstract: Microbiological content specifically bacterial and fungal etiologies from tracheal aspirates in a tertiary hospital in Bacolod City was reviewed for baseline information. A total of 130 tracheal aspirates were subjected for culture to isolate and identify the pathogen and determine their susceptibilities to various antibiotics. Productions of certain enzymes responsible for antibiotic resistance like ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase), metallo-β-lactamase, and carbapenemase were also studied. Out of 130 specimens, 69.23% were found to be positive for the presence of microorganisms. Most infections were from male patients aging 60 years and above, confined at the Intensive Care Units (ICU). Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were found to be the most frequent bacterial isolates and non-Candida albicans for fungal isolates, respectively. Among the various antibiotics tested, most isolates were found to be resistant to third generation cephalosporins and penicillins, but susceptible to aminoglycoside Amikacin. On the other hand, production of ESBL and carbapenemase was found to be common among members of Enterobacteriaceae especially K. pneumoniae.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Feb 2015 06:48:59 +000
       
  • Highly Sensitive Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Detection
           of Leptospira

    • Abstract: Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by an infection with the pathogenic species of Leptospira. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect the DNA of Leptospira spp. Six sets of primers targeting the gene of the subsurface protein, lipL32, were evaluated for their detection sensitivity. The best primer set detected less than 25 copies of lipL32 per reaction of both plasmid DNA template and purified leptospiral genomic DNA. By combining primers targeting lipL32 with the previously published primer set targeting lipL41, the sensitivity of the assay was improved to 12 copies of L. interrogans. The specificity of the LAMP assay was evaluated by using the genomic DNA from other clinically encountered bacterial species such as different strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia rickettsii, Coxiella burnetii, and Bartonella bacilliformis. These genomic DNA samples were all negative in our LAMP assay. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was very similar to that of quantitative real time PCR. Several detection methods for the amplified product of LAMP assay were performed to demonstrate the simplicity of the assay. In summary, our results have suggested that this assay is rapid, robust, and easy to perform and has the potential to be used in endemic locations.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jan 2015 09:21:09 +000
       
  • Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm
           Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Culture Extract from Novel
           Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus Using a Rat Model of Chronic Lung
           Infection

    • Abstract: Quorum sensing (QS) is a key regulator of virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microorganisms that inhabit soil are of strategic importance in the discovery of compounds with anti-QS properties. The objective of the study was to test the culture extract of a taxonomically novel species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI for its inhibitory effects on the QS-controlled virulence factors and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa both in vitro and in vivo. The Paenibacillus sp. culture extract was used to test its anti-QS effects on the LasA protease, LasB elastase, pyoverdin production, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa as well as evaluate its therapeutic effects on lung bacteriology, pathology, hematological profile, and serum antibody responses of experimental animals in a rat model of chronic lung infection. Results showed significant decrease in the activities of QS-controlled LasA protease, LasB elastase pyoverdin, and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa caused by the culture extract. Moreover, the extract significantly prolonged the survival times of rats and facilitated the clearance of biofilm infections from infected lungs. In conclusion, the antiquorum sensing effects of culture extract from a novel species of Paenibacillus provide new insights to combat biofilm-associated infections.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jan 2015 11:37:59 +000
       
  • A Rapid and Sensitive Diagnostic Screening Assay for Detection of
           Mycobacteria Including Mycobacterium tuberculosis Directly from Sputum
           without Extraction

    • Abstract: We report a novel approach utilising a real-time PCR screening assay targeting a 53 bp tandemly repeated element present at various loci within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome. Positive samples were identified within a discriminatory melting curve range of 90–94°C, with results obtained in under one hour directly from decontaminated sputum samples without extraction. A panel of 89 smear-positive sputa were used for analytical validation of the assay with 100% concordance, with sensitivity matching that of culture. Cross reactivity was detected within a narrow range of mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) (five sputa, three in silico), with the highest sensitivity within M. avium complex (MAC). A year-long head to head evaluation of the test with the GeneXpert platform was carried out with 104 consecutive samples at the Royal Free Hospital, UK. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of the data revealed that the two tests are approximately equivalent in sensitivity, with the area under the curve being 0.85 and 0.80 for the GeneXpert and our assay, respectively, indicating that the test would be a cost effective screen prior to GeneXpert testing.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jan 2015 07:16:27 +000
       
 
 
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