Journal of Materials
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-4866 - ISSN (Online) 2314-4874
Published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation [403 journals]
- First-Principle and Experimental Study of a Gadolinium-Praseodymium-Cobalt
Pseudobinary Intermetallic Compound
Abstract: First-principles methods were used to determine the magnetic state of a simulated cobalt-based binary alloy (Gd,Pr)Co17 along with its corresponding lattice parameters and density. The resulting composition was fabricated using two methods arc-melting and induction-melting and compared with the calculated values. The induction-melted samples showed greater homogeneity and successfully produced the R2Co17 structure. Calculated values qualitatively predict ferromagnetic behavior and lattice parameters to be within a low percent. The development of magnetic alloys with the assistance of computational methods promises faster development of new functional materials.
PubDate: Sun, 28 Jun 2015 07:34:41 +000
- Solution-Processed rGO/AgNPs/rGO Sandwich Structure as a Hole Extraction
Layer for Polymer Solar Cells
Abstract: We found that inserting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) between two layers of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO) has an effect on tailoring the work function of rGO. The utilization of rGO/AgNPs/rGO sandwich structure as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. Solution-processable fabrication of this sandwich structure at the ITO/active layer interface facilitates the extraction of hole from active layer into ITO anode because of lowering the barrier level alignment at the interface. It results in an improvement of the short circuit current density and the overall photovoltaic performance.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2015 07:00:23 +000
- Thermal Spectroscopy and Kinetic Studies of PEO/PVDF Loaded by Carbon
Abstract: Nanocomposites of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) without and with low content of single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-MWCNTs) were prepared and studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using different heating rate. TGA results indicate that the thermal stability of neat PEO/PVDF blend was improved with both heating rate and incorporation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The degradation temperature for neat blend was lower than those of the nanocomposites after adding both SWCNTs and MWCNTs. As increase of heating rate, the onset of decomposition is irregularly moved to higher temperatures. This indicates that the thermal stability of the polymeric matrices has been improved after addition of CNTs. The residual weight of the samples left increased steadily with adding of both SWCNTs and MWCNTs. Kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy are evaluated from TGA data using Coats-Redfern model. The values of all parameters irregularly decrease with increasing of heating rate due to increasing of heating rate temperature, the random scission of macromolecule chain in the polymeric matrices predominates and the activation energy has a lower value.
PubDate: Sun, 31 May 2015 12:32:52 +000
- Sodium Sulphate Effect on Cement Produced with Building Stone Waste
Abstract: In this study, the blended cements produced by using the building stone waste were exposed to sulphate solution and the cement properties were examined. Prepared mortar specimens were cured under water for 28 days and then they were exposed to three different proportions of sodium sulphate solution for 125 days. Performances of cements were determined by means of compressive strength and tensile strength tests. The broken parts of some mortar bars were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). Besides, they were left under moist atmosphere and their length change was measured and continuously monitored for period of 125 days. In blended cements, solely cements obtained by replacing 10–20% of diatomites gave similar strength values with ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R) at the ages of 7, 28, and 56 days. In all mortar specimens that included either waste andesite (AP) or marble powder (MP) showed best performance against very severe effective sodium sulphate solutions (13500 mg/L).
PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2015 12:19:29 +000
- Effect of Inert and Pozzolanic Materials on Flow and Mechanical Properties
of Self-Compacting Concrete
Abstract: This research investigates the fresh behaviour and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) containing high volume of limestone, metakaolin, silica fume, zeolite, and viscosity modifying admixture. Two fine aggregates with different fineness modulus were also utilized to evaluate the effect of sand’s gradation on the mechanical and flow properties of SCC containing inert and pozzolanic powder. Slump flow, V-funnel for fresh concrete and 5-minute-old concrete, J-ring, Orimet with and without J-ring, and L-box and U-box tests were performed on all 14 fresh concrete mixtures to examine the fresh properties of self-compacting concrete. Compressive strength of hardened specimens was measured at 7 and 35 days and tensile strength was also determined at the age of 28 days. The results show that sand grading significantly affects the fresh properties of SCC. It is also concluded that high volume of active powders including metakaolin, zeolite, and silica fume could not improve both the flow and mechanical properties of SCC at the same time. Limestone can be effectively used as filler in SCC in high volume content. A new set of limits for the L-box and U-box tests for SCC containing silica fume is also recommended as the existing criteria are not satisfactory.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:42:54 +000
- A Qualitative Study of Thermochemical Degradation Related with Concrete
and Mortar Strength
Abstract: The nondestructive methods applied to the evaluation of concrete use different parameters to be related in the estimated resistance of concrete or other properties. The conducted study has evaluated a qualitative method of thermochemical degradation in concrete and mortar using a solvent acid whose chemical energy is capable of degrading the material. The reported study consisted in performing laboratory tests on mechanical compressive strength of concrete and mortar and thermochemical tests performed on little cores of concrete or mortar immersed in hydrochloric acid contained in a calorimeter system, obtaining several parameters as the time of thermal equilibrium, increase of temperature, degradation energy, and mass loss due to the thermochemical reaction. From the obtained results, these variables were analyzed and served as a parameter to be related with the concrete or mortar strength. The best parameter proved to be a good estimator was the increase of temperature and its degradation energy, whose value was inversely proportional to the strength of the material. Also, it is found that the most significant mechanisms that influenced the thermochemical reaction are the calcium content and the water chemically bound in the cement paste to perform the thermochemical test.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2015 11:20:33 +000