International Journal of Reproductive Medicine
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2314-5757
Published by Hindawi [334 journals]
- Outcomes and Recommendations of an Indian Expert Panel for Improved
Practice in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for Assisted Reproductive
Abstract: Purpose. To improve success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted reproductive technology (ART) experts addressed four questions. What is optimum oocytes number leading to highest live birth rate (LBR)' Are cohort size and embryo quality correlated' Does gonadotropin type affect oocyte yield' Should “freeze-all” policy be adopted in cycles with progesterone >1.5 ng/mL on day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration' Methods. Electronic database search included ten studies on which panel gave opinions for improving current practice in controlled ovarian stimulation for ART. Results. Strong association existed between retrieved oocytes number (RON) and LBRs. RON impacted likelihood of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Embryo euploidy decreased with age, not with cohort size. Progesterone > 1.5 ng/dL did not impair cycle outcomes in patients with high cohorts and showed disparate results on day of hCG administration. Conclusions. Ovarian stimulation should be designed to retrieve 10–15 oocytes/treatment. Accurate dosage, gonadotropin type, should be selected as per prediction markers of ovarian response. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist based protocols are advised to avoid OHSS. Cumulative pregnancy rate was most relevant pregnancy endpoint in ART. Cycles with serum progesterone ≥1.5 ng/dL on day of hCG administration should not adopt “freeze-all” policy. Further research is needed due to lack of data availability on progesterone threshold or index.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Women’s Health Decision-Making Autonomy and Skilled Birth
Attendance in Ghana
Abstract: Delivering in health facility under the supervision of skilled birth attendant is an important way of mitigating impacts of delivery complications. Empirical evidence suggests that decision-making autonomy is aligned with holistic wellbeing especially in the aspect of maternal and child health. The objective of this paper was to examine the relationship between women’s health decision-making autonomy and place of delivery in Ghana. We extracted data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Descriptive and logistic regression techniques were applied. The results indicated that women with health decision-making autonomy have higher tendency of health facility delivery as compared to those who are not autonomous [OR = 1.27, CI = 1.09–1.48]. However, those who have final say on household large purchases [OR = 0.71, CI = 0.59–0.84] and those having final say on visits [OR = 0.86, CI = 0.73–1.01] were less probable to deliver in health facility than those without such decision-making autonomy. Consistent with existing evidence, wealthier, urban, and highly educated women had higher inclination of health facility delivery. This study has stressed the need for interventions aimed at enhancing health facility delivery to target women without health decision-making autonomy and women with low education and wealth status, as this can play essential role in enhancing health facility delivery.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 09:50:19 +000
- What Influences Where They Give Birth' Determinants of Place of
Delivery among Women in Rural Ghana
Abstract: Background. There is a paucity of empirical literature in Ghana on rural areas and their utilisation of health facilities. The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. Methods. The paper made use of data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Women from rural areas who had given birth within five years prior to the survey were included in the analysis. Descriptive analyses and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Results. Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner’s education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. Women in the richest wealth quintile were three times (OR = 3.04, 95% CI = 0.35–26.4) more likely to deliver at a health facility than the poorest women. Conclusions. It behoves the relevant stakeholders including the Ghana Health Service and the Ministry of Health to pay attention to the wealth status, maternal education, ecological zone, ethnicity, partner’s education, parity, and distance in their planning regarding delivery care in rural Ghana.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2016 11:45:52 +000
- Perinatal Outcome in Assisted Reproductive Pregnancies: Comparative
Analysis of Reduced versus Unreduced Gestation
Abstract: Objectives. This study aims to evaluate perinatal outcomes such as gestational age at delivery and live birth rate in singleton and twin gestation with or without fetal reduction. Method. A retrospective analysis was done on patients which were divided into reduced and unreduced groups on the basis of order of reduction of one or more fetuses between 6 and 13 weeks of gestation. Patients records were studied to note gestational age at delivery/abortion, birth weight, and neonatal outcome. Result. The cohort included a total of 292 patients: 102 singletons and 190 twins. 52 pregnancies were reduced in singleton cohort and 68 were reduced in twin cohort. No statistical difference was observed in live birth rate, gestational age at delivery, and birth weight and significant higher incidence of IUGR was observed in reduced and unreduced twin gestation. In singleton pregnancies however preterm delivery rate increased with fetal reduction. Conclusion. Although reduction does not reduce the live birth rate, it does reduce gestation age of delivery and birth weight of newborn. This effect is more apparent when multiple gestation is reduced to singleton.
PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2016 12:57:16 +000
- Determining the Optimal Duration of Progesterone Supplementation prior to
Transfer of Cryopreserved Embryos and Its Impact on Implantation and
Pregnancy Rates: A Pilot Study
Abstract: Objective. To determine the optimal duration of progesterone supplementation prior to transfer of cryopreserved embryos and its impact on implantation and pregnancy rates. Study Design. Prospective randomised study. Materials and Methods. In an IVF unit of a tertiary centre, sixty-six patients undergoing cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were included. Endometrial preparation was done with estradiol valerate. Once it reached a minimum of 7 mm, patients were allocated randomly into group I () and group II (). Injectable progesterone 100 mg daily was then started for 3 and 4 days, respectively. This was followed by transfer of at least one thawed cleavage stage day 2 embryo of good quality. Groups I and II were compared in terms of clinical pregnancy and implantation rates. Results. In group I (3-day progesterone) and group II (4-day progesterone) the pregnancy rates were 41.02% (16/39) and 18.51% (5/27), respectively. On the other hand, the implantation rates were 16.82% (18/107) and 7.69% (6/78), respectively. The difference was statistically significant ( values 0.0172 and 0.0386, resp.). Conclusion. Progesterone supplementation for three days before the transfer of cleavage stage (day 2) cryopreserved embryos has significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates, as compared to four-day supplementation.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2016 09:24:56 +000
- Pregnancy Predictors after Intrauterine Insemination in Cases of
Unexplained Infertility: A Prospective Study
Abstract: Introduction. Aim of the study was to find the effect of various prognostic factors in cases of unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods. 146 cases of unexplained infertility were included. A maximum of 3 cycles of IUI were done with clomiphene citrate/HMG. Ovulation trigger was given when the largest follicle diameter was >18 mm, and IUI was planned 36 hours later. Luteal phase support was given for 15 days, urine pregnancy test was done on day 15, ultrasonography was done at 7 weeks, and pregnancy was followed up till delivery. Results. A total of 146 couples have undergone 239 cycles of IUI out of which 27 had UPT positive after 15 days. 14.8% had 1st-trimester abortion while 3.7% were ectopic. 86.3% were singleton pregnancies and 13.6% were twins. CPR was 11.29% per cycle and 18.4% per couple; LBR was 9.2% per cycle. Apart from duration of stimulation () and number of treatment cycles (), no other factors had significant prognostic value. Conclusion. For unexplained infertility, IUI can be done to provide patients with the time that they need before moving on to IVF while providing a respectable chance of pregnancy.
PubDate: Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:59:56 +000
- Role of Ultrasound in Body Stalk Anomaly and Amniotic Band Syndrome
Abstract: Body stalk anomaly (BSA) and amniotic band syndrome (ABS) are rare similar fetal sporadic polymalformative syndromes of unknown etiology, though there are certain differences between them. BSA is a combination of developmental abnormalities involving neural tube, body wall, and the limbs with persistent extra embryonic coelomic cavity. ABS is characterized by the presence of thin membrane-like strands attached to fetal body parts and causing constrictions and amputations. This is a cohort study involving 32,100 patients who were referred for routine antenatal ultrasound scan. The data was entered prospectively into a computer database. The duration of study was 3 years. In our study, ultrasound examination in 86 patients demonstrated ventral wall defects, craniofacial defects, and spinal and limb deformities as isolated or combined abnormalities. In those, 10 patients were suspected/diagnosed as BSA/ABS including a twin of a dichorionic diamniotic gestation. The typical features of body stalk anomaly can be detected by ultrasound by the end of the first trimester, which is important for the patient counselling and management. We are presenting these rare conditions and highlighting the importance of early sonographic imaging in diagnosing and differentiating them from other anterior abdominal wall defects.
PubDate: Sun, 04 Sep 2016 10:50:18 +000
- Immediate Postpartum Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Insertions in
Caesarean and Vaginal Deliveries: A Comparative Study of Follow-Up
Abstract: Background. Immediate postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device (IPPIUCD) is a lucrative postpartum family planning method which provides effective reversible contraception to women in the delivery setting. Our aim was to study the clinical outcomes of IPPIUCD insertions and compare them as a factor of route of insertion (vaginal versus caesarean). Methods. This is a retrospective analytical study done in a tertiary care teaching institute. A Cohort of 593 vaginal and caesarean deliveries with IPPIUCD insertions, over a two-year period, was studied and compared for follow-up results. Outcome measures were safety (perforation, irregular bleeding, unusual vaginal discharge, and infection), efficacy (pregnancy, expulsions, and discontinuations), and incidence of undescended IUCD strings. Descriptives were calculated for various outcomes and chi square tests were used for comparison in between categorical variables. Results. Overall complication rates were low. No case of perforation or pregnancy was reported. Spontaneous expulsions were present in 5.3% cases and were significantly higher in vaginal insertions (). The incidence of undescended strings was high (38%), with highly significant difference between both groups (). Conclusion. IPPIUCD is a strong weapon in the family planning armoury and should be encouraged in both vaginal and caesarean deliveries. Early follow-up should be encouraged to detect expulsions and tackle common problems.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2016 14:28:37 +000
- Could Metformin Manage Gestational Diabetes Mellitus instead of
Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates a significant number of pregnancies. Blood glucose control improves perinatal outcomes. Medical nutrition therapy is the foundation in management. Aim of This Study. To evaluate efficacy of metformin in comparison to insulin for managing GDM. Methods. In prospective randomized comparative study, 150 antenatal women whose pregnancies had been complicated by GDM and did not respond to diet alone were recruited from antenatal clinics at Obstetrics Department in Zagazig University Hospitals from November 2012 to December 2014. They were divided randomly into two groups, 75 patients in each, and were subjected to either insulin or metformin medication. Outcomes were comparing the effects of both medications on maternal glycemic control, antenatal complications, and neonatal outcome. Results. No significant difference in controlling high blood sugar in GDM with the use of metformin or insulin (, 0.15). Maternal complications in both groups had no significant difference and fetal outcomes were as well similar except the fact that the hypoglycemia occurred more in insulin group with value 0.01. Conclusion. Glycaemic control in GDM can be achieved by using metformin orally without increasing risk of maternal hypoglycemia with satisfying neonatal outcome.
PubDate: Sun, 14 Aug 2016 13:56:26 +000
- A Comparative Observational Study of the Use of Saline Uterine
Hydrosonography for the Diagnosis and Assessment of Uterine Cavity Lesions
Abstract: Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of saline hydrosonography (HSGM) (also known as saline infusion sonography (SIS)) against transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine cavity lesions. Diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy is considered as the “gold standard” to diagnose intrauterine abnormalities. The introduction of HSGM has improved the diagnostic capability of ultrasound. It is important to establish the efficacy and safety of HSGM before it is widely recommended for use. This retrospective observational data was collected from all 223 patients who underwent TVS, HSGM, and hysteroscopy as part of their gynaecological investigations from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 at Central Middlesex Hospital, London. Endometrial Polyps. TVS: sensitivity 60.53%, specificity 97.06%, positive predictive value (PPV) 95.83%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 68.75% and HSGM: sensitivity 95%, specificity 97.14%, PPV 97.44%, and NPV 94.44%. Submucous Leiomyoma. TVS: sensitivity 57.14%, specificity 93.48%, PPV 84.21%, and NPV 78.18% and HSGM: sensitivity 96.55%, specificity 100.00%, PPV 100.00%, and NPV 97.92%. Diagnostic efficacy of HSGM is superior to TVS for the diagnosis of endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids. HSGM should be considered as an intermediate investigation after TVS to assess intracavity pathology and to confirm the diagnosis; hysteroscopy should become a therapeutic intervention.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 11:08:09 +000
- Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected
Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey
Abstract: Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV+ and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV+ and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV+ and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV+ adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex () and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (). Significantly more PHIV+ males reported receptive anal intercourse (). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV+ adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV+ youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.
PubDate: Wed, 10 Aug 2016 11:08:55 +000
- Evaluation of the Efficiency of Two Different Freezing Media and Two
Different Protocols to Preserve Human Spermatozoa from Cryoinjury
Abstract: It is universally recognized that cryopreservation impairs sperm quality. In order to improve postthawing sperm survival and motility, media of different composition and different protocols have been proposed. However, no clear evidence is available to understand which are the most efficient protocol and medium for sperm cryopreservation. The present study evaluates the efficiency of two different cryopreservation protocols and two common freezing media (FM) containing different cryoprotectants (CPs), TEST Yolk Buffer (TYB) and Sperm Freeze (SF), to preserve human sperm quality. Our data suggest that TYB is better than SF both in terms of postthaw viability and in terms of progressive motility, while the direct addition of FM to the sperm sample resulted in the most efficient protocol in terms of postthaw viability but not in terms of progressive motility.
PubDate: Tue, 26 Jul 2016 06:16:53 +000
- Postnatal Care Service Utilization and Associated Factors among Women Who
Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months prior to the Study in Debre Markos Town,
Northwestern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract: Improving maternal and newborn health through proper postnatal care services under the care of skilled health personnel is the key strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. However, there were limited evidences on utilization of postnatal care services in Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Debremarkos town, Northwest Ethiopia. Cluster sampling technique was used to select 588 study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with postnatal care utilization. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be 33.5%. Awareness about maternal complication (AOR: 2.72, 95% CI (1.71, 4.34)), place of delivery of last child (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: (1.01, 2.79)), outcome of birth (AOR: 2.71, 95% CI (1.19, 6.19)), delivery by cesarean section (AOR: 4.82, 95% CI (1.86, 12.54)), and delivery complication that occurred during birth (AOR: 2.58, 95% CI (1.56, 4.28)) were factors associated with postnatal care service utilization. Postnatal care service utilization was found to be low. Increasing awareness about postnatal care, preventing maternal and neonatal complication, and scheduling mothers based on the national postnatal care follow-up protocol would increase postnatal care service utilization.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Jun 2016 15:25:49 +000
- Determinants of Short Interbirth Interval among Reproductive Age Mothers
in Arba Minch District, Ethiopia
Abstract: Background. One of the key strategies to reduce fertility and promote the health status of mothers and their children is adhering to optimal birth spacing. However, women still have shorter birth intervals and studies addressing their determinants were scarce. The objective of this study, therefore, was to assess determinants of birth interval among women who had at least two consecutive live births. Methods. Case control study was conducted from February to April 2014. Cases were women with short birth intervals (
PubDate: Wed, 27 Apr 2016 08:56:10 +000
- Comparative Evaluation of the Impact of Subacute Exposure of Smokeless
Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke on Rat Testis
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of 30-day exposure to tobacco smoke (TS), smokeless tobacco (ST), and nicotine on reproductive parameters and oxidative biomarkers in prepubertal and adult male rats. Sperm motility was reduced by 77.5 and 89.0% in TS and ST exposed prepubertal rats and 71.1 and 86.4% in adult rats, respectively. Sperm count was also reduced by 64.7 and 89.9% in prepubertal rats and 64.9 and 47.0% in adult rats, respectively. Nicotine decreased sperm motility (82.2%) and count (62.6%) in prepubertal rats but caused no effect in adult rats. There were no changes in sperm morphology; testosterone was decreased, while LH and FSH were increased in exposed rats, when compared with control. Malondialdehyde levels in testes of exposed rats were increased, and GSH, SOD, and catalase were altered. Results indicate that subacute exposure of tobacco products alters sperm characteristics in a rank order of ST > TS > nicotine, which may be linked to increase in oxidative stress in the testis.
PubDate: Sun, 08 Nov 2015 11:16:24 +000
- Women’s Satisfaction of Maternity Care in Nepal and Its Correlation with
Intended Future Utilization
Abstract: The impact of rapid increase in institutional birth rate in Nepal on women’s satisfaction and planned future utilization of services is less well known. This study aimed to measure women’s satisfaction with maternity care and its correlation with intended future utilisation. Data came from a nationally representative facility-based survey conducted across 13 districts in Nepal and included client exit interviews with 447 women who had either recently delivered or had experienced complications. An eight-item quality of care instrument was used to measure client satisfaction. Multivariate probit model was used to assess the attribution of different elements of client satisfaction with intended future utilization of services. Respondents were most likely to suggest maintaining clean/hygienic health facilities (42%), increased bed provision (26%), free services (24%), more helpful behaviour by health workers (18%), and better privacy (9%). Satisfaction with the information received showed a strong correlation with the politeness of staff, involvement in decision making, and overall satisfaction with the care received. Satisfaction with waiting time (p = 0.035), information received (p = 0.02), and overall care in the maternity care (
PubDate: Sun, 08 Nov 2015 07:09:30 +000
- The Effects of Interpregnancy Intervals and Previous Pregnancy Outcome on
Fetal Loss in Rwanda (1996–2010)
Abstract: In 2005, a WHO consultation meeting on pregnancy intervals recommended a minimum interval of 6 months after a pregnancy disruption and an interval of two years after a live birth before attempting another pregnancy. Since then, studies have found contradictory evidence on the effect of shorter intervals after a pregnancy disruption. A binary regression analysis on 21532 last pregnancy outcomes from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys was done to assess the combined effects of the preceding pregnancy outcome and the interpregnancy intervals (IPIs) on fetal mortality in Rwanda. Risks of pregnancy loss are higher for primigravida and for mothers who lost the previous pregnancy and conceived again within 24 months. After a live birth, interpregnancy intervals less than two years do not increase the risk of a pregnancy loss. This study also confirms higher risks of fetal death when IPIs are beyond 5 years. An IPI of longer than 12 months after a fetal death is recommended in Rwanda. Particular attention needs to be directed to postpregnancy abortion care and family planning programs geared to spacing pregnancies should also include spacing after a fetal death.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Nov 2015 06:37:42 +000
- Determinants of Method Switching among Social Franchise Clients Who
Discontinued the Use of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device
Abstract: Introduction. Women who do not switch to alternate methods after contraceptive discontinuation, for reasons other than the desire to get pregnant or not needing it, are at obvious risk for unplanned pregnancies or unwanted births. This paper examines the factors that influence women to switch from Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) to other methods instead of terminating contraceptive usage altogether. Methods. The data used for this study comes from a larger cross-sectional survey conducted in nine (9) randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, during January 2011. Using Stata 11.2, we analyzed data on 333 women, who reported the removal of IUCDs due to reasons other than the desire to get pregnant. Results. We found that 39.9% of the women do not switch to another method of contraception within one month after IUCD discontinuation. Use of contraception before IUCD insertion increases the odds for method switching by 2.26 times after removal. Similarly, postremoval follow-up by community health worker doubles (OR = 2.0) the chances of method switching. Compared with women who received free IUCD service (via voucher scheme), the method switching is 2.01 times higher among women who had paid for IUCD insertion. Conclusion. To increase the likelihood of method switching among IUCD discontinuers this study emphasizes the need for postremoval client counseling, follow-up by healthcare provider, improved choices to a wider range of contraceptives for poor clients, and user satisfaction.
PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2015 14:18:00 +000
- Foley Catheter versus Vaginal Misoprostol for Labour Induction
Abstract: Objectives. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. Material and Methods. One hundred and four women with term gestation, with Bishop score < 4, and with various indications for labour induction were randomly divided into two groups. In Group I, 25 μg of misoprostol tablet was placed intravaginally, 4 hourly up to maximum 6 doses. In Group II, Foley catheter 16F was placed through the internal os of the cervix under aseptic condition and then inflated with 50 cc of sterile saline. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results. The induction to delivery interval was 14.03 ± 7.61 hours versus 18.40 ± 8.02 hours (). The rate of vaginal delivery was 76.7% versus 56.8% in misoprostol and transcervical Foley catheter group, respectively. Uterine hyperstimulation was more common with misoprostol. Neonatal outcome was similar in both the groups. Conclusion. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley’s catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. Transcervical Foley catheter is associated with a lower incidence of uterine hyperstimulation during labour.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Oct 2015 16:32:52 +000
- Normal Pregnancy Is Associated with Changes in Central Hemodynamics and
Enhanced Recruitable, but Not Resting, Endothelial Function
Abstract: Introduction. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and reactive hyperemia-related changes in carotid-to-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr%) could offer complementary information about both “recruitability” and “resting” endothelial function (EF). Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and pulse wave analysis-derived parameters (i.e., AIx@75) are the gold standard methods for noninvasive evaluation of aortic stiffness and central hemodynamics. If healthy pregnancy is associated with both changes in resting and recruitable EF, as well as in several arterial parameters, it remains unknown and/or controversial. Objectives. To simultaneously and noninvasively assess in healthy pregnant (HP) and nonpregnant (NP) women central parameters in conjunction with “basal and recruitable” EF, employing new complementary approaches. Methods. HP (, 34.2 ± 3.3 weeks of gestation) and age- and cardiovascular risk factors-matched NP () were included. Aortic blood pressure (BP), AIx@75, PWVcf, common carotid stiffness, and intima-media thickness, as well as FMD, L-FMC, and ΔPWVcr %, were measured. Results. Aortic BP, stiffness, and AIx@75 were reduced in HP. ΔPWVcr% and FMD were enhanced in HP in comparison to NP. No differences were found in L-FMC between groups. Conclusion. HP is associated with reduced aortic stiffness, central BP, wave reflections, and enhanced recruitable, but not resting, EF.
PubDate: Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:36:12 +000
- Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Married Men and
Women in Rural Areas of Pakistan: Findings from a Qualitative Need
Abstract: This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws’ disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals.
PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:35:27 +000
- Sexual and Reproductive Health: Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions among
Young Unmarried Male Residents of Delhi
Abstract: Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years). Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban) across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners.
PubDate: Thu, 06 Aug 2015 11:35:41 +000
- Selenium Attenuates HPV-18 Associated Apoptosis in Embryo-Derived
Trophoblastic Cells but Not Inner Cell Mass In Vitro
Abstract: Objectives. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with cell cycle arrest. This study focused on antioxidant selenomethionine (SeMet) inhibition of HPV-mediated necrosis. The objectives were to determine HPV-18 effects on embryonic cells and to evaluate SeMet in blocking HPV-18 effects. Methods. Fertilized mouse embryos were cultured for 5 days to implanted trophoblasts and exposed to either control medium (group 1), HPV-18 (group 2), combined HPV-18 and 0.5 µM SeMet (group 3), or combined HPV-18 and 5.0 µM SeMet (group 4). After 48 hrs, trophoblast integrity and, apoptosis/necrosis were assessed using morphometric and dual-stain fluorescence assays, respectively. Results. HPV-18 exposed trophoblasts nuclei (253.8 ± 28.5 sq·µ) were 29% smaller than controls (355.6 ± 35.9 sq·µ). Supplementation with 0.5 and 5.0 µM SeMet prevented nuclear shrinkage after HPV-18 exposure. HPV-18 infected trophoblasts remained larger with SeMet supplementation. HPV-18 decreased cell viability by 44% but SeMet supplementation sustained cell viability. Apoptosis was lower when SeMet was present. HPV-18 decreased inner cell mass (ICM) viability by over 60%. Conclusions. HPV-18 decreased nuclear size and trophoblast viability but these effects were attenuated by the antioxidant SeMet. SeMet blocked HPV-18 associated apoptosis process in trophoblasts but not ICM cells suggesting involvement of different oxidative stress pathways.
PubDate: Tue, 04 Aug 2015 12:04:02 +000
- Incidence and Correlates of Maternal Near Miss in Southeast Iran
Abstract: This prospective study aimed to estimate the incidence and associated factors of severe maternal morbidity in southeast Iran. During a 9-month period in 2013, all women referring to eight hospitals for termination of pregnancy as well as women admitted during 42 days after the termination of pregnancy were enrolled into the study. Maternal near miss conditions were defined based on Say et al.’s recommendations. Five hundred and one cases of maternal near miss and 19,908 live births occurred in the study period, yielding a maternal near miss ratio of 25.2 per 1000 live births. This rate was 7.5 and 105 per 1000 in private and tertiary care settings, respectively. The rate of maternal death in near miss cases was 0.40% with a case:fatality ratio of 250 : 1. The most prevalent causes of near miss were severe preeclampsia (27.3%), ectopic pregnancy (18.4%), and abruptio placentae (16.2%). Higher age, higher education, and being primiparous were associated with a higher risk of near miss. Considering the high rate of maternal near miss in referral hospitals, maternal near miss surveillance system should be set up in these hospitals to identify cases of severe maternal morbidity as soon as possible.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Feb 2015 12:19:38 +000
- Predictive Value of Middle Cerebral Artery to Uterine Artery Pulsatility
Index Ratio in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy
Abstract: Aims and Objectives. (i) To determine the predictive value of cerebrouterine (CU) ratio (middle cerebral artery to uterine artery pulsatility index, MCA/UT PI) in assessing perinatal outcome among hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. (ii) To compare between CU ratio and CP ratio (MCA/Umbilical artery PI) as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. Methods. A prospective observational study was done in a tertiary medical college hospital, from September 2012 to August 2013. One hundred singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertension peculiar to pregnancy were enrolled. Both CU and CP ratios were estimated. The perinatal outcomes were studied. Results. Both cerebrouterine and cerebroplacental ratios had a better negative predictive value in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. However, both CU and CP ratios when applied together were able to predict adverse outcomes better than individual ratios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive values for an adverse neonatal outcome with CU ratio were 61.3%, 70.3%, 56%, and 78.9%, respectively, compared to 42%, 57.5%, 62%, and 76% as with CP ratio. Conclusion. Cerebrouterine ratio and cerebroplacental ratio were complementary to each other in predicting the adverse perinatal outcomes. Individually, both ratios were reassuring for favorable perinatal outcome with high negative predictive value.
PubDate: Sun, 01 Feb 2015 11:23:57 +000
- A Comparative Study of Prevalence of RTI/STI Symptoms and Treatment
Seeking Behaviour among the Married Women in Urban and Rural Areas of
Abstract: Background. In developing countries, women are at high risk for several reproductive health problems especially RTI/STIs. Since all RTIs/ STIs are preventable and most of them are curable, it is pertinent to study the determinants of the health seeking behaviour. Objectives. To compare the prevalence and treatment seeking behaviour about RTI/STI symptoms among the married women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) living in urban and rural area of Delhi. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done among the married women of reproductive age group residing in Pooth Khurd, a village in North West district of Delhi, and Delhi Gate, an urban locality situated in central Delhi. Results. In this study, the prevalence of RTI/STI symptoms was found to be similar in both urban (42.3%) and rural area (42%). In urban area, 73% sought treatment, while in rural area only 45.6% sought treatment. Prevalence of the symptoms was found to be higher among the study subjects who were not using any contraceptive method, had history of abortion, and were with lower educational status, in both urban and rural areas. Treatment seeking behaviour was significantly higher among the educated women, contraceptive users, and older age group women in both rural and urban area.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Jan 2015 09:33:35 +000
- The Role of Metformin in Metabolic Disturbances during Pregnancy:
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract: Maintenance of gestation implicates complex function of multiple endocrine mechanisms, and disruptions of the global metabolic environment prompt profound consequences on fetomaternal well-being during pregnancy and postpartum. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are very frequent conditions which increase risk for pregnancy complications, including early pregnancy loss, pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders, and preterm labor, among many others. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both PCOS and GDM, representing an important therapeutic target, with metformin being the most widely prescribed insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic drug. Although traditional views neglect use of oral antidiabetic agents during pregnancy, increasing evidence of safety during gestation has led to metformin now being recognized as a valuable tool in prevention of IR-related pregnancy complications and management of GDM. Metformin has been demonstrated to reduce rates of early pregnancy loss and onset of GDM in women with PCOS, and it appears to offer better metabolic control than insulin and other oral antidiabetic drugs during pregnancy. This review aims to summarize key aspects of current evidence concerning molecular and epidemiological knowledge on metformin use during pregnancy in the setting of PCOS and GDM.
PubDate: Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:17:44 +000
- Impact of Exogenous Gonadotropin Stimulation on Circulatory and Follicular
Fluid Cytokine Profiles
Abstract: Background. The natural cycle is the prototype to which we aspire to emulate in assisted reproduction techniques. Increasing evidence is emerging that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with exogenous gonadotropins may be detrimental to oogenesis, embryo quality, and endometrial receptivity. This research aimed at assessing the impact of COH on the intrafollicular milieu by comparing follicular fluid (FF) cytokine profiles during stimulated in vitro fertilization (IVF) and modified natural cycle (MNC) IVF. Methods. Ten women undergoing COH IVF and 10 matched women undergoing MNC IVF were recruited for this pilot study. 40 FF cytokine concentrations from individual follicles and plasma were measured by fluid-phase multiplex immunoassay. Demographic/cycle/cytokine data were compared and correlations between cytokines were computed. Results. No significant differences were found between COH and MNC groups for patient and cycle demographics, including outcome. Overall mean FF cytokine levels were higher in the MNC group for 29/40 cytokines, significantly so for leukaemia inhibitory factor and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Furthermore, FF MNC cytokine correlations were significantly stronger than for COH data. Conclusions. These findings suggest that COH perturbs intrafollicular cytokine networks, in terms of both cytokine levels and their interrelationships. This may impact oocyte maturation/fertilization and embryo developmental competence.
PubDate: Sun, 30 Nov 2014 07:09:24 +000
- Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy with Prior Uterine Artery Ligation at Its
Abstract: We compared the duration of surgery, blood loss, and complications between patients in whom both uterine arteries were ligated at the beginning of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and patients in whom ligation was done after cornual pedicle. Using a prospective study in a gynecologic laparoscopic center, a total of 52 women who underwent TLH from June 2013 to January 2014 were assigned into two groups. In group A, uterine arteries were ligated after the cornual pedicles as done conventionally. In group B, TLH was done by ligating both uterine arteries at the beginning of the procedure. All the other pedicles were desiccated using harmonic scalpel or bipolar diathermy. Uterus with cervix was removed vaginally or by morcellation. The indication for TLH was predominantly dysfunctional uterine bleeding and myomas in both groups. In group A, the average duration of surgery was 71 minutes, when compared to 60 minutes in group B . In group A, the total blood loss was 70 mL, when compared to 43#x2009;mL in group B (P value < 0.001). There were no major complications in both groups. To conclude, prior uterine artery ligation at its origin during TLH reduces the blood loss and surgical duration as well as the complications during surgery.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +000
- Comparison of IVF Outcomes between Minimal Stimulation and High-Dose
Stimulation for Patients with Poor Ovarian Reserve
Abstract: We examined whether treatment with minimum-dose stimulation (MS) protocol enhances clinical pregnancy rates compared to high-dose stimulation (HS) protocol. A retrospective cohort study was performed comparing IVF and pregnancy outcomes between MS and HS gonadotropin-antagonist protocol for patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR). Inclusion criteria included patients with an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) ≤8 pmol/L and/or antral follicle count (AFC) ≤5 on days 2-3 of the cycle. Patients from 2008 exclusively had a HS protocol treatment, while patients in 2010 had treatment with a MS protocol exclusively. The MS protocol involved letrozole at 2.5 mg over 5 days, starting from day 2, overlapping with gonadotropins, starting from the third day of letrozole at 150 units daily. GnRH antagonist was introduced once one or more follicles reached 14 mm or larger. The HS group received gonadotropins (≥300 IU/day) throughout their antagonist cycle. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the MS protocol compared to the HS protocol (). Furthermore, the live birth rate was significantly higher in the MS group compare to the HS group (). In conclusion, the MS IVF protocol is less expensive (lower gonadotropin dosage) and resulted in a higher clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate than a HS protocol for poor responders.
PubDate: Wed, 01 Oct 2014 11:02:46 +000