Analytical Cellular Pathology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2210-7177 - ISSN (Online) 2210-7185
Published by Hindawi [334 journals]
- Effects of Acute Toluene Toxicity on Different Regions of Rabbit Brain
Abstract: The acute phase effects of toluene on the brain have been investigated in this study using rabbit brain via histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical methods. A total of 20 male rabbits were used as control and experimental groups. Moreover, nerve growth factor (NGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), dopamine (DA), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) tests were performed in order to designate the severity of the biochemical damage. In the biochemical evaluation of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, substantia nigra, and entorhinal cortex, the TNF-alpha levels in the brain were found to be significantly higher than in the control group. Levels of dopamine, secreted from the substantia nigra, nerve growth factor (NGF) developed from the hippocampal neurons, and GFAP, secreted from astrocyte cells, were detected to be significantly lower in the toluene-administration group than in the control group (). In addition, areas of focal vacuolar degeneration (abscess formation), gliosis, and perivascular demyelination, many pyknotic cells and necrosis were observed. In the toluene-administration group compared to the control group, distinct excessive expansions of the blood vessels and severe degeneration in the structure of cells and also dispersed cell borders were observed. Furthermore, abnormal malformations of the nuclei structure of the oligodendrocyte cells were seen. Bodies of the sequential neurons of the hippocampus in the toluene-administration group were distinctly structurally damaged compared to the control group. In addition, cytoplasm of the cortex cell showed serious immune reactivity in the experimental group.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Corrigendum to “A Simple Method to Assess In Vivo Proliferation in Lung
Vasculature with EdU: The Case of MMC-Induced PVOD in Rat”
PubDate: Mon, 06 Feb 2017 06:42:24 +000
- Cell Therapies in Cardiomyopathy: Current Status of Clinical Trials
Abstract: Because the human heart has limited potential for regeneration, the loss of cardiomyocytes during cardiac myopathy and ischaemic injury can result in heart failure and death. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for the treatment of dead myocardium, directly or indirectly, and seems to offer functional benefits to patients. The ideal candidate donor cell for myocardial reconstitution is a stem-like cell that can be easily obtained, has a robust proliferation capacity and a low risk of tumour formation and immune rejection, differentiates into functionally normal cardiomyocytes, and is suitable for minimally invasive clinical transplantation. The ultimate goal of cardiac repair is to regenerate functionally viable myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI) to prevent or heal heart failure. This review provides a comprehensive overview of treatment with stem-like cells in preclinical and clinical studies to assess the feasibility and efficacy of this novel therapeutic strategy in ischaemic cardiomyopathy.
PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 10:10:44 +000
- Texture Analysis of Abnormal Cell Images for Predicting the Continuum of
Abstract: Abnormal cell (ABC) is a markedly heterogeneous tissue area and can be categorized into three main types: benign hyperplasia (BH), carcinoma (Ca), and intraepithelial neoplasia (IN) or precursor cancerous lesion. In this study, the goal is to determine and characterize the continuum of colorectal cancer by using a 3D-texture approach. ABC was segmented in preprocessing step using an active contour segmentation technique. Cell types were analyzed based on textural features extracted from the gray level cooccurrence matrices (GLCMs). Significant texture features were selected using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) of ABC with a value cutoff of . Features selected were reduced with a principal component analysis (PCA), which accounted for 97% of the cumulative variance from significant features. The simulation results identified 158 significant features based on ANOVA from a total of 624 texture features extracted from GLCMs. Performance metrics of ABC discrimination based on significant texture features showed 92.59% classification accuracy, 100% sensitivity, and 94.44% specificity. These findings suggest that texture features extracted from GLCMs are sensitive enough to discriminate between the ABC types and offer the opportunity to predict cell characteristics of colorectal cancer.
PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Long Noncoding RNA MIR4697HG Promotes Cell Growth and Metastasis in Human
Abstract: Ovarian cancer is one of the three most common gynecological malignant tumors worldwide. The prognosis of patients suffering from this malignancy remains poor because of limited therapeutic strategies. Herein, we investigated the role of a long noncoding RNA named MIR4697 host gene (MIR4697HG) in the cell growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer. Results showed that the transcriptional level of MIR4697HG in cancerous tissues increased twofold compared with that in adjacent noncancerous tissues. MIR4697HG was differentially expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, with the highest levels in OVCAR3 and SKOV3 cells. MIR4697HG knockdown by specific shRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in both OVCAR3 and SKOC3 cells. Consistently, in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer, MIR4697HG depletion also significantly restricted tumor volumes and weights. Furthermore, MIR4697HG knockdown inhibited cell migration and invasion capacities. Invasion ability was inhibited by 58% in SKOV3 cells and 40% in OVCAR3 cells, and migration ability was inhibited by 73% in SKOV3 cells and 62% in OVCAR3 cells after MIR4697HG knockdown. MIR4697HG knockdown also caused a decrease in matrix metalloprotease-9, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated AKT. These data suggested that MIR4697HG promoted ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. The aggressive role of MIR4697HG in ovarian cancer may be related to the ERK and AKT signaling pathways.
PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- PECAM-1 Leu125Val (rs688) Polymorphism and Diabetic Nephropathy in
Caucasians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract: Objectives. Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) plays a key role in the transendothelial migration of circulating leukocytes during inflammation and in the maintenance of vascular endothelial integrity. We hypothesized that genetic variation in PECAM-1 gene could be associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and with the level of soluble PECAM-1 in Caucasians with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design and Methods. We analyzed the rs688 single nucleotide polymorphism of PECAM-1 gene C373G (Leu125Val) at exon 3, which encodes the first extracellular Ig-like domain that mediates the homophilic binding of PECAM-1, in 276 T2DM subjects with documented DN (cases) and 375 T2DM subjects without DN (controls), using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) strategy. Level of plasma soluble PECAM-1 (sPECAM-1) was measured by ELISA in a subpopulation of 120 diabetics with DN. Results. We found no association between the Leu125Val polymorphism and DN in subjects with T2DM. Likewise, the Leu125Val polymorphism was not associated with serum sPECAM-1 levels in a subpopulation of 120 diabetics with DN. Conclusion. The Leu125Val polymorphism of PECAM-1 and the level of sPECAM-1 are not associated with DN in T2DM subjects of Slovenian origin.
PubDate: Wed, 28 Dec 2016 13:42:12 +000
- Correlation of Serum Cystatin C with Glomerular Filtration Rate in
Patients Receiving Platinum-Based Chemotherapy
Abstract: Objectives. Serum cystatin C seems to be an accurate marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to serum creatinine. The aim of this work was to explore the possibility of using serum cystatin C instead of serum creatinine to early predict renal failure in cancer patients who received platinum based chemotherapy. Design and Methods. Serum creatinine, serum cystatin C concentrations, and GFR were determined simultaneously in 52 cancer patients received carboplatin-based or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Serum creatinine was assayed on Cobas C6000-Roche, serum cystatin C assay was performed on AIA 360-Tosoh, and GFR was determined in all patients, before the first cycle of chemotherapy and before the subsequent administrations. Results. In the overall series, for the prediction of a fall of GFR < 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of the ROC curve for cystatin C was 0,667 and the best threshold was 1.135 mg/L (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 61.1%). For a GFR fall < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the AUC of ROC curve for cystatin C was 74.3% and the best threshold was 1.415 mg/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 73.2%). Conclusions. Baseline cystatin C values were not able to predict renal failure during subsequent treatment. In conclusion, serum cystatin C is not a reliable early marker to efficiently predict renal failure in patients receiving chemotherapy.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 10:59:52 +000
- In Vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Ability and Cytotoxicity on Two
Melanoma Cell Lines of a Benzylamide Derivative of Maslinic Acid
Abstract: Maslinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from olives that has been systematically reported to exert several therapeutic effects, such as antitumoral, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, and antiviral properties. Recently, new derivatives of maslinic acid have been obtained and expanded the spectrum of biological activities and improved the existing ones. The present study was meant to perform the in vitro assessment of the (i) cytotoxic effects of a benzylamide derivative of maslinic acid (“EM2”) (benzyl (2α, 3β) 2,3-diacetoxy-olean-12-en-28-amide) on B164A5 murine melanoma and A375 human malignant melanoma cell lines and the (ii) antimicrobial activity of the compound on several bacterial strains, respectively. We obtained a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect of EM2 that was particularly relevant to the murine cell line. As on the antibacterial activity, EM2 was tested on 10 bacterial strains Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one fungus Candida albicans. A significant antimicrobial effect was recorded for Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.
PubDate: Mon, 05 Dec 2016 09:58:48 +000
- Annexin A3 Knockdown Suppresses Lung Adenocarcinoma
Abstract: Our previous study identified an elevated abundance of annexin A3 (Anxa3) as a novel prognostic biomarker of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) through quantitative proteomics analysis. However, the biological functions of Anxa3 in LADC are not fully clear. In this study, in vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the effects of Anxa3 downregulation on the growth, migration, invasion, metastasis, and signaling pathway activation of LADC cells. After Anxa3 downregulation, the growth of A549 and LTEP-a2 LADC cells was slowed and they showed decreased migration and invasion in vitro. Anxa3 knockdown significantly inhibited tumor formation by A549 cells in vivo; while many metastases were formed by control A549 cells, there were obvious reductions in the numbers of lung, liver, and brain metastases formed by Anxa3 knockdown in A549 cells. Furthermore, Anxa3 knockdown significantly decreased MMP-2 and N-cadherin expression and increased E-cadherin expression both in cell lines in vitro and in tumor nodules examined during in vivo tumorigenesis assays. Interestingly, Anxa3 downregulation reduced the phosphorylated levels of MEK and ERK. In summary, Anxa3 knockdown inhibited the growth, migration, invasion, and metastasis of LADC, decreased the activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway, and modulated the expression of MMP-2, E-cadherin, and N-cadherin.
PubDate: Tue, 22 Nov 2016 13:45:28 +000
- In Vivo Flow Cytometry of Circulating Tumor-Associated Exosomes
Abstract: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) demonstrated the potential as prognostic markers of metastatic development. However, the incurable metastasis can already be developed at the time of initial diagnosis with the existing CTC assays. Alternatively, tumor-associated particles (CTPs) including exosomes can be a more valuable prognostic marker because they can be released from the primary tumor long before CTCs and in larger amount. However, little progress has been made in high sensitivity detection of CTPs, especially in vivo. We show here that in vivo integrated photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence flow cytometry (PAFFC) platform can provide the detection of melanoma and breast-cancer-associated single CTPs with endogenously expressed melanin and genetically engineered proteins or exogenous dyes as PA and fluorescent contrast agents. The two-beam, time-of-light PAFFC can measure the sizes of CTCs and CTPs and identify bulk and rolling CTCs and CTC clusters, with no influence on blood flow instability. This technique revealed a higher concentration of CTPs than CTCs at an early cancer stage. Because a single tumor cell can release many CTPs and in vivo PAFFC can examine the whole blood volume, PAFFC diagnostic platform has the potential to dramatically improve (up to 105-fold) the sensitivity of cancer diagnosis.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2016 14:07:45 +000
- Mast Cell Interaction with Neutrophils in Human Gastric Carcinomas:
Abstract: Aim. The role of mast cells in cell-cell immune interactions has received increasing attention, although their functional interaction with neutrophils still remains to be clarified in tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between mast cells and neutrophils in a series of gastric carcinomas (GC). Patients and Methods. 52 surgically resected GC specimens were routinely processed for both light and electron microscopy. Only cases showing both mast cells and neutrophils in the tumor stroma were considered in the analysis. Results. Only 9 GC (M : F = 5 : 4; age range: 50–82 years) showed both mast cells and neutrophils in the tumor stroma. At ultrathin sections, we identified heterotypic aggregation and intermingling of mast cells and neutrophils. Mast cells had mature phenotype and showed full complement of granules with homogeneous, scroll, particle, and mixed pattern. In addition, we found normal-appearing or early apoptosis showing neutrophils. Conclusion. Our histological findings showed the likely interaction between mast cells and neutrophils in GC. We hypothesize that the granular content of mast cells may be released in small quantity through a mechanism called “kiss-and-run fusion,” which is alternative to well-known massive anaphylactic or piecemeal degranulation.
PubDate: Wed, 02 Nov 2016 08:00:55 +000
- Comparison between Manual and Automated Methods for Ki-67 Immunoexpression
Quantification in Ameloblastomas
Abstract: Ameloblastoma is a common and unpredictable odontogenic tumor with high relapse rates. Several studies assessing the proliferative capacity of these neoplasms have been published, mainly using the protein Ki-67. Cell counts must be completed to determine the cell proliferation rate. Multiple methods have been developed for this purpose. The most widely used method is the labeling index, which has undergone changes over time to better facilitate cell counting. Here, we compared manual cell counting methods with automated cell counting (ImmunoRatio) to determine the relative effectiveness of these methods. The results suggest that ImmunoRatio, a free software tool, may be highly advantageous and provide results similar to manual cell counting methods when used with the appropriate calibration. However, ImmunoRatio has flaws that may affect the labeling index results. Therefore, this automated cell counting method must be supplemented with manual cell counting methods.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Oct 2016 09:07:23 +000
- Intraperitoneal Fat through GRP78: A Risk Factor for Endometrial Cancer
Abstract: Introduction. The identification of biological markers that indicate an increased risk for the development or recurrence of endometrial cancer (EC) in obese women might be useful for decreasing EC mortality and morbidity. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a major protein of the endoplasmic reticulum expressed in all normal cells. Overexpression of GRP78 has been reported to be a tumoral biomarker. Increased detection of GRP78 is positively correlated with the tumoral stage and prognosis. This study aimed to identify a correlation between intraperitoneal fat, plasma GRP78 levels, and EC. Materials and Methods. Two groups of patients were included in the study: group I, 44 patients diagnosed with EC, and group II, 44 patients without gynecological pathology or inflammatory disorders. Visceral fat was determined by ultrasound and plasma GRP78 levels were measured. Results. Plasma GRP78 levels were significantly higher in patients with EC compared to the control group. Intraperitoneal fat was in a positive linear correlation with the plasma GRP78 level (). Conclusion. The measurement of the GRP78 level associated with the determination of intraperitoneal fat can be a useful predictor for EC.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Oct 2016 09:03:28 +000
- VEGF +936 C/T Genetic Polymorphism in Patients with Cervical Dysplasia
Abstract: Aim. The present study aims to analyze the potential role of VEGF +936 C/T polymorphism in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Material and Method. One hundred and eighty-six patients were included in the study: 75 cases (patients diagnosed with CIN) and 111 controls (negative for both HPV testing and cytology). For each patient a single visit was scheduled when colposcopy was performed. From cervical specimen, cytology and HPV testing were performed and from peripheral blood VEGF +936 genotyping was determined. For statistical analysis purposes OR and chi-square were used at a level of significance of
PubDate: Wed, 12 Oct 2016 14:20:28 +000
- Tumor Associated Macrophages in Kidney Cancer
Abstract: Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are an important element of tumor stroma. They originate from blood monocytes attracted by chemokines and cytokines produced by tumor cells and, being instructed by tumor microenvironment, develop into potent tumor-supporting cell population. TAMs were demonstrated to directly stimulate tumor cell proliferation and to promote angiogenesis. Further TAMs provide for efficient immune escape by producing immunosuppressive cytokines and facilitate tumor dissemination by producing extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), numerous studies were performed for elucidation of the role of TAM in tumor progression. Using pan-macrophages marker CD68 and type 2 macrophage (M2) markers CD163 and CD206, it was demonstrated that increased density of TAMs is associated with poor survival of patients. Although most of the studies are focused on M2 population in RCC, several markers rather typical for type 1 macrophages (M1) were also characterized. Macrophages isolated from RCC tumors were shown to produce proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-, IL-6, and CCL2. It can be concluded that RCC is an excellent example of a tumor with hybrid phenotype of TAMs that share both M1 and M2 properties. Moreover, TAMs seem to be an attractive therapeutic target as well. Further investigations are needed for identification of RCC-specific TAM markers with high predictive capacity and/or suitable for therapeutic targeting.
PubDate: Tue, 11 Oct 2016 11:03:41 +000
- Image Montaging for Creating a Virtual Pathology Slide: An Innovative and
Economical Tool to Obtain a Whole Slide Image
Abstract: Background. Microscopes are omnipresent throughout the field of biological research. With microscopes one can see in detail what is going on at the cellular level in tissues. Though it is a ubiquitous tool, the limitation is that with high magnification there is a small field of view. It is often advantageous to see an entire sample at high magnification. Over the years technological advancements in optics have helped to provide solutions to this limitation of microscopes by creating the so-called dedicated “slide scanners” which can provide a “whole slide digital image.” These scanners can provide seamless, large-field-of-view, high resolution image of entire tissue section. The only disadvantage of such complete slide imaging system is its outrageous cost, thereby hindering their practical use by most laboratories, especially in developing and low resource countries. Methods. In a quest for their substitute, we tried commonly used image editing software Adobe Photoshop along with a basic image capturing device attached to a trinocular microscope to create a digital pathology slide. Results. The seamless image created using Adobe Photoshop maintained its diagnostic quality. Conclusion. With time and effort photomicrographs obtained from a basic camera-microscope set up can be combined and merged in Adobe Photoshop to create a whole slide digital image of practically usable quality at a negligible cost.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:40:50 +000
- Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry for Single Sickle Cell Detection In Vitro and
Abstract: Control of sickle cell disease (SCD) stage and treatment efficiency are still time-consuming which makes well-timed prevention of SCD crisis difficult. We show here that in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC) has a potential for real-time monitoring of circulating sickle cells in mouse model. In vivo data were verified by in vitro PAFC and photothermal (PT) and PA spectral imaging of sickle red blood cells (sRBCs) expressing SCD-associated hemoglobin (HbS) compared to normal red blood cells (nRBCs). We discovered that PT and PA signal amplitudes from sRBCs in linear mode were 2–4-fold lower than those from nRBCs. PT and PA imaging revealed more profound spatial Hb heterogeneity in sRBCs than in nRBCs, which can be associated with the presence of HbS clusters with high local absorption. This hypothesis was confirmed in nonlinear mode through nanobubble formation around overheated HbS clusters accompanied by spatially selective signal amplification. More profound differences in absorption of sRBCs than in nRBCs led to notable increase in PA signal fluctuation (fluctuation PAFC mode) as an indicator of SCD. The obtained data suggest that noninvasive label-free fluctuation PAFC has a potential for real-time enumeration of sRBCs in vitro and in vivo.
PubDate: Thu, 01 Sep 2016 11:02:35 +000
- Predictive and Prognostic Value of sPRR in Patients with Primary
Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Abstract: Aim. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the predictive and prognostic role of soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) as a biomarker for clinicopathological outcome in patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). As part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) whose activity is known to increase in ovarian cancer patients, the relation of sPRR and ovarian cancer should be further investigated. Patients and Methods. In this study 197 patients with primary EOC in our institution from 2000 to 2011 were included. sPRR was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in preoperative taken blood sera. Associations with clinicopathological outcome were analyzed and serum levels of sPRR in patients have been compared to those in healthy specimen. Kaplan-Meier and logistic/Cox regression assessed the impact of the markers on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results. There have been no correlations proved of sPRR levels with neither clinicopathological factors nor prognostic data. Also the distribution of sPRR in patients and controls was normal. Conclusion. sPRR seems to have no predictive, prognostic, or diagnostic value in EOC. As several factors of the RAS which might indicate cancer events have been shown, sPRR seems not to be affected.
PubDate: Wed, 31 Aug 2016 13:39:07 +000
- Phenotypic and Cytogenetic Characterization of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
in De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Abstract: Bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are vital in hematopoiesis. Whether BM-MSCs alter their characteristics in Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) is still controversial. We characterized MSCs of de novo MDS patients in Sri Lanka who have not been reported previously in the literature. We also analyzed MSCs derived from different MDS subtypes. MSCs were culture-expanded, characterized by flow cytometry, and induced towards osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Growth properties were determined using growth curves and population doubling times. Karyotyping and FISH were performed on MSCs. Cell morphology, differentiation potential, and CD marker expression of MDS-MSCs of all subtypes were comparable to those of control-MSCs. No significant growth differences were observed between control MSCs and MDS-MSCs of all subtypes (). 31% of MDS-MSCs had chromosomal aberrations (der(3),del(6q),del(7p), loss of chromosomes) whose BM karyotypes were normal. Highest percentage of karyotypic abnormalities was observed in RCMD-MSCs. Patients with abnormal BM karyotypes had no aberrant MSC clones. Results show that in spite of presence of genetically abnormal clones in MDS-MSC populations, in vitro phenotypic and growth characteristics of MSCs in MDS remain unchanged. Further, the occurrence of genetic abnormalities in BM-MSCs in MDS could be considered as an autonomous event from that of their hematopoietic counterparts.
PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2016 12:00:41 +000
- Single-Cell Sequencing Technology in Oncology: Applications for Clinical
Therapies and Research
Abstract: Cellular heterogeneity is a fundamental characteristic of many cancers. A lack of cellular homogeneity contributes to difficulty in designing targeted oncological therapies. Therefore, the development of novel methods to determine and characterize oncologic cellular heterogeneity is a critical next step in the development of novel cancer therapies. Single-cell sequencing (SCS) technology has been recently employed for analyzing the genetic polymorphisms of individual cells at the genome-wide level. SCS requires (1) precise isolation of the single cell of interest; (2) isolation and amplification of genetic material; and (3) descriptive analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic data. In addition to targeted analysis of single cells isolated from tumor biopsies, SCS technology may be applied to circulating tumor cells, which may aid in predicting tumor progression and metastasis. In this paper, we provide an overview of SCS technology and review the current literature on the potential application of SCS to clinical oncology and research.
PubDate: Wed, 25 May 2016 09:47:08 +000
- Automatic Detection of Cervical Cancer Cells by a Two-Level Cascade
Abstract: We proposed a method for automatic detection of cervical cancer cells in images captured from thin liquid based cytology slides. We selected 20,000 cells in images derived from 120 different thin liquid based cytology slides, which include 5000 epithelial cells (normal 2500, abnormal 2500), lymphoid cells, neutrophils, and junk cells. We first proposed 28 features, including 20 morphologic features and 8 texture features, based on the characteristics of each cell type. We then used a two-level cascade integration system of two classifiers to classify the cervical cells into normal and abnormal epithelial cells. The results showed that the recognition rates for abnormal cervical epithelial cells were 92.7% and 93.2%, respectively, when C4.5 classifier or LR (LR: logical regression) classifier was used individually; while the recognition rate was significantly higher (95.642%) when our two-level cascade integrated classifier system was used. The false negative rate and false positive rate (both 1.44%) of the proposed automatic two-level cascade classification system are also much lower than those of traditional Pap smear review.
PubDate: Thu, 19 May 2016 12:07:32 +000
- Cytomorphometric Characteristics of Buccal Mucosal Cells in
Behçet’s Disease Patients
Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to compare the cytomorphometric characteristics of the buccal cells of Behçet’s disease patients with those of healthy controls. Methods. This case-control study compared a group of 30 patients with Behçet’s disease with an age- and gender-matched control group of 30 healthy individuals. The buccal mucosal smears were stained using the Papanicolaou technique for cytomorphometric analyses. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas were evaluated using digital image analysis; the ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic areas and nuclear roundness are presented. Results. The nuclear and cytoplasmic areas of the BD patients’ cells were significantly smaller than those of the healthy controls’ cells, while the nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio and neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly between the groups. However, the nuclear area, cytoplasmic area, nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, and nuclear roundness factor were significantly higher in patients without aphthae. The neutrophil infiltration rate did not differ significantly in patients with or without aphthae. Conclusion. Behçet’s disease can produce cytomorphometric changes in buccal cells that are detectable by exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometric analysis techniques.
PubDate: Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:04:46 +000
- Evidence for Conversion of Methanol to Formaldehyde in Nonhuman Primate
Abstract: Many studies have reported that methanol toxicity to primates is mainly associated with its metabolites, formaldehyde (FA) and formic acid. While methanol metabolism and toxicology have been best studied in peripheral organs, little study has focused on the brain and no study has reported experimental evidence that demonstrates transformation of methanol into FA in the primate brain. In this study, three rhesus macaques were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of methanol to investigate whether a metabolic process of methanol to FA occurs in nonhuman primate brain. Levels of FA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were then assessed at different time points. A significant increase of FA levels was found at the 18th hour following a methanol injection. Moreover, the FA level returned to a normal physiological level at the 30th hour after the injection. These findings provide direct evidence that methanol is oxidized to FA in nonhuman primate brain and that a portion of the FA generated is released out of the brain cells. This study suggests that FA is produced from methanol metabolic processes in the nonhuman primate brain and that FA may play a significant role in methanol neurotoxicology.
PubDate: Tue, 15 Mar 2016 09:39:33 +000
- Role of Natural Radiosensitizers and Cancer Cell Radioresistance: An
Abstract: Cancer originates from genetic mutations accumulation. Cancer stem cells have been depicted as tumorigenic cells that can differentiate and self-renew. Cancer stem cells are thought to be resistant to conventional therapy like chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy damage carcinomic DNA cells. Because of the ability of cancer stem cells to self-renew and reproduce malignant tumors, they are the subject of intensive research. In this review, CSCs radioresistant mechanisms which include DNA damage response and natural radiosensitizers have been summed up. Reactive oxygen species play an important role in different physiological processes. ROS scavenging is responsible for regulation of reactive oxygen species generation. A researcher has proved that microRNAs regulate tumor radiation resistance. Ionizing radiation does not kill the cancer cells; rather, IR just slows down the signs and symptoms. Ionizing radiation damages DNA directly/indirectly. IR is given mostly in combination with other chemo/radiotherapies. We briefly described here the behavior of cancer stem cells and radioresistance therapies in cancer treatment. To overcome radioresistance in treatment of cancer, strategies like fractionation modification, treatment in combination, inflammation modification, and overcoming hypoxic tumor have been practiced. Natural radiosensitizers, for example, curcumin, genistein, and quercetin, are more beneficial than synthetic compounds.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Feb 2016 14:49:24 +000
- Hepatoma-Targeted Radionuclide Immune Albumin Nanospheres:
Abstract: An effective strategy has been developed for synthesis of radionuclide immune albumin nanospheres (131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs). In vitro as well as in vivo targeting of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs to AFP-positive hepatoma was examined. In cultured HepG2 cells, the uptake and retention rates of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were remarkably higher than those of 131I alone. As well, the uptake rate and retention ratios of 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs in AFP-positive HepG2 cells were also significantly higher than those in AFP-negative HEK293 cells. Compared to 131I alone, 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs were much more easily taken in and retained by hepatoma tissue, with a much higher T/NT. Due to good drug-loading, high encapsulation ratio, and highly selective affinity for AFP-positive tumors, the 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV-BSA-NPs are promising for further effective radiation-gene therapy of hepatoma.
PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2016 12:06:58 +000
- Transcription Factor HBP1 Enhances Radiosensitivity by Inducing Apoptosis
in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines
Abstract: Radiotherapy for prostate cancer has been gradually carried out in recent years; however, acquired radioresistance often occurred in some patients after radiotherapy. HBP1 (HMG-box transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional inhibitor which could inhibit the expression of dozens of oncogenes. In our previous study, we showed that the expression level of HBP1 was closely related to prostate cancer metastasis and prognosis, but the relationship between HBP1 and radioresistance for prostate cancer is largely unknown. In this study, the clinical data of patients with prostate cancer was compared, and the positive correlation was revealed between prostate cancer brachytherapy efficacy and the expression level of HBP1 gene. Through research on prostate cancer cells in vitro, we found that HBP1 expression levels were negatively correlated with oncogene expression levels. Furthermore, HBP1 overexpression could sensitize prostate cancer cells to radiation and increase apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. In addition, animal model was employed to analyze the relationship between HBP1 gene and prostate cancer radiosensitivity in vivo; the result showed that knockdown of HBP1 gene could decrease the sensitivity to radiation of xenograft. These studies identified a specific molecular mechanism underlying prostate cancer radiosensitivity, which suggested HBP1 as a novel target in prostate cancer radiotherapy.
PubDate: Thu, 28 Jan 2016 10:49:23 +000
- Fracture Forces of Dentin after Surface Treatment with High Speed Drill
Compared to Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation
Abstract: Dental tooth restorative procedures may weaken the structural integrity of the tooth, with the possibility of leading to fracture. In this study we present findings of coronal dentin strength after different techniques of surface modification. The fracture strength of dentin beams after superficial material removal with a fine diamond bur high speed drill hand piece, Er:YAG (2.94 μm, 8 J/cm2), and Er,Cr:YSGG (2.78 μm, 7.8 J/cm2) laser irradiation slightly above the ablation threshold was measured by a four-point bending apparatus. Untreated dentin beams served as a control. A total of 58 dentin beams were manufactured from sterilized human extracted molars using the coronal part of the available dentin. Mean values of fracture strength were calculated as MPa for the control group (), MPa for high speed drill treatment (), MPa for Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation (), and MPa for Er:YAG laser irradiation (). Independent Student’s -tests showed no significant difference between each two groups (). Within the parameter settings and the limits of the experimental setup used in this study, both lasers systems as well as the high speed drill do not significantly weaken coronal dentin after surface treatment.
PubDate: Sun, 24 Jan 2016 09:26:20 +000
- A Heuristic Framework for Image Filtering and Segmentation: Application to
Blood Vessel Immunohistochemistry
Abstract: The blood vessel density in a cancerous tissue sample may represent increased levels of tumor growth. However, identifying blood vessels in the histological (tissue) image is difficult and time-consuming and depends heavily on the observer’s experience. To overcome this drawback, computer-aided image analysis frameworks have been investigated in order to boost object identification in histological images. We present a novel algorithm to automatically abstract the salient regions in blood vessel images. Experimental results show that the proposed framework is capable of deriving vessel boundaries that are comparable to those demarcated manually, even for vessel regions with weak contrast between the object boundaries and background clutter.
PubDate: Sun, 27 Dec 2015 13:55:52 +000
- Influential Factors and Synergies for Radiation-Gene Therapy on Cancer
Abstract: Radiation-gene therapy, a dual anticancer strategy of radiation therapy and gene therapy through connecting radiation-inducible regulatory sequence to therapeutic gene, leading to the gene being induced to express by radiation while radiotherapy is performed and finally resulting in a double synergistic antitumor effect of radiation and gene, has become one of hotspots in the field of cancer treatment in recent years. But under routine dose of radiation, especially in the hypoxia environment of solid tumor, it is difficult for this therapy to achieve desired effect because of low activity of radiation-inducible regulatory elements, low level and transient expression of target gene induced by radiation, inferior target specificity and poor biosecurity, and so on. Based on the problems existing in radiation-gene therapy, many efforts have been devoted to the curative effect improvement of radiation-gene therapy by various means to increase radiation sensitivity or enhance target gene expression and the expression’s controllability. Among these synergistic techniques, gene circuit, hypoxic sensitization, and optimization of radiation-induced sequence exhibit a good application potential. This review provides the main influential factors to radiation-gene therapy on cancer and the synergistic techniques to improve the anticancer effect of radiation-gene therapy.
PubDate: Wed, 09 Dec 2015 09:26:04 +000
- Comparison of Histochemical Stainings in Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis and
Correlation with Transient Elastography in Chronic Hepatitis
Abstract: Background and Aim. The best staining to evaluate liver fibrosis in liver hepatitis is still a debated topic. This study aimed to compare Masson’s trichrome (MT), Sirius Red (SR), and orcein stainings in evaluating liver fibrosis in chronic HCV hepatitis (CHC) with semiquantitative and quantitative methods (Collagen Proportionate Area (CPA) by Digital Image Analysis (DIA)) and correlate them with transient elastography (TE). Methods. Liver stiffness evaluation of 111 consecutive patients with CHC was performed by TE. Semiquantitative staging by Metavir score system and CPA by DIA were assessed on liver biopsy stained with MT, SR, and orcein. Results. MT, SR, and orcein staining showed concordant results in 89.6% of cases in staging CHC, without significant difference in both semiquantitative and quantitative evaluations of fibrosis. TE values were concordant with orcein levels in 86.5% of the cases and with MT/RS in 77.5% (). No significant correlation between the grade of necroinflammatory activity and TE values was found. Conclusion. In CHC, SR/MT and orcein stainings are almost concordant and when discordant, orcein staining is better related to TE values than MT/RS. This suggests that elastic fibers play a more important role than reticular or collagenous ones in determining stiffness values in CHC.
PubDate: Tue, 17 Nov 2015 14:00:15 +000