Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-7001 - ISSN (Online) 2090-701X
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Common Arterial Trunk in a 3-Day-Old Alpaca Cria
Abstract: A 3-day-old alpaca cria presented for progressive weakness and dyspnea since birth. Complete bloodwork, thoracic radiographs, and endoscopic examination of the nasal passages and distal trachea revealed no significant findings. Echocardiogram and contrast study revealed a single artery overriding a large ventricular septal defect (VSD). A small atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale was also noted. Color flow Doppler and an agitated saline contrast study revealed bidirectional but primarily right to left flow through the VSD and bidirectional shunting through the atrial defect. Differential diagnosis based on echocardiographic findings included common arterial trunk, Tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary atresia with a VSD. Postmortem examination revealed a large common arterial trunk with a quadricuspid valve overriding a VSD. Additionally, defect in the atrial septum was determined to be a patent foramen ovale. A single pulmonary trunk arose from the common arterial trunk and bifurcated to the left and right pulmonary artery, consistent with a Collet and Edwards’ type I common arterial trunk with aortic predominance. Although uncommon, congenital cardiac defects should be considered in animals presenting with clinical signs of hypoxemia, dyspnea, or failure to thrive.
PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2016 13:32:08 +000
- Pedicled Instep Flap and Tibial Nerve Reconstruction in a Cynomolgus
Monkey [Macaca fascicularis]
Abstract: A male cynomolgus monkey experienced extensive soft tissue trauma to the right caudal calf area. Some weeks after complete healing of the original wounds, the monkey developed a chronic pressure sore on plantar surface of the heel of its right foot. A loss of sensitivity in the sole of the foot was hypothesized. The skin defect was closed by a medial sensate pedicled instep flap followed by counter transplantation of a full thickness graft from the interdigital webspace. The integrity of the tibial nerve was revised and reconstructed by means of the turnover flap technique. Both procedures were successful. This is an uncommon case in an exotic veterinary patient as it demonstrates a reconstructive skin flap procedure for the treatment of a chronic, denervated wound in combination with the successful reconstruction of 2.5 cm gap in the tibial nerve.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Oct 2016 08:52:41 +000
- Long-Term Outcome of En Bloc Extensive Resection of the Penis and Prepuce
Associated with a Permanent Perineal Urethrostomy in a Gelding Affected by
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Abstract: A 15-year-old gelding was referred for a florid, cauliflower-like ulcerated mass, enclosing penis and prepuce together with penile urethra showing a malodorous purulent and blood-stained discharge and larvae infestation. En bloc extensive resection of the penis and prepuce, without penile retroversion or pexy to ventral abdomen associated with a permanent perineal urethrostomy, was performed. Histology of the mass revealed a squamous cell carcinoma of penis and prepuce. The surgical technique that was adopted is a modified version of that already described that allows a more proximal resection of the penile body and is a valid option for treating advanced SCC lesions involving the penis. Early postsurgical complications (mild strangury, haemorrhage from the urethrostomy site and its partial dehiscence, and infection of the abdominal wound) were managed with a medical treatment and resolved within 5 to 12 days. Three years after surgery the horse is in good body condition and does not show any sign of recurrence or disorders related to the surgery.
PubDate: Tue, 27 Sep 2016 09:48:35 +000
- Benign Pigmented Dermal Basal Cell Tumor in a Namibian Cheetah (Acinonyx
Abstract: A 3.5-year-old wild born cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), living in a large enclosure on a private Namibian farm, developed a large exophytic nodular neoplasm in its skin at the height of the left shoulder blade. We describe the clinical appearance, the surgical removal, and histological examination of the tumor, which was diagnosed as a moderately pigmented benign basal cell tumor. A three-year follow-up showed no evidence of recurrence after the surgery. Although neoplasia is reported in nondomestic felids, only very few concern cheetahs. So far, no case of basal cell tumor was described in this species.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2016 12:48:37 +000
- Coinfection with Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia duodenalis in Two Cats
with Chronic Diarrhea
Abstract: A Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia duodenalis mixed infection was diagnosed in two Maine Coon cats aged six months. One of them presented a history of chronic liquid diarrhea and of several unsuccessful treatments. In both cats, G. duodenalis and trichomonads were detected in fecal smears from freshly voided feces; the presence of T. foetus was confirmed by a real-time PCR assay. The cats completely recovered after treatment with ronidazole. In a refrigerated fecal sample collected from the cat with chronic diarrhea, drop-shaped trichomonad pseudocysts smaller than G. duodenalis cysts were detected. They appeared brownish or light-bluish when stained with Lugol’s solution or with Giemsa stain, respectively, and their morphological features were similar to those expressed by bovine T. foetus pseudocysts in vitro. Existence of pseudocysts even in feline trichomonads is noteworthy as they could represent a form of protozoan resistance due to unfavorable conditions whose detection in refrigerated feces can be a useful clue for clinicians.
PubDate: Tue, 06 Sep 2016 07:00:28 +000
- Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae) Induced Nasal Myiasis in a Dog from
Abstract: A companion dog from Milan province (northern Italy), presenting with frequent and violent sneezing, underwent rhinoscopy, laryngoscopy, and tracheoscopy procedures. During rhinoscopy, a dipteran larva was isolated from the dog and identified as first instar larval stage of O. ovis by morphological features. Reports of O. ovis in domestic carnivores are sporadic and nevertheless this infestion should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis of rhinitis in domestic carnivores living in contaminated areas by the fly as consequence of the presence of sheep and goats. This report described a case of autochthonous infestion in a dog from an area where O. ovis was not historically present but it could be affected by a possible expansion of the fly as a consequence of climate change. This is the first record of Oestrus ovis infestion in a dog in Italy and, at the same time, the most northerly finding of larvae of sheep bot fly in the country.
PubDate: Mon, 01 Aug 2016 12:42:04 +000
- Extraction of Unerupted Maxillary Canine Teeth in a Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon
Abstract: The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of unerupted canine teeth in a maned wolf. After physical examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemical profile, the animal underwent general anesthesia and head radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment consisted of the extraction of both maxillary canine teeth and clinical and radiographic follow-up of the right mandibular canine tooth.
PubDate: Mon, 11 Jul 2016 10:02:26 +000
- Penile Urethral Hypospadias with Two Fistulae and Diverticulum in a Saanen
Abstract: Hypospadias is a rare congenital defect reported in most animal species and humans. This case study reports a hypospadiac case in a goat kid with urethral diverticulum diagnosed in Sudan for the first time. A 45-day-old male kid was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST), with a history of an increasing prescrotal swelling. At presentation in the clinic the kid was bright and alert and the vital parameters were within the normal physiological range. Ultrasonography was performed to assess the integrity of the urinary system using (3.5–5) MHz curvilinear probe and it revealed normal kidneys and a distended urinary bladder. The kid was referred to surgery and two hypospadiac urinary fistulae were found. One fistula was sutured and the other was not corrected due to catheterization failure.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2016 15:54:19 +000
- Case Report of Bilateral 3-4 Metatarsal Syndactyly in a Pet Rabbit
Abstract: We report the first case of spontaneous syndactyly reported in a pet rabbit. Syndactyly only caused an atypical gait in the rabbit. The radiological study revealed bilateral 3rd and 4th metatarsal bones fused in its entire length preserving normal joint surfaces resembling syndactyly type Ia. The cause of this congenital malformation was unknown.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Jun 2016 08:59:27 +000
- Hiccup-Like Response in a Dog Anesthetized with Isoflurane
Abstract: An eight-year-old, female intact Golden Retriever underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for investigation of urinary and faecal incontinence. Soon after induction of general anesthesia, tracheal intubation, and isoflurane administration, hiccup-like movements were evident. These hiccup-like movements did not respond to hyperventilation and increase of anesthetic. After having ruled out pulmonary disease, the animal was reanesthetized with a similar technique; hiccup-like movements reoccurred and did not stop after discontinuation of isoflurane and commencement of a propofol infusion. Eventually, a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent was administered to stop the hiccup-like response and allow MRI to be performed. This case report describes the pathophysiology of hiccup-like response and its management in a dog.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Jun 2016 08:16:58 +000
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Dual M. tuberculosis/M. bovis Infection as
the Cause of Tuberculosis in a Gorilla and a Lioness, Respectively, in
Ibadan Zoo, Nigeria
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) in zoo animals is an important public health problem in places where it occurs. This is even very important in countries where there is little public health awareness about the disease; thus confined animals in the zoo can be infected directly or indirectly by infected humans and vice versa. In Nigeria, the problem of TB is a major concern among both humans and cattle. Here, we present cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. tuberculosis/M. bovis infections in a female gorilla and a lioness, respectively, in a zoo in Ibadan, Nigeria. These cases were confirmed after bacteriological examinations and DNA from granulomatous lesions of the animals’ carcasses were subjected to the Hain and spoligotyping techniques. Our findings reveal the first documented report of TB infections in a gorilla and a lioness in zoo animals in Nigeria. The public health risks of tuberculosis in zoological settings are therefore reemphasized.
PubDate: Sun, 15 May 2016 07:33:27 +000
- Cutaneous Disease as Sole Clinical Manifestation of Protothecosis in a
Abstract: Prototheca wickerhamii is ubiquitous, saprophytic achlorophyllous algae that cause opportunistic infections in the dog and cat and disseminated disease usually in immunocompromised animals. In this report an uncommon case of canine cutaneous protothecosis is presented. A 6-year-old female boxer was brought in with skin lesions that consisted of nodules and generalized footpad hyperkeratosis, depigmentation, and erosion. Cytology and histopathology showed pyogranulomatous inflammation along with organisms containing round sporangia with spherical sporangiospores. PCR and sequencing identified the causal organism as Prototheca wickerhamii. Therapy applied in this patient with either fluconazole alone or combination of amphotericin B and itraconazole proved effective only for footpad lesions but not for skin nodules. Systemic therapy seems to be ineffective for skin nodules, at least in chronic cases of canine cutaneous protothecosis. Although canine protothecosis usually presents with the disseminated form, cutaneous disease as sole clinical manifestation of the infection may also be witnessed.
PubDate: Mon, 29 Feb 2016 09:19:50 +000
- Perineal Protrusion Secondary to Imperforate Hymen and Hydrocolpos in an
8-Year-Old Spayed Female Dog
Abstract: An 8-year-old female spayed Dachshund presented with an acute onset of dysuria, dyschezia, and painful perineal protrusion. A perineal hernia was ruled out on digital rectal examination, and blood work was unremarkable. An extremely dilated vagina was identified on computed tomography, and hydrocolpos was suspected. Endoscopic vaginal exam confirmed the diagnosis of imperforate hymen. The membrane was ruptured digitally and remnants were removed endoscopically, resulting in resolution of clinical signs. Imperforate hymen is a rare congenital abnormality that can result in extensive fluid accumulation within the vagina and subsequent compression of local structures or secondary infection. Treatment of hydrocolpos includes membrane perforation and removal.
PubDate: Tue, 19 Jan 2016 14:14:55 +000
- Regressing Multiple Viral Plaques and Skin Fragility Syndrome in a Cat
Coinfected with FcaPV2 and FcaPV3
Abstract: Feline viral plaques are uncommon skin lesions clinically characterized by multiple, often pigmented, and slightly raised lesions. Numerous reports suggest that papillomaviruses (PVs) are involved in their development. Immunosuppressed and immunocompetent cats are both affected, the biological behavior is variable, and the regression is possible but rarely documented. Here we report a case of a FIV-positive cat with skin fragility syndrome and regressing multiple viral plaques in which the contemporary presence of two PV types (FcaPV2 and FcaPV3) was demonstrated by combining a quantitative molecular approach to histopathology. The cat, under glucocorticoid therapy for stomatitis and pruritus, developed skin fragility and numerous grouped slightly raised nonulcerated pigmented macules and plaques with histological features of epidermal thickness, mild dysplasia, and presence of koilocytes. Absolute quantification of the viral DNA copies (4555 copies/microliter of FcaPV2 and 8655 copies/microliter of FcaPV3) was obtained. Eighteen months after discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy skin fragility and viral plaques had resolved. The role of the two viruses cannot be established and it remains undetermined how each of the viruses has contributed to the onset of VP; the spontaneous remission of skin lesions might have been induced by FIV status change over time due to glucocorticoid withdraw and by glucocorticoids withdraw itself.
PubDate: Sun, 20 Dec 2015 13:08:10 +000
- Fluoroscopic-Assisted Olecranon Fracture Repair in Three Dogs
Abstract: Olecranon fractures in dogs are often both comminuted and intra-articular. Anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are thus paramount to achieving primary bone healing and mitigating the development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Intraoperative fluoroscopy can be useful to confirm accurate fracture reduction and facilitate precise implant placement, potentially reducing the surgical exposure required and additional trauma. Despite widespread use in human surgery, reports of fluoroscopic-assisted fracture repair in dogs are limited. Presented here are three dogs in which intraoperative fluoroscopy was used to facilitate accurate olecranon fracture reduction and implant positioning. The olecranon fractures appeared to heal by primary bone union, although the anconeal process failed to obtain osseous union in one dog. Despite the development of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis in all three dogs, and the nonunion of the anconeal process in one dog, the clinical outcome was considered successful with all dogs subjectively free of lameness at long-term follow-up evaluation. Intraoperative fluoroscopy was found to be a useful modality during fracture reduction and implant placement in dogs with olecranon fractures.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2015 13:08:46 +000
- A Case Report of Avian Polyomavirus Infection in a Blue Fronted Parrot
(Amazona aestiva) Associated with Anemia
Abstract: An adult Blue Fronted Amazon parrot (A. aestiva) presenting with emesis, apathy, undigested seed in feces, and severe anemia was treated for approximately 2 months. Upon radiographic examination, an enlarged kidney was the only alteration. PCR for avian Bornavirus, Circovirus, and Polyomavirus was performed for the feces and blood. The results were positive for APV in both samples and negative for the other viruses. After 6 months, the feces from the same animal were negative for APV. Because the animal was positive for APV in both the feces and the blood, it is likely that these clinical symptoms were due to Polyomavirus infection. Severe anemia is an unusual clinical sign of Polyomavirus, and this study aims to identify novel differential diagnostic criteria for the disease.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Oct 2015 13:29:51 +000
- Perivascular Wall Tumor in the Brain of a Dog
Abstract: A 9-year-old spayed female German shepherd mixed-breed dog presented for seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an irregularly marginated intraparenchymal cerebral mass. Microscopic examination of brain tissue collected postmortem demonstrated perivascular whorling and interwoven bundles of spindle-shaped cells. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor cells tested positive for vimentin and negative for factor VIII-related antigen, CD18, CD45, CD3, CD20, GFAP, S-100, and desmin. Immunohistochemistry results, in combination with histopathologic morphology, were suggestive of a perivascular wall tumor. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case report to utilize both histopathology and immunohistochemistry to describe a perivascular wall tumor in the brain of a dog.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Oct 2015 12:14:52 +000
- Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas)
Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet
Abstract: A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.
PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2015 13:04:14 +000
- First Report of Psoriatic-Like Dermatitis and Arthritis in a 4-Year-Old
Female Spayed Pug Mix
Abstract: Psoriasis manifests as chronic dermatitis and arthritis (PsA) in people. Psoriasis with concurrent PsA is characterized by erythematous, silvery, scaly plaques, especially on the extremities, and concurrent arthritis with enthesitis, tenosynovitis, and dactylitis. To date, no such disease has spontaneously occurred in domestic animals. This case report aims to describe the clinical, radiographic, and histologic appearance of a psoriasis-like dermatitis and psoriatic-like arthritis in a dog. A 4-year-old female spayed pug mix presented for the evaluation of chronic history of hyperkeratotic footpads and deforming arthritis. After ruling out other differential diagnoses and based on the similarity of clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings to human psoriasis and PsA, a tentative diagnosis of psoriasis-like disease was made. Treatment was begun to control pain (tramadol, gabapentin, and carprofen) and psoriatic dermatitis (clobetasol propionate 0.05%, calcipotriene 0.005%, and urea 40% ointment twice daily). Dramatic positive response to treatment was achieved confirming the tentative diagnosis. This case may provide preliminary evidence for the existence of a psoriasis-like condition in dogs and may elucidate treatment options in otherwise refractory cases of chronic dermatitis and polyarthropathy in dogs.
PubDate: Sun, 20 Sep 2015 09:54:41 +000
- Surgical Removal of a Canine Aortic Thromboembolism Secondary to
Abstract: A 7-year-old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated on emergency for diagnostic work-up and treatment for acute nonpainful paraparesis. The neurologic examination suggested a L4-S3 myelopathy, but physical examination revealed lack of femoral pulses and rectal hypothermia, as well as a grade II/VI systolic heart murmur, so ischemic neuromyopathy was suspected. Clinicopathologic analysis revealed increased muscle enzymes and proteinuria. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed aortic thromboembolism (ATE), and surgical histopathology diagnosed necrotizing pancreatitis. Surgical aortic thrombectomy was performed, and antithrombotic therapy was instituted. Pancreatitis was treated supportively. The dog was discharged to the owners after 10 days of hospitalization. Recheck examination 6 weeks after initial presentation revealed a normal neurologic examination and normal femoral pulses. The patient has had no further bouts of pancreatitis and remains neurologically normal 5 years after initial presentation. Canine ATE is relatively rare compared to the feline counterpart. Directed therapy for feline ATE is often not recommended, as underlying conditions are oftentimes ultimately fatal. Underlying etiologies for canine ATE include cardiovascular disease and endocrinopathies, but canine ATE secondary to pancreatitis has not yet been reported. Surgical removal of aortic thromboembolus should be considered as curative for pelvic limb dysfunction in the canine patient without a terminal underlying disease.
PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2015 07:09:27 +000
- Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats
Abstract: Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.
PubDate: Sun, 02 Aug 2015 13:35:07 +000
- Nasal Adenocarcinoma in a Horse with Metastasis to Lung, Liver, and Bone
and Review of Metastasis in Nine Horses with Sinonasal Tumors
Abstract: Sinonasal neoplasia metastasizing to distant organs is rare in horses. This case report describes the clinical and imaging findings of a horse with sinonasal neoplasia, which had metastasized to the lung, liver, and humerus. Additionally, the prevalence of sinonasal neoplasia and their incidence of distant metastasis among horses that presented to the Oregon State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (OSU-VTH) were estimated. Of 5,558 equine patients who presented to the OSU-VTH in the last nine years, 1.4% were diagnosed with sinonasal disease and 10.3% of these cases had sinonasal neoplasia with only one having confirmed distant metastasis. This case was an eleven-year-old quarter horse which was evaluated due to a history of a right forelimb lameness of three weeks duration. Two and a half months later he presented again, this time for unilateral epistaxis and persistent right forelimb lameness. Radiography of the right elbow noted an increasingly irregular, periosteal response and osteolytic lesion of the right distal humeral condyle. At the time of the second presentation, nasosinal endoscopy identified a lobulated mass in the region of the ethmoid turbinates. Histopathology of this mass revealed an adenocarcinoma of nasal origin with metastasis to the lung, liver, and right humerus.
PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:06:17 +000
- Maple Syrup Urine Disease in a Central Indiana Hereford Herd
Abstract: Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and further cases were identified in herd mates of a small Hereford herd in Indiana based on history, clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and biochemical and genetic testing. This aminoacidopathy has been diagnosed in polled Shorthorn, polled Hereford, and Hereford cattle in Australia, Uruguay, Argentina, and Canada and is the result of a mutation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The Indiana index calf case was confirmed by showing the classic accumulation of ketoacids in liver that results from a defect in the E1-alpha subunit (248 C/T haplotype) in the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The presence of the mutation was confirmed in the index case, the dam, and four related herd mates that represent the first confirmed cases of bovine MSUD mutation in United States cattle.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:01:02 +000
- Surgical Treatment of a Chronic Brain Abscess and Growing Skull Fracture
in a Dog
Abstract: A 2-year-old female spayed Miniature Dachshund was presented for seizures and right prosencephalic signs. A multiloculated, ring-enhancing mass in the right cerebrum associated with dilation of the right lateral ventricle and brain herniation was seen on magnetic resonance imaging. An irregular calvarial defect with smoothly scalloped edges was seen overlying the mass on computed tomography. The mass was removed via craniectomy and was diagnosed as a chronic brain abscess caused by Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. The patient was maintained on antibiotics for 12 weeks. Follow-up MRI performed 14 weeks after surgery confirmed complete removal of the abscess as well as a contrast-enhancing collection of extra-axial material consistent with a chronic subdural hematoma. The neurologic abnormalities, including seizures, have improved in the 44 months since surgery. Brain abscesses in dogs can have an insidious clinical course prior to causing serious neurologic deterioration. Ventricular entrapment by an intracranial mass can contribute to acute neurologic decline. If surgically accessible, outcome following removal of a brain abscess can be excellent; aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture should be performed in these cases. Subdural hematoma can occur following removal of a large intracranial mass. Growing skull fractures can occur in dogs but may not require specific surgical considerations.
PubDate: Sun, 21 Jun 2015 09:49:29 +000
- Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy in Two Red Wolf (Canis rufus) Pups
Abstract: A 6-month-old red wolf (Canis rufus) pup presented for evaluation of progressive thoracic and pelvic limb lameness, joint swelling, and decreased body condition. Radiographic evaluation revealed medullary sclerosis centered at the metaphyses of multiple long bones, well-defined irregular periosteal proliferation, and ill-defined lucent zones paralleling the physes, consistent with hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD). Biopsies of affected bone revealed medullary fibrosis and new bone formation. The pup improved following treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, opioids, and supportive care over the course of 4 weeks. Metaphyseal periosteal bone proliferation persisted until the animal was humanely euthanized several years later for poor quality of life associated with bilateral cranial cruciate ligament rupture. A second red wolf pup of 4.5 months of age presented for evaluation of lethargy, kyphotic posture, and swollen carpal and tarsal joints. Radiographs revealed bilateral medullary sclerosis and smooth periosteal reaction affecting multiple long bones, suggestive of HOD. Further diagnostics were not pursued in this case to confirm the diagnosis, and the clinical signs persisted for 4 weeks. In light of these two case reports, HOD should be recognized as a developmental orthopedic disease in growing red wolves.
PubDate: Thu, 14 May 2015 13:35:58 +000
- Abdominal Distension Associated with Luminal Fungi in the Intestines of
Abstract: Axolotls show a remarkable regeneration capacity compared with higher vertebrates, regenerating missing appendages such as limbs and tail as well as other body parts (i.e., apex of the heart, forebrain, and jaw) after amputations which makes this animal a very interesting research model for tissue regeneration mechanisms. Larvae are individually housed in a 20% Holtfreter’s solution within clear plastic containers. The photoperiod light : darkness cycle is 12 : 12 h. Larvae with a total body length of less than 5 cm are fed once a day with large brine shrimp and blood worm. Albino larvae appeared to have a tendency to exhibit abdominal distention. No clinical signs of illness seemed to be associated with the condition; however, these animals exhibit a relatively slower growth rate. To better characterize this condition, we performed histological sectioning for cross sectional slide preparation on wild type and albino axolotl larvae following euthanasia. The only lesion seen in the albino larvae was a thickened gut wall and the presence of fungi within the intestines. We hypothesize that this may be due to a lower efficacy of the albino larvae’s immune system.
PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2015 12:55:32 +000
- Probable Pulmonary Blastomycosis in a Wild Coyote (Canis latrans)
Abstract: A female coyote (Canis latrans) was fatally injured by a vehicle on a road in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Because of deteriorating clinical signs, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination of the lungs showed numerous small multifocal white nodules (0.5–1 cm diameter) disseminated throughout. Histopathologic examination revealed multifocal coalescing granulomas with abundant macrophages, numerous neutrophils, fibroblasts, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. Abundant intracellular and extracellular thick-walled, refractile, spherical yeasts (10–15 μm) were observed within the granulomas. The yeasts were intensely PAS-positive, with granular protoplasm. Broad-based single budding yeasts were occasionally present. Based on the microscopic findings of the pulmonary lesions and the morphological features of the organism, a diagnosis of chronic pyogranulomatous pneumonia caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis was made. To our knowledge, the case described herein is the first report of pulmonary blastomycosis in a wild coyote.
PubDate: Wed, 06 May 2015 09:14:10 +000
- Canine Bilateral Conjunctivo-Palpebral Dermoid: Description of Two
Clinical Cases and Discussion of the Relevance of the Terminology
Abstract: Two young dogs were presented for the evaluation of an abnormally haired appearance of both eyes since adoption. In one dog, the lesions were symmetrical and appeared as disorganized skin tissue located on the cutaneous aspect of the lateral portion of both lower eyelids, and continuing to the palpebral and the bulbar conjunctiva, thus forming continuous lesions. In the other dog, a similar lesion was present in the right eye (OD), but the lesion of the left eye (OS) was of discontinuous, disorganized skin tissue located midway on the lower eyelid and on the lateral bulbar conjunctiva. The lesions were surgically removed and routinely processed for histopathological analysis. Definitive diagnosis was conjunctivo-palpebral dermoids for each dog. Dermoids are usually considered to be choristoma (normal tissue in an abnormal location) when they are located on the ocular surface (cornea and/or conjunctiva) and as hamartoma when located on the palpebral skin. The lesion presentation in these two dogs reveals that names of “choristoma” alone or “hamartoma” alone are not accurate to depict the continuous, composite, conjunctivo-palpebral dermoids. These cases suggest that choristoma and hamartoma might develop subsequently from the same abnormal event during the embryonic development, which means that the lesion location might be the only difference between the two terms.
PubDate: Mon, 23 Mar 2015 14:18:47 +000
- Elevated Testosterone and Progestin Concentrations in a Spayed Female
Rabbit with an Adrenal Cortical Adenoma
Abstract: This case was described briefly in a recent book chapter (Lennox AM, Fecteau KA: 2014, Endocrine disease. In: BSAVA Manual of Rabbit Medicine, eds. Meredith A, Lord B, pp 274–276. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, UK). In the previous description, the tumor was described as a pheochromocytoma; however, further evaluation suggested that it more closely resembled an adrenal cortical adenoma. A 10-year-old, spayed female rabbit was presented for a behavior change of 8 months’ duration. The rabbit was inappropriately urinating and defecating, as well as demonstrating aggressive behaviors such as chasing, biting, and mounting various objects. The rabbit had elevated progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and testosterone concentrations, and ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed a round, homogenous nodule measuring 1.1 × 0.8 × 0.9 cm in the region of the left adrenal gland. Necropsy revealed a unilateral adrenal cortical adenoma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first complete description of a female rabbit with an adrenal cortical adenoma documented in the literature.
PubDate: Mon, 08 Dec 2014 13:20:51 +000
- Hippocampal Necrosis in a Cat from Australia
Abstract: This paper reports findings from a feline case of hippocampal necrosis. A seven-year-old neutered female cat was seen with a history of behavioural change followed by complex focal seizures. The cat was severely pyrexic on presentation and anisocoria was present. It was treated with cooling, intravenous fluid, and phenobarbitone administration which was later changed to levetiracetam. An MRI was performed and revealed findings of a hypointense T1 and hyperintense T2 signal in the hippocampus and inferior temporal gyrus with mild gadolinium uptake, findings which were consistent with previous cases of hippocampal necrosis. The cat was witnessed to vomit and aspirate 24 hours after diagnosis leading to cardiac arrest and death. Postmortem examination revealed a subacute degenerative encephalopathy involving the hippocampus.
PubDate: Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:01:41 +000