Case Reports in Radiology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-6862 - ISSN (Online) 2090-6870
Published by Hindawi [334 journals]
- Port Placement via the Anterior Jugular Venous System: Case Report,
Anatomic Considerations, and Literature Review
Abstract: We report on a patient who was referred for port implantation with a two-chamber pacemaker aggregate on the right and total occlusion of the central veins on the left side. Venous access for port implantation was performed via left side puncture of the horizontal segment of the anterior jugular vein system (AJVS) and insertion of the port catheter using a crossover technique from the left to the right venous system via the jugular venous arch (JVA). The clinical significance of the AJVS and the JVA for central venous access and port implantation is emphasised and the corresponding literature is reviewed.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Brain Herniation into Giant Arachnoid Granulation: An Unusual Case
Abstract: Arachnoid granulations are structures filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that extend into the venous sinuses through openings in the dura mater and allow the drainage of CSF from subarachnoid space into venous system. Usually they are asymptomatic but can be symptomatic when large enough to cause sinus occlusion. We report a rare case of a brain herniation into a giant arachnoid granulation in an asymptomatic elderly male patient, which was discovered incidentally.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Giant Splenorenal Shunt in a Young Patient with Autoimmune
Hepatitis/Primary Biliary Cholangitis Overlap Syndrome and Portal Vein
Abstract: We present a case of giant Splenorenal Shunt (SRS) associated with portal vein thrombosis in a 37-year-old woman with a twelve-year history of autoimmune hepatitis/primary biliary cholangitis overlap syndrome. At the moment of the CT examination laboratory tests showed creatinine 1.5 mg/dl, bilirubin 1.5 mg/dl, INR 3, and Na 145 mmol/l and the Model End-Stage Liver Disease score was 24. Extensive calcified thrombosis causing complete occlusion of the portal vein lumen and partially occluding the origin of the superior mesenteric vein was present and a small calcified thrombus in the Splenic Vein lumen was also evident. SRS was located among the spleen hilum and the left kidney with a maximum diameter of 3.25 cm and was associated with dilatation of left renal vein and inferior vena cava. After a multidisciplinary evaluation the patient was put on the Regional Liver Transplant waiting list and liver transplantation was performed successfully. Although portal vein thrombosis and SRS are common occurrences in cirrhotic patients, the impact in the natural history of the disease is still unclear. Careful management and accurate imaging protocols are essential in the evaluation of those patients.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Thrombosis of the Azygos Anterior Cerebral Artery
Abstract: The azygos anterior cerebral artery is a rare variant, characterized by the absence of the anterior communicating artery and the union of two proximal segments of the anterior cerebral artery, forming a single trunk and ascending through the interhemispheric fissure. The incidence in the population varies from 0.3 to 2%. The presence of occlusion for this vessel causes bifrontal infarcts, with potentially devastating functional consequences, hence the importance of recognizing this anatomical variation in imaging exams.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Feb 2017 12:39:32 +000
- CT and MRI Features of Pediatric-Aged Colloid Cysts: Report of Two Cases
Abstract: A 10-year-old boy with the history of headache, anorexia, and vomiting was referred to our department to undergo a brain CT scan. CT images demonstrated a well-defined, rounded, hyperdense lesion at the level of the foramen of Monro causing moderate dilatation of the lateral ventricles. An 11-year-old girl with a long history of a headache was also referred to undergoing a brain MRI. MR images demonstrated a well-defined round abnormal signal intensity lesion at the level of the foramen of Monro causing moderate dilatation of lateral ventricles. The findings from imaging perspective were consistent with the colloid cyst of the third ventricle. Therefore, the diagnosis of the colloid cyst was made.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 07:13:41 +000
- Ectopic Thyroid Tissue in the Mediastinum Characterized by Histology and
Functional Imaging with I-123 SPECT/CT
Abstract: Ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare entity and when discovered it is typically along the pathway of embryologic migration of the thyroid. We present a case of incidental finding of ectopic thyroid tissue within mediastinum in a 61-year-old female patient with a history of total thyroidectomy for thyroiditis and nodules. The patient presented to emergency room with cough and right chest pain and underwent a chest computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) to exclude pulmonary embolism as part of chest pain workup. One right paratracheal mediastinal soft tissue nodule was visualized on the images of CTA. This right paratracheal soft tissue mass was found to be ectopic benign thyroid tissue by histological analysis of the biopsied tissue samples. The function of this ectopic thyroid tissue was characterized by I-123 radioiodine uptake and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. This case illustrates that ectopic thyroid tissue should be included for differential diagnosis of a hyperdense soft tissue mass located within mediastinum. I-123 SPECT/CT is useful for guiding tissue biopsy of ectopic thyroid tissue distant from orthotopic thyroid gland and functional and anatomic characterization of mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue for surgical resection when it is medically necessary.
PubDate: Mon, 30 Jan 2017 09:31:21 +000
- Testicular Vasculitis: A Sonographic and Pathologic Diagnosis
Abstract: Very little has been published about single-organ vasculitis of the testicle in the radiological literature. Consequently, it is a diagnosis that is unfamiliar to most radiologists. This case report describes the sonographic, pathologic, and laboratory findings of testicular vasculitis and reviews the available literature with regard to this subject.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 09:38:22 +000
- Cystic Echinococcosis: A Case of Extrahepatic Intra-Abdominal Involvement
Abstract: Hydatid disease, or echinococcal disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus tapeworm and it primarily affects the liver and lung but involvement of other organs is also possible secondary to peritoneal seeding or hematogeneous dissemination. We describe a rare case of extensive abdominal disease, with lesions affecting the liver, peritoneum, and lesser omentum, requiring aggressive surgical intervention. Complementary diagnostic exams were crucial to reach the diagnosis and evaluate the extension of the disease.
PubDate: Tue, 17 Jan 2017 08:27:13 +000
- A Rare Case of Diffuse Hemangiomatosis of the Spleen with Splenic Rupture
following Aortic Valve Replacement
Abstract: In this paper we present a rare case of splenic rupture that occurred after an open aortic valve replacement in a male patient with hemangiomatosis of the spleen and the liver. The patient was treated with an emergency splenectomy. He showed no other sings of associated systemic disorder, such as Klippel-trénaunay syndrome or Proteus syndrome.
PubDate: Thu, 12 Jan 2017 08:08:41 +000
- Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast: Advantages and Limitations of Breast
Abstract: Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a rare variant of invasive ductal carcinoma. We report a case of 42-year-old asymptomatic female with a histopathological proven multifocal tubular carcinoma, studied by mammography, Tomosynthesis, Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance. Herein, we discuss the advantages and limitations of Tomosynthesis, an emerging imaging technique, in this particular case.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 11:32:51 +000
- Diffuse Gallium-67 Accumulation in the Left Atrial Wall Detected Using
SPECT/CT Fusion Images
Abstract: Gallium-67 scintigraphy is useful for detecting active inflammation. We show a 66-year-old female patient with atrial fibrillation and diffuse thickening of the left atrial wall due to acute myocarditis, who presented diffuse abnormal accumulation of gallium-67 in the left atrium on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) fusion images. In the second gallium-67 scan 2 months after the first scintigraphy, the abnormal accumulation in the heart was no longer visible. Gallium-67 SPECT/CT images helped understanding the disease condition that temporary inflammation in the left atrium caused atrial fibrillation.
PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 14:36:18 +000
- A Retroperitoneal Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst Mimicking a Teratoma:
A Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: Enteric duplication cysts lacking anatomic association with the gastrointestinal tract are called isolated enteric duplication cysts (IEDCs). We present an atypical case of a retroperitoneal IEDC with a tortuous tubular complex shape that enfolded the surrounding retroperitoneal fat and mimicked a retroperitoneal teratoma. Multiplanar reconstruction images should be used to evaluate such a lesion correctly. A tortuous tubular complex shape could be a key finding to differentiate from other retroperitoneal cysts.
PubDate: Mon, 19 Dec 2016 13:50:38 +000
- Gliosarcoma with Primary Skull Base Invasion
Abstract: Gliosarcoma is an uncommon variant of glioblastoma, which commonly demonstrates dural attachment. However, skull base invasion is rarely seen with this entity. Herein, we report a 44-year-old female patient diagnosed with primary intracranial gliosarcoma extensively invading the skull base and muscles of mastication. She presented to our institution with a three-month history of difficult right jaw opening and retro-orbital pressure and one week of severe right-sided postauricular headache. Head CT demonstrated a 6 cm mass with marked bony erosion. Brain MRI at a one-week interval more clearly characterized tumor extension through the right orbit and muscles of mastication, with overall growth to 7 cm and worsening midline shift. The patient underwent a right frontotemporal craniotomy for gross total resection. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of gliosarcoma, IDH-wildtype (WHO grade IV). Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged at preoperative neurologic baseline. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of a primary intracranial gliosarcoma with direct invasion of skull base, brain parenchyma, and extracranial compartment. However, this is the first report case of primary GS invading the surrounding musculature and orbit. This case report highlights the rapid aggressiveness of gliosarcomas and further a prior undescribed radiographic and anatomic finding of skull base invasion with this entity.
PubDate: Thu, 08 Dec 2016 08:36:52 +000
- Untreated Superior Vena Cava Aneurysm: Radiological Significance and
Review of the Literature
Abstract: Superior vena cava (SVC) aneurysms are a rare entity. The majority of the literature is in the form of case reports. SVC aneurysms are often an incidental finding with iatrogenic, congenital, or idiopathic etiologies. Treatment goals focus on preventing theoretical rupture or thrombus formation. Management options include observation, conservative medical management, surgical excision, and thrombin injection. We present a 73-year-old female with an incidental SVC aneurysm discovered on computed tomography (CT) of the thorax. The patient was observed without intervention for greater than 6 years. No complications were attributable to the SVC aneurysm during follow-up or over the course of the patient’s life.
PubDate: Mon, 05 Dec 2016 09:38:47 +000
- Thymic Epidermoid Cyst: Clinical and Imaging Manifestations of This Rare
Anterior Mediastinal Mass
Abstract: Thymic epidermoid cysts are an extremely rare entity. These arise from epidermal cells that migrate to the thymus. The radiologic diagnosis of this rare lesion is challenging. We describe a case of an otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with an acute onset of chest pain and shortness of breath. She was found to have an anterior mediastinal mass. The imaging findings were, however, not characteristic for any single diagnostic entity. Since the imaging was inconclusive, surgical resection was performed for definitive diagnosis. The mass was found to be a thymic epidermoid cyst. This case underlines the significance for radiologists to be aware that epidermoid cysts can occur in the thymus and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for a heterogeneous anterior mediastinal mass.
PubDate: Thu, 24 Nov 2016 12:17:33 +000
- Occipital Hypometabolism on FDG PET/CT Scan in a Child with
Abstract: It is known that Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) images may be helpful for evaluation of brain function in newborns. Here we described the fluorine-18 [18-F] FDG PET/CT imaging findings of encephalomalacia due to perinatal asphyxia in a child with refractory Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (HL) who underwent PET/CT scan to stage the primary disease. Prominent hypometabolism was incidentally detected in the occipital regions bilaterally apart from the FDG uptakes in the malign lymphatic infiltrations. This case highlights the potential coexistence of a malignancy and a functional brain disorder.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Nov 2016 12:06:07 +000
- Rare Case of Posterior Reversible Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome Secondary
to Acute Chest Syndrome
Abstract: We present a case of 29/m with a history of sickle cell disease who presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of chest, trunk, extremity, and back pain, consistent in quality and severity with the patient’s usual pain crises. Soon after admission to the medical unit for acute chest syndrome (ACS), the patient developed sudden onset of hypertension associated with left sided hemiplegia, lethargy, dysarthria, aphasia, and left sided facial droop. Neuroimaging revealed that on MRI Brain there was multifocal extensive signal abnormality and a small focal areas of hemorrhage compatible with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Patient was treated with levetiracetam and phenytoin and improved soon afterwards, with resolution seen on follow-up MRI two months later.
PubDate: Thu, 10 Nov 2016 08:41:00 +000
- Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis in Isolated Tuberculous Cervical
Abstract: Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease with a high prevalence in developing countries and presents a major public health issue. Internal jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis is a rare complication in tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy. We report a case of 26-year male patient with a history of low-grade evening rise in fever, dry cough, loss of appetite, and loss of weight with swelling in lower neck on right side. Ultrasonography (USG) neck showed well-defined hypoechoic lymph nodes posterior to right IJV and common carotid artery in the lower neck at level IV and in the right supraclavicular region showing central necrotic areas with adjoining IJV thrombosis. The association between tuberculosis and deep vein thrombosis is rare. Awareness of IJV thrombosis in isolated cervical lymphadenopathy needs high diagnostic suspicion and prompt treatment to avoid fatal complication. Our case is rare as there was isolated tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy with adjoining IJV thrombosis. Both USG and computed tomography (CT) are accurate and reliable radiological investigations for detecting IJV thrombosis along with cervical lymph nodes. They are useful in assessing surrounding soft tissue and fat planes and knowing the size and extent of cervical lymphadenopathy. USG is inexpensive and readily available for monitoring response to treatment.
PubDate: Wed, 09 Nov 2016 13:11:21 +000
- Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for Evaluating Catheter Related FDG Avidity
Abstract: A 53-year-old female with a history of metastatic left arm melanoma presented for F(18) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) which showed a moderately FDG avid focus at her port catheter tip near the cavoatrial junction. Although catheter tip related FDG avidity has previously been suggested to be bland thrombus or infection, melanoma can metastasize to unusual locations including the superior vena cava. In addition, the patient had an elevated risk of anticoagulation due to a history of hemorrhagic brain metastases. Therefore, confirmatory cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was obtained and findings were consistent with bland catheter-related thrombus.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 12:54:45 +000
- Bilateral Simultaneous Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the
Breasts and Axillae: Imaging Findings with Pathological and Clinical
Abstract: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a pathology that is usually diagnosed by accident during pathological examination of other breast lesions. PASH is an uncommon and benign tumoral lesion of the mammary stroma that can be pathologically mistaken for other tumours, such as phyllodes, fibroadenoma, and sometimes even angiosarcoma. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with complaints of huge bilateral breast enlargement. This is a rare case of PASH presenting with gigantomastia and involving bilateral breasts and axillae simultaneously. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI features are illustrated with histopathological correlation.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 11:23:34 +000
- Congenital Vitelline Band Causing Intestinal Obstruction in an Adult with
a Double Inferior Vena Cava
Abstract: Introduction. Vitelline artery remnants are rare causes of intra-abdominal bands leading to bowel obstruction. These bands may be associated with Meckel’s diverticulum. Double inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare presentation and is usually identified incidentally. Case Presentation. A sixty-year-old male presented with progressive vomiting for five days and he was clinically diagnosed with intestinal obstruction. Plain X-ray abdomen showed evidence of small bowel obstruction. CT scan of the abdomen revealed dilated small bowel loops with a small outpouching in the distal ileum with a band like structure attached to it. In the CT, left sided patent IVC draining into the left renal vein was identified. Left external iliac vein was in continuity with the left IVC. Left internal iliac vein was draining into the right IVC. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a Meckel’s diverticulum with a band identified as the vitelline remnant attached to its apex and inserting at the anterior abdominal wall near the umbilicus. Discussion. Meckel’s diverticulum with vitelline bands, although rare, should be borne in mind in adult patients with intestinal obstruction. Identification of this anomaly can be difficult in imaging studies. Presence of double IVC should be mentioned in the imaging findings to prevent possible catastrophic complications during surgery.
PubDate: Sun, 23 Oct 2016 08:09:17 +000
- Left-Sided Upper Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return through a
Curved Vein Joining the Left Brachiocephalic Vein
Abstract: The evaluation of pulmonary veins during cross-sectional imaging of the chest and the knowledge of their embryology and anatomy are useful for detecting congenital conditions that may be clinically significant. Moreover, with the spread of cross-sectional imaging it is very frequent to find anatomical variants; therefore the radiologist should easily recognize their appearances. This case report shows a left-side upper partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) through a “curved” vein that joins the left brachiocephalic vein, in a female patient who underwent whole-body computed tomography (CT) for staging endometrial cancer. This was an incidental finding, not related to any symptoms; however, we explain the anatomical aspects of this abnormality within the congenital condition of PAPVR and its possible clinical relevance.
PubDate: Sun, 09 Oct 2016 12:24:22 +000
- Diagnosis and Management of Spontaneous Lumbar Venous Retroperitoneal
Hematoma in Setting of Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report and Algorithm
Abstract: Retroperitoneal hematoma is rare and benefits from a systematic approach to prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of such bleeds is based upon patient stability, the cause (spontaneous or posttraumatic), and source (arterial or venous). Herein, the authors describe a diagnostic and management algorithm for retroperitoneal hemorrhage with an example of a rare lumbar venous bleed under the complicated clinical setting of deep venous thrombosis.
PubDate: Mon, 03 Oct 2016 14:18:30 +000
- Atypical Growth Pattern of an Intraparenchymal Meningioma
Abstract: Meningiomas are the most common primary nonneuroglial extra-axial neoplasms, which commonly present as spherical or oval masses with a dural attachment. Meningiomas without dural attachment are rare and, according to their locations, are classified into 5 varieties, including intraventricular, deep Sylvain fissure, pineal region, intraparenchymal, or subcortical meningiomas. To the best of our knowledge, intraparenchymal meningioma with cerebriform pattern has never been reported. In this paper, we report a 34-year-old Chinese male patient who presented with paroxysmal headaches and progressive loss of vision for 10 months and blindness for 2 weeks. A thorough physical examination revealed loss of bilateral direct and indirect light reflex. No other relevant medical history and neurologic deficits were noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed an irregular mass with a unique cerebriform pattern and extensive peritumoral edema in the parietal-occipital-temporal region of the right cerebral hemisphere. The initial diagnosis was lymphoma. Intraoperatively, the tumor was completely buried in a sulcus in the parietal-occipital-temporal region without connecting to the dura. The histological diagnosis was intracranial meningioma based on pathological examination. Therefore, when an unusual cerebriform growth pattern of a tumor is encountered, an intraparenchymal meningioma should be considered as a differential diagnosis.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Sep 2016 12:49:46 +000
- Intracranial Capillary Hemangioma in the Posterior Fossa of an Adult Male
Abstract: Intracranial capillary hemangioma (ICH) is a rare entity, with approximately 24 reported cases in the literature. There are only three reported cases of ICH in an adult male. In this case report, we describe the fourth documented case of ICH in an adult male and, to the best of our knowledge, the first ever documented case of ICH in the posterior fossa of an adult male. We also discuss its imaging appearance and differential diagnosis.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:15:36 +000
- Mediastinal Hibernoma: A Rare Case with Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation
Abstract: Hibernomas, especially located in the mediastinum, are extremely rare benign tumors, which are important to consider in the differential diagnosis of a heterogeneously enhancing mass with areas of fat attenuation on imaging of an often incidentally discovered mass. Other common possibilities in the differential include malignant tumors, such as liposarcoma, hence histopathology is usually required to confirm the diagnosis. Hibernomas often follow the distribution of sites of persistence of brown fat in adults, and intrathoracic locations are unusual. We present a very rare case of a mediastinal hibernoma in a 53-year-old woman. She presented to the emergency department with severe, progressive right neck and shoulder pain with radiation down her arm and was found to have a right apical posterior mediastinal mass on imaging. Initial radiographs of the shoulder showed a soft tissue mass within the apical right hemithorax. Further imaging with CT revealed a well circumscribed, heterogeneously enhancing mass with areas of fat attenuation. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of mediastinal hibernoma, and the mass was completely excised. Fourteen months after surgery, the patient had a normal chest radiograph, and thirty-two months after surgery, she remains asymptomatic.
PubDate: Mon, 29 Aug 2016 12:35:07 +000
- Tailgut Cyst and Perineal Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report with Multimodality
Abstract: A tailgut cyst is a rare developmental lesion and usually is located in the retrorectal or presacral space. Extrahepatic hydatid disease has been reported in several locations including the pelvis and it often poses a diagnostic challenge. There are very few reported cases of primary perineal hydatid cysts. We present the multimodality imaging findings of a tailgut cyst and concurrent perineal hydatid disease in a 32-year-old male patient.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2016 11:25:18 +000
- Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Documented Progression over 4 Years from Its
Origin at the Metaphysis to the Articular Surface
Abstract: The exact location of origin for giant cell tumors of bone (GCTB) remains controversial, as lesions are not routinely imaged early but rather late when the tumor is large and clinically symptomatic. At the time of diagnosis, GCTB are classically described as lucent, eccentric lesions with nonsclerotic margins, located within the epiphysis to a greater extent than the metaphysis. Here we present a case of a biopsy proven GCTB initially incidentally seen on MRI as a small strictly metaphyseal lesion, which over the course of several years expanded across a closed physis to involve the epiphysis and abut the articular surface/subchondral bone plate.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Aug 2016 09:41:17 +000
- Fatal Meningitis in a 14-Month-Old with Currarino Triad
Abstract: We report a case of a 14-month-old girl with undiagnosed Currarino triad presenting acutely with meningitis caused by enteric commensals. Head CT demonstrated a large pneumocephalus. A fistulous neurenteric tract through a presacral mass was present on spine MRI and abdominal CT. The patient had a history of constipation for the last three months. However, an underlying diagnosis of Currarino triad had not been suspected. In retrospect, a sickle-shaped sacral anomaly was present on a previous abdominal radiograph. The patient succumbed to complications of meningitis. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the potentially fatal complication of Currarino triad and sensitize radiologists to look actively for sacral anomalies on abdominal radiographs, especially of children with chronic constipation.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 10:49:29 +000
- MRI Findings of Syndrome of Acute Bilateral Symmetrical Basal Ganglia
Lesions in Diabetic Uremia: A Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: The syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions is an uncommon clinical occurrence exhibiting acute onset of movement abnormalities, which can be seen almost exclusively among patients with chronic renal failure, especially in the setting of concurrent diabetes mellitus. Symmetrical lesions located in basal ganglia demonstrated in MRI are typical manifestation of this syndrome. Our study includes routine MRI examination, MRS, 3D-ASL, and SWI findings, which have been rarely reported and will contribute to diagnosing more cases about this syndrome.
PubDate: Sun, 17 Jul 2016 12:32:45 +000