Case Reports in Pathology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-6781 - ISSN (Online) 2090-679X
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Paravertebral Well-Differentiated Liposarcoma with Low-Grade
Osteosarcomatous Component: Case Report with 11-Year Follow-Up,
Radiological, Pathological, and Genetic Data, and Literature Review
Abstract: Despite being one of the most frequent soft-tissue sarcomas, well-differentiated liposarcoma has never been reported near the spine. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive history of back pain. Physical examination revealed a mass located within the right paravertebral muscles. MR and CT imaging showed a heavily ossified central mass surrounded by a peripheral fatty component. No connection with the underlying bone was detected on imagery and during surgery. After surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed a tumor harboring combined features of well-differentiated liposarcoma and low-grade osteosarcoma. Tumor cells displayed overexpression of MDM2, CDK4, and P16 by immunohistochemistry and CGH revealed amplification of 12q13-15 as the only genetic imbalance. MDM2 FISH analysis was performed but was inconclusive. The pathological, immunohistochemical, and genetic features, the differential diagnoses, and the therapeutic management of this unusual tumor are discussed. No complementary treatment was performed initially. Following first treatment, two recurrences occurred 6 and 9 years later, both displaying histological features similar to the first occurrence. Radiotherapy was started after the second recurrence. Follow-up shows no evidence of disease 11 years after initial diagnosis. This case was unusual due to the paravertebral location of the tumor and its divergent differentiation.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Report of 2 Cases
Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma is malignant tumor that exceptionally occurs in the uterine cervix. It is mostly seen in postmenopausal women and has an aggressive clinical course. We report two cases of an adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with a high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and discuss briefly its clinical and pathological characteristics.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Revisiting Cementoblastoma with a Rare Case Presentation
Abstract: Cementoblastoma is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which is characterized by the proliferation of cellular cementum. Diagnosis of cementoblastoma is challenging because of its protracted clinical, radiographic features, and bland histological appearance; most often cementoblastoma is often confused with other cementum and bone originated lesions. The aim of this article is to overview/revisit, approach the diagnosis of cementoblastoma, and also present a unique radiographic appearance of a cementoblastoma lesion associated with an impacted tooth.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 07:37:55 +000
- An Unusual Clinical Presentation of Solitary Fibrous Tumor in the Oral
Abstract: Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin that usually affects the pleura. This rarity becomes more relevant in the oral cavity since the clinical features are nonspecific. A 66-year-old female patient presented with a 3-month history of a swelling in the floor of the mouth, measuring 2 cm in greatest diameter, and pain symptomatology. Occlusal and panoramic radiographs showed no bone involvement. Ultrasonography of the submandibular and parotid salivary glands revealed normal morphology, dimensions, and echogenicity. During this exam, a nodular image of low echogenicity measuring about 2.7 × 1.8 cm was detected. An excisional biopsy was performed and histopathological analysis revealed a well-defined tumor-like lesion with alternation between hypercellular areas without a defined pattern and hypocellular areas. On immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for CD34 and CD99 and negative for α-SMA, S-100, and bcl-2. Combining the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis was solitary fibrous tumor. The patient is under periodical clinical follow-up and shows no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgical excision of the tumor. The combination of clinical-pathological and immunohistochemical features is necessary for the diagnosis.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:12:13 +000
- Urachal Tumor: A Case Report of an Extremely Rare Carcinoma
Abstract: The urachus is a tubular structure that connects the bladder to the allantois in the embryonic development, involuting after the third trimester. The urachus carcinoma is an extremely rare tumor that accounts for
PubDate: Wed, 22 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Retiform Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor in a 38-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report,
Retrospective Review, and Review of Current Literature
Abstract: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors arise from the stromal cells that surround and support the oocytes. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors belong to this category of ovarian neoplasms. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman who was found to have a right ovarian mass. The mass was resected and diagnosed as Stage I Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, retiform variant, following histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination. This case is unusual given the rarity of the retiform variant of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and the atypically older age of 38 years at presentation.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Unusual Thyroid Follicular-Like
Abstract: We describe a primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor of a 57-year-old Thai woman who presented in 2004 with a suspicious mass in the left hepatic lobe. She underwent left hepatectomy for the 10.5-cm mass, called intermediate grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin, likely metastatic. The tumor recurred in 2007, then called recurrent primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor (PHNET), and the patient underwent liver transplant. Because of similarity between the neuroendocrine tumor and a thyroid tumor—specifically, follicular-like characteristics—immunohistochemical stains for thyroglobulin, TTF1, and calcitonin were performed. However, all were negative. All imaging studies revealed no evidence of a primary lesion other than the liver mass. In 2008, the patient’s liver transplant failed because of ischemic cholangiopathy, and she underwent a second liver transplant. Seven years later, in 2015, she presented with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of intermediate grade to the lung, consistent with metastatic PHNET. She underwent left upper-lobe wedge resection to remove the tumor. The patient is alive with no evidence of disease at 13 years after initial diagnosis. This rare variant of PHNET had thyroid-like morphologic characteristics but there is no evidence of primary thyroid tumor or thyroid markers in the primary and recurrent hepatic tumors and lung metastasis.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma, a Histological Challenge
Abstract: Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare adnexal tumor of the skin with low-grade cytological features and neuroendocrine differentiation. It has a predilection for the skin of the eyelid, but has also been reported in the face and rarely extra-facial locations. The tumor is seen more frequently in women and on average affects the elderly. It is histologically and immunohistochemically analogous to solid papillary carcinoma of the breast/endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ with a nodular, solid, papillary, and/or cribriforming architecture, neuroendocrine differentiation, and mucin production. Since it was first described by Flieder et al. in 1997, less than 60 cases have been reported in literature. We describe the morphological and immunohistochemical features of another case with a review of the common histological differential diagnoses and emphasize the salient features that help distinguish this rare neoplasm.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Synchronous Seminoma in Abdominopelvic and Inguinal Testes: A Rare
Presentation with Unusual Morphology
Abstract: The development of testes occurs in the abdomen during fetal life, after which they migrate into the scrotal sacs during the third trimester. During their descent, they may get arrested anywhere along the tract. Risk of testicular cancer is higher in patients with undescended testes, abdominal testis being more prone than inguinal. Seminoma is the commonest cancer in undescended testis. However, synchronous seminoma involving bilateral cryptorchid testis is rare. Present case is uncommon due to synchronous involvement of abdominopelvic and inguinal testes in extended age. It also exhibited unusual morphology with marked heterogeneity grossly as well as microscopically, instead of a common homogenous appearance.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Feb 2017 13:37:22 +000
- Lipomatous/Extensively Vacuolated Ependymoma with Signet-Ring Cell-Like
Appearance: Analysis of a Case with Extensive Literature Review
Abstract: “Lipomatous” and “extensively vacuolated” are descriptive captions that have been used to portray a curious subset of ependymomas distinctively bearing cells with a large vacuole pushing the nucleus to the periphery and, thus, simulating a signet-ring cell appearance. Here, we would like to report the first ependymoma of this kind in a Latin American institution. A 16-year-old boy experienced cephalea during three months. Magnetic resonance imaging scans showed a left paraventricular tumour which corresponded to anaplastic ependymoma. Intriguingly, it was also composed of cells with single or multiple hollow cytoplasmic vacuoles sometimes giving a signet-ring cell-like configuration. Immunolabeling of these showed membrane positivity for GFAP, PS100, and CD99, while Ki-67 expression was null. Ultrastructural examination of retrieved paraffin-embedded tissue showed the presence of scarce microlumina filled with microvilli but failed to demonstrate any content in such optically empty vacuoles as only scant granulofibrillary debris was observed. A schism prevails at present regarding these unusual morphological variants, being either “lipomatous” or “vacuolated” based mainly on the EMA immunoprofile. This, however, is a misappropriate approaching. Could it be that perhaps we are dealing with the same histopathological entity or it may simply happen that fixation and artefacts cannot allow for their proper identification?
PubDate: Tue, 14 Feb 2017 06:09:56 +000
- Primary Clear Cell Microcystic Adenoma of the Sinonasal Cavity:
Pathological or Fortuitous Association?
Abstract: Primary clear cell microcystic adenoma of the sinonasal cavity is rare. It has previously been described only as a VHL-associated tumour. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an inherited cancer syndrome characterised by an elevated risk of neoplasia including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), haemangioblastoma, and phaeochromocytoma. We describe the second reported case of a primary clear cell microcystic adenoma of the sinonasal cavity. The 39-year-old patient with VHL syndrome had previously undergone resection and ablation of ccRCC. He presented with epistaxis. Imaging demonstrated a mass in the ethmoid sinus. Initial clinical suspicion was of metastatic ccRCC. However, tumour morphology and immunoprofile were distinct from the previous ccRCC and supported a diagnosis of primary microcystic adenoma. Analysis of DNA extracted from sinonasal tumour tissue did not show loss of the wild-type allele at the VHL locus. Although this did not support tumour association with VHL disease, it was not possible to look for a loss-of-function mutation. The association of primary microcystic adenoma of the sinonasal cavity with VHL disease remains speculative. These lesions are benign but are likely to require regular surveillance. Such tumours may require repeated surgical excision.
PubDate: Sun, 05 Feb 2017 07:44:29 +000
- Plasmacytoid Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder Metastatic to the
Duodenum: A Case Report—Diagnostic Relevance of GATA3
Abstract: Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma (PUC) of the urinary bladder is a rare and aggressive subtype of urothelial carcinoma. Its deceptive morphology is characterized by a discohesive growth of cells with plasmacytoid morphology. Since this tumor might be confused with plasmacytoma, lymphoma, or carcinoma variants, appropriate diagnosis in small biopsy samples could be challenging. This study reports the case of a 53-year-old man who presented with frequent nocturnal urgency, without hematuria. A transurethral bladder and a prostate resection specimen displayed infiltration of neoplastic cells in a spray-like discohesive pattern with occasional formation of small irregular nests and cord-like arrangements. The basic morphology of the tumor cells was plasmacytoid, with eccentric nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumor cells grew through the lamina muscularis mucosae, with splintering of the bladder wall musculature and infiltration of prostatic tissue. They displayed strong and diffuse nuclear reactivity for p53 and GATA3. Eight months after surgery, the patient experienced upper abdominal discomfort. A duodenal biopsy showed infiltration of plasmacytoid atypical cells strongly immunoreactive for GATA3, consistent with the previously diagnosed PUC. The patient died eleven months after the primary diagnosis of his PUC of tumor cachexia losing about 50% of his original body weight, furthermore, with ascites and intraperitoneal tumor spread.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 09:12:02 +000
- Newly Diagnosed Colonic Adenocarcinoma: The Presenting Sign in a Young
Woman with Undiagnosed Crohn’s Disease in the Absence of Primary
Sclerosing Cholangitis and a Normal Microsatellite Instability Profile
Abstract: Ulcerative colitis has long been linked with an increased risk for colonic adenocarcinoma, whereas Crohn’s disease (CD) has recently been reported to pose a similar increased risk. We report a 33-year-old healthy female with no family history who presented with abdominal pain and a colon mass. Histopathology revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma extending through the muscularis propria with metastatic lymph nodes and intact mismatch repair proteins by immunohistochemical expression and gene sequencing. The nonneoplastic grossly uninvolved background mucosa showed marked crypt distortion, crypt abscesses, CD-like lymphoid hyperplasia, transmural inflammation, and reactive epithelial atypia. Additional patient questioning revealed frequent loose stools since she was a teenager leading to diagnosis of a previously undiagnosed CD without primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The adenocarcinoma is suspected to be related to the underlying CD. Newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma in a young female as the presenting sign for CD in the absence of PSC is extremely rare.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Myxoid Plexiform Fibrohistiocytic Tumor Masquerading as Ganglion Cyst: A
Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: Background. Plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor is a distinctive mesenchymal neoplasm of low-grade malignancy, with the capacity for biphasic differentiation toward a fibroblastic or histiocyte-like morphology. Clinically, these lesions affect different areas of the body and appear as painless, slowly growing, dermal or subcutaneous masses. To date, only three cases of myxoid variant have been reported in the English literature. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old female patient presented with a subcutaneous nodule in the right popliteal fossa. The initial impression was a benign ganglion cyst. The soft tissue tumor has been treated by local excision. The histopathological and the immunohistochemical findings supported the diagnosis of myxoid plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient received regular follow-up examination. She is alive without any recurrence. Conclusions. This case demonstrates how to distinguish this distinctive plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumor from other problematic soft tissue tumors. It is also remarkable for its rarely reported extensive myxoid change. Currently, there is no clear-cut correlation between the clinicopathologic findings and the behavior of this unusual variant.
PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Two Different Cell Populations Is an Important Clue for Diagnosis of
Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Immunohistochemical Study
Abstract: Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a very rare malignancy. The differential diagnosis of PCACCs in pathology practice can be difficult and a group of primary and metastatic lesions, including adenoid basal cell carcinoma of the skin, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Besides histomorphological clues, immunohistochemistry studies are very helpful in the differential diagnosis of PCACC. We report herein a case of PCACC with extensive immunohistochemical studies and review the literature from an immunohistochemistry perspective.
PubDate: Tue, 24 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Cyanoacrylate Associated Foreign Body Granulomatous Gastritis: A Report of
Abstract: Granulomas are rarely seen in gastric biopsies mostly as an involvement of granulomatous diseases like sarcoidosis, Crohn’s disease, infections, neoplasms, and vasculitis. Here, we claim cyanoacrylate as a foreign body type granuloma-causing agent in the stomach after vascular embolisation. We present cyanoacrylate associated gastric changes of three cases: two endoscopic biopsies and one gastric resection. In two cases, cyanoacrylate associated ulcers and granulomatous inflammation were observed in gastric mucosal biopsies following endoscopic examination after 7 months and 6 years of the glue injections, respectively. In the third case, the cyanoacrylate injection was performed 2 months prior to the surgery. Then the patient underwent distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma and during the operation a gastric mass was resected with a suspicion of tumoral infiltration. These three cases demonstrated that glue exposure causes active chronic inflammation with foreign body type granulomas, mucosal ulceration, and bleeding in the gastric mucosa. Even further, it can induce mass formation in the injection sites.
PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Dysgenetic Polycystic Disease of Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report
and Review of the Literature
Abstract: Polycystic (dysgenetic) disease of the salivary glands is a rare entity that has only recently been described in the literature. The disease is more commonly seen in females and majority of the cases have presented as bilateral parotid gland swellings. This case presenting in a 21-year-old male is the first of this unusual entity involving solely the minor salivary gland on the lower lip. This case report highlights the importance for the clinician to be aware of this differential diagnosis, when treating an innocuous lesion like a mucocele.
PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Coexistence of Juvenile-Like Polyp with Neurofibroma at the
Gastroesophageal Junction in an Adult with Neurofibromatosis Type I
Abstract: A 23-year-old Caucasian male with Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF-I) was found to have a submucosal nodule at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection. Histological examination revealed two different lesions within the nodule. The dominant lesion was inflammatory/hyperplastic (juvenile-like) polyp with obliterative vasculopathy while the smaller lesion was a neurofibroma. Gastric/GEJ lesions in NF-I are very rare with only seven cases reported in the literature. Three cases of juvenile-like gastric polyps (located in the antrum, greater curvature, and fundus) have been reported in adult NF-I patients. An inflammatory polyp associated with a neurofibroma has only been described once in the pediatric literature but never in an adult. Our case is unique from those previously described in the literature due to the age of the patient, the presence of 2 histologically separate lesions in one endoscopically evident lesion, and the presence of obliterative vasculopathy in the juvenile-like polyp.
PubDate: Thu, 12 Jan 2017 08:46:00 +000
- Warty Carcinoma Penis: An Uncommon Variant
Abstract: Penile carcinoma frequency varies widely in different parts of the world and comprises 1–10% of all the malignancies in males. Majority of the cases of penile carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma of penis comprising 60% to 70% of all cases. Warty carcinoma of penis is an unusual neoplasm and a variant of penile squamous cell carcinoma comprising 5%–10% of all the variants. The other histological variants include basaloid, verrucous, papillary, sarcomatous, mixed, and adenosquamous carcinoma. The various histological entities with an exophytic papillary lesions including warty carcinoma are together referred to as the “verruciform” group of neoplasms. The warty carcinoma has to be differentiated from these lesions and is typically distinguished by histological features of hyperkeratosis, arborescent papillomatosis, acanthosis, and prominent koilocytosis with nuclear pleomorphism. We present a case of 65-year-old male with growth measuring cm in the penis who underwent total penectomy and was diagnosed as warty carcinoma penis.
PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- A Rare Tumor with a Very Rare Initial Presentation: Thymic Carcinoma as
Bone Marrow Metastasis
Abstract: Tumors of thymus gland are rare and account for 0.2% to 1.5% of all the neoplasms. They constitute a heterogeneous group that has an unknown etiology and a complex as well as varied biology. This has led to difficulty in their histological classification and in predicting their prognostic and survival markers. Among them, thymic carcinoma is the most aggressive thymic epithelial tumor exhibiting cytological malignant features and a diversity of clinicopathological characteristics that can cause diagnostic dilemmas, misdiagnosis, and therapeutic challenge. We herein describe a case of a 60-year-old man who while undergoing evaluation for the cause of pancytopenia was discovered having bone marrow metastasis from an asymptomatic thymic carcinoma. Bone marrow metastasis is an extremely rare initial presentation of thymic carcinoma with only few cases reported in the literature.
PubDate: Mon, 02 Jan 2017 12:19:17 +000
- A Rare Case of Extramedullary T/Myeloid Mixed Phenotype Acute Leukemia
Abstract: Mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL) is a rare neoplasm which accounts for 2–5% of all leukemias and it is classified under heading of acute leukemia of ambiguous lineage in 2008 WHO classification. This patient was a 61-year-old man who presented with malaise and weakness. In physical examination there was cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy. Paraclinical evaluation revealed anemia (Hb = 10.3 g/dL, MCV = 108 fl). Histologic sections of the axillary lymph node revealed leukemic involvement with two discrete populations of cells in immunohistochemistry. One population was immunoreactive for MPO and the other showed immunostaining for CD3, CD99, and tdt. Differential count of bone marrow cells in marrow aspirate had 6% blast. Karyotype study on bone marrow culture depicted an interesting finding which was t(1;5)(q23;q33). An extensive search on literature was done for the same genetic change. A similar translocation has been mentioned in literature for other hematologic malignancies but not for same neoplasm; anyhow this translocation was an imbalanced one and led to der(5)t(1;5)(q12-25;q13-q35).
PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 12:02:57 +000
- A Nonpalpable Nodule in Ectopic Axillary Breast Tissue: Consider Phyllodes
Abstract: Benign and malignant pathology can develop in ectopic axillary breast tissue, such as fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumors, and breast cancer. We present a rare case of an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman with an axillary nodule which was identified during screening mammography within ectopic axillary breast tissue, initially considered as a suspicious lymph node. Radiologic studies were considered as Breast Imaging-Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) 4. A hyperdense, lobular, and well-circumscribed nodule was identified in mammogram while the nodule by ultrasound (US) was hypoechoic with indistinct microlobular margins, without vascularity by Doppler, and measuring cm. Core-needle biopsy reported a fibroepithelial neoplasm. The patient was submitted to local wide-needle excision located in intraoperative radiography of the surgical specimen and margin evaluation. Final histopathological study reported a cm benign phyllodes tumor, with irregular, pushing, and clear wide margins within normal ectopic breast tissue. The patient without surgical complications continued annual screening without recurrence during a follow-up that took place 24 months later.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Dec 2016 06:15:45 +000
- A Foregut Duplication Cyst of the Stomach in Association with a
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and a Leiomyoma: A Case Report
Abstract: Objectives. Duplication cysts are rare benign lesions usually arising in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman with an incidental gastric mass found on computed tomography during a pregraft workup for a familial cardiomyopathy. Methods. The mass was completely excised by partial gastrectomy and gross examination revealed a cystic lesion containing two small solid nodules in its wall. Microscopic evaluation and immunohistochemistry study were performed to further characterize the cyst and the nodules. A comprehensive literature review of the NCBI database PubMed was also carried out. Results. While the cyst was diagnosed as a foregut duplication cyst, the solid nodules proved to be concomitant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and leiomyoma. Both morphologic features and immunohistochemistry stains, including CD117, smooth muscle actin, and CD34 supported the diagnosis. Clinical course was benign and the patient had no clinical evidence of relapse ten months following the surgical procedure. The literature search did not reveal any other published case of a foregut duplication cyst presenting in combination with a GIST and a leiomyoma. Conclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a composite lesion comprising a foregut duplication cyst of the stomach along with a leiomyoma and a GIST.
PubDate: Wed, 21 Dec 2016 13:52:58 +000
- Lipomatous Hypertrophy of the Atrial Septum in a Patient Undergoing
Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
Abstract: Background. Lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum (LHAS) is a rare entity characterized by mass-forming deposition of fatty tissue within the atrial septum. To date,
PubDate: Mon, 19 Dec 2016 12:31:11 +000
- Unusual Presentation of Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Mandible
Abstract: Carcinoma arising primarily from the jaw is a locally aggressive lesion with poor prognosis. Primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) lesion develops either de novo remnants of odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic cyst/tumor, epithelium remnants, or/and salivary gland residues. We describe very interesting case of primary intraosseous carcinoma of mandible. This extensive lesion was sent for oncological opinion and further management. Due to the uncertainty of diagnostic criteria of PIOC, only few cases of this lesion with a typical presentation have been reported. This article presents a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma with a unique appearance and detailed review stating its clinicopathological correlation.
PubDate: Mon, 19 Dec 2016 11:33:33 +000
- Undifferentiated Malignant Neoplasm Involving Parotid and Thyroid:
Sampling and PAX8 Cross-Reactivity Can Obscure the Diagnosis of Lymphoma
Abstract: Poorly differentiated malignant neoplasia arising within the head and neck region may originate from diverse sources. We report a case of a cytologically undifferentiated malignant neoplasm clinically presenting as masses involving thyroid and parotid. Although PAX8 was immunoreactive and thus worrisome for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, the tumor was eventually proven to represent PAX5 positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma expressing cross-reactivity with polyclonal PAX8 antibody. Cross-reactivity between commercially available polyclonal PAX8 and PAX5 immunostains has been described in the literature but is not widely known, and it is a potential pitfall for making a misdiagnosis. This distinction can have importance in selection of subsequent clinical therapy and should be considered in choice of immunohistochemical stains for diagnostic purposes.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 13:32:04 +000
- Dendritic Fibromyxolipoma of the Pyriform Sinus: A Case Report and Review
of the Literature
Abstract: Dendritic fibromyxolipoma is a rare and distinctive soft tissue neoplasm that is considered by many authors as a variant of spindle cell lipoma and characterized by the presence of dendritic cytoplasmic processes, plexiform vascular pattern, and keloidal collagen. It has never been reported in the larynx and hypopharynx. Its rarity and the potential to mistake it as a more clinically aggressive myxoid soft tissue neoplasm highlight the importance of its recognition. Here, a case of a dendritic fibromyxolipoma of the pyriform sinus in a 38-year-old male who presented with dysphagia, change of voice, and stridor is reported. A review of the literature, including histopathologic features and differential diagnosis, is also included.
PubDate: Sun, 18 Dec 2016 07:44:14 +000
- Oral Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia Associated with an
Organizing Thrombus: Case Report and Immunohistochemical Analysis
Abstract: Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) is a benign lesion of the skin and mucosa of vascular origin characterized by reactive proliferation of endothelial cells. A 76-year-old woman was referred presenting a painless nodule on the lip. Intraoral examination revealed bluish submucosal nodular proliferation, measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm, affecting the lower labial mucosa. The lesion had a firm consistency and it was not fixed to the adjacent tissues. The main differential diagnoses were mucocele/mucus retention cyst, sialolith, or salivary gland neoplasia. An incisional biopsy was performed and during the intraoperative procedure an encapsulated red-bluish nodular mass was observed. Microscopic analysis revealed papillary endothelial proliferation in the center of the lesion and fibrin admixed with inflammatory cells in organization peripherally. There was no nuclear atypia, mitotic figures, or necrosis. The endothelial cells were CD34 positive, with low Ki-67 proliferation index (4%). α-SMA highlighted the vessel walls, whereas negativity for D2-40 excluded lymphatic origin. Final diagnosis was IPEH associated with an organizing thrombus. Dentists should be aware about this rare benign vascular lesion, whose final diagnosis is achieved only after histopathology analysis. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice and no recurrence is expected.
PubDate: Wed, 07 Dec 2016 13:40:55 +000
- Polypoid Carcinoma of the Oropharynx with Stromal Ossifying
Myofibroblastic Proliferation: A Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: A 76-year-old man reported a worsening difficulty in swallowing, leading to the inability to eat. Physical examination and CT scan revealed a polypoid mass on the posterior oropharynx and obstructing the oropharyngeal space. Histologically, the surface was ulcerated. In the underlying necrotic rim, there was active granulation tissue, and a proliferation of voluminous, globoid elements with hyperchromatic and irregular nucleus, sometimes arranged in a alveolar aggregate. The core of the lesion contained spindle-like myoid elements in interwoven bundles, with trabeculae of osteoid matrix maturing into calcified bone. Immunohistochemistry documented positivity for cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and P63 in the globoid elements beneath the necrotic rim; strong and diffuse expression of vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and CD99 and BCL2 in the spindle elements; and complete negativity for cytokeratin 5/6, high molecular weight cytokeratin (clone 34βE12), S100, muscle-specific actin, desmin, CD117, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. The lesion was morphologically and immunophenotypically classified as a polypoid oropharyngeal carcinoma with ossifying myofibroblastic stromal proliferation.
PubDate: Mon, 05 Dec 2016 14:20:54 +000
- Intrathyroidal Clear Cell Tumor of Parathyroid Origin with Review of
Abstract: Water-clear cell adenoma (WCCA) of the parathyroid gland is an exceedingly rare neoplasm. To date, 17 cases have been reported in the literature, with only one of them being intrathyroidal. Here we report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented for evaluation of a goiter and was found to have a thyroid nodule and abnormal thyroid function tests (TFT). Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule revealed thyroid follicular cells without atypia and subsequent Afirma® Gene Expression Classifier (GEC) testing results were suspicious for malignancy. As a result, the patient underwent a right thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy. Histological sections revealed an intrathyroidal nodule consistent with a clear cell neoplasm of parathyroid origin. The histologic appearance together with the immune profile was diagnostic of WCCA, with diffuse positivity for GATA3, focal weak positivity for parathyroid hormone, and negativity for PAX8, thyroglobulin, TTF1, synaptophysin, chromogranin, and S100p. Our study focuses on the clinical presentation, current management strategies, and review of the available literature surrounding this rare diagnosis. The ultimate goal is to help endocrinologists and surgeons establish a foundational treatment plan for intrathyroidal clear cell tumor cases.
PubDate: Sun, 27 Nov 2016 11:14:17 +000