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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 339 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 74)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 196)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Number of Followers: 3  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-6722 - ISSN (Online) 2090-6730
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Corneal Cross-Linking Window Absorption (CXL-WA) as an Adjuvant Therapy in
           the Management of Aspergillus niger Keratitis

    • Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness of corneal cross-linking window absorption (CXL-WA) as an adjuvant therapy for Aspergillus keratitis. Methods. A 90-year-old male came to our clinic complaining of hyperemic conjunctivitis and progressive visual loss in the right eye. Slit-lamp examination showed keratic precipitates, severe corneal opacity, and stromal edema. Corneal scraping culture was positive for Aspergillus niger. Because the clinical condition did not sufficiently improve with antifungal therapy, the patient underwent CXL-WA as an adjuvant therapy. Results. During the first week after treatment, the Tyndall effect, corneal edema, and signs of ocular inflammation progressively lessened. At the third postoperative month, the cornea was stable without signs of fungal keratitis. However, after this period, a descemetocele appeared in the cornea (2 × 2 mm in diameter), so the patient underwent a corneal penetrating keratoplasty. Histological evaluation of the removed corneal tissue revealed the presence of hyphae and fungal infection. Conclusions. We reported a case of in vivo CXL-WA used as an adjuvant therapy for deep stromal Aspergillus keratitis. CXL did not completely eradicate the fungal infection which caused perforation 4 months after treatment and it still cannot be considered a definitive solution to mycotic keratitis, which maintains a poor long-term prognosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Combination of Surgical Techniques to Repair a Giant Traumatic Macular
           Hole

    • Abstract: A 38-year-old man with a traumatic full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) presented to our eye casualty department with a sudden deterioration of his right eye vision to hand movements over the past one week. The suspected traumatic FTMH was present since he was 13 years old from a direct impact of a golf ball in his right eye and his best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) has always remained at 1/60 Snellen vision. On examination, he had a very large FTMH measuring 1635 m with central foveal retinal detachment. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with large inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel flap, 5000 Cs silicone oil tamponade, and autologous platelets implantation was performed. Follow-up visits revealed that the FTMH was closed under silicone oil. The silicone oil was removed six months after the surgery and the FTMH remained close with the retina remaining attached. His BCVA was restored to his previous baseline level of 1/60 Snellen vision. With the advent of multiple techniques to repair FTMH such as the ILM flaps, we have combined this technique with older proven techniques such as silicone oil tamponade and autologous platelets implantation to close the giant traumatic FTMH. This case study demonstrates that combining techniques can help close a FMTH that is otherwise deemed impossible in the past.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Dec 2018 09:29:09 +000
       
  • Single-Stage Orbital Socket Reconstruction Using the Oversized Dermis Fat
           Graft and the 22 mm Silicone Orbital Implant after an Extended
           Enucleation

    • Abstract: We would like to present a surgical technique of orbital socket reconstruction using oversized dermis fat graft and 22 mm silicone orbital implant in a single-stage after extended enucleation in two patients with massive local recurrence of anteriorly located choroidal melanoma previously treated with endoresection. Orbital tissues en bloc were removed leaving conjunctival lining only at the fornices. Simultaneously, the 22 mm silicone sphere was implanted deeply into the orbit and covered with the oversized dermis fat graft of 30 mm in height and 35 mm in length with 20 mm of the fat thickness. The graft was sutured to the residual forniceal conjunctiva with interrupted 6/0 absorbable sutures overlapping conjunctiva with the graft edge for 2 mm to facilitate the epithelization. Epithelization was completed in two months, leaving well-formed fornices with good fitting of the prosthesis. The key point of orbital socket reconstruction after extended enucleation is to restore conjunctival lining prior to volume. Thus, whenever facing a massive volume and conjunctival lining loss, simultaneous insertion of the 22 mm silicone sphere deep into the orbit combined with oversized dermis fat graft is, in our opinion, the method of choice. It proved to be safe and effective with favourable long-term results.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Dec 2018 07:14:19 +000
       
  • Retinal and Preretinal Hemorrhages in a Patient Receiving Hyper-CVAD
           Chemotherapy for T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    • Abstract: Hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, and dexamethasone (Hyper-CVAD) is an important chemotherapeutic regimen for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. We present a case of a 23-year-old male with T-cell ALL and visual acuity of 20/20 in the right eye and 20/25 in the left eye who developed significant changes in his vision after starting Hyper-CVAD therapy. The patient initially presented with cotton wool spots in the fundus shortly after starting the regimen. After going through the induction phase of chemotherapy, he had a sudden decline in his vision to light perception in the left eye. Posterior segment exam revealed retinal ischemia and multilayered hemorrhages in both eyes as well as a large preretinal hemorrhage obscuring the fovea in the left eye. Labs associated the appearance of these hemorrhages with a significant decrease in hemoglobin and a platelet count of 5 K/μL. A Nd:YAG laser applied in the left eye at the posterior hyaloid face allowed blood to drain into the vitreous cavity and brought the patient’s visual acuity back to baseline. Hyper-CVAD is an aggressive chemotherapy regimen that can cause severe thrombocytopenia secondary to myelosuppression. Frequent retinal evaluations and timely intervention is advisable in these cases as extensive intraretinal hemorrhages may cause irreversible damage.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diagnosis of Vitreoretinal Aspergillosis with Transvitreal Retinochoroidal
           Biopsy

    • Abstract: Diagnosing culture-proven endophthalmitis is complicated by the insufficient yield of intraocular samples and the variety of etiologies which mimic true endophthalmitis. In cases of impending vision loss where vitreous biopsy cannot provide a definitive diagnosis, transvitreal retinochoroidal biopsy can be an effective next step. Our case is a 48-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that presented with counting fingers vision, redness, and tearing of the left eye. Exam showed cell and flare with hypopyon as well as dense vitritis. The patient underwent diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy and vitreous culture was negative at the time. Flow cytometry demonstrated no malignant cells. However, the patient’s vision and mental status continued to clinically decline despite being started on intravitreal and systemic antibiotic and antifungal therapy. Neuroimaging revealed rim-enhancing brain lesions. Transvitreal retinochoroidal biopsy was performed in an elevated area of the retina. The biopsy helped rule out malignancy and showed acute-angle, septate, branching hyphae characteristic of Aspergillus fumigatus. Ultimately, the vitreous biopsy, cultures, and a biopsy from the left frontal lobe brain abscess all confirmed this diagnosis as well. Transvitreal retinochoroidal biopsy can play a role in the diagnosis of a case of posterior uveitis and can be particularly effective in diagnosing a fungal endophthalmitis.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 09:10:40 +000
       
  • Bilateral Angle Narrowing and Acute Myopia Induced by Indapamide: A Case
           Report

    • Abstract: Purpose. To describe a clinical case of indapamide induced bilateral angle narrowing and acute myopia. Materials and Methods. Clinical case report. Results. A 37-year-old Caucasian emmetropic man presented to the Emergency Department with complaints of acute-onset bilateral blurry vision, nine days after starting treatment for arterial hypertension with a combination of indapamide and amlodipine. Clinical examination revealed the presence of myopia and appositional closure of the anterior chamber angle. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and mode B ultrasonography disclosed bilateral ciliochoroidal effusion with anterior rotation of the ciliary body and iridocorneal angle narrowing. After intraocular pressure control with brimonidine and timolol, and replacement of indapamide/amlodipine by amlodipine only, the patient was discharged. Complete resolution of the clinical manifestations was observed after three weeks, with no sequelae. Conclusions. Indapamide may cause acute myopia and angle closure secondary to ciliochoroidal effusion that are fully reversible after drug withdrawal, as long as timely diagnosis is established. Therefore, indapamide, as well as other sulfonamide-derived drugs, must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute myopia and angle closure.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 07:03:04 +000
       
  • Acute Onset of Exogenous Endophthalmitis after Dexamethasone Implant
           Injection Treated without Implant Removal

    • Abstract: We present a case of acute endophthalmitis after intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection and discuss the management of this rare and challenging case in which the implant could not be removed. A 50-year-old woman with a history of branch retinal vein occlusion in the right eye was treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection for macular oedema. Four days after injection, the patient was admitted to the department with acute pain, decreased vision, and redness. A diagnosis of acute post-intravitreal injection endophthalmitis was made. A 23-guage (23G) vitrectomy was performed immediately to remove the implant, and a vitreous tap for culture and polymerase chain reaction was acquired during the procedure. We were unable to remove the dexamethasone implant during the vitrectomy because of dense membrane formation. At the end of the procedure, we injected intravitreal antibiotics (vancomycin and amikacin), and the patient was treated with fortified topical antibiotics and steroids. At the time of writing, 5 years later, the patient retains a best corrected visual acuity of 10/10 (6/6) with dexamethasone implant therapy maintenance. Intravitreal dexamethasone implant-associated endophthalmitis is a rare and challenging condition. Immediate 23G pars plana vitrectomy, even without removal of the implant, can lead to favourable visual results.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Nov 2018 07:10:22 +000
       
  • Synchronous Surgical Treatment of Lower Eyelid Involutional Entropion and
           Ptosis

    • Abstract: Background. Involutional entropion and upper eyelid ptosis are common eyelid diseases in the elderly population. They represent a frequent cause of discomfort and often result in significant visual and functional impairment. The surgical management of these disorders includes various treatment options and techniques and is usually carried out in multiple time sessions. Case Report. We report the case of a 72 year old female patient, suffering from right eye involutional lower eyelid entropion and ptosis, who was treated synchronously for both conditions, by applying the lateral tarsal strip procedure and the levator resection technique. Conclusion. The synchronous treatment of involutional entropion and ptosis is an alternative treatment strategy, which could potentially improve surgical outcome, while reducing postoperative recovery time and treatment costs.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Nov 2018 10:05:27 +000
       
  • Bilateral Iris Mammillations in Amblyopic Eyes without Oculodermal
           Melanocytosis or Neurofibromatosis

    • Abstract: Purpose. Iris mammillations are related to oculodermal melanosis and iris nevi. We report a rare case of bilateral simple iris mammillations without ocular melanosis or systemic neuronal disorders. Case Report. A healthy 10-year-old Japanese girl was found incidentally to have bilateral iris mammillations while being treated for amblyopia. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in both eyes. Ocular examination showed evenly spaced, uniform-size, iris protrusions completely covering the iris surface bilaterally. There were no other ocular or neurological abnormalities. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral iris mammillations in Japan. Our case emphasizes that iris mammillations can occur even without ocular melanocytosis or systemic diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen Imaged with OCT Angiography

    • Abstract: This report describes the first case of extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen (EMAP) imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). A 58-year-old Caucasian man presented with decreased central vision in both eyes. Fundus examination showed large areas of macular atrophy centered on the fovea surrounded by diffuse reticular pseudodrusen. Spectral domain OCT (SDOCT) revealed outer retinal and choriocapillaris atrophy. OCTA demonstrated marked absence of choriocapillaris flow. Extensive macular atrophy with pseudodrusen is a rare clinical entity and a new extreme phenotype of macular degenerations that could shed more light on the role of pseudodrusen and choriocapillaris compromise in the pathogenesis of AMD.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 06:55:11 +000
       
  • Radiological-Pathological Correlation in Plasmablastic Lymphoma in an
           Immunocompromised Patient

    • Abstract: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a malignant, rare, and aggressive form of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with poor response to treatment that most commonly involves the oral mucosa of immunodeficient patients. The orbit might be primarily or secondarily involved; on the other hand other pathological conditions, i.e., fungal infections, may localize in the orbit in both immunocompromised patients and drug user, which might have similar radiological features. We describe the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of an orbital plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) in an immunocompromised HIV positive drug user patient.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Oct 2018 08:40:27 +000
       
  • Management of Congenital Clinical Anophthalmos with Orbital Cyst: A
           Kinshasa Case Report

    • Abstract: An early developmental lack of the optic vesicle can result in congenital anophthalmia, defined as a complete absence of the eye, which can be distinguished from congenital microphthalmos, where ocular rudiments are present. Here, a rare pediatric case of congenital clinical anophthalmos with orbital cyst in the left orbit is reported. The patient was a 14-month-old girl with no other congenital defects who underwent surgical and prothetic management in St. Joseph’s Hospital Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Surgery was carried out under general anesthesia. The cyst was punctured and its wall fully excised. Near the orbital apex pigmented elements representing iris, ciliary body, and choroidal or retinal remnants were found. The specimens were fixed in formalin for histological examination. Surgical cyst removal including socket deepening for an artificial eye was performed. Postoperative wound healing was uneventful and a satisfactory cosmetic outcome was achieved in all follow-up examinations. Histological examination revealed rudimentary ocular structures similar to degenerated lens tissue with a typical, PAS-positive capsule. Additionally, pigmented epithelial structures, which seem to be of ciliary body, iris, and choroidal or retinal-type epithelium origin, could be detected, prompting the final diagnosis, microphthalmia with dominant cyst formation.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Oct 2018 08:53:53 +000
       
  • Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy Associated with
           Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor and Hurthle Cell Tumor

    • Abstract: Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPEE) is a chorioretinal inflammatory disease of unknown origin. Patients usually present with a rapid loss of central/paracentral vision over the course of a week in both eyes. The fundus exhibits rapid appearance of multiple deep subretinal yellow-white, flat lesions at the RPE/choriocapillaris level. This in turn causes changes of both the ellipsoid zone and RPE which can result in permanent central vision loss. The pathogenesis is controversial but is associated with a recent viral illness and can involve the central nervous system with concern for cerebral vasculitis. Rare reports of APMPEE associated with systemic vasculitis such as Wegener’s granulomatosis and malignancy such as clear cell renal carcinoma have been reported. We report a case of APMPEE with concurrent diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and Hurthle cell tumor. While such association may well be coincidental, the near simultaneous presentation raised our suspicion for potential association.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Sep 2018 09:17:51 +000
       
  • Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Primary Immune Deficiency Disease

    • Abstract: Introduction. To report an unusual case of CMV retinitis in Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD). Case Report. 13-year-old child with combined T and B cell deficiencies was diagnosed of bilateral zone 1 CMV retinitis. Intravitreal injections were unable to be given in a regular and timely manner under general anaesthesia due to her underlying systemic disease. The child was treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 8 weeks until eventual resolution of the retinitis. However, visual acuity deteriorated due to progressive optic nerve involvement. Conclusion. Paediatric patients often do not notice subtle symptoms of CMV retinitis. Although ocular manifestations are uncommon in PIDD, recognition and high index of suspicion will allow for timely referral, diagnosis, and treatment to be instituted for better visual outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2018 09:22:28 +000
       
  • Occult Orbital Injury with Dagger Fragment with Resulting Pneumocephalus

    • Abstract: Penetrating injuries of the cranium are relatively uncommon, only 0.4% of all head injuries. In patients with disturbed conscious level, an extensive examination should be performed in the emergency unit to rule out transorbital penetrating brain injury. A 25-year-old male was attacked with a dagger. He presented with ethylic intoxication and the physical examination demonstrated a small skin injury on the lateral canthus of the left eye with a large periocular hematoma which prevented eyelid opening. Cranial CT scan showed a metallic intraorbital foreign body consisting of a fragment of a dagger which perforated the eyeball, and penetrated through the superomedial wall of the orbit into the anterior cranial fossa. Reconstruction of the eyeball was performed and the fragment was removed. Orbital injuries with a knife in situ are very unusual. Early identification and removal of retained foreign bodies are essential.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 06:30:57 +000
       
  • Spontaneous Macular Hole Closure after Valsalva Retinopathy and Nd:YAG
           Laser Treatment

    • Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this report is to present a case who had spontaneous macular hole closure after Nd:YAG laser membranotomy applied to premacular haemorrhage associated with Valsalva retinopathy. Methods. Case report. Results. A 19-year-old young male patient presented to our clinic with sudden vision loss in his right eye, which had occurred 2 weeks before, following push-up and sit-up exercise. The patient was found to have premacular haemorrhage associated with Valsalva retinopathy. Nd:YAG laser membranotomy was performed. During his follow-up at week 1, full-thickness MH was observed and he was put under observation. At month 6, his vision acuity improved, laser coagulation sites in the fundus disappeared, and macular hole closed spontaneously. Conclusion. Macular hole that develops after Nd:YAG laser treatment of Valsalva retinopathy may spontaneously be closed like in our case. However, there is a need for further research to understand the mechanism of closure.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 08:14:34 +000
       
  • Absent Foveal Pit, Also Known as Fovea Plana, in a Child without
           Associated Ocular or Systemic Findings

    • Abstract: The purpose of this report is to describe a case of bilateral foveal hypoplasia in the absence of other ophthalmological or systemic manifestations. We characterize the case of a 9-year-old Caucasian male who underwent full ophthalmologic examination, including functional measures of vision and structural measurements of the eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 0.50 logMAR in the right eye and 0.40 logMAR in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a lack of foveal reflex that was further investigated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed the absence of foveal depression (pit). OCT images demonstrated the abnormal structure of retina in a region in which we expected a fovea; these findings were decisive to determine the cause of reduced acuity in the child.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Topical Treatment with Cord Blood Serum in Glaucoma Patients: A
           Preliminary Report

    • Abstract: Purpose. To report data which happened to be observed in two glaucoma patients treated with Cord Blood Serum (CBS) eye drops. Design. A case report and retrospective data analysis. Methods. CBS topical eye drops, characterized in advance for growth factors (GFs) content, were administered for two months with the aim to relieve their subjective symptoms, in two patients who had referred ocular surface discomfort, although in absence of any sign of keratopathy. As patients were also affected by advanced glaucoma at risk of vision loss and under treatment with hypotensive drugs, they had been also monitored over the same period with IOP controls and visual field tests in our unit. Results. During subsequent visits, data from Mean Deviation and Pattern Standard Deviation in the visual fields were retrospectively collected and compared with before and after treatment with CBS, and an amelioration was observed. Conclusions. CBS contains a combination of GFs, which potentially exert a neuroprotective action and elect CBS as an interesting natural source to be delivered in neurodegenerative ocular disorders. The incidentally observed amelioration in these two patients deserves further investigation in this respect.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 07:59:49 +000
       
  • Intraocular Lymphoma or Infection' Subretinal Aspirate Confirms the
           Diagnosis

    • Abstract: Purpose. To demonstrate the importance of subretinal biopsy to reach a diagnosis when vitreous biopsy is negative or inconclusive. Methods. A 54-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with bilateral anterior uveitis at JCUH. He initially responded to topical steroids and dilating agents. Subsequently he developed bilateral panuveitis and cataract with poor response to treatment. Detailed workup had been done to rule out infectious etiology. A suspicion of lymphoma was considered and vitreous biopsy sample was taken from one eye, which was inconclusive. Then, to help with definitive diagnosis vitreous sample, subretinal aspirate and retinal biopsy were taken. Results. Subretinal aspirate revealed Aspergillus niger. Treatment was initiated accordingly. Conclusions. Subretinal aspirate and retinal biopsy can help with diagnosis of unusual clinical panuveitis like presentation.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 09:52:21 +000
       
  • Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography to Monitor Disease
           Progression in Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    • Abstract: We report two cases of peripheral ulcerative keratitis (PUK) imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The first patient had prolonged nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, while the second had inflammatory arthritis by laboratory findings without any systemic findings as well as possible concurrent tuberculosis. In both patients, AS-OCT demonstrated corneal thinning at the onset of the disease with improvement six months after initiation of intensive medical therapy. Our cases highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach and careful monitoring in PUK cases, especially with objective measures such as corneal thickness assessed with AS-OCT.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 07:16:46 +000
       
  • A Rare Case of Unilateral Morning Glory Disc Anomaly in a Patient with
           Turner Syndrome: Report and Review of Posterior Segment Associations

    • Abstract: Turner syndrome is a common sex chromosome disorder affecting females. The disorder is caused by a partial loss, complete absence, or structural abnormality of one X chromosome. The clinical presentation is broad and ranges from the classic phenotype to minimal clinical manifestations. Ocular abnormalities associated with the syndrome are common. Reports describing abnormal eye features in individuals with Turner syndrome generally involve refractive errors (myopia or hyperopia), strabismus, and external or anterior segment abnormalities including hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, and ptosis. Posterior ocular segment anomalies involving the optic nerve and retina in Turner syndrome have been rarely reported. We report a rare presentation of an 11-year-old female with Turner syndrome and unilateral morning glory disc anomaly.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Reconstruction of Photoreceptor Outer Layers after Steroid Therapy in
           Solar Retinopathy

    • Abstract: Purpose. To report the clinical course of solar retinopathy after steroid therapy. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old male gazed at the sun and noticed bilateral central scotoma and decreased vision after the episode. After 7 weeks from onset, ophthalmic examinations were firstly performed. Decimal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was decreased to 0.8 and 0.7 in the right and left eyes. Funduscopy showed a tiny, yellowish spot in the fovea bilaterally. Corresponding to the lesion, optical coherence tomography (OCT) images showed an elevated and blurred ellipsoid zone and loss of the interdigitation zone. A posterior sub-Tenon triamcinolone injection in the right eye and oral prednisolone therapy were performed as a medication. BCVA was improved to 1.2 and 1.0 in the right and left eyes at 9 weeks after medication. OCT images showed ellipsoid zone was gradually improved bilaterally, which became nearly normal at 4 weeks in the right eye and at 21 weeks in the left eye. The loss of the interdigitation zone remained at 12 weeks in the right eye and at 21 weeks at the left eye. Conclusions. We described a case with solar retinopathy who exhibited anatomical recovery of the photoreceptor outer layers by steroid therapy, started after 7 weeks from onset.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    • PubDate: Wed, 06 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Simultaneous Subconjunctival Triamcinolone and Bevacizumab Injections for
           Management of Blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in Children

    • Abstract: Purpose. To report the efficacy of subconjunctival triamcinolone (Kenalog A-40, Alcon) and bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech) injections in fraternal twins with blepharokeratoconjunctivitis (BKC) causing progressive, bilateral corneal neovascularization and scarring. Methods. In this retrospective observational case series, two three-year-old male twins with BKC had presented with bilateral red eyes, photophobia, and frequent blinking. Examination of each child showed bilateral deep stromal and superficial corneal neovascularization, corneal infiltrates, multiple follicles on the palpebral conjunctiva bilaterally with blepharitis, and thick turbid sebum expressed from the Meibomian glands. Their disease progressed despite conventional treatment. Both twins were managed with subconjunctival triamcinolone injection and subconjunctival bevacizumab injection of each eye. Results. The treatment resulted in improvement of symptoms, and examination over an 8-10-month period postinjections showed fading stromal corneal infiltrates, partially regressed corneal neovascularization, and reduced conjunctival injection without complications. Conclusion. This case series highlights the potential vision threatening complications of BKC. In addition to conventional management options, this report is the first published use of subconjunctival triamcinolone and bevacizumab injections for BKC in children in an attempt to minimize and improve corneal neovascularization and scarring and subsequently to retain useful vision.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Full Thickness Retinal Hole Formation after Nd:YAG Laser Hyaloidotomy in a
           Case with Valsalva Retinopathy

    • Abstract: A 27-year-old male was presented with a sudden onset of visual loss in his right eye. A secondary care center referred the patient with fundus photographs which were screened 4 days before and after the Nd: YAG laser hyaloidotomy treatment. Snellen acuity was 10/10 in both eyes. Fundus examinations revealed a retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) alteration at the margin of the inferior temporal arterial vascular arcade in the right eye and resolved preretinal and subretinal hemorrhages were seen in the macula. A diagnosis of Valsalva retinopathy was made based on the history and the treatment photographs of Nd:YAG laser hyaloidotomy. At month examination all hemorrhages were resolved but RPE alterations were still at the margin of the inferior temporal arterial vascular arcade. The optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images revealed 2 lesions. On en face OCT angiogram of OCTA full thickness retinal hole formation and ellipsoid zone damage at the superior and inferior margin of the inferior temporal arterial vascular arcade were seen. Superficial vascular plexus was also damaged at that region. The projection of the evacuation of blood from subhyaloid space and the full thickness retinal hole formation were the same, indicating that the partial and full thickness retinal holes were created by the laser treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 06:07:59 +000
       
  • Neurotrophic Keratopathy after Trigeminal Nerve Block for Treatment of
           Postherpetic Neuralgia

    • Abstract: Purpose. To report a case of persistent corneal epithelial defect that had occurred after a trigeminal nerve block. Case Presentation. A 75-year-old female had suffered from postherpetic neuralgia for 8 years. She underwent Gasserian ganglion block surgery and noticed declining visual acuity in the right eye on the following day. She presented with severe hyperemia and corneal epithelial defects in the right eye and experienced remarkable reduction of sensitivity in the right cornea. She was diagnosed with neurotrophic keratopathy. Ofloxacin eye ointment and rebamipide ophthalmic suspension ameliorated the corneal epithelial defects but superficial punctate keratopathy, corneal superficial neovascularization, and Descemet’s fold persisted. Although the epithelial defects occasionally recurred, the corneal sensation and epithelial defects, Descemet’s fold, and corneal superficial neovascularization all improved around 5 months after trigeminal nerve block. The HRT II Rostock Cornea Module (RCM) could not detect any corneal subbasal nerve fibers at postoperative 4 months; however, it could detect them at postoperative 6 months. Conclusions. As the nerve block effect wore off, the corneal subbasal nerve fibers slowly regenerated. As the corneal sensation improved, the corneal epithelial defects and superficial neovascularization also improved. The HRT II RCM appeared useful for observing loss and regeneration of the corneal subbasal nerve fibers.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multiple Retinal Holes Secondary to Valsalva Retinopathy

    • Abstract: Valsalva retinopathy is a common condition but retinal holes secondary to Valsalva retinopathy are rarely reported. The author believes this to be the first report to describe multiple retinal holes after hyaloidotomy for Valsalva retinopathy.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Therapeutic Effect of Anti-VEGF for Age-Related Macular Degeneration in
           the Untreated Fellow Eye

    • Abstract: Intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents have been reported to occasionally produce a therapeutic effect in the uninjected fellow eye. Here, three patients with bilateral neovascular age-related macular degeneration are presented. In all three patients, unilateral anti-VEGF injection resulted in bilateral reduction of macular thickness as measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 08:54:35 +000
       
  • Sequential Observations of Conversion from Nonischemic to Ischemic Central
           Retinal Vein Occlusion Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography

    • Abstract: We report the sequential changes of retinal vessels observed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in a case of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) that converted to ischemic CRVO. An 81-year-old woman visited our Retina Clinic because of visual acuity loss in the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed venous tortuosity and intraretinal hemorrhage in all four quadrants of the fundus. OCT showed macular edema. Fluorescein angiography (FA) and OCTA showed loss of small capillaries. Nonischemic CRVO was diagnosed. Antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment resolved the edema and improved visual acuity. However, during follow-up, capillary dropout was observed on OCTA, which gradually enlarged. Eventually, FA confirmed the conversion to ischemic CRVO. In this case, sequential observations using OCTA showed that nonischemic CRVO did not convert to ischemic CRVO abruptly but occurred stepwise. Additionally, vascular changes began around the veins and blood flow changes were observed more clearly in deep capillary plexus than in superficial capillary plexus.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Isolated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Orbit: A Case Report and Review
           of the Literature

    • Abstract: A 2-year-old male child presented with a painless progressive mass in the inferolateral aspect of right orbit of three-month duration. Differential leucocyte count revealed raised eosinophil count (13%). On radiological examination, CT scan showed 25 × 27 mm round well-defined smooth-outlined homogenously enhancing extraconal mass arising from the zygomatic bone at the inferotemporal periorbital area of right orbit with bone erosion. Histopathological examination of the incision biopsy revealed characteristic Langerhans cells and immunohistochemical studies were positive for S-100 protein and adenosine deaminase. A diagnosis of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) was made and PET-CT revealed no other foci of uptake anywhere else in the body. The patient received 12 cycles of vinblastine, 0.2 mg/kg body weight, along with oral prednisolone, 1 mg/kg body weight. On completion of three cycles of chemotherapy, a reduction in size of the mass was noticed. A repeat PET scan was done 3 months after completion of chemotherapy did not reveal any activity noted previously.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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