Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-6684 - ISSN (Online) 2090-6692
Published by Hindawi [334 journals]
- Endometriosis Nodule Causing Spontaneous Haemoperitoneum in Pregnancy: A
Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy (SHiP) due to endometriosis is a very rare condition and this is a case of a 41-year-old primigravida, who presented at 32 weeks with sudden onset of severe lower abdominal pain without any uterine activity. This was a dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy, following in vitro fertilisation for subfertility secondary to severe endometriosis. On admission, pain score was eight, with ten being the maximum of the scale. The vital signs were stable. Abdominal palpation revealed generalised tenderness with no guarding or palpable contraction. There was no evidence of bleeding and the cervical os was closed on speculum examination. The cardiotocograph (CTG) was pathological and a plan was made to deliver the babies with emergency caesarean section. Intraoperatively, there was massive haemoperitoneum which was managed successfully with the involvement of multidisciplinary input from general surgeons and urologists with optimum maternal and fetal outcome.
PubDate: Thu, 27 Apr 2017 06:35:31 +000
- Uterine Fibroid Torsion during Pregnancy: A Case of Laparotomic Myomectomy
at 18 Weeks’ Gestation with Systematic Review of the Literature
Abstract: Uterine myomas are the most common benign growths affecting female reproductive system, occurring in 20–40% of women, whereas the incidence rate in pregnancy is estimated from 0.1 to 3.9%. The lower incidence in pregnancy is due to the association with infertility and low pregnancy rates and implantation rates after in vitro fertilization treatment. Uterine myomas, usually, are asymptomatic during pregnancy. However, occasionally, pedunculated fibroids torsion or other superimposed complications may cause acute abdominal pain. There are many controversies in performing myomectomy during cesarean section because of the risk of hemorrhage. Nevertheless, the majority of indication arises before labor and delivery due to acute symptoms leading to a discussion regarding the need for intervention during pregnancy. Therefore, we present a case of successful multiple laparotomic myomectomy at 17 + 2 weeks of gestational age and a systematic review of the literature in order to clarify the approach to this pathologic condition and its effect on pregnancy outcome.
PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Peritoneal Keratin Granulomatosis Associated with Endometrioid
Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus in a Woman with Polycystic Ovaries: A
Potential Pitfall—A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Abstract: Peritoneal keratin granulomatosis is a rare condition included under granulomatous lesions of the peritoneum. It can be secondary to neoplasms of the female genital tract and can mimic carcinomatosis intraoperatively. A case of a 40-year-old woman with a history of polycystic ovaries and a chief complaint of vaginal bleeding is presented. She was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation in endometrial curettings. Intraoperatively, many peritoneal nodules were found, interpreted as peritoneal carcinomatosis. The woman underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and appendicectomy. Multiple biopsies were taken, as well as peritoneal washings. Microscopic examination revealed multiple keratin granulomas on the serosal surface of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, appendix, and omentum. Lymph node metastasis was not found. Peritoneal keratin granulomas (PKGs) have been reported in cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation of the uterine corpus, ovary, and atypical adenomyoma. It should be noted that the prognosis of cases of peritoneal keratin granulomas without viable tumor cells is favourable and that the histologic examination is essential for its diagnosis. We report a case of PKG in a patient with endometrial carcinoma with squamous differentiation, being the first in a woman with polycystic ovaries.
PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 08:30:12 +000
- Hemolysis, Elevated Liver Enzymes, and Low Platelets, Severe Fetal Growth
Restriction, Postpartum Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, and Craniotomy: A Rare
Case Report and Systematic Review
Abstract: Introduction. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome is a relatively uncommon but traumatic condition occurring in the later stage of pregnancy as a complication of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia. Prompt brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a multidisciplinary management approach are required to improve perinatal outcome. Case. A 37-year-old, Gravida 6, Para 1-0-4-1, Hispanic female with a history of chronic hypertension presented at 26 weeks and 6 days of gestational age. She was noted to have hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome accompanied by fetal growth restriction (FGR), during ultrasound evaluation, warranting premature delivery. The infant was delivered in stable condition suffering no permanent neurological deficit. Conclusion. HELLP syndrome is an uncommon and traumatic obstetric event which can lead to neurological deficits if not managed in a responsive and rapid manner. The central aggravating factor seems to be hypertension induced preeclamptic or eclamptic episode and complications thereof. The syndrome itself is manifested by hemolytic anemia, increased liver enzymes, and decreasing platelet counts with a majority of neurological defects resulting from hemorrhagic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To minimize adverse perinatal outcomes, obstetric management of this medical complication must include rapid clinical assessment, diagnostic examination, and neurosurgery consultation.
PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Bilateral Breast Metastases from Vulvar Carcinoma: A Case Report and
Abstract: Vulvar carcinoma is a rare disease that accounts for 3–5% of all gynecologic malignancies. Breast represents an unusual site of metastasis and only a few cases are reported. We describe the first case of bilateral metastatic breast carcinoma of vulvar origin, at an 80-year-old female patient. Six months after treatment of her primary disease, she presented with bilateral metastatic squamous cell breast carcinoma. Diagnosis was based on clinical, radiological, and histological facts. Breast although rare is another potential site of metastasis in vulvar cancer and thus mammary gland examination should be considered in the follow-up of these patients. Differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic lesions is of utmost importance for appropriate management.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Apr 2017 08:42:51 +000
- Hyperparathyroidism in Pregnancy Leading to Pancreatitis and Preeclampsia
with Severe Features
Abstract: Background. Hyperparathyroidism is underdiagnosed in pregnancy, yet early diagnosis is necessary for the potentially severe sequelae of hypercalcemia for both the woman and fetus. Case. A 31-year-old, gravida 3, para 0-0-2-0 at 32 weeks and 3 days of gestation, presented with preeclampsia with severe features concomitant with acute pancreatitis and known diabetes mellitus type 2. She was stabilized and delivered. In the postpartum period, her total calcium level remained elevated. Ionized calcium levels and parathyroid hormone levels were also elevated, and she was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Conclusion. Hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcemia are risk factors for pancreatitis. Women who develop pancreatitis during pregnancy are at increased risk of developing preeclampsia. If elevated serum calcium is noted, it should be confirmed with ionized calcium level and parathyroid hormones as ionized calcium levels are unaffected by pregnancy.
PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 06:29:49 +000
- Sequence and Timing of Intracranial Changes in Cytomegalovirus in
Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of intrauterine infection, occurring in up to 2% of all live births. Most women are asymptomatic or experience nonspecific symptoms, which can lead to long-term sequelae in newborns including neurological impairment, hearing loss, and mental retardation. A 41-year-old woman (G6 P2), with a medical history of epilepsy, presented for her routine anomaly scan at 20 + 4/40. A single finding of echogenic bowel was noted on ultrasound which prompted a full investigation. A repeat ultrasound only five days later demonstrated progressive changes, which included bilateral ventriculomegaly with oedema of the posterior ventricular wall, periventricular hyperechogenicity, and enlargement of the cisterna magna. CMV DNA was detected at amniocentesis. Ultrasound findings are not diagnostic for CMV with only 11–15% of at-risk fetuses being identified. Unfortunately, these findings may be the only indication of an abnormality. There is a well-documented lack of awareness surrounding CMV and screening is not routinely offered. Given the risk to the pregnancy of CMV and to subsequent pregnancies, simple education at the start of a pregnancy could significantly reduce the incidence of maternal CMV.
PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 06:52:33 +000
- Galactocele in the Axillary Accessory Breast Mimicking Suspicious Solid
Mass on Ultrasound
Abstract: Galactoceles are the most common benign breast lesions during breastfeeding period that can mimic carcinomas. We report a galactocele with malignant appearance on ultrasound in the accessory breast. The patient was a 32-year-old lactating woman presented to our hospital for considerable swelling in the left axilla. Ultrasound examination revealed a hypoechoic mass with heterogeneous echogenicity and irregular shape and margins. Sonography-guided aspiration was performed. Aspiration of milky fluid and resolution of the axillary lump after aspiration confirmed the diagnosis of galactocele. Galactocele can present as a suspicious tumoral lesion in the axillary accessory breast and diagnostic aspiration can help in correct diagnosis of this rare lesion in the accessory breast.
PubDate: Sun, 09 Apr 2017 09:58:42 +000
- Tumors Sharply Increased after Ceasing Pazopanib Therapy for a Patient
with Advanced Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: Experience of Tumor Flare
Abstract: Pazopanib has activity in patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. We report an advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma case that suddenly worsened after cessation of pazopanib therapy. A 47-year-old woman had a primary uterine leiomyosarcoma tumor and multiple lung metastases, which progressed during her initial treatment. In subsequent treatment with pazopanib for 3 months, the sum of her tumor diameters after cessation sharply increased for two weeks. Symptoms such as dyspnea suddenly worsened also. She died of the disease one month after cessation of pazopanib therapy. Given the poor prognosis of recurrent uterine leiomyosarcoma and the rapid tumor enlargement after ending pazopanib therapy, control of this disease is especially important. Therefore, the decision to discontinue pazopanib therapy requires careful consideration.
PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in Pregnancy: A Case Series
Abstract: Background. Abdominal pain during pregnancy has a broad differential diagnosis which includes spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH). There is scant literature available on optimal mode of delivery in stable patients. Cases. Patient 1 was a 35-year-old nullipara who presented at 36 weeks of gestation with left flank pain. Patient 2 was a 27-year-old multipara at 38 weeks who presented with left upper quadrant pain. Diagnosis of SAH was made by CT scan and both were managed with pain control, serial hemoglobin assessments, and abdominal exams resulting in uncomplicated vaginal deliveries. Conclusion. SAH, although rare, is an important consideration when evaluating abdominal and flank pain in pregnancy. Management options vary from conservative management to surgical intervention depending on the stability of the patient.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 06:20:50 +000
- Management of Liddle Syndrome in Pregnancy: A Case Report and Literature
Abstract: Liddle syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that causes hypertension and hypokalemia due to a gain-of-function mutation in the SCNN1B or SCNN1G genes which code for the epithelial sodium channel in the kidney. This leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption causing hypertension. We report a case of a 27-year-old pregnant woman who was admitted for hypertension and hypokalemia and later diagnosed and treated for Liddle syndrome using amiloride. Maintaining a high suspicion of Liddle syndrome in pregnancy is essential in such cases to be able to adequately and effectively treat the hypertension. Due to physiological effects of pregnancy, the dose of amiloride may need to be increased as gestational age progresses up to a maximum dose of 30 mg orally per day.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 07:54:12 +000
- Bilateral Sertoli Cell Tumors in a Patient with Androgen Insensitivity
Abstract: Androgen insensitivity syndrome is the most common cause of male pseudohermaphroditism and the third most common cause of primary amenorrhea. This genetic alteration is a consequence of inherited defects on the X chromosome causing total or partial damage to the intrauterine virilization process due to functional abnormalities in the androgen receptors. The present report describes a 22-year-old patient with a female phenotype and a 46, XY karyotype, presenting with bilateral inguinal tumors. The tumors were surgically removed at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Pathology revealed bilateral testicles with Sertoli cell tumors. According to the international literature, prophylactic gonadectomy following puberty is recommended due to the progressive risk of neoplastic transformation in the residual gonads.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Pneumoperitoneum Secondary to Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra
Abstract: Pyometra, by definition, is a collection of purulent fluid within the uterine cavity. Incidence has been estimated to range from 0.1% to 0.5%. Typically, this is linked to postmenopausal women; however, it has been linked to premenopausal women with concordant use of intrauterine devices. Based on our knowledge, there have been less than 50 recorded cases reported in the English literature regarding perforation of pyometra resulting in acute abdomen and fewer than 25 resulting in pneumoperitoneum. We report a patient who was evaluated for diffuse peritonitis caused by perforated pyometra who was successfully treated with surgical intervention.
PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Ultrasound, Echocardiography, MRI, and Genetic Analysis of a Fetus with
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Partial 11q Trisomy
Abstract: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a serious birth defect with a significant mortality and morbidity. The current and constant progress in ultrasound techniques has led to the improvement of the prenatal diagnosis of this malformation. CDH is a developmental defect whose etiology is heterogeneous and takes place when the pleuroperitoneal folds and septum transversum fail to converge and fuse. Survival depends on the extent of pulmonary hypoplasia and the disease may be potentially worsened by the presence of added congenital defects. 40% of CDH cases are associated with at least one additional anomaly. The ultrasound diagnosis is established with essential signs: loss of uniform echogenicity of lungs and marked mediastinal shift. We report the case of a fetus with isolated CDH diagnosed at 21 weeks of gestation by ultrasound and confirmed by RMI, whose genetic analysis of amniotic fluid cells identified a de novo partial trisomy of the long arm of chromosome 11. Different genetic causes have been associated with CDH. Moreover, it is expectable that the use of new techniques for prenatal diagnosis will reveal novel CNVs associated with CDH and will help us to estimate the recurrence risk for this defect as well as for other associated anomalies.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 07:30:44 +000
- Treatment of Endometrial Cancer in Association with Pelvic Organ Prolapse
Abstract: Background. Uterine malignancy coexistent with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is uncommon and standardized treatment is not established. The objective of this case study was to highlight the management of endometrial cancer in association with pelvic organ prolapse. Case Report. An 87-year-old woman presented with POP Stage IV combined with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: clinical Stage IV B. She had multiple medical conditions including stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. She was treated with radiotherapy and pessary was placed. Conclusion. Genital prolapse with abnormal uterine bleeding requires proper evaluation and management. Concurrent adenocarcinoma and POP can be a difficult clinical situation to treat, and optimum management is controversial.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Rare Epithelioid Leiomyoma of the Vagina Exhibiting a Pelvic Mass
Abstract: Epithelioid leiomyoma of the vagina is extremely rare. Smooth muscle tumors of the vagina usually present with a submucosal growth pattern or a pedunculated growth pattern from the anterior vaginal wall into the vaginal cavity. Here we report a case of a 43-year-old woman with a solid epithelioid leiomyoma and a palpable mass in the pouch of Douglas. Transvaginal biopsy and angiography showed the epithelioid leiomyoma feeding from the vaginal artery behind the posterior vagina. An abdominal wide excision of the tumor with a partial vaginectomy was performed. Our use of ultrasound-guided needle biopsy and angiography was useful for preoperative diagnosis of a vaginal epithelioid leiomyoma exhibiting a pelvic mass.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Term Abdominal Pregnancy Revealed by Amnioperitoneum in Rural Area
Abstract: Abdominal pregnancy (AP) accounts for 1% of ectopic implantations. In sub-Saharan Africa, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections explains the increasing frequency of this pathology. In Cameroon it rose from 1/10000 deliveries (1995) to 3.3/10000 (2015).
Authors herein report a case of a viable abdominal pregnancy discovered at term during emergency laparotomy for suspected uterine rupture. The 24-year-old G2P0 patient was HIV-positive, under antiretrovirals, though AP exceptionally occurs in HIV patients. She did only two antenatal consultations: her main complaint was abdominal pain but five echographies concluded to normal intrauterine pregnancy. Findings at laparotomy were as follows: amnioperitoneum, a live female baby weighing 3.4 kilogrammes without deformities and a placenta deeply inserted on the uterine fundus. Removal of the placenta triggered massive bleeding (2400 milliliters) with shock managed with a tourniquet on the lower uterine segment and fluid resuscitation. Outcome was favourable for the mother and child. Prevention of vertical transmission of HIV was successful with antiretroviral therapy.
PubDate: Sun, 26 Feb 2017 12:45:59 +000
- Cesarean Scar Endometriosis: An Uncommon Surgical Complication on the
Rise? Case Report and Literature Review
Abstract: Endometriosis is defined by the presence and growth of ectopic functional endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Scar endometriosis has been described following obstetrical and gynecological surgery. It is a rare condition, though probably on the rise, due to the considerable increase of cesarean sections performed worldwide. Its physiopathology is complex; its symptomatology is rich and diverse but thorough clinical examination along with ultrasound imaging and potentially pretherapeutic cytologic evaluation are usually efficient in diagnosing the condition. Treatment is mostly surgical. We report the case of a cesarean section scar endometriosis, managed at a tertiary level center and emphasize the diagnosis and treatment options.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:30:05 +000
- Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in Labor
Abstract: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema also known as Hamman’s syndrome is a very rare complication of labor that is often related to the valsalva maneuver during the labor. In most case, Hamman’s syndrome is a self-limiting condition, rarely complicated unless there are underlying respiratory diseases. Chest X-ray can be a useful early diagnostic technique in severe clinical presentation. We report an uneventful pregnancy in a primigravid parturient, which was complicated in the late second stage of labor by the development of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and mild pneumothorax. Spontaneous recovery occurred after four days of conservative management. This condition shows the major interest of labor analgesia especially locoregional techniques.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Pure Primary Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma Perforating the Rectum
Abstract: Rectal perforation is uncommon in ovarian cancer, even in advanced stages. Pure primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare subtype of ovarian cancer and has not been reported to cause rectal perforation. A 50-year-old woman presented with rectal bleeding. Rectosigmoidoscopy suggested perforation of a pelvic tumor into the rectum. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm heterogeneous mass in the pouch of Douglas. We performed complete cytoreduction, including an en-bloc resection of the tumor and rectosigmoid colon. Histopathology showed squamous cell carcinoma of the left ovary penetrating the rectal wall. A common symptom of rectal bleeding was caused by a very rare entity of ovarian cancer penetrating the rectal wall, but thorough evaluation led to its accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 07:12:34 +000
- Management of Retained Genital Piercings: A Case Report and Review
Abstract: The prevalence of genital piercing among women is increasing. As the popularity increases, the number of complications from infection, injury, and retained jewelry is likely to rise. Techniques to remove embedded jewelry are not well described in the literature. The purpose of this report was to describe a case of a patient with a retained clitoral glans piercing, discuss a simple technique for outpatient removal, and review current evidence regarding associated risks of clitoral piercings. A 24-year-old female presented to the emergency department with an embedded clitoral glans piercing. Local anesthetic was injected into the periclitoral skin and a small superficial vertical incision was made to remove the ball of the retained barbell safely. In conclusion, among patients with retained genital piercing, outpatient removal of embedded jewelry is feasible. While the practice of female genital piercing is not regulated, piercing of the glans of the clitoris is associated with increased injury to the nerves and blood supply of the clitoris structures leading to future fibrosis and diminished function compared to piercing of the clitoral hood.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 07:00:42 +000
- Spontaneous Rupture of Pyometra in a Nonpregnant Young Woman
Abstract: A 40-year-old woman presented with severe vaginal bleeding. Initial workup with an abdominal sonography revealed endometrium for about 3 mm and free fluid in the abdomen. Hemodynamic instability with abdominal pain and free fluid in the abdomen prompted blood transfusion and laparotomy. There were about 1000 cc blood and clots in the abdomen at laparotomy. There was a longitudinal rupture from fundus up to cervix at the left side of the uterus. Tearing was in full thickness from serosa to endometrium. Scar of previous cesarean was transvers and not associated with this tearing. There was not any myomectomy scar.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Can Surgery Be Avoided? Exclusive Antibiotic Treatment for Pelvic
Abstract: Pelvic actinomycosis is an uncommon, slowly progressing granulomatous infection that has been associated with the presence of intrauterine devices. Due to its unspecific clinical and radiologic findings, it can mimic pelvic or intra-abdominal malignancy leading to mutilating surgery of high morbidity. Rarely, diagnosis is made preoperatively and in most cases surgical intervention is necessary. The patient in our case is a 42-year-old female with an IUD for 15 years diagnosed with pelvic actinomycosis. Patient was uniquely diagnosed preoperatively through paracentesis and treated conservatively with prolonged antibiotic therapy and without any type of surgical intervention. Follow-up at 1 year showed almost complete radiologic resolution of the inflammatory mass, nutritional recovery, and absence of symptoms. Pelvic actinomycosis can be successfully diagnosed and treated medically without surgical interventions.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Spontaneous Regression of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations with
Abstract: Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) can cause massive hemorrhage and is often treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE), which may lead to ovarian insufficiency. Thus, avoiding UAE should be considered, particularly in women undergoing fertility treatments. We present three women diagnosed with postmiscarriage AVM on color Doppler by transvaginal ultrasound imaging. They had no genital bleeding and a small mass, measuring 16–22 mm. If estradiol was >300 pg/mL when AVM was diagnosed, then a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered. All three women underwent follow-up observation, revealing spontaneous mass disappearance. To avoid ovarian insufficiency risk with UAE, conservative management and close follow-up observation should be considered in patients with AVM without bleeding, particularly during the fertility treatment.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Ovarian Mature and Immature Teratomas in Monozygotic Twins: A Case Report
of Simultaneous Presentation
Abstract: Mature cystic teratoma is one of the most common kinds of ovarian tumor, and immature teratoma is a rare tumor, representing less than 1% of all ovarian teratomas. Although there are some reports about familial occurrences of ovarian tumors, literature concerning the clinical cases of monozygotic twins is rare. We report the 5-year clinical courses of a 12-year-old Japanese girl with a recurrent bilateral ovarian mature teratoma and her monozygotic twin with a unilateral ovarian mature teratoma and contralateral ovarian immature teratoma. This is the first clinical report on mature and immature teratomas of the ovary in monozygotic twins. Our cases support future clarification of the molecular mechanism and pathogenesis of teratoma.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Prenatal and Peripartum Management of Patients with Hypofibrinogenemia
Resulted in Two Successful Deliveries
Abstract: Fibrinogen is an essential agent involved in maintaining pregnancy and coagulation. Since inherited fibrinogen disorders introduce greater risks for conditions such as placental abruption and postpartum hemorrhage, careful prenatal and perinatal management is essential for this patient population. We report two cases of successful deliveries in patients with hypofibrinogenemia. Case 1 is of a 26-year-old (gravida 1, para 1) woman. The patient’s fibrinogen level increased spontaneously to higher than 300 mg/dL during pregnancy, without treatment. She delivered at week 38 of gestation, with no complications. Case 2 is of a 30-year-old (gravida 3, para 1) woman. We performed repeated infusions of fibrinogen to maintain the level higher than 100 mg/dL during pregnancy and at least 200 mg/dL in the perioperative period; the patient delivered a healthy infant. We identified a new mutation, Hiroshima I (γ278Tyr→His). It is important to maintain appropriate fibrinogen levels in cases of inherited fibrinogen disorders for successful prenatal and peripartum management.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Low-Grade Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasm Presenting as an Adnexal Mass
Abstract: Appendiceal tumors are rare, late diagnosed neoplasms that may not be differentiated from adnexal masses even by advanced imaging methods and other diagnostic procedures. They may be asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until surgery. We report a case of an 80-year-old postmenopausal woman presenting with a pelvic mass and a history of weight loss. The patient underwent laparotomy which revealed an appendiceal mucocele, for which she received a full oncological procedure. The histology report showed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm, and the patient underwent six cycles of chemotherapy. Appendiceal tumors should be kept in mind in patients with adnexal mass.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2017 06:41:10 +000
- Severe Preeclampsia in the Setting of Myasthenia Gravis
Abstract: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and is common during female reproductive years. The myasthenic mother and her newborn must be observed carefully, as complications during all stages of pregnancy and the puerperium may arise suddenly. Preeclampsia is a common obstetrical condition for which magnesium sulfate is used for seizure prophylaxis. However, magnesium sulfate is strongly contraindicated in MG as it impairs already slowed nerve-muscle connections. Similarly, many first-line antihypertensive medications, including calcium channels blockers and β-blockers, may lead to MG exacerbation. This case describes the effective obstetrical management of a patient with MG who developed severe preeclampsia. The effective use of levetiracetam and various antihypertensive medications including intravenous labetalol is described. A review of the ten reported cases of MG complicated by preeclampsia is examined to aggregate observations of clinical care, with focus on delivery methods, anticonvulsants, and antihypertensive medications.
PubDate: Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Takayasu’s Arteritis in Pregnancy: A Rare Case Report from a
Tertiary Care Infirmary in India
Abstract: Background. Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic, inflammatory, progressive, idiopathic arteriopathy, afflicting young women of reproductive age group, causing narrowing, occlusion, and aneurysms of systemic and pulmonary arteries, especially the aorta and its branches. During pregnancy, such patients warrant special attention. An interdisciplinary collaboration of obstetricians, cardiologists, and neurologists is necessary to improve maternal and fetal prognosis. Here a case is reported where a patient with diagnosis of TA, complicated by neurological sequelae, successfully fought the vagaries of the condition twice to deliver uneventfully. Case. 25-year-old G2P1L1 presented at 34 weeks of gestation, with chronic hypertension, with TA, with epilepsy, and with late-onset severe IUGR. Following a multidisciplinary approach, she delivered an alive born low birth weight baby (following induction). Her postpartum course remained uneventful. Conclusion. Pregnancy with TA poses a stringent challenge to an obstetrician. Despite advancements in cardiovascular management and advent of new-fangled drugs, the optimal management for pregnant patients with this disease still remains elusive.
PubDate: Tue, 07 Feb 2017 12:05:07 +000
- Double Balloon Cervical Ripening Catheter for Control of Massive
Hemorrhage in a Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy
Abstract: Cervical pregnancy can be complicated by perfuse vaginal bleeding. Mechanical compression directed at tamponing the cervical vessels can control hemostasis. There are several types of balloon catheters that have been described for cervical compression. However use of a double balloon catheter is a novel approach for cervical tamponade, as one balloon is positioned below the external cervical os and the second balloon is situated above in the internal cervical os. This compresses the cervix from internal os to external os between the two balloons, forming a “cervical sandwich.” We describe this method of cervical tamponade using a silicone double balloon cervical ripening catheter that rapidly controlled hemorrhage in a patient that failed conservative management with methotrexate.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Feb 2017 07:59:27 +000