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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 270 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 204)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2090-6668 - ISSN (Online) 2090-6676
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [270 journals]
  • Carotid Endarterectomy in a Patient with Severe Internal Carotid Artery
           Stenosis with Persistent Trigeminal Artery and Ischemia of the Anterior
           and Posterior Circulation

    • Abstract: Occurrence of cerebral ischemia in the posterior circulation as a result of severe internal carotid artery disease and persistent trigeminal artery is rare. An 81-year-old man with medical history of hypertension and ischemic stroke presented with dizziness, nausea, and mild dysarthria. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed acute infarcts in the left internal carotid artery territory. CT angiogram revealed a persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) and severe atherosclerosis. The patient developed new neurological symptoms and repeat imaging revealed new acute infarcts in the PTA distribution. After undergoing a left carotid endarterectomy with no complications, the patient was discharged to a skilled nursing facility with no recurrence of ischemic stroke. This case adds a rare complication of an infrequent vascular anomaly to the limited body of the literature.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 08:36:57 +000
       
  • Acute Cervical Dystonia Induced by Clebopride

    • Abstract: Antidopaminergic drugs are known to induce extrapyramidal symptoms. Clebopride, a dopamine antagonist, also can produce parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, tardive dystonia, hemifacial dystonia, or oculogyric crisis; however, acute dystonic reaction caused by clebopride has not been reported in adults. We report two young men who experienced acute cervical dystonia within a few days of taking clebopride. The patients recovered after discontinuation of the drug. Physicians prescribing clebopride should be aware of the adverse effects of this drug.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Relationship of Triphasic Waves with Intracranial Pressure as a
           Possible Prognostic Marker in Traumatic Brain Injury

    • Abstract: Background. Continuous electroencephalography (CEEG) monitoring is used for detection of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures and assessing the degree of encephalopathy in critically ill patients. A commonly seen encephalopathic pattern on CEEG is generalized periodic discharges with triphasic wave (TW) morphology. The underlying role and prognostic significance of TW in relationship to intracranial pressure (ICP) remain unknown. We present a case highlighting the relationship of TW with ICP in a case with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Method. Case report. Results. A patient with severe TBI and no underlying metabolic abnormalities was admitted to the neurocritical care unit. TW were seen on CEEG. The TW diminished during episodes of intracranial hypertension but reappeared with reduction of the intracranial pressure. Conclusion. This study highlights a possible favorable prognostic marker of finding TW in a patient with intracranial hypertension. We have proposed a preliminary understanding of the relationship between TW and intracranial hypertension, which may be helpful in formulating future studies involving larger cohorts.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Skin Hyperpigmentation as the Presenting Symptom of Subacute Combined
           Degeneration of the Spinal Cord

    • Abstract: Vitamin B12 deficiency results in hematological, neurological, and rarely dermatological complications. Subacute combined degeneration of the cord is one of the neurological complications, and usually the presenting symptom is paresthesia. Herein, we report a case of a 46-year-old man with subacute combined degeneration presenting with knuckle hyperpigmentation.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 08:05:48 +000
       
  • Recurrent Occipital Seizures with Transient MRI Changes

    • Abstract: Peri-ictal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings following seizure activity are a recognized phenomenon that is not well understood (Cole, 2004). Transient changes are not usually expected to be present in postictal MRI studies because of their rarity. Here, we present a unique case of peri-ictal MRI findings located in the occipital lobe, present in a 34-year-old female with recurrent occipital seizures occurring twice in four years. MRI changes completely resolved after both episodes with no residual focal damage. The peri-ictal occipital changes on MRI in this patient are unique because they have been captured on more than one occasion. Peri-ictal MRI findings are a known phenomenon with unknown pathophysiology, although attempts have been made to understand these findings. Though the MRI findings and presentation appear to be stroke-like or PRES-like, seizures should be kept in the differential for better treatment outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Nov 2017 06:52:28 +000
       
  • Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis
           Presenting with Fever and Confusion

    • Abstract: Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis (SREAT) is a diagnostic conundrum as it may present with a myriad of nonspecific clinical features and laboratory and neuroimaging investigations are not diagnostic. We report a case of a 65-year-old female who presented with an acute febrile illness associated with headache and confusion, tangential thoughts, and loose association. Based on neutrophil leukocytosis in the full blood count and elevated inflammatory markers, she was commenced on empirical intravenous antibiotics suspecting meningoencephalitis. Further evaluation found a very high titer of both anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies and anti-thyroid globulin antibodies. She was clinically and biochemically euthyroid. EEG showed right sided frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA). Cranial MRI revealed age related cerebral atrophy and nonspecific periventricular white matter changes. A diagnosis of SREAT was made and she was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone. Her condition improved dramatically within 48 hours of starting steroids. SREAT is a diagnosis of exclusion in patients with a central nervous system disorder. There are no specific clinical features or investigative findings. Elevated anti-TPO antibodies are considered a hallmark of SREAT and steroid responsiveness supports the diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and treatment reverses the neurological dysfunction in most cases.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2017 06:33:32 +000
       
  • Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression Secondary to Liver Cancer

    • Abstract: Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a medical emergency that requires rapid diagnosis and treatment to reduce pain, to preserve neurological functioning, and to prolong survival. The diagnosis of liver cancer is often neglected in the differential diagnosis of MSCC. Treatment is usually palliative and evolution is often fatal. This is a case report of a 28-year-old patient living in Mauritania hospitalized in November 2014 at the neurology department of Fann national teaching hospital in Dakar, for the management of a chronic dorsal spinal cord compression. The radiological and laboratory investigations done revealed the metastatic compression originating from a liver cancer with elevated alpha-fetoprotein and aspartate transaminase, positive hepatitis B surface antigen, and multiple metastasis in the lungs, mediastinum, ribs, iliac, and peritoneum. The hip joint X-ray showed a spontaneous fracture of the right femoral neck. The multidisciplinary treatment was palliative and the evolution was fatal within the month of hospitalization. Earlier diagnosis and treatment of MSCC may not have saved the life of the patient but may have prevented much suffering and would likely have prolonged the life of a young man.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Difficult to Treat Focal, Stiff Person Syndrome of the Left Upper
           Extremity

    • Abstract: Background. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by muscle rigidity. It is a disorder of reduced GABA activity leading to increased muscle tone and often painful spasms. It generally presents in the axial musculature but rarely can involve only one limb, typically a lower extremity. In rare cases it can be paraneoplastic which generally resolves on treatment of the underlying neoplasm. Case Report. A 46-year-old male with a history of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in remission presented with left upper extremity pain secondary to a diagnosis of Stiff Person Syndrome limited to his left upper extremity. He had previously benefitted from plasmapheresis and was on diazepam and baclofen at home with relatively good control of his symptoms. SPS had previously been diagnosed with EMG and anti-GAD-65 antibody titers and was confirmed by an elevated anti-GAD-65 antibody titer. He was treated with plasmapheresis and maximum doses of medical treatment including botulinum toxin with only transient mild improvement in his symptoms. Conclusion. This case represents a case of a rare disease that was refractory to all known therapies. It outlines the need for further understanding of this disorder in order to provide better symptomatic treatment or potentially more definitive care.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 08:01:41 +000
       
  • Globus Pallidus Internus Deep Brain Stimulation for Disabling Diabetic
           Hemiballism/Hemichorea

    • Abstract: Unilateral hemichorea/hemiballism (HH) associated with contralateral neuroimaging abnormalities of the basal ganglia, which is characterized by T1 hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and is secondary to diabetic nonketotic hyperglycemia, is a rare and unique complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus (DM). Although almost all prior reports have documented rapid resolution of HH within days after normalization of blood glucose levels, medically refractory persistent HH has been noted. The experience of surgical intervention for persistent HH is limited. A 46-year-old, right-handed female patient with type 2 DM presented with refractory diabetic HH on the left side of 6 months’ duration despite DM control and neuroleptic medication usage. Image-guided deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the right globus pallidus internus (GPi) was performed. A mechanical micropallidotomy effect was observed and chronic stimulation of GPi was quite effective in symptomatic control of diabetic HH until a 16-month follow-up visit. DBS of the GPi can be an effective treatment for medically refractory diabetic HH.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 07:01:45 +000
       
  • Rapid Ascending Sensorimotor Paralysis, Hearing Loss, and Fatal Arrhythmia
           in a Multimorbid Patient due to an Accidental Overdose of Fluoxetine

    • Abstract: Background. Common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) include tachycardia, drowsiness, tremor, nausea, and vomiting. Although SSRIs have less toxic side effects compared to more traditional antidepressants, serious and life threatening cases of SSRI overdose have been reported. We describe a 24-year-old multimorbid female who presented to the emergency department with rapid onset ascending sensorimotor paralysis, complicated by respiratory and cardiac arrest, found to have fatal levels of fluoxetine by toxicological analysis, not taken in a suicidal act. Results. Autopsy was performed at the Los Angeles County Medical Examiner’s Office of a female with no evidence of traumatic injury. Toxicological analysis revealed lethal levels of fluoxetine, toxic levels of diphenhydramine, and multiple other coingested substances at nontoxic levels. Neuropathological examination of the brain and spinal cord revealed no evidence of Guillain-Barre paralysis. Conclusions. Lethal levels of fluoxetine and multiple potential drug-to-drug interactions in our patient likely contributed to her unique signs and symptoms. This is the first case reporting neurologic signs and symptoms consisting of rapid onset ascending sensorimotor paralysis, hearing loss, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and death in a patient with lethal levels of fluoxetine.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypothermia with Extreme Bradycardia following Spinal Cord Infarction of
           Septic Origin

    • Abstract: Among other autonomic dysfunctions complicating acute spinal cord injury, deep hypothermia is rare but may induce serious cardiovascular complications. There are few pharmacological options to influence hypothermia. A 66-year-old woman was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for serious cardiac arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation and asystole) in the context of a deep hypothermia (axillary temperature below 32°C). She had been admitted to the hospital two months before for an acute L4-L5 infectious spondylodiscitis without any initial neurological deficit. After surgery for epidural abscess drainage, she became paraplegic due to spinal cord infarction (from C7 to T6 levels) in the upper territory of the anterior spinal artery. In the ICU, the patient experienced several episodes of asystole and hypotension associated with a core body temperature below 35°C. Common causes of hypothermia (drugs, hypothyroidism, etc.) were excluded. A definitive pacemaker had to be inserted, but hypotension persisted. The prescription of oral progesterone (200 mg·d−1) helped to maintain a core temperature higher than 35°C, with a withdrawal of vasopressors. This case report illustrates that patients with incomplete spinal cord injury may present with delayed and deep hypothermia leading to serious cardiovascular complications. Progesterone could be able to influence positively central and peripheral thermal regulation.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Successful Mechanical Thrombectomy of a Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion
           14 Hours after Stroke Onset

    • Abstract: A 54-year-old patient presented with mild right-sided weakness of hand and face with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) of 2 and occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in the M1 segment with a large perfusion deficit on computed tomography (CT). Due to mild neurological deficits no IVT was performed. Nine hours after symptom onset the patient gradually deteriorated with a NIHSS fluctuating between 9 and 15. MRI showed a persistent occlusion of the MCA with a large diffusion-perfusion mismatch. Immediate endovascular thrombectomy was performed 14 hours after symptom onset with complete recanalization and complete clinical recovery. Although mechanical thrombectomy is generally considered an effective alternative strategy up to 8 hours after stroke onset, selected patients with a large diffusion/perfusion mismatch and small infarct cores may benefit from an expanded therapeutic window.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multiple Sclerosis Presenting with Facial Twitching (Myokymia and
           Hemifacial Spasms)

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The etiology is insufficiently understood. Autoimmune, genetic, viral, and environmental factors have been hypothesized. MS is twice as common in women as in men between the ages of 20 and 50 years. There is no known cure for MS. Current medical treatment helps to prevent new attacks and improve function after an attack. MS is diagnosed by physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and examination of cerebral spinal fluid. The most common physical signs and symptoms of MS include constitutional symptoms, muscle weakness, motor and autonomic spinal cord symptoms, paresthesias, and vision changes. Here we present a case of MS diagnosed in a 33-year-old male with facial myokymia of left eyelid, which progressed to left hemifacial spasm. This is an unusual presentation for multiple sclerosis. An awareness of this presentation not only may lead to an earlier diagnosis in some patients but can be a sign of relapse in patients with established multiple sclerosis.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Sep 2017 10:32:07 +000
       
  • Thoracic Synovial Cyst at the Th2-3 Level Causing Myelopathy

    • Abstract: Intraspinal synovial cyst is a rare cause of myelopathy. These cysts present most often in the lumbar and cervical parts of the spine but are more infrequent in the thoracic spine. We present a case of a 73-year-old man with an intraspinal, extradural synovial cyst at the Th2-3 level causing paraesthesia and weakness in the legs. A laminectomy and excision of the cyst were performed and the patient recovered fully. In the thoracic spine, synovial cysts are almost exclusively found in the lower part. Laminectomy, with excision, is the treatment of choice, although steroid injections have been described.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Atypical Porencephalic Cyst Manifesting as a Simple Partial Seizure: A
           Case Report and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Background. Porencephaly is an extremely rare neurological disease characterized by the presence of solitary or multiple degenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cavities within the brain parenchyma. Case Report. We describe a case involving a 23-year-old male who presented with involuntary movements of the left upper limb of 6 months’ duration. A diagnosis of porencephaly was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conclusion. The rarity of occurrence and atypical presentation of such a lesion present a challenge to clinicians. Little is known about the pathogenesis and appropriate management of porencephaly. Further studies of the implications of porencephaly for neurodevelopment and behavior are needed.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cerebellar Involvement in an Immunocompetent Patient Presenting with
           Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    • Abstract: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease caused by the JC virus, a polyomavirus that can be reactivated under certain immunosuppressive conditions, such as AIDS, immunomodulatory therapy, and haematological malignancies. However, a few cases of immunocompetent patients have been reported in which no immunodeficiency was present. We describe the case of an 83-year-old immunocompetent man who presented with severe cerebellar symptoms with an MRI scan suggestive of severe demyelinating disease. We were not able to identify any occult immunosuppression or malignancy in our patient.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 10:03:06 +000
       
  • Accidental Intrathecal Administration of Digoxin in an Elderly Male with
           End-Stage Renal Disease

    • Abstract: The systemic effects of digoxin toxicity have been well-known. However, there has been no case citing the effects of intrathecal digoxin in light of end-stage renal disease in the elderly. Here, we report on the case of the successful management of accidental intrathecal digoxin administration in an elderly male with end-stage renal disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2017 07:43:35 +000
       
  • Could Hallucinogens Induce Permanent Pupillary Changes in (Ab)users' A
           Case Report from New Zealand

    • Abstract: An eighteen-year-old female patient of the Caucasian ethnicity from Australasia presented with a persistently dilated pupil causing her discomfort and occasional burning sensation when she is outdoors due to oversensitivity to sunlight. However, her pupillary reaction to light (pupillary light reflex) was intact. The patient is a known user of psychedelic substances (entheogens) including LSD, NBOMe, psilocybin, and DMT. The condition affects both eyes to the same extent. Thorough medical, neurological, and radiological examinations, including an EEG and an MRI of the head and neck region, were completely normal. All these tests failed to detect any pathophysiological or anatomical abnormalities. The patient is a known case of chronic endogenous depression in association with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, for which she is taking citalopram and Ritalin, respectively. There was neither a family history nor a similar congenital condition in her family.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Why It Is Not Always Anxiety: A Tough Diagnosis of Stiff Person Syndrome

    • Abstract: Anxiety disorder is a commonly used diagnosis that may mask underlying conditions. Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neuroimmunological disorder characterized by progressive rigidity and painful muscle spasms affecting axial and lower extremity musculature. These episodes can be triggered by sudden movement, noise, or emotional stress, which may present as a psychiatric condition. We report the case of a 30-year-old female who presented with recurrent panic attacks with multiple prior hospital admissions for anxiety, rigidity, and difficulty in walking. Previous electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were unremarkable. She was empirically treated with diazepam and beta-blockers for SPS, which was confirmed by positive glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. The patient’s symptoms became refractory to benzodiazepines and required steroids with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Her rigidity subsequently responded to plasmapheresis. In SPS, antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) most commonly target the GAD antigen on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. The goal of treatment is to ameliorate symptoms and improve quality of life. Our case of SPS was masked as generalized anxiety disorder for at least six years since onset of symptoms. The criteria for both diagnoses may overlap as seen in this patient.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cooccurrence of Chorea-Acanthocytosis and Mesial Temporal Sclerosis: A
           Possible Role of Caudate Nucleus

    • Abstract: Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is an orphan disease, caused by mutations on chromosome 9. Epileptic seizures of mesial temporal origin can be a predominant symptom. We report on a 29-year-old woman with ChAc and bilateral MTS. Previously, few patients with coexisting ChAc and MTS were reported. The underlying pathophysiology is unknown, and further studies are needed.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:55:30 +000
       
  • Neuromyelitis Optica in a Nepalese Man

    • Abstract: Background. Neuromyelitis optica is a severely disabling inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system of autoimmune etiology that mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Here, we present a case report detailing a patient with tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs who was neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G-positive. Case Presentation. A 46-year-old Nepalese man presented to the hospital with a history of tingling and weakness of right upper and lower limbs that developed over a period of two months. Clinical evaluation showed diminished power across all major muscle groups in the right upper and lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging of his cervical spine showed T1 iso- to hypointense signal and T2 hyperintense signal in central cervical spinal cord from first to sixth cervical level, probably suggestive of myelitis or demyelination. The patient was immediately started on intravenous methylprednisolone. The diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica was later confirmed with strongly positive neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G. Conclusion. In resource limited setting, in the absence of tests for neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G, treatment was started and the patient’s condition started to get better. Hence, early initiation of aggressive immunosuppressive treatment is essential in such cases.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 06:37:40 +000
       
  • A Case Report of Isolated Bilateral Cerebral Peduncular Infarction

    • Abstract: Isolated bilateral cerebral peduncular infarctions (BCPI) presenting as acute pseudobulbar palsy are rarely reported and, to the best of our knowledge, most of the previous reports of BCPI were related to locked-in syndrome and disturbance of consciousness. Herein, we described a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute pseudobulbar palsy and mild tetraparesis, but preserved eye movements, with no consciousness disturbance. DWI revealed an acute infarction involving the central portion of the cerebral peduncle with a characteristic “traditional Chinese eight character” sign. The relationship between the infarcted range in the cerebral peduncle and the clinical manifestation was discussed in our report.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 10:37:45 +000
       
  • Bilateral Ganglion Cysts of the Ligamentum Flavum in the Cervical Spine
           Causing a Progressive Cervical Radiculomyelopathy and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Here we report a unique case of bilateral ganglion cysts originating from the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine. Degenerative cysts of the ligamentum flavum are rare lesions, and most had been reported in the lumbar spine. Its occurrence in the cervical spine is extremely rare: only eight have been reported. A 66-year-old male patient presented with progressive paraparesis, pain, and paresthesia in his bilateral T1 dermatomes that had lasted for three weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine demonstrated a well-demarcated cystic lesion in the bilateral dorsolateral aspects of the C7/T1 segment and significant compression of the cervical cord. All case reports of ganglion cysts of the cervical ligamentum flavum including the present one showed characteristic symptoms and signs of myelopathy such as paraparesis or quadriparesis associated with varying degrees of paresthesia or pain in the upper extremities. Ganglion cysts of the cervical ligamentum flavum are considered a cause of cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical intraspinal cystic lesions. Bilateral occurrence and associated subluxation of the involved cervical segments again support the degenerative pathogenesis of ganglion cysts of the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 07:11:39 +000
       
  • A Case of Congenital Brainstem Oligodendroglioma: Pathology Findings and
           Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Congenital and perinatal primary brain neoplasms are extremely rare. Brainstem neoplasms in the perinatal and neonatal period are typically of high-grade nature and have poor prognoses with survival rates of less than 2 years from diagnosis. Herein, we report an unusual case of congenital anaplastic oligodendroglioma that arose in the pons and was detected as diffuse pontine glioma on in utero imaging studies during prenatal evaluation at 26 weeks’ gestation. A male infant was delivered at 36.4 weeks of gestation via Cesarean section who developed progressive dyspnea shortly after birth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of his head showed the expansile, poorly demarcated mass in the pons with minimal heterogeneous enhancement and severe communicating hydrocephalus. Despite aggressive management, including dexamethasone treatment, the infant expired on the third day of postnatal life. On postmortem examination cut sections through the brainstem and cerebellum disclosed the neoplasm that infiltrated the entire pons, extended into the midbrain, medulla, cerebellar peduncles, and caudal diencephalon. Histological sections demonstrated an anaplastic oligodendroglioma infiltrating the pons, 4th ventricle, midbrain, medulla, cerebellar white matter, posterior thalamus, and occipital white matter. The pathological features of the lesion distinguish it from previous reports in which spontaneous regression of pontine gliomas occurred and argue in favor of establishing a tissue diagnosis to plan for aggressive versus conservative management.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 13:00:00 +000
       
  • Primary Angiitis of the Center Nervous System: A Clinical Challenge
           Diagnosed Postmortem

    • Abstract: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare vasculitis involving medium and small blood vessels of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, without systemic involvement. The diffuse and patchy nature of its pathology is reflected by a wide spectrum of nonspecific clinical symptoms. Diagnosis is challenging due to lack of defined clinical criteria or specific imaging findings. Specific workup should be done only after exclusion of other etiologies, including infectious, neoplastic, toxic, and other vascular etiologies including systemic vasculitis. Given the fact that it is a patchy disease with 25% of the biopsies being falsely negative, treating physician should have a high index of suspicion despite negative initial neurovascular imaging and biopsy results. Once diagnosed, early treatment with immunosuppressive therapy is essential to avoid permanent neurologic damage. Herein, we are reporting a case of 66-year-old female patient who presented with insidious onset right-sided frontal headache. Her hospital course progressively worsened and family decision based on her wishes was to refer her to hospice and comfort care. Despite an extensive workup with advanced imaging techniques, no diagnosis was established until postmortem autopsy and histopathology confirmed primary angiitis of the central nervous system.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 08:26:56 +000
       
  • Multimodal Imaging in a Patient with Hemidystonia Responsive to GPi Deep
           Brain Stimulation

    • Abstract: Background. Dystonia is a syndrome with varied phenomenology but our understanding of its mechanisms is deficient. With neuroimaging techniques, such as fiber tractography (FT) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), pathway connectivity can be studied to that end. We present a hemidystonia patient treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). Methods. After 10 years of left axial hemidystonia, a 45-year-old male underwent unilateral right globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS. Whole brain MEG before and after anticholinergic medication was performed prior to surgery. 26-direction diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was obtained in a 3 T MRI machine along with FT. The patient was assessed before and one year after surgery by using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). Results. In the eyes-closed MEG study there was an increase in brain coherence in the gamma band after medication in the middle and inferior frontal region. FT demonstrated over 50% more intense ipsilateral connectivity in the right hemisphere compared to the left. After DBS, BFMDRS motor and disability scores both dropped by 71%. Conclusion. Multimodal neuroimaging techniques can offer insights into the pathophysiology of dystonia and can direct choices for developing therapeutics. Unilateral pallidal DBS can provide significant symptom control in axial hemidystonia poorly responsive to medication.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jul 2017 08:51:46 +000
       
  • Multiple Spontaneous Intracranial-Extracranial Arterial Dissections in a
           Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    • Abstract: A 40-year-old male with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was admitted to the hospital with an acute right monoparesis. Diffusion-weighted MRI showed infarction in the territory of the left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and in the left posterior cerebral artery (PCA). In his vascular imaging, occlusion of the left vertebral artery (VA) starting from V2 segment was consistent with dissection and pseudoaneurysm in the right ACA. We presented this case because of the presence of spontaneous and simultaneous occurrence of both intracranial and extracranial arterial dissections in OI.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jul 2017 08:10:07 +000
       
  • Differential Effects of Awake Glioma Surgery in “Critical” Language
           Areas on Cognition: 4 Case Studies

    • Abstract: Awake surgery with electrocorticosubcortical stimulation is the golden standard treatment for gliomas in eloquent areas. Preoperatively, mostly mild cognitive disturbances are observed with postoperative deterioration. We describe pre- and postoperative profiles of 4 patients (P1–P4) with gliomas in “critical” language areas (“Broca,” “Wernicke,” and the arcuate fasciculus) undergoing awake surgery to get insight into the underlying mechanism of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychological examination was carried out preoperatively (at T1) and postoperatively (at T2, T3). At T1, cognition of P1 was intact and remained stable. P2 had impairments in all cognitive domains at T1 with further deterioration at T2 and T3. At T1, P3 had impairments in memory and executive functions followed by stable recovery. P4 was intact at T1, followed by a decline in a language test at T2 and recovery at T3. Intraoperatively, in all patients language positive sites were identified. Patients with gliomas in “critical” language areas do not necessarily present cognitive disturbances. Surgery can either improve or deteriorate (existing) cognitive impairments. Several factors may underlie the plastic potential of the brain, for example, corticosubcortical networks and tumor histopathology. Our findings illustrate the complexity of the underlying mechanism of neural plasticity and provide further support for a “hodotopical” viewpoint.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Differential Diagnosis and Management of Incomplete Locked-In Syndrome
           after Traumatic Brain Injury

    • Abstract: Locked-in syndrome (LIS) is a rare diagnosis in which patients present with quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism. It is clinically difficult to differentiate from other similarly presenting diagnoses with no standard approach for assessing such poorly responsive patients. The purpose of this case is to highlight the clinical differential diagnosis process and outcomes of a patient with LIS during acute inpatient rehabilitation. A 32-year-old female was admitted following traumatic brain injury. She presented with quadriplegia and mutism but was awake and aroused based on eye gaze communication. The rehabilitation team was able to diagnose incomplete LIS based on knowledge of neuroanatomy and clinical reasoning. Establishing this diagnosis allowed for an individualized treatment plan that focused on communication, coping, family training, and discharge planning. The patient was ultimately able to discharge home with a single caregiver, improving her quality of life. Continued evidence highlights the benefits of intensive comprehensive therapy for those with acquired brain injury such as LIS, but access is still limited for those with a seemingly poor prognosis. Access to a multidisciplinary, specialized team provides opportunity for continued assessment and individualized treatment as the patient attains more medical stability, improving long-term management.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 08:43:57 +000
       
  • Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia due to Erdheim-Chester Disease with
           Asymptomatic Pituitary Involvement

    • Abstract: Polyostotic sclerosing histiocytosis, also known as Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), is a rare form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. ECD has wide clinical spectrums which mainly affect skeletal, neurological, dermatological, retroperitoneal, cardiac, and pulmonary manifestations. Here we describe a case of ECD in a 45-year-old female who presented initially with bilateral knee pain and homonymous superior quadrantanopia progressed to ophthalmoplegia and complete visual loss of the left eye over a period of one year. Plain X-ray of both knees showed bilateral patchy sclerosis of the distal femur and upper parts of the tibiae. Initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral enhancing masses in the temporal lobes anterior to the temporal horns, thickening of the pituitary stalk, partially empty sella, and involvement of the left cavernous sinus one year later. Our case is a peculiar case of ECD initially presented with unilateral homonymous superior quadrantanopia due to involvement of the visual apparatus in the mesial temporal lobe which progressed to unilateral ophthalmoplegia and total visual loss secondary to involvement of the cavernous sinus. Thus, the diagnosis of ECD should be kept in mind in the presence of bilateral bone sclerotic lesions.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 07:06:01 +000
       
 
 
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