Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Case Reports in Endocrinology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.209
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-6501 - ISSN (Online) 2090-651X
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • A Case Report of Mixed Osteomalacia and Low Bone Density from Vitamin D
           Deficiency as a Cause of Bilateral Tibial Stress Fractures in a Young Male
           Military Recruit from Singapore

    • Abstract: Despite being a tropical country, vitamin D deficiency is common in Singapore. All young Singaporean males between the age of 18 and 21 years have to undergo mandatory military service. Stress fractures occur in military recruits, and risk factors include a sudden increase in physical activity and vitamin D deficiency. We report the bone histomorphometry findings from a case of bilateral tibial stress fractures in an 18-year-old military recruit who had vitamin D deficiency. The histomorphometry showed a mixed osteomalacia and osteoporosis pattern. This case is unique as it shows that stress fractures from a marching exercise can occur in apparently healthy well young man with vitamin D deficiency despite living in a tropical country.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • An Unusual Amyloid Goiter in a 48-Year-Old Woman with Rheumatoid
           Arthritis, Secondary Amyloidosis and Renal Failure

    • Abstract: Amyloid goiter (AG) is characterized by the presence of deposits of amyloid protein in the thyroid tissue in sufficient amounts to produce enlargement of the gland, accompanied by fat deposition or thyrolipomatosis. It can be seen in long-standing inflammatory disorders, with the common characteristic of amyloidotic renal failure. In daily practice, practitioners should pay attention to the differential diagnosis in patients with suggestive co-morbidities for amyloidosis. The clinic is a progressive increase of the thyroid gland with compressive symptomatology (dyspnea, dysphagia, and changes in the voice). The main imaging finding is diffuse fatty infiltration of the thyroid. The amyloid goitre was most probably in the general context of amyloidosis, regardless of the other complications. We present a case of a 48-years-old female with amyloid goiter secondary to rheumatoid arthritis and renal failure.
      PubDate: Sat, 28 Dec 2019 16:35:01 +000
  • Delivery of Euthyroid Baby following Hyperthyroidism in Twin Gestation
           with Coexisting Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    • Abstract: Context. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare complication of pregnancy, ranging from molar pregnancy to choriocarcinoma. Twin pregnancies with GTD and coexisting normal fetus are extremely rare with an estimated incidence of 1 case per 22,000–100,000 pregnancies. Molecular mimicry between human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) leads to gestational trophoblastic hyperthyroidism (GTH) which is further associated with increased maternal and fetal complications. This is the first reported case in literature describing the delivery of a baby with biochemical euthyroid status following a twin pregnancy with hydatidiform mole (HM) associated with gestational trophoblastic hyperthyroidism (GTH). Case Description. A 24-year-old G4 P3 Caucasian female with twin gestation was admitted to hospital for gestation trophoblastic hyperthyroidism. She was later diagnosed to have twin pregnancy with complete mole and coexisting normal fetus complicated by gestational trophoblastic hyperthyroidism (GTH). Despite the risk associated with the continuation of molar pregnancy, per patient request, pregnancy was continued till viability of the fetus. The patient underwent cesarean section due to worsening preeclampsia and delivered a euthyroid baby at the 24th week of gestation. Conclusions. Twin pregnancy with gestational trophoblastic disease and coexisting normal fetus is associated with high risk of hyperthyroidism, and careful monitoring of the thyroid function test along with dose titration of thionamides is of utmost importance throughout the gestation. If normal thyroid hormone levels are maintained during the pregnancy, euthyroidism could be successfully achieved in the baby.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Dec 2019 12:50:03 +000
  • Is It T3 Thyrotoxicosis' A Case of Falsely Elevated Tri-Iodothyronine
           (T3) Levels Leading to a Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma

    • Abstract: We are presenting a case of falsely elevated T3 levels in a patient due to interference from monoclonal immunoglobulins. A 56-year-old, clinically euthyroid man referred to the endocrinology clinic of the Aga Khan university, Karachi Pakistan, for possible T3 thyrotoxicosis after thyroid function tests revealed total T3 >12.32 nmol/L (reference range 0.6–2.79), normal TSH, and total T4 level. There was a mismatch in clinical and laboratory parameters and preliminary laboratory results were suggestive of thyroid binding globulin abnormalities. Further evaluation in this context unmasked multiple myeloma. The presence of monoclonal immunoglobulins can lead to assay interference and spurious results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case defining the cause of falsely elevated T3 levels, due to assay interferences with binding of T3 only to monoclonal immunoglobulins.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Dec 2019 07:35:01 +000
  • Low Grade Islet but Marked Exocrine Pancreas Inflammation in an Adult with
           Autoimmune Pre-Diabetes

    • Abstract: There is unexplained deficit in size and function of the exocrine pancreas in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We obtained pancreas from an individual with pre-T1D obtained at surgery and addressed the question, what is the relative inflammation in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas in pre-T1D in the absence of the potential confounding changes at autopsy or in brain dead organ donors. Pancreas was removed surgically from a 36 year woman for benign neuroendocrine tumors (NET). The patient had gestational diabetes at age 29 and has a 23 year old sister with T1D. Pre-operative fasting glucose of 109 mg/dl and HbA1C 5.8% revealed prediabetes with an anti-GAD 1,144 (5–250 U/ml) together with family history implying pre-T1D. There was patchy low grade immune infiltration in some, but not all, islets that met criteria for autoimmune insulitis. The exocrine pancreas showed more abundant inflammation with areas of chronic pancreatitis and acinar to ductal metaplasia, and with other areas of atrophy and fatty infiltration. In pre-T1D inflammation may be more prominent in the exocrine than the endocrine pancreas, calling into question the sequence of events and assumed islet centric basis of autoimmunity leading to T1D.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Dec 2019 13:50:01 +000
  • Riedel’s Thyroiditis: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Riedel’s thyroiditis is a rare entity consisting of a fibrotic process of the thyroid which can generate gland destruction, infiltration of cervical structures and even airway obstruction. It has been associated with systemic fibrotic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and more recently with spectrum of diseases related to excess of Immunoglobulin G type 4 (IgG4). Two cases of Riedel’s thyroiditis by IgG4, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was managed surgically with favorable results during the follow-up time, are presented. These case descriptions highlight the diagnostic challenge of this disease, describe the response with surgical management, and make a brief update on the subject.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Dec 2019 11:20:03 +000
  • Microangiopathic Hemolytic Anemia and Fulminant Renal Failure: A Rare
           Manifestation of Pheochromocytoma

    • Abstract: Pheochromocytoma is a rare adrenal tumor that is classically associated with the triad of paroxysmal tachycardia, diaphoresis, and headaches. However, it can have myriad manifestations. We present a case of a 31-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain, hypertensive emergency, and renal failure. Abdominal imaging demonstrated a left adrenal mass. Plasma metanephrines (153 pg/ml, ) and normetanephrines (1197 pg/ml, ) were noted to be elevated, leading to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Intravenous antihypertensives were utilized to control his blood pressure. Hemodialysis was initiated given the degree of renal dysfunction. The patient subsequently developed hemolytic anemia, requiring the transfusion of multiple units of packed red cells. He developed acute respiratory failure leading to intubation, but was thereafter liberated from the ventilator following clinical stabilization. Uncontrolled hypertension precipitated by pheochromocytoma can cause microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and renal insufficiency. This case is notable not only for the occurrence of this rare presentation, but also for the severity of manifestations in a young male with no known significant comorbidities.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Dec 2019 11:20:02 +000
  • Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a 25-Year-Old, Previously Healthy Kuwaiti

    • Abstract: Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is a disease characterized by hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia associated with autoantibodies against endogenous insulin. We have described a case of a 25-year-old, previously healthy Kuwaiti man who was admitted to the Mubarak Al-Kabeer hospital with a history of recurrent hypoglycaemia. The patient revealed that he had taken several different injectable anabolic steroids and growth hormone with oral amino acids and other tablets (fat burners) for bodybuilding in the last two months. He denied knowingly using insulin or insulin analogues. The patient had elevated fasting insulin level (>301 uIU/mL) and elevated insulin autoantibodies (>100.0 IU/mL). After appropriate work-up, he was diagnosed with IAS. After treatment with prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day), the patient had complete recovery. In patients with repeated hypoglycaemia, IAS should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Glucocorticoid therapy can be effective for the treatment of hypoglycaemia in patients with IAS.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Dec 2019 14:05:02 +000
  • Survival Following Extreme Hypernatraemia Associated with Severe
           Dehydration and Undiagnosed Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: We report a case of a previously well 58-year-old man, who presented with delirium and low GCS, and was found to have extreme hypernatraemia (Na+ = 191 mmol/L) and hyperglycaemia (glucose = 31 mmol/L). This resulted in a corrected serum sodium of 202 mmol/L. He was treated with fluid and electrolyte replacement in the intensive care unit, and had returned to essentially normal function by hospital discharge. The aetiology was believed to be due to severe dehydration and a new diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Extreme hypernatraemia (serum sodium level greater than 190 mmol/L) is rare and associated with a high mortality. The mainstay of treatment is careful fluid and electrolyte management. Most recommendations advise to reduce the serum sodium by 0.5 mmol/L/hour, due to concerns over cerebral oedema; however, there are reports that slower correction is associated with higher mortality. In this case, the initial corrected sodium of 202 mmol/L was steadily corrected to 160 mmol/L over 91 hours, at a rate of 0.46 mmol/L/hour. This demonstrates the safety of the recommended approach.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Dec 2019 09:35:03 +000
  • Transient Central Diabetes Insipidus after Discontinuation of Vasopressin

    • Abstract: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is an uncommon condition resulting from lack of vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary gland typically caused by some form of destruction of the gland. Here we present a case of transient CDI after discontinuation of vasopressin used for septic shock without evidence of overt pituitary damage. Serum sodium concentration peaked at 160 mmol/L in the setting of polyuria within days of vasopressin discontinuation without identified alternative etiologies. Sodium levels and urine output normalized with administration of desmopressin with continued stability after desmopressin was discontinued. This is one of few reported cases of diabetes insipidus occurring after discontinuation of vasopressin and the rapid and profound response to desmopressin in this case proves a central etiology. This case allows for speculation into predisposing risk factors for this phenomenon including preexisting neurological disease.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Dec 2019 14:05:00 +000
  • Sporadic Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma with Paraneoplastic Cushing Syndrome

    • Abstract: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare form of neoplasm affecting the thyroid gland. This neuroendocrine tumor is capable of releasing active substances causing systemic manifestation in the form of flushing, diarrhea, and uncommonly, Ectopic Cushing’s syndrome (ECS). MTC can be hereditary as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasm type 2 syndrome (MEN2) or arise sporadically. We report a case of a 74-year-old female presenting with chronic diarrhea, in whom diagnosis of sporadic MTC was delayed due to previous history of gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. The patient developed liver metastases yielding ACTH dependent Cushing’s Syndrome leading to abnormal clinical presentation and laboratory values driven by elevated cortisol level. Metastatic MTC should be considered in patients presenting with chronic diarrhea and weakness unexplained by other GI related causes.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Dec 2019 09:35:00 +000
  • Rhabdomyolysis in a Young Patient due to Hypothyroidism without Any
           Precipitating Factor

    • Abstract: Hypothyroidism is characterized by decreased hormone production, which results in various clinical manifestations in different organ systems. Muscular symptoms are common in patents with clinical hypothyroidism which includes muscle cramps, myalgia, and mild to moderate elevation of creatinine kinase less than five times the upper limit of normal. However, rhabdomyolysis due to hypothyroidism is rare and in most of the reported cases a precipitating factor has been found. We report a unique case of a 35-year-old male with no past medical history who presented with rhabdomyolysis due to newly diagnosed hypothyroidism without any precipitating factors and was treated successfully with intravenous fluids and levothyroxine.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Dec 2019 14:05:00 +000
  • Dramatic Response to First Line Single Agent Pembrolizumab in Anaplastic
           Thyroid Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a deadly disease with very limited therapeutic options. There is an urgent need for new and efficacious drugs. Unfortunately accrual in clinical trials is problematic because of the rarity of the disease and often poor performance status at diagnosis. Recently some data have emerged suggesting a role for immunotherapy in the treatment of ATC. We describe the case of a 75-year-old patient with poor performance status and compromised airway and oesophagus at diagnosis, showing a rapid and dramatic response to first line single agent pembrolizumab. Disease progression in the brain occurred 16 months after initial diagnosis. At that time there was ongoing extracranial disease control.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 13:30:11 +000
  • Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Risk of Hypoglycemia

    • Abstract: We report the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of Klinefelter syndrome undergoing testosterone replacement therapy, and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin with poor metabolic control. When vildagliptin was added to his treatment, he presented hypoglycemia after the testosterone injection. We highlight this not widely reported drug interaction between hypoglycemic agents and testosterone.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Nov 2019 09:05:00 +000
  • Antibody-Mediated Extreme Insulin Resistance: The Importance of
           Pre-Treatment Screening

    • Abstract: We report the case of a 56 year-old Hispanic male with a 10-year history of type 2 diabetes who presented with abrupt onset of hyperglycemia resistant to escalating doses of intravenous insulin infusion (>2500 units daily). He was diagnosed with antibody-mediated insulin resistance given the presence of hyperglycemia despite receiving >200 units insulin/day, a lack of identifiable precipitants for diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, and elevated insulin antibodies. He underwent pre-immunomodulatory therapy screening for infections, rheumatologic disorders, and malignancy, which uncovered a new diagnosis of latent tuberculosis. While concurrently being treated for latent tuberculosis, he successfully responded to immunomodulatory therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, and cyclophosphamide. Insulin was discontinued completely, and he maintained appropriate glycemic control on oral diabetic agents (metformin and pioglitazone). This case supports the use of immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment of antibody-mediated insulin resistance and highlights the importance of pre-immunomodulatory therapy screening to uncover occult infection or identify underlying neoplastic/rheumatologic disease prior to immunosuppression.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Nov 2019 08:05:03 +000
  • Hypercalcemic Crisis in a Patient with Post-Surgical Hypoparathyroidism

    • Abstract: Calcium alkali syndrome (CAS), a relatively unusual etiology of hypercalcemia, is characterized by a classical triad of hypercalcemia, azotemia, and metabolic alkalosis. This condition has been described in patients who have taken an excess dose of calcium with an alkali or with a volume-depletion status. To diagnose CAS it requires a high index of suspicion and a detailed history of medication/supplement intake specifically for calcium-containing drugs and a history of all possible ingested alkali. We reported a case of post-surgical hypoparathyroidism whom later on was presented with hypercalcemic crisis due to CAS. The proposed mechanism of CAS and management are also included.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Nov 2019 00:05:03 +000
  • Ketogenic Weight Loss Diet Rapidly Unmasks an Insulinoma

    • Abstract: The ketogenic diet, a diet high in fat and extremely low in carbohydrates, has recently gained momentum and is increasingly employed by patients in order to lose weight. We report a case of an otherwise healthy 47-year-old male who developed seizures and hypoglycemia shortly after initiating this diet. Biochemical testing confirmed hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and a subsequent abdomen MRI showed a pancreatic mass. The tumor was ultimately excised with pathology confirming an insulinoma. It was felt that his abrupt decrease in carbohydrate consumption led to the rapid unmasking of this tumor.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Oct 2019 00:05:26 +000
  • Hyperandrogenism, Elevated 17-Hydroxyprogesterone and Its Urinary
           Metabolites in a Young Woman with Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor, Not
           Otherwise Specified: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: We describe a case of a 24-year-old overweight woman who presented with hirsutism, secondary amenorrhea, clitoromegaly, and symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM). While a diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with its associated metabolic disturbances was initially considered, serum total testosterone, androstenedione, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were significantly increased. As 17-OHP did not increase upon ACTH (Synacthen) stimulation and the urinary steroid profile (USP) was compatible with an ovarian source of 17-OHP excess rather than adrenal, non classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) was unlikely and an androgen-secreting tumor was suspected. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of an enlarged right ovary with a polycystic ovary morphology and no discrete mass. Transvaginal ultrasound and [18F]− fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (FDG PET–CT) enabled the localization of a right ovarian tumor. Laparoscopic right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and a histological diagnosis of steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (SCT–NOS) was made. Hyperandrogenism and menstrual disturbances resolved postoperatively. A literature review revealed that 17-OHP-secreting SCT–NOS may uncommonly show positive responses to ACTH stimulation similar to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Alternatively, USP might be useful in localizing the source of 17-OHP to the ovaries. Its diagnostic performance should be evaluated in further studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Oct 2019 00:05:25 +000
  • Novel TMEM127 Variant Associated to Bilateral Phaeochromocytoma with an
           Uncommon Clinical Presentation

    • Abstract: Phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare catecholamine-secreting tumours arising from the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia. It is known that 20–30% of all cases occur as a result of germline variants in several well known genes. The TMEM127 gene was recently identified as a new phaeochromocytoma susceptibility gene. However, until a larger sample of cases is available, the prevalence, genotype-phenotype correlation, and a clear predominant biochemical pattern of TMEM127-related PCC, remain to be defined. We present a woman with the pathogenic variant c.86delG (p.Arg29Leufs52) in the TMEM127 gene, which has not been previously reported, associated to a bilateral phaeochromocytoma, with an uncommon initial clinical presentation and a biochemical profile that is distinctly adrenergic. Her two young children carry the same variant and are, at present, disease-free. Physicians should be aware that phaeochromocytoma can manifest in an atypical manner, as with episodic hypotension, mainly if the symptoms have no obvious aetiology and they worsen over time. This case also supports the presence of a predominant adrenaline secreting pattern in TMEM127-positive tumours, as well as the need to consider multigene panel testing in patients with bilateral phaeochromocytomas.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Oct 2019 00:05:24 +000
  • Therapeutic Challenges for Elderly Patients with Primary

    • Abstract: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) predominantly affects older adults, and parathyroidectomy can achieve definitive cure in symptomatic PHPT and asymptomatic meeting surgical criteria. As the population continues to age, the treatment of PHPT in octogenarians and nonagenarians presents a clinical conundrum. This case series presents the management of eight patients 85 years of age and older diagnosed with PHPT. A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with primary hyperparathyroidism were identified in a single institution. Those patients 85 years of age and older who were followed up for over one year were included in this case series. The literature on treatment options for this age group was also reviewed. Eight cases of PHPT patients aged 88 ± 2.5 years old with a follow-up average of 5.6 ± 4.4 years were reported in our case series. Six PHPT patients were medically managed and two PHPT patients underwent parathyroid resection. Most of the medically managed PHPT patients except for one had long-term stability of disease for over five years. The treatment of PHPT diagnosed in patients over 85 years of age presents a clinical challenge for which there is no clear consensus guideline. Our case series supports that medical therapy is a feasible option for PHPT patients over 85 years old.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Oct 2019 13:05:03 +000
  • A Case Report of Graves’ Disease Induced by the Anti-Human Programmed
           Cell Death-1 Monoclonal Antibody Pembrolizumab in a Bladder Cancer Patient

    • Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1), have been widely used in the treatment of malignancies. However, these drugs can cause immune-related adverse events resembling autoimmune diseases. There are some reports of Graves’ disease (GD) induced by anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 antibodies, but reports which discussed GD induced by anti-PD-1 antibodies are very rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with bladder cancer who presented with severe diarrhea, fatigue, palpitation, body weight loss, and hyperthyroidism after the fifth treatment with the anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab. His thyroid function prior to pembrolizumab administration had been subclinical hyperthyroidism, despite a negative thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) level. On admission, pembrolizumab administration was discontinued. Graves’ disease was diagnosed based on a positive TRAb test result and the ultrasonographic finding of increased blood flow in the superior thyroid artery. Based on colonoscopy findings, the cause of diarrhea was diagnosed as active colitis. His diarrhea was improved with prednisolone, and thyroid function was treated with potassium iodide and thiamazole. This case report of GD with positive TRAb induced by the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying the association between GD and autoimmune activation via PD-1.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 09:05:08 +000
  • The Utility of Immunohistochemistry in Differentiating Metastatic Primary
           Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Thyroid from a Primary Lung Squamous Cell

    • Abstract: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland (PSCCTh) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with extensive squamous differentiation are rare entities which pose a diagnostic challenge in determining the primary site when presented as metastases. The difficulty in confirming a thyroid primary is further compounded by the aggressive nature of these tumours which frequently present at advanced stages. We present a case in which the patient presented with a thyroid mass and a lung mass simultaneously. The risk of misinterpreting the site of primary tumour as lung is greatly increased because squamous cell carcinoma of lung is much more common than its thyroid counterpart. This case highlights the effectiveness of PAX-8 stain in determining the primary site of tumour when squamous cell carcinoma is found in both lung and thyroid gland.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 08:05:06 +000
  • Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis as the First Manifestation of
           Thyrotropin-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma

    • Abstract: Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is an unusual neurological manifestation of thyrotoxicosis, and even rarer when it occurs in thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma, only 6 cases having been previously reported. We describe a case of pituitary microadenoma with clinical syndromes of thyrotoxicosis complicated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. Clinical manifestations and proposed management are discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Oct 2019 16:05:00 +000
  • Ectopic Cushing’s Syndrome Unveiling a Metastatic Parotid Carcinoma

    • Abstract: Introduction. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ectopic production is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS). The most commonly associated tumours are small-cell lung carcinoma along with bronchial and thymic carcinoids. To date, only 5 cases have been published in the literature featuring ectopic ACTH secretion from metastatic acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid gland. We hereby describe a very uncommon case of ectopic CS (ECS) unveiling a metastatic parotid ACC. Case Presentation. A 46-year-old man with hypertension and dyslipidemia diagnosed 4-months before, as well as new-onset diabetes mellitus unveiled 1-month earlier, was referred to emergency department for hypokalemia. Hormonal study and dynamic biochemical tests performed indicated ECS. Imaging and cytological findings pointed toward a likely primary right parotid malignancy with liver metastases. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy has shown an increased uptake in the parotid gland and mild expression in liver metastasis. The patient underwent right parotidectomy, and histopathologic examination confirmed ACC. Meanwhile, hypercortisolism was managed with metyrapone, ketoconazole, and lanreotide. Despite chemotherapy onset, a rapid disease progression and clinical course deterioration was observed. Conclusion. The present report highlights a rare ECS, exposing a metastatic parotid ACC, with an aggressive and challenging clinical course, representing the first case whose diagnosis of ECS came prior to ACC.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 12:05:00 +000
  • A Unique Case of IGF-2 Induced Hypoglycemia Associated with Hepatocellular

    • Abstract: Tumor-induced hypoglycemia (TIH) associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) results from tumor production of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), resulting in recurrent hypoglycemia. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), or pro-insulin-like growth factor 2 (pro-IGF-2) are required for the diagnosis. However, due to the limited availability of testing in many laboratories, this condition is often overlooked. As this condition is often overlooked, prompt recognition and implementation of tumor directed therapies and/or systemic therapies can help mitigate the consequences of hypoglycemia. We present a 38-year-old man with advanced multifocal HCC who presented with abdominal pain and was found to have recurrent symptomatic hypoglycemia. Evaluation revealed elevated levels of IGF-2, suggesting a diagnosis of HCC with production of IGF-2.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:06:33 +000
  • Co-Occurrence of Exogenous and Endogenous Cushing’s
           Syndromes—Dilemma in Diagnosis

    • Abstract: Approach to patients who manifest with features of Cushing’s syndrome often begin with exclusion of exposure to excessive exogenous source of glucocorticoids (GC). Most guidelines advocate no further assessment if excessive exogenous GC use is present. We present a case of a 66-year-old lady who was noted to have typical features of Cushing’s syndrome. As she gave a very clear history of ingesting exogenous GC for a year, no further work up was undertaken. Despite cessation of GC for a year, she continued to have thin skin and easy bruising. Upon admission for hypertensive emergency, her clinician took note of her changes and investigated her for endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. Her cortisol post overnight dexamethasone suppression test was 707 nmol/l. Post low dose dexamethasone suppression test yielded a cortisol of 1133.2 nmol/l. 24 hours urine cortisol was 432.2 nmol/l. Plasma ACTH was 1.1 pmol/l, indicating an ACTH independent Cushing’s syndrome. We proceeded with Computed tomography scan (CT scan) of adrenals which revealed a right adrenal adenoma measuring 4.4 × 3.4 × 4.0 cm. Right retroperiteneoscopic adrenalectomy was done. Histopathology examination was consistent with adrenal cortical adenoma with foci of myelolipoma. Post adrenalectomy she developed hypocortisolism secondary to contralateral adrenal suppression which lasted up to the present date. Her cutaneous and musculoskeletal manifestations improved substantially. Co-occurrence of endogenous and exogenous Cushing’s syndromes is uncommon but should be considered in patients whose Cushingnoid features do not resolve after cessation of exogenous GC.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Oct 2019 00:06:32 +000
  • Heparin-Induced Pituitary Apoplexy Presenting as Isolated Unilateral
           Oculomotor Nerve Palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Introduction. Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a rare and potentially life-threatening clinical syndrome resulting from pituitary gland hemorrhage and/or infarction. Anticoagulation is a risk factor for triggering PA. Isolated oculomotor nerve palsy is an atypical presentation of PA. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old African American female with no past medical history of pituitary disease presented to the emergency department (ED) with nonspecific abdominal pain that was thought to be secondary to fecal stasis and subsequently improved with laxatives. She also reported atypical chest pain that was concerning for unstable angina. She was started on aspirin, clopidogrel, and intravenous (IV) heparin. Later, coronary catheterization showed no significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Twelve hours after the procedure, the patient developed acute complete left oculomotor nerve palsy with a severe headache. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed a large pituitary mass. Pituitary apoplexy was suspected and the patient eventually underwent a successful trans-sphenoidal pituitary resection. Discussion. We report a case of PA manifesting as isolated left oculomotor nerve palsy without visual field defects in the setting of using dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and IV heparin for acute coronary syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this unique combination has not been previously reported.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 12:05:03 +000
  • Thyroid Storm with Multiorgan Failure Treated with Plasmapheresis

    • Abstract: Background. Thyroid storm is a severe manifestation of thyrotoxicosis and can present with multiorgan failure. First line treatment of thyroid storm is directed towards decreasing thyroid hormone production and peripheral conversion of T4 to T3, and treating adrenergic symptoms. When medical therapy fails, plasmapheresis is an alternative treatment option. Here we present a patient with thyroid storm and multiorgan failure who was treated with plasmapheresis. Case. A 50-year-old male with a history of hyperthyroidism, hypertension, and congestive heart failure presented to another hospital with fever and altered mentation. He was found to have pneumonia on imaging and was started on antibiotics. He developed shock complicated by atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate which was treated with amiodarone. He was transferred to our hospital for further management. On arrival, TSH was 7 ng/dL and total T3 was 358 ng/dL. The endocrinology team determined he was in thyroid storm. His medical treatment of thyroid storm was aggressively titrated to maximal therapy. His hospital course was complicated by transaminitis, respiratory failure requiring intubation, shock requiring vasopressor support, kidney failure requiring continuous renal replacement therapy, and heart failure. Despite maximal anti-thyroid therapy, he had not improved clinically and T4 and T3 remained markedly elevated. A 4-day course of plasmapheresis was initiated resulting in marked lowering of T4 and T3 and clinical stability. Conclusion. While current guidelines for plasmapheresis for thyroid storm recommend individualized decision making, no further clarification is provided on who would be a good candidate for the procedure. We present a patient with thyroid storm and multiorgan failure who was treated with plasmapheresis after failing maximal medical therapy. Given the significant improvement seen with plasmapheresis, endocrinologists should consider this mode of treatment earlier in the course of thyroid storm when patients are not improving with medical therapy alone.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 09:05:03 +000
  • Abnormally Elevated Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Level in an
           Infertile Woman

    • Abstract: We report a case of 33-year-old woman with a 4-year primary infertility. A high isolated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level was conflicting with the clinical situation and with other hormonal markers which were in favor of polycystic ovarian syndrome. We followed a strategy used to identify immune complexes involving FSH. The PEG precipitation test revealed that the high FSH level was almost exclusively due to the presence of autoimmune FSH immunoglobulin complex (macro-FSH). The profile obtained by gel filtration chromatography confirmed the presence of an FSH-immunoglobulin complex. Such immunological dysregulation could be explored in cases of unexplained infertility and recurrent IVF failure.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Sep 2019 00:05:43 +000
  • Lenvatinib Administered via Nasogastric Tube in Poorly Differentiated
           Thyroid Cancer

    • Abstract: Background. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are indicated for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic progressive thyroid carcinoma (CDT), refractory to radioactive iodine. The following report describes the efficacy of lenvatinib administered through a nose-gastric tube (SNG) in a patient affected with a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) which determined a stenosis of the esophagus. Material and Methods. A patient was followed up for papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant (T3NxMx), subjected to total thyroidectomy and treated with iodine-131 radio metabolic therapy. Two years after surgery, following the onset of dysphonia and dysphagia, patient was submitted to a computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck that showed the presence of a lesion of 6 × 2.5 × 3.5 cm, which determined trachea deviation and cervical esophagus compression. The biopsy indicated the presence of PDTC, triggering tracheal lumen reduction and sub-stenosis of the cervical esophagus for an ab-extrinsic compression. A nose-gastric tube (SNG) was placed and lenvatinib was started at a dose of 20 mg/day, administered via this probe after opening the capsules and diluting the drug in 10 ml of saline solution. Results. One month later, CT showed a significant cervical lesion reduction. Bronchoscopy confirmed tracheal infiltration, but the residual caliber was improved from 50% to 75%. At the esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS), the sub stenosis of the cervical esophagus was no longer appreciated; however, a double perforation of the esophagus was found, without fistula. Conclusion. Lenvatinib therapy is effective also when administered via SNG. Our result is of particular relevance in the management of thyroid cancer patients, especially in the presence of subjects unable to swallow. Further studies are needed to validate the administration of lenvatinib by SNG, in order to extend the indications to this alternative administration way, beside the oral one.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Sep 2019 08:05:02 +000
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