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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Case Reports in Critical Care
  [9 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2090-6420 - ISSN (Online) 2090-6439
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Use of High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in a Pregnant Woman with
           Dermatomyositis-Related Interstitial Pneumonia

    • Abstract: A 33-year-old pregnant woman was referred to our hospital with respiratory distress at 30 weeks of gestation. Chest computed tomography (CT) scans revealed pulmonary infiltrates along the bronchovascular bundles and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Despite immediate treatment with steroid pulse therapy for suspected interstitial pneumonia, the patient’s condition worsened. Respiratory distress was slightly alleviated after the initiation of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy (40 L/min, FiO2 40%). We suspected clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) complicating rapidly progressive refractory interstitial pneumonia. In order to save the life of the patient, the use of combination therapy with immunosuppressants was necessary. The patient underwent emergency cesarean section and was immediately treated with immunosuppressants while continuing HFNC oxygen therapy. The neonate was treated in the neonatal intensive care unit. The patient’s condition improved after 7 days of hospitalization; by this time, she was positive for myositis-specific autoantibodies and was diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia preceding dermatomyositis. This condition can be potentially fatal within a few months of onset and therefore requires early combination immunosuppressive therapy. This case demonstrates the usefulness of HFNC oxygen therapy for respiratory management as it negates the need for intubation and allows for various treatments to be quickly performed.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Pediatric Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Secondary to
           Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    • Abstract: This report summarizes a case of a 4-year-old girl with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an atypical presentation in this age group and type of vasculitic disease. We propose that her rapid improvement in clinical status was due to her treatment, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This mechanism would have impacted recovery by removing factors such as endothelial microparticles, superantigens, and immune complexes that have been postulated as the pulmonary-renal link. This may be an interesting avenue of exploration going forward given the lack of evidence in treating such conditions and emergence of CRRT.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 06:23:41 +000
       
  • Use of CytoSorb in Traumatic Amputation of the Forearm and Severe Septic
           Shock

    • Abstract: Severe trauma associated with later disability and mortality still constitutes a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. While primary morbidity and mortality are mostly related to initial injuries and early complications, secondary lethality is strongly linked to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, and ultimately multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. We herein report on a 49-year-old male patient who was admitted to the hospital after a traumatic amputation of his right forearm that was cut off while working on a landfill. After initial treatment for shock, he received immediate replantation and was transferred to the ICU. Due to the anticipated risk of a complex infection, continuous renal replacement therapy in combination with CytoSorb was initiated. During the course of the combined treatment, a rapid improvement in hemodynamics was noticed, as well as a significant reduction of IL-6 and lactate levels. Despite a recurring septic episode and the necessity for amputation, the patient clinically stabilized and underwent complete recovery. The early treatment with a combination of CVVHDF and CytoSorb was accompanied by an attenuation of the systemic inflammatory reaction, which subsided without major or permanent organ damage, despite the impressive pathogen spectrum and the pronounced local damage.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Case of a 34-Year-Old Female with Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure
           and Proximal Muscle Weakness

    • Abstract: Wound associated botulism is an unusual presentation. Early detection of this potentially life-threatening illness can significantly shorten length of hospital stay and improve prognosis. We present a case of a 34-year-old female with a history of heroin abuse who presented to the ED with acute respiratory failure, diplopia, and proximal muscle weakness. There was early concern for wound botulism as the instigating process. After discussion with the CDC, she was given equine serum heptavalent botulism antitoxin. Laboratory analysis later confirmed our suspicion. Symptoms improved and the patient was liberated from mechanical ventilation on day 14 and discharged from the hospital on day 23.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 07:08:51 +000
       
  • Cyclic Nonrespiratory Pulse Pressure Oscillations Caused by
           Atrioventricular Dissociation

    • Abstract: Dynamic preload assessment tests, especially pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV), are increasingly acknowledged in mechanically ventilated patients as being predictors of fluid responsiveness. However, the limitations of this method are often neglected or overlooked. One of the prerequisites for PPV and SVV evaluation, in addition to intermittent positive pressure ventilation, is a “regular heart rhythm,” which may be an ambiguous term. We present a case where, despite a regular (paced) rhythm, atrioventricular dissociation was present and resulted in marked PPV elevation, which subsequently disappeared once sinus rhythm returned. Our case indicates that PPV and SVV should be interpreted with caution when atrioventricular dissociation is present.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Nov 2017 08:06:27 +000
       
  • Miliary Tuberculosis Presenting with ARDS and Shock: A Case Report and
           Challenges in Current Management and Diagnosis

    • Abstract: Miliary tuberculosis, complicated by ARDS and septic shock, is a rare and lethal presentation of this disease. Here we present a case of such a patient, following which we discuss the management of tuberculosis in the ICU and some of the challenges that may be faced. A young HIV negative female presented to us with an acute history of worsening shortness of breath on a background of weight loss, nonproductive cough, and fever. CXR and CT scan showed bilateral miliary type opacities and the patient was admitted to the hospital. Within forty-eight hours of admission she became hypoxemic and was intubated and transferred to the ICU. There she experienced worsening organ dysfunction and developed circulatory shock. Despite escalating doses of noradrenaline, she continued to decline and died before specific anti-TB treatment could be started. Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are the keys to improving outcomes in critically ill TB patients. However there are many challenges in doing so, especially in a general ICU located in a country with a low TB incidence.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 08:07:17 +000
       
  • Acute Hypoxic and Refractory Respiratory Failure Induced by an Underlying
           PFO: An Unusual Case of Platypnea Orthodeoxia and Transient Complication
           after Transcatheter Closure

    • Abstract: Platypnea orthodeoxia (PO) is an infrequent condition of dyspnea with hypoxemia, increased by adopting an upright position and is relieved in decubitus. This condition may occur in patients with hidden intracardiac shunts, usually across a persistent foramen ovale (PFO). The incidence of PFO in general population is quite common, around 27%; however, the concurrent presentation with PO, especially in acute refractory respiratory failure, is extremely rare. PFO closure in this setting is still the treatment of choice with significant improvement or complete resolution of symptoms after closure with an overall periprocedural complication in the first 24 hours of approximately less than 5%. A transient ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads is present in extremely rare occasions and most likely is induced by either an air embolism or a mechanically provoked spasm of coronary arteries. We report a case of an 83-year-old woman in acute hypoxic and refractory respiratory failure in whom PO was identified, most likely induced by a hidden PFO. The patient underwent percutaneous transcatheter closure and developed immediate chest pain, transient hemodynamic instability, and ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads; nevertheless, our patient recovered completely with rapid resolution of respiratory failure with no adverse clinical sequelae.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 06:38:43 +000
       
  • Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency: If at First You Do Not Diagnose,
           Try and Try Again

    • Abstract: Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is well known for its diagnosis in the neonatal period. Presentation often occurs after protein feeding and manifests as poor oral intake, vomiting, lethargy progressing to seizure, respiratory difficulty, and eventually coma. Presentation at adulthood is rare (and likely underdiagnosed); however, OTC deficiency can be life-threatening and requires prompt investigation and treatment. Reports and guidelines are scarce due to its rarity. Here, we present a 59-year-old woman with a past history of irritable bowel syndrome who underwent a reparative operation for rectal prolapse and enterocele. Her postoperative course was complicated by a bowel perforation (which was repaired), prolonged mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, critical illness myopathy, protein-caloric malnutrition, and altered mental status. After standard therapy for delirium failed, further investigation showed hyperammonemia and increased urine orotic acid, ultimately leading to the diagnosis of OTC deficiency. This case highlights the importance of considering OTC deficiency in hospitalized adults, especially during the diagnostic evaluation for altered mental status.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comment on “DKA-Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in Patient with
           Known HOCM”

    • PubDate: Wed, 22 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Group A Streptococci-Associated Necrotizing Fasciitis following Cat Bite
           in an Immunocompromised Patient

    • Abstract: Necrotizing soft tissue infections are characterized clinically by fulminant tissue destruction, systemic signs of toxicity, and high mortality. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment must include early surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. Mortality rate is very high and could be even higher in an immunocompromised host. We present a 57-year-old female with history of rheumatoid arthritis on oral corticosteroid and methotrexate therapy with painful swelling of the left hand following a cat bite that was diagnosed as having group A streptococcus pyogenes-associated necrotizing fasciitis. Treatment with ampicillin-sulbactam, Clindamycin, and surgical debridement was performed. In spite of all the adequate therapy she succumbed to death from streptococcal toxic shock and related complications after thirty-two days of treatment in intensive care unit. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon but life-threatening complication in immunocompromised hosts. Tissue infections in cat bite wounds are commonly caused by pathogenic bacterium known as Pasteurella multocida. Group A streptococcal infections are not reported following cat bites. A high index of suspicion must be maintained to suspect group A streptococcal associated necrotizing fasciitis following cat bites and an early medical and surgical intervention should be made for any best possible outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Nov 2017 07:08:34 +000
       
  • A Case of MDMA-Associated Cerebral and Pulmonary Edema Requiring ECMO

    • Abstract: A 20-year-old female presented with confusion, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and severe hyponatremia after ingesting 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain computed tomography (CT) demonstrated cerebral edema. Her hospital course was rapidly complicated by respiratory failure and shock requiring intubation and vasopressors. Refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was diagnosed which was unresponsive to conventional and salvage therapies, requiring initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), leading to normalization of oxygenation parameters. Hyponatremia was corrected and the encephalopathy resolved. The patient was decannulated and extubated after three days. MDMA-induced hyponatremia is hypothesized to result from enhanced serotonergic activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP) release in the brain leading to hyperthermia-induced polydipsia and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. A common but often unrecognized complication of severe hyponatremia is the Ayus-Arieff syndrome where cerebral edema causes neurogenic pulmonary edema via centrally mediated increases in catecholamine release and capillary injury. For our patient, ECMO was required for three days while the hyponatremia was corrected which led to rapid clearing of the cerebral edema and neurogenic pulmonary edema. This case illustrates that, in selecting patients with refractory ARDS from MDMA-associated cerebral and pulmonary edema, ECMO may be a temporizing and life-saving modality of treatment.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 06:42:53 +000
       
  • Intensive Care in a Patient with Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    • Abstract: Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a serious adverse drug reaction with high lethality, which usually requires intensive-medical care. A 44-year-old man developed generalized exanthema with increasing exfoliation and mucosal involvement after taking allopurinol, ibuprofen, and etoricoxib. The clinical diagnosis of TEN was histologically confirmed. Prednisolone therapy with 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) was not able to prevent further progress to finally 80% of the body surface, and infliximab 5 mg/kg BW was given as a single dose. This prevented further progression of the TEN. Despite marked improvement in skin findings, the ICU stay was prolonged by a complex analgosedation, transient kidney failure, volume management, positioning therapy, and vegetatively impeded weaning. Moreover, there was colonization with multiresistant bacteria (MRSA and VRE). Nonetheless, the patient could be restored to health and was released after four weeks. Infliximab seems to be effective in the treatment of TEN, especially in cases of rapid progression. Moreover, patients with TEN are difficult to handle in intensive-medical care, whereby attention should especially be paid to sufficient pain therapy, and the positioning of the patient is a particular challenge.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2017 08:00:32 +000
       
  • A Case of Leptospirosis-Associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome
           Successfully Treated with Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    • Abstract: Background. In patients with leptospirosis-associated severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS), hypoxemia is the most common cause of death despite maximal mechanical ventilation. Case. A 50-year-old male sushi chef who had never traveled outside Japan presented with a 2-day history of fever and muscle pain. On admission, the patient had thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, and jaundice. His condition continued to deteriorate, with decreasing platelet count, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, hypotension, and respiratory distress. On day 5 after onset of symptoms, he required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Bronchoscopy showed diffuse endobronchial bleeding. His respiratory status worsened rapidly with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of 70, necessitating venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) and treatment with an inotrope, renal replacement therapy, and broad-spectrum antibiotics including benzylpenicillin. Anticoagulation was maintained at the minimum level. His condition improved, and he was weaned off ECMO on day 15 and discharged on day 19 after onset of symptoms. The leptospirosis diagnosis was confirmed by leptospiral DNA detection in urine samples by polymerase chain reaction and the results of paired serum antibody titer testing. Conclusions. V-V ECMO may prevent mortality in patients with leptospirosis-induced SPHS that does not respond to conventional therapy.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 07:10:09 +000
       
  • A Case Report of Recurrent Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy in a Patient during
           Myasthenia Crisis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Patients with myasthenia crisis can develop Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (SC) due to emotional or physical stress and high level of circulating catecholamines. We report a patient who developed recurrent Takotsubo cardiomyopathy during myasthenia crisis. Coexisting autoimmune disorders known to precipitate stress cardiomyopathy like Grave’s disease need to be evaluated. Case Report. A 69-year-old female with seropositive myasthenia gravis (MG), Grave’s disease, and coronary artery disease on monthly infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), prednisone, pyridostigmine, and methimazole presented with shortness of breath and chest pain. Electrocardiogram (ECG) showed ST elevation in anterolateral leads with troponemia. Coronary angiogram was unremarkable for occlusive coronary disease with left ventriculogram showing reduced wall motion with apical and mid left ventricle (LV) hypokinesis suggestive of Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy. Her symptoms were attributed to MG crisis. Her symptoms, ECG, and echocardiographic findings resolved after five cycles of plasma exchange (PLEX). She had another similar episode one year later during myasthenia crisis with subsequent resolution in 10 days after PLEX. Conclusion. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can be one of the manifestations of myasthenia crisis with or without coexisting Grave’s disease. These patients might benefit from meticulous fluid status and cardiac monitoring while administering rescue treatments like IVIG and PLEX.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 08:37:52 +000
       
  • A Case of Invasive Pneumococcal Infection with Septic Shock and Rare
           Complications

    • Abstract: Invasive pneumococcus is a serious illness with potentially devastating outcomes. A 64-year-old female with a medical history of psoriatic arthritis and diabetes was transferred from an outside hospital for ventilator dependent respiratory failure and altered mental status. She initially presented with worsening back pain and was found to have leukocytosis with bandemia and acute renal failure but she was in septic shock upon arrival to our tertiary care center. Her blood cultures grew Streptococcus pneumoniae and MRI of the brain revealed pus within the posterior lateral ventricles and multiple infarcts. MRI of the spine revealed a psoas abscess. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed mitral valve vegetation and her right eye developed endogenous endophthalmitis. She was treated with intravenous and intravitreal antibiotics and underwent drainage of the abscess with no improvement in mental status. Repeat imaging revealed multiple new thalamic, basal ganglia, and parietal lobe infarcts likely from septic emboli. After a protracted ICU stay, the patient’s family opted for comfort care. The incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections has declined rapidly since the advent of antibiotics and vaccines. With the growing incidence of antibiotic resistance as well as the emergence of new immunomodulating drugs for various pathologies, there is a concern that invasive infections will reemerge. Ventriculitis and endogenous endophthalmitis are very rare complications of pneumococcal bacteremia.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure from Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
           Secondary to Leptospirosis

    • Abstract: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure, is associated with a mortality of 30–50% and is precipitated by both direct and indirect pulmonary insults. Treatment is largely supportive, consisting of lung protective ventilation and thereby necessitating Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. The most common precipitant is community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, but other putative pathogens include viruses and fungi. On rare occasions, ARDS can be secondary to tropical disease. Accordingly, a history should include travel to endemic regions. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease most common in the tropics and typically associated with mild pulmonary complications. We describe a case of a 25-year-old male with undiagnosed leptospirosis, presenting with fever and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, returning from a Costa Rican holiday. There was no other organ failure. He was intubated and received lung protective ventilation. His condition improved after ampicillin and penicillin G were added empirically. This case illustrates the rare complication of ARDS from leptospirosis, the importance of taking a travel history, and the need for empiric therapy because of diagnostic delay.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Nearly Lethal Screw: An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Bradycardia and
           Asystole Episodes after Fixation of the Cervical Spine

    • Abstract: We present a case of a 51-year-old man who was injured in a bicycle accident. His main injury was an unstable fracture of the cervical and thoracic vertebral column. Several hours after his arrival to the hospital the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of the cervical and thoracic spine. The patient was hospitalized in our critical care unit for 99 days. During this time patient had several episodes of severe bradycardia and asystole; some were short with spontaneous return to sinus and some required pharmacological treatment and even Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Initially, these episodes were attributed to the high cervical spine injury, but, later on, CT scan suggested that a fixation screw abutted on the esophagus and activated the vagus nerve by direct pressure. After repositioning of the cervical fixation, the bradycardia and asystole episodes were no longer observed and the patient was released to a rehabilitation ward. This case is presented in order to alert practitioners to the possibility that, after operative fixation of cervical spine injuries, recurrent episodes of bradyarrhythmia can be caused by incorrect placement of the fixation screws and might be confused with the natural history of the high cervical cord injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Thiamine Deficiency Leading to Refractory Lactic Acidosis in a Pediatric
           Patient

    • Abstract: Thiamine plays a critical role in energy metabolism. Critically ill children and adults may develop thiamine deficiency with ultimately increased mortality due to potentially irreversible consequences of severe type B lactic acidosis. We report a case of an unvaccinated term neonate with malignant pertussis requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy, who developed profound lactic acidosis of unknown etiology. After countless evaluations for likely causes, the patient was ultimately determined to have thiamine deficiency and her acidosis resolved rapidly with vitamin supplementation.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dosing of Ertapenem in an Extreme Obesity: A Case Report of 250 kg
           Patient

    • Abstract: Limited available data for dosing in obesity of the medicines used in this case are discussed, with the emphasis on ertapenem. The case illustrates the difficulties in dosing medicines to morbidly overweight patients. The number of such patients is increasing but data on adequate doses of medicines are scarce. We demonstrate that ertapenem 1,5 g i.v. once daily provided adequate drug exposure for susceptible bacteria in a 250 kg patient with normal renal function. The case suggests the usefulness of therapeutic drug monitoring of antibiotics, especially in critically ill patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Acute-Onset Panhypopituitarism Nearly Missed by Initial Cosyntropin
           Testing

    • Abstract: Introduction. Diagnosis of adrenal crisis and panhypopituitarism in patients with septic shock is difficult but crucial for outcome. Case. A 66-year-old woman with metastasized breast cancer presented to the ED with respiratory insufficiency and septic shock after a 2-day history of the flu. After transfer to the ICU, corticosteroids were started in addition to antibiotics, as the patient was vasopressor-nonresponsive. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed due to polyuria and treated with 4 mg desmopressin. Thereafter, norepinephrine could be tapered rapidly. On day 2, basal cortisol was 136 nmol/L with an increase to 579 nmol/L in low-dose cosyntropin testing. Polyuria had not developed again. Therefore, corticosteroids were stopped. On day 3, the patient developed again nausea, vomiting, and polyuria. Adrenal crisis and diabetes insipidus were postulated. Corticosteroids and desmopressin were restarted. Further testing confirmed panhypopituitarism. MRI showed a new sellar metastasis. After 2 weeks, stimulated cortisol in cosyntropin testing reached only 219 nmol/l, confirming adrenal insufficiency. Discussion. The time course showed that the adrenal glands took 2 weeks to atrophy after loss of pituitary ACTH secretion. Therefore, a misleading result of the cosyntropin test in the initial phase with low basal cortisol and allegedly normal response to exogenous ACTH may be seen. Cosyntropin testing in the critically ill should be interpreted with caution and in the corresponding clinical setting.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Severe Undifferentiated Vasoplegic Shock Refractory to Vasoactive Agents
           Treated with Methylene Blue

    • Abstract: Methylene blue is a phenothiazine-related heterocyclic aromatic molecule presently used in the treatment of methemoglobinemia. Recently, it has been implicated in the treatment of severe refractory vasoplegic shock caused by anaphylaxis, sepsis, or postcardiopulmonary bypass. We present a case of a 27-year-old male with profound vasoplegic shock of unknown etiology which was refractory to vasopressors who responded within hours to a single dose of methylene blue. Additionally, we review the evidence of methylene blue’s role in the treatment of shock. This case illustrates a diagnostic approach and treatment options in the setting of undifferentiated vasodilatory shock and outlines a new and emerging role for methylene blue in this clinical setting.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Heat Stroke: A Medical Emergency Appearing in New Regions

    • Abstract: Heat stroke is an acute, life-threatening emergency characterized clinically by elevated body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. Early recognition and treatment including aggressive cooling and management of life-threatening systemic complications are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. This case report describes two Danish patients diagnosed with heat stroke syndrome during a heat wave in the summer of 2014. Both patients were morbidly obese and had several predisposing illnesses. However since heat stroke is a rare condition in areas with temperate climate, they were not diagnosed until several days after admittance; hence treatment with cooling was delayed. Both patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, where they were treated with an external cooling device and received treatment for complications. Both cases ended fatally. As global warming continues, more heat waves will occur in previously cooler regions. Therefore it is important to raise awareness of heat stroke since outcome depends on early recognition and rapid cooling.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome due to Uterine Leiomyosarcoma with Lung
           Metastases

    • Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncologic emergency characterized by a combination of metabolic derangements (hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia) caused by rapid turnover from cell destruction in certain cancers. These metabolic derangements can lead to seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, renal failure, and death. TLS is usually seen after the initiation of chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. TLS occurring spontaneously, without initiation of chemotherapy, is rare and its occurrence in solid tumors is rarer still. We report a case of spontaneous TLS in a patient with leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, with metastasis to lung. Such a case has never been reported before.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Significant Bradycardia in Critically Ill Patients Receiving
           Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl

    • Abstract: Purpose. To report a case series of three patients who developed significant bradycardia while receiving the combination of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl for sedation and analgesia. Materials and Methods. This is a case series of patients obtained from a mixed medical, surgical, and cardiac ICU in a community teaching hospital. Three intubated patients receiving fentanyl and dexmedetomidine infusion developed sudden bradycardia requiring intervention. In all three cases, adjustments to therapy were required. Results. All three patients experienced significant bradycardia, with a heart rate less than 50 bpm, and one patient briefly developed asystole. In Case  1, the fentanyl infusion rate was reduced by 67% and the dexmedetomidine infusion rate was reduced by 25%. In Case  2, the sedation was changed to midazolam, and in Case  3, both fentanyl and dexmedetomidine were discontinued. In all three cases, there were no further incidences of significant bradycardia following intervention. Conclusions. Fentanyl used in combination with dexmedetomidine can result in clinically significant bradycardia. Further study is warranted to identify risk factors and elucidate the mechanisms that result in life-threatening bradycardia.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 09:44:31 +000
       
  • Stress Cardiomyopathy Managed with Extracorporeal Support after
           Self-Injection of Epinephrine

    • Abstract: A 28-year-old man was admitted to the ICU for self-injection of Epinephrine. This injection resulted in the rapid development of a catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy (inverted Takotsubo) with a severe cardiogenic shock. The importance of ventricular dysfunction required the implementation of a temporary arteriovenous circulatory support until the recovery of myocardial stunning. This case allows redefining the role of circulatory assistance during cardiotropic agents intoxication.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Anoxic Brain Injury Presenting as Pseudosubarachnoid Hemorrhage in the
           Medical Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Anoxic encephalopathy is frequently encountered in the medical intensive care unit (ICU). Cerebral edema as a result of anoxic brain injury can result in increased attenuation in the basal cisterns and subarachnoid spaces on computerized tomography (CT) scans of the head. These findings can mimic those seen in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and are referred to as pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage (pseudo-SAH). Pseudo-SAH is a diagnosis critical care physicians should be aware of as they treat and evaluate their patients with presumed SAH, which is a medical emergency. This lack of awareness could have important clinical implications on outcomes and impact management decisions if patients with anoxic brain injury are inappropriately treated for SAH. We describe three patients who presented to the hospital with anoxic brain injury. Subsequent CT head suggested SAH, which was subsequently proven to be pseudo-SAH.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 07:16:11 +000
       
  • Efficacy of Prompt Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Treatment
           of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Triggered by Uncontrolled Human
           Immunodeficiency Virus

    • Abstract: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive hematologic disorder involving uncontrolled immune system activation. HLH has been associated with viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We report a case of a critically ill 30-year-old female who was hospitalized with HIV-associated HLH, with a CD4 count of 4 cells/mL and HIV viral load of 1,842,730 copies/mL. After ruling out other potential infectious causes of HLH, antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated with darunavir, ritonavir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine. Within one week of initiation of ART, the patient began to improve clinically and hematologically and was stable enough for discharge from the hospital three weeks after starting therapy. This case suggests that treatment with ART in patients with HIV-associated HLH should be considered even in critically ill patients with low CD4 counts.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Unexpected Case of Black Mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) Bite in
           Switzerland

    • Abstract: Mambas (genus Dendroaspis) are among the most feared venomous African snakes. Without medical treatment, mamba bites are frequently fatal. First-aid treatment includes lymphatic retardation with the pressure immobilization technique. Medical management comprises continuous monitoring, securing patency of the airway, ensuring adequate ventilation, symptomatic measures, and administration of specific antivenin. We report an unusual case of a snake breeder bitten by a black mamba in Switzerland, report the clinical course, and review the lifesaving emergency management of mamba bites. This case highlights the importance of early antivenin administration and suggests that emergency and critical care physicians as well as first responders all around the world should be familiar with clinical toxinology of exotic snake bites as well as with the logistics to most rapidly make the specific antivenin available.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 08:37:35 +000
       
  • Zinc Chloride Smoke Inhalation Induced Severe Acute Respiratory Distress
           Syndrome: First Survival in the United States with Extended Duration (Five
           Weeks) Therapy with High Dose Corticosteroids in Combination with Lung
           Protective Ventilation

    • Abstract: Zinc chloride smoke bomb exposure is frequently seen in military drills, combat exercises, metal industry works, and disaster simulations. Smoke exposure presents with variety of pulmonary damage based on the intensity of the exposure. Smoke induced severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is often fatal and there are no standard treatment guidelines. We report the first survival of smoke induced severe ARDS in the United States (US) with prolonged use of high dose steroids (five weeks) and lung protective ventilation alone. Previously reported surviving patients in China and Taiwan required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and other invasive modalities. We suggest that an extended course of high dose corticosteroids should be considered for the treatment of smoke inhalation related ARDS and should be introduced as early as possible to minimize the morbidity and mortality. We further suggest that patients with smoke inhalation should be observed in the hospital for at least 48 to 72 hours before discharge, as ARDS can have a delayed onset. Being vigilant for infectious complications is important due to prolonged steroid treatment regimen. Patients must also be monitored for critical illness polyneuromyopathy. Additionally, upper airway injury should be suspected and early evaluation by otorhinolaryngology may be beneficial.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 09:07:39 +000
       
  • Use of Hemadsorption in a Case of Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    • Abstract: Background. Toxic shock syndrome is a potentially fatal toxin-mediated disease. The role of toxins in this clinical entity made us hypothesize that extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb® could play a beneficial role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. This case report describes the successful treatment of toxic shock syndrome using a combination of renal replacement therapy and hemadsorption in a pediatric patient. Case Presentation. A 5-year-old girl with Down’s syndrome presented with an inflamed area surrounding an insect bite, signs of systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. As previous attempts of immune modulation therapy were unsuccessful, renal replacement therapy was supplemented by the cytokine absorber CytoSorb. Treatment using this combination was associated with a rapid and significant stabilization in the hemodynamic situation and a decrease in inflammatory mediators within hours after the initiation of therapy. The application of CytoSorb therapy was simple and safe. Conclusion. The use of extracorporeal blood purification with CytoSorb proved potentially beneficial by removing toxins and inflammatory mediators in this case and could therefore play a role in the clinical management of toxic shock syndrome. Whether CytoSorb has the potential to even positively influence mortality in patients with toxic shock syndrome still needs to be confirmed.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 07:49:14 +000
       
 
 
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