Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Advances in Preventive Medicine
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2090-3499
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Assessing Level of Knowledge and Uptake of Hepatitis B Vaccination among
           Health Care Workers at Juba Teaching Hospital, Juba City, South Sudan

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus (HBV) infection remains a severe problem worldwide. An estimated 240–400 million persons are reported to have chronic HBV infection, and the annual mortality from HBV-related complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma was 600,000 persons. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of HBV chronic infection is particularly high while in South Sudan, hepatitis B remains a serious problem of public health importance with health care workers being more at greater risk. Vaccination coverage against HBV is low among all age groups, yet vaccination status among health care workers is not even known in South Sudan. This study aimed at assessing viral hepatitis B vaccination uptake among health care workers at Juba Teaching Hospital, Juba City, South Sudan. Objective. To assess the uptake of viral hepatitis B vaccination among health care workers in Juba Teaching Hospital, Juba City, South Sudan. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional study design was conducted targeting 154 health workers. A convenient sampling procedure was used to recruit study participants. Questionnaires were used to collect data. SPSS version 20.0 was used for data analysis. Chi-square tests were used to determine the association between the uptake of hepatitis B vaccination and individual and health facility factors. Multivariable analysis was conducted. Adjusted OR was used to interpret the findings. Results. Uptake of hepatitis B vaccination was found to be low at 44.20%, only 48.8% had received one dose, 29.1% received two doses, and 22.1% had received all three doses. Being married (), knowing that hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccination (), knowing that HBV can be got through unprotected sexual intercourse (), awareness of where to get hepatitis B vaccination from (), availability of vaccines in the health facility (), and availability of guidelines followed by all health workers in this facility () were the factors independently associated with the uptake of hepatitis B vaccination. Conclusion. The uptake of hepatitis B vaccination among health workers at Juba Teaching Hospital was low (22.1%), putting health workers at great risk of HBV infection. Having knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination and unprotected sexual intercourse were individual factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination. Availability of the vaccine and vaccination guidelines were the health-related factors associated with hepatitis B vaccination. The government of South Sudan through the Ministry of Health should first track approval of the viral hepatitis B vaccination policy and ensure that it is adopted and implemented by all hospitals. Health care workers must be prioritized and mandatorily vaccinated against viral hepatitis B.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Dec 2020 16:20:01 +000
       
  • Role of Statins in the Primary Prevention of Atherosclerotic
           Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in the Population with Mean
           Cholesterol in the Near-Optimal to Borderline High Range: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. The objective of this meta-analysis was to analyze the benefits and harms of treating the population with statins in those having mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the near-optimal (100 to 129 mg/dl) to borderline high (130 to 159 mg/dl) range and free of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. We searched PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1994 and July 2020. We included RCTs with greater than 90% of participants free of CVD. Two reviewers independently screened the articles using the Covidence software, assessed the methodological quality using the risk of bias 2 tool, and analyzed the data using the RevMan 5.4 software. Results. Eleven trials were included. Statin therapy was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (RR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.67), major cerebrovascular events (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.96), major coronary events (RR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.80), composite cardiovascular outcome (RR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82), revascularizations (RR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.74), angina (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.92), and hospitalization for cardiovascular causes (RR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64 to 0.86). There was no benefit associated with statin therapy for cardiovascular mortality and coronary heart disease mortality. All-cause mortality benefit with statin therapy was seen in the population with diabetes and increased risk of CVD. Statin therapy was associated with no significant increased risk of myalgia, creatine kinase elevation, rhabdomyolysis, myopathy, incidence of any cancer, incidence of diabetes, withdrawal of the drug due to adverse events, serious adverse events, fatal cancer, and liver enzyme abnormalities. Conclusion. Statin therapy was associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and procedures without increased risk of harm in populations with mean LDL-C in the near-optimal to the borderline high range and without prior atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 08:20:00 +000
       
  • A Survey on Prevalence and Knowledge of Family Planning among Women of
           Childbearing Age in the Provincial Settings of the Gambia: A Descriptive
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Family planning (FP) is one of the fundamental pillars of safe motherhood and reproductive health rights. In developing countries, women with unmet need for FP constitute a significant proportion of all women of reproductive age and it is an ongoing public health challenge in the Gambia. The study aimed to determine the women’s proportion of contraceptive uptake and knowledge of FP methods. Methods. The study employed a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted for 643 women of reproductive age (15–49 years) from the selected clusters in rural Gambia through a multistage sampling technique. A pretested structured interview questionnaire was used to collect data. Univariate analysis using frequencies and percentages were used to present results in this study. Data entry and analysis were done using IBM SPSS version 24. Results. The overall contraceptive prevalence rate was 30.4%, while the CPR for married or in the union was 34.2%. About 86% of women reported child spacing as the major benefits of FP, while 49.5% reported amenorrhea as the most common side effect of contraceptives. Injectable (Depo-Provera, Noristerat, and ) and pills (progesterone and combined) were the two most common FP methods used at 58.5% and 44.0%, respectively. Conclusion. The present study showed a moderately low contraceptive uptake. Thus, there is a need to focus FP services for women in rural areas, emphasizing the quality of services and gender equality. The study further recommends strengthening and mainstreaming of male involvement and religious leaders participation in FP interventions and the initiation of a communication program that explicitly promotes interspousal communication.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Nov 2020 06:50:00 +000
       
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors towards Safe Abortion among
           Private College Female Students in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Women die from complications of unsafe abortion in developing countries because most have little knowledge about how to safely access to abortion care. Studies on knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards safe abortion are limited in general and particularly among private college students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards safe abortion among private college female students in Gondar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 30, 2019, to May 30, 2019, among private college students in the Gondar town. Data were collected from 633 female students using self-administered questionnaires by a simple random sampling technique. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify association of dependent and independent variables using SPSS, version 20. Results. A total of 633 respondents participated in this study with the response rate of 97.7%. The majority (433 (68.4%)) of students had good knowledge about safe abortion. Older age (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.16, 7.29), urban residence (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.26, 4.35), family education (AOR = 3.18, 95% CI: 1.32, 7.06), and ever having heard about safe abortion (AOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.89, 10.83) were factors associated with knowledge of students on safe abortion. Regarding attitude, 361 (57%) of students had favorable attitude towards safe abortion. Age (AOR = 6.58, 95% CI: 2.71, 11.21) and urban residence (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.21) were factors significantly associated with attitude towards safe abortion. Conclusion. More than half of the participants have good knowledge and attitude towards safe abortion, but still a significant proportion of students have poor knowledge and unfavorable attitude. Information, education, and communication programs on youth reproductive health should be provided to address topics on safe abortion for students. Forums and panel discussions on safe abortion need to be undertaken especially, among youths and students who come from rural area.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Vaccines Attitudes, Concerns, and Information Sources Reported by Parents
           of Young Children among North Palestinian Parents

    • Abstract: Parental acceptance of routine childhood immunization is critical to protecting children’s health, as high vaccination-coverage rates lead to decreased rates of vaccine-preventable diseases. However, to communicate effectively with parents about vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, it is necessary to assess their vaccine-related attitudes and concerns continually. Recently the Palestine Ministry of Health has recorded epidemics of measles and mumps. Poor compliance with vaccination has been attributed to multiple factors including physician inadequacy advocating for vaccination and public mistrust of vaccinations. As a result, this study was conducted to describe the vaccine-related attitudes, concerns, and information sources of North Palestinian parents of young children. A cross-sectional survey was conducted involving parents visiting emergency departments and primary health care centers from different North Palestinian hospitals and centers. 480 surveys were eligible and analyzed. The surveys revealed that although parental confidence in vaccine safety is high, several vaccine-related concerns, such as pain from vaccine administration and the number of vaccines given at once, were common among parents of young children. To maintain and improve the success of childhood vaccines in preventing disease, a holistic approach is needed to address parents’ concerns in an ongoing manner. Listening and responding in ways and with resources that address specific questions and concerns could help parents make more informed vaccination decisions.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Oct 2020 13:35:00 +000
       
  • Level and Associated Factors of Knowledge regarding Menstrual Hygiene
           among School-Going Adolescent Girls in Dang District, Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Adolescent girls in developing countries do not have proper information, and proper information is covered up by sociocultural boundaries resulting in various morbidities. This study aimed to determine level of knowledge and its associated factors regarding menstrual hygiene amongst adolescent school girls in Dang district, Nepal. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted between April and October 2019 among 406 adolescent girls studying in grades 8–10 between ages of 10–19 years in Dang district, Nepal. From a total of 10 local units, 5 were selected randomly. Out of the selected 5 units, 10 schools consisting of 5 government and 5 private schools were selected through disproportionate stratified random sampling. A further 406 students were then selected randomly from the 10 selected schools. Bivariate analysis was used primarily to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. Variables which were associated with bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model to identify associated factors of menstrual hygiene practice. Results. The mean age and family size were 15.13 ± 1.19 and 5.58 ± 1.81, respectively. A total of 87.7% of adolescents had good knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene. Adolescents living in rural area (AOR = 0.27, CI: 0.12–0.61, ), private schools (AOR = 6.10, CI: 1.58–23.46, ), mothers who can read and write (AOR = 0.22, CI: 0.07–0.64, ), fathers who have up-to-grade-10 education (AOR = 5.15, CI: 1.84–14.39, ), and living only with mothers (AOR = 0.29, CI: 0.12–0.69, ) were significantly associated with level of knowledge of menstrual hygiene. Conclusions. Though the majority of respondents had a good level of knowledge regarding menstrual hygiene, there was a knowledge gap in specific areas. The level of knowledge was significantly poor among adolescents in rural areas and those living only with mothers. Thus, this study concerns the need for policy makers to focus on specific education regarding menstrual hygiene in rural areas including both parents.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Oct 2020 08:05:01 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Factors Influencing Eye Injuries among Welders in Accra,
           Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. Eye injuries are one of the most common work-related injuries among certain occupations, including welders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing eye injuries among welders in Accra, Ghana. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 382 welders in Accra from two welding sites. Systematic sampling was used to select participants. A pretested semistructured questionnaire was used to collect demographic information, history of eye injuries, ownership, and use of eye protective equipment and workplace characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions at 5% level of significance were used to determine factors influencing eye injuries. Data were entered into Microsoft excel and exported to Stata 16/MP for analysis. Results. We found 59.7% of welders engaged in electric/arc welding and 40.3% in gas welding. Overall prevalence of eye injuries was 47.9%, higher among electric/arc welders (73.7%) compared to gas welders (9.7%). Factors associated with eye injuries were engaging in gas welding [AOR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.04–0.16], higher monthly income [AOR = 5.26; 95% CI: 1.72–16.09], nonuse of eye PPE while working [AOR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.02–3.43], and no training on the use of eye personal protective equipment [AOR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.07–4.38]. Conclusion. There is high prevalence of welding-related eye injuries among electric welders. Gas welding, high monthly income, nonuse of eye protective equipment, and inadequate training on the use of eye protective equipment were significantly associated with eye injuries. Health policies should be implemented to ensure all welders use eye personal protective equipment.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 14:05:01 +000
       
  • The Prognostic Utility of Plasma NGAL Levels in ST Segment Elevation in
           Myocardial Infarction Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients are markedly higher. In addition, plasma NGAL levels were increased in patients with acute and chronic heart failure as a complication of myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether there is a difference between the prognostic use of plasma NGAL levels in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Methods. 235 consecutive STEMI patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into groups according to LVEF. Plasma NGAL, troponin I, creatine kinase MB (CKMB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Finally, the study population examined with 34 reduced LVEF and 34 preserved LVEF consisted of a total of 68 patients (12 females; mean age, 61.5 ± 14.7). All patients were followed up prospectively for 6 months. This study group was divided into two subgroups as the patients who died (n = 14) and survived (n = 34), and plasma NGAL levels of the groups were compared. Results. The median of NGAL was 190.08 ng/ml. Age, troponin I, CKMB, CRP, glomerular filtration rate, and creatinine were higher in reduced LVEF groups. Plasma NGAL levels were also higher in reduced LVEF than in preserved LVEF, but statistically not significant (). Plasma NGAL levels were significantly higher in death patients than in survived patients (). In ROC curve analysis, the level to detect isolated cardiovascular mortality with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 77% was 190 ng/mL for NGAL. Conclusion. Plasma NGAL levels can be used to predict cardiovascular mortality in STEMI patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2020 14:05:01 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Contraceptives Use among Women Aged (15–49
           years) with Induced Abortion History in Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. The incidence of abortion in Ghana ranges from 27 per 1000 to 61 per 1000 women, causing gynecological complications and maternal mortality. The use of modern contraceptives and its associated factors among women aged 15–49 years have been documented. However, utilization of modern contraceptives specifically among women with induced abortion history is underreported. This study therefore aimed at determining the proportion and identifying predictors of contraceptives use in this underreported population. Methods. This study used secondary data from the 2017 Ghana Maternal Health Survey (GMHS) for the analysis. The analysis is on a weighted sample of 3,039 women aged (15–49 years) with a history of induced abortion. Both descriptive and inferential methods were employed. The chi-square test, univariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to assess statistical associations between the outcome variable and the predictors. Statistical significance was set at 95% confidence interval and values ≤0.05. Results. Out of the 3,039 participants, 37% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.84) used contraceptives. We identified women’ age, union, place of residence, knowledge of fertile period, total pregnancy outcomes, and region as strong significant (95% CI, ) predictors of post induced abortion contraceptives use. Conclusion. Contraceptives use among this vulnerable population is low. Therefore, there is a need to provide widespread access to postabortion contraception services and enhance efforts to efficiently integrate safe abortion practices law into health services in Ghana.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 16:05:00 +000
       
  • Spatial Pattern and Associated Factors of ANC Visits in Ethiopia: Spatial
           and Multilevel Modeling of Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey Data

    • Abstract: Background. Although there is an increase in having antenatal care (ANC), still many women lack recommended ANC contacts in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining spatial patterns and associated factors of not having ANC visits using the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016 data. Methods. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique was employed based on EDHS data from January 18 to June 27, 2016. A total of 7,462 women were included in the study. ArcGIS version 10.7 software was used to visualize the spatial distribution. The Bernoulli model was applied using Kilduff SaTScan version 9.6 software to identify significant purely spatial clusters for not having ANC visits in Ethiopia. A multivariable multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify individual- and community-level determinants of not having antenatal care. Model comparison was checked using the likelihood test and goodness of fit was assessed by the deviance test. Results. The primary clusters’ spatial window was located in Somalia, Oromia, Afar, Dire Dawa, and Harari regions with the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) of 133.02, at level of significance. In this study, Islam religion (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.7 with 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.52,0.96)), mother education being primary (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI (0.49,0.71)), distance from health facility being a big problem (AOR = 0.76, CI (0.65,0.89)), second birth order (AOR = 1.35, CI (1.03, 1.76)), richer wealth index (AOR = 0.65, CI (0.51,0.82)), rural residence (AOR = 2.38, CI (1.54,3.66)), and high community media exposure (AOR = 0.68, CI (0.52,0.89)) were determinants of not having antenatal care in Ethiopia. Conclusion. The spatial distribution of ANC in Ethiopia is non-random. A higher proportion of not having ANC is found in northeast Amhara, west Benishangul Gumuz, Somali, Afar, north, and northeast SNNPR. On the other hand, a low proportion of not having ANC was found in Tigray, Addis Ababa, and Dire Dawa. In Ethiopia, not having antenatal care is affected by both individual- and community-level factors. Prompt attention by the Federal Ministry of Health is compulsory to improve ANC especially in rural residents, uneducated women, poor households, and regions like Oromia, Gambella, and Somalia.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Aug 2020 09:05:00 +000
       
  • Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive
           Women in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are more likely to develop an increased risk of invasive cervical cancer. Morbidity and mortality due to cervical cancer could be reduced with early detection through cervical screening. Though uptake of cervical screening was investigated in Ethiopia, inconsistent findings were reported. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was designed to estimate the pooled prevalence of cervical cancer screening uptake among HIV-positive women and its associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods. A comprehensive search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Cochrane Library was conducted. The data were extracted using a standardized data extraction format. Statistical analysis was done using the STATA, version 14, software. The heterogeneity of the studies was assessed using the I2 test. Funnel plots and Egger’s test were used to check publication bias. A random effects model was computed to estimate the pooled prevalence of cervical cancer screening uptake. Moreover, pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the association of identified determinant factors with cervical cancer screening uptake. Results. A total of 10358 studies were retrieved, and 7 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of cervical cancer screening uptake among HIV-positive women in Ethiopia was 18.17% (95% CI : 11.23, 25.10) with exhibited heterogeneity (I2 = 96.6%; ). Educational status of women (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI : 1.85, 6.07), knowledge of women on cervical cancer (AOR = 3.26; 95% CI : 2.50, 4.43), and perceived susceptibility (AOR = 3.26; 95% CI : 2.26, 4.26) were significantly associated with cervical cancer screening uptake among HIV-positive women. Conclusion. The uptake of cervical cancer screening among HIV-positive women in Ethiopia was low. The findings of this study suggest the need to improve the existing national strategies of cervical cancer screening so as to strengthen reproductive health education and promotion, in addition to providing screening services. Furthermore, cervical screening service should be integrated to the routine care and treatment, so that HIV-positive women can get counseling services in every clinical contact.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 15:20:00 +000
       
  • Knowledge and Other Predictors of Child Welfare Clinic Completion among
           Children Aged 24–59 Months in the Garu-Tempane District of Northern
           Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study of Caregivers

    • Abstract: Background. While completion of the Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) schedule for children remains a crucial factor in the prevention of illness and promotion of better child health, there has been low attendance among caregivers in Ghana. This study examined knowledge of 220 caregivers of children aged 24–59 months on CWC and other factors influencing attendance in the Garu-Tempane District of Northern Ghana. Methods. This health facility-based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among caregivers of children using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics comprising frequency, percentage, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression were adopted in analysing the data. Results. Less than half (46.9%) of the children completed their CWC schedules. Meanwhile, caregivers’ knowledge on CWC was 97.7%. Children aged 37–48 months (AOR = 0.42, 95%CI = 0.21–0.86, ) and 49–59 months (AOR = 0.27, 95%CI = 0.10–0.77, ), respectively, had lower odds of completing CWC. Children with caregivers not having any formal education also had lower odds of completing CWC (AOR = 0.45, 95%CI = 0.21–0.95, ).Conclusion. Educational programmes on the importance of CWC completion should focus on caregivers with children aged 37 months and above and those caregivers with low educational level. It is further recommended that studies be conducted to explore the extent of association between caregivers’ marital status, occupation, level of knowledge, and child CWC completion in the Garu-Tempane District.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 10:05:00 +000
       
  • Undernutrition and Mortality among Adult Tuberculosis Patients in Addis
           Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. In developing countries, there are several adult tuberculosis (TB) patients suffering from profound undernutrition. Undernutrition is a significant risk factor for developing tuberculosis. In the world, TB is one of the top ten and leading causes of death. To appropriately intervene death of adult TB patients, it is crucial to understand the magnitude of undernutrition and its associated factors among them. The study assessed undernutrition and mortality among adult tuberculosis patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institutional-based retrospective study was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from January 2019 to August 2019. The total sample size of the study was 284. The source populations were TB patients who have followed up for TB treatment at public health facilities of Addis Ababa. The sample size was allocated to the selected health facilities proportional to their size, and study subjects were enrolled to the study during the study period. Data were collected by a structured data sheet from the selected health center registration book. Data were entered into Epi Data software and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistical methods were used to summarize the sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan–Meier method for all TB patients. Result. A total of 284 study participants were included in the study. It was found that 46.8% of the study population have undernutrition (BMI
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 08:50:00 +000
       
  • Practice of Menstrual Hygiene and Associated Factors among Adolescent
           School Girls in Dang District, Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Menstrual hygiene management has not been sufficiently addressed in developing countries. In many Nepalese societies, menstrual practices are still surrounded by sociocultural restrictions and taboos resulting in adverse health outcomes for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to determine menstrual hygiene practice and sociodemographic as well as socioeconomic factors associated with good menstrual hygiene practice amongst adolescent school girls in Dang district, Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Dang district, Nepal, among 406 adolescent girls studying in grades 8, 9, and 10 between ages of 10 and 19 years from April to October 2019. Randomly 5 units were selected from a total of 10 local units. After 5 units had been decided, 10 schools consisting of 5 government and 5 private schools were selected through a disproportionate stratified random sampling technique. A further 406 students were then selected randomly from the 10 selected schools. Bivariate analysis was used primarily to assess the association between dependent and independent variables and final measure of association was odds ratio. Variables which were associated with bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model to identify associated factors of menstrual hygiene practice. Results. The mean age and family size were 15.13 ± 1.19 and 5.58 ± 1.81, respectively. A total of 272 (67.0%) adolescents have good menstrual hygiene practice. Mothers and fathers with literature educational background (adjusted odds ratio = 0.52, confidence interval: 0.30–0.89 and AOR = 2.55, CI: 1.26–5.15, respectively), family size greater than or equal to 5 (AOR = 0.61, CI: 0.37–0.98), and living with relatives (AOR = 0.45, CI: 0.24–0.85) were significantly associated with good menstrual hygiene practice. Conclusions. Educational status of mother and father, family size, and living status were found to be independent associated factors of menstrual hygiene practice. In this context, this study demonstrates that administrators and policy makers should provide specific education regarding menstrual hygiene to both parents. Similarly local government needs to subsidize hygiene towels for school adolescents.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jul 2020 10:35:01 +000
       
  • Motorcycle Accidents and Their Outcomes amongst Victims Admitted to Health
           Facilities in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Motorcycle road traffic accidents (RTA) constitute an increasing public health challenge with victims more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared with other types of RTA. The aim of this study was to analyze motorcycle RTA-related morbidity and mortality among victims admitted to hospitals in Guinea from 2015 to 2017. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional study based on hospital records from six districts (Boké, Kindia, Mamou, Faranah, N’Zérékoré, and Siguiri) from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2017. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore associations between RTA types and mortality. Results. There were 14,962 RTA victims with motorcycle RTA accounting for 58.3% and other RTA 45.3% of hospital admissions. Overall, motorcycle RTA accounted for 77.7%, with young adults (96.2%) and males (73.5%) more affected when compared to victims of other types of RTA. Median age of motorcycle RTA victims was 23 years (IQR: 17–33 years). Students (29.7%), employees (23.6%), and farmers/housewives (23.3%) were the commonest groups affected by motorcycle RTA. The highest burden of motorcycle RTA occurred in the mining zones (Boké and Siguiri). Wounds (39.2% and 27.3%) and multiple injuries (43.8% and 43.8%) were the commonest types of injury sustained by victims of both motorcycle and other types of RTA, respectively. Motorcycle RTA accounted for 54% of overall deaths. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, sustaining a motorcycle RTA in N’Zérékoré (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.6–11.2) and being admitted with mild (AOR: 7.4; 95% CI 2.1–25.8) and heavy or deep coma (AOR: 776.1; 95% CI: 340.2–1770.7) were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions. Motorcycle RTA are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Guinea. Males, young adult users, students, employees, and people from mining zones are the most affected. Better law enforcement and awareness raising among Guinean young adults are promising prevention strategies.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 09:50:02 +000
       
  • Improvement of Osteoporosis Screening among Inflammatory Bowel Disease
           Patients at Gastroenterology Fellows’ Clinics

    • Abstract: Introduction. Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of osteoporosis compared to the general population. We aimed to improve the osteoporosis screening rate in the IBD patient population of the gastroenterology (GI) fellows’ continuity clinics. Methods. Baseline preintervention data were collected on patients seen from July through September of 2018. Four simplified criteria for osteoporosis screening were extrapolated from 3 national guidelines. Among patients who met any of these criteria, we determined the baseline screening rate. Fellows were then educated with a didactic session and handout material, and a standardized template was incorporated into clinic notes. Following this intervention, screening rates were reassessed from December 2018 through February 2019. Results. During the preintervention phase, fellows saw 80 patients with IBD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan was obtained in 44% of IBD patients who qualify for screening at the county hospital clinic compared to 21% of veterans’ clinic IBD patients. In the postintervention period, screening rates remarkably improved to 100% in the county hospital clinic and to 75% in the veterans’ clinic. Overall, the screening rate increased by 56% ().Conclusions. A large percentage of IBD patients at risk for osteoporosis did not have appropriate bone mass density testing. Educating GI fellows and adding a template to clinic notes were effective in significantly improving the number of patients at risk of osteoporosis to receive appropriate screening test, a DEXA scan. Similar educational interventions should be considered for providers caring for IBD patients to prevent complications of osteoporosis in these patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Jun 2020 07:20:01 +000
       
  • Assessment of Prescriptions in the Endocrinology Department of a Tertiary
           Care Hospital in Pakistan Using World Health Organization Guidelines

    • Abstract: Background. It is essential to follow World Health Organization drug prescribing indicators to ensure rational prescribing in every health care setting. Objective. To evaluate the prescriptions in the endocrinology department, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended Ghana guidelines for diabetes management and rational therapy. Methods. Concurrent and retrospective study design was used. The prescriptions of 100 diabetes patients were assessed for the type of medicine, dosage form, number of drugs, diabetes type, and deviation from standard guidelines. Results. In a total of 100 prescriptions, the pattern was reported as injections (31%), antibiotics (18%), and metformin (31.1%). Half of the prescriptions were according to WHO guidelines. The number of drugs per prescription was reported at 5.2. A 70% rational approach was followed in prescribing. 81% of drugs were prescribed from the Essential Drug List (EDL) of the WHO. However, the National Essential Drug List (NEDL) was followed by 27%. The percentage of drugs on generic names was 0.7%. Eighty-four patients showed net improvement in health; 16 patients showed higher glycemic range at the time of discharge. Conclusion. The conclusion of the present study indicates that WHO Ghana guidelines were not followed up to the mark to improve the overall health status of diabetic patients and rational prescribing.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 May 2020 04:35:00 +000
       
  • Changing the Focus to the Whole Patient instead of One Oral Disease: The
           Concept of Individualized Prevention

    • Abstract: Oral diseases are highly prevalent and a global burden. Accordingly, their prevention appears essential. Recently, different strategies have been developed, mainly focusing on the presence of singular oral diseases or conditions. This article aims to construct a contemporary concept of individualized preventive care in dentistry whereby the focus is switched from viewing oral health in isolation to viewing the patient as a whole. The basis for individualized prevention measures is the case-oriented profile, including the synthesis of risk- and need-oriented parameters. The risk profile comprises different risk factors within the fields of systemic diseases, medications, and lifestyle that inherently pose a potential risk of complications (e.g., infectious endocarditis) and/or oral diseases (e.g., periodontitis). The needs profile includes factors originating from the aspects of oral diseases, dental restorations/appliances, and dental results with a potential risk of pathogenesis (e.g., the de novo development of caries) and/or the potential progression of oral diseases (e.g., an existing caries lesion). Based on these parameters, the general framework and content of prevention measures, as well as the maintenance interval, should be adapted to the individual patient. The implications of this concept might increase the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of prevention in dental care. A further area of focus is primary prevention, that is, a focus on the preservation of oral health instead of a disease-related approach. However, clinical validation is needed to prove the benefits of the model presented. Individualized prevention promotes a shift from a disease-focused model to a whole-patient-focused model and provides a potential approach for establishing a contemporary concept for preventive care in dentistry.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 May 2020 13:20:01 +000
       
  • Assessing Factors That Influence Healthcare Provider Attitudes and
           Practices regarding Place-Based Exercise Prescriptions: Results of
           Principal Components Analysis of a Newly Developed Survey Instrument

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this paper is to describe development and preliminary assessment of an instrument designed to assess facilitators and barriers of provider-provided, place-based exercise prescriptions, including provider attributes, perceptions, knowledge, and resource needs. Although the American Medical Association-Supported “Exercise is Medicine” initiative encourages the practice of exercise prescription among member providers, only a small proportion engages in this practice. Additionally, little is known about the role of place-based exercise prescriptions, although access to physical activity resources differs based on residence, access to transportation, income, and other factors. To utilize potential for prescriptions to encourage physical activity, better understanding of the role of place is essential. Methods. Previously validated and newly developed items were combined to create an 88-item survey that was administered to 166 healthcare providers. Results. Results of principal components analysis suggested a five-factor structure; three factors—provider belief in exercise benefits, provider training needs, and place-based concerns—demonstrated high internal consistency. Factors demonstrating low internal consistency included provider attitudes about their role in exercise prescription and providers’ perceptions of patient barriers. Conclusions. Following this stage in survey validation, the 88-item developed survey could be shortened by eliminating items with low loadings. Providers may be more receptive to a shorter instrument, which could facilitate reliability and validity testing of a revised instrument. Further steps to validate the instrument include assessing consistent responses over time and considering predictive ability of the survey as an additional measure of validity. Results from the initial survey administration indicate that providers’ lack of training regarding how to prescribe exercise and lack of knowledge of safe, affordable, or proximate locations for patients to engage in prescribed exercise present barriers to wider use of exercise prescriptions. Community-clinical linkages which network providers with area physical activity and exercise resources may present a partial solution. Knowledge of safe, affordable, or proximate locations for patients to engage in prescribed exercise presents a barrier to place-based exercise prescriptions.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 May 2020 09:50:01 +000
       
  • Is Recovery from Cannabis Dependence Possible? Factors that Help or Hinder
           Recovery in a National Sample of Canadians with a History of Cannabis
           Dependence

    • Abstract: Objectives. To identify among Canadian adults who have ever been dependent upon cannabis, the prevalence of risk and protective factors associated with (1) cannabis remission, (2) the absence of psychiatric disorders or addictions in the past year (APD), and (3) positive mental health (PMH). Method. Data from Statistics Canada’s nationally representative 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (, of whom 336 have a history of cannabis dependence) was used. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) measures were used to determine lifetime cannabis dependence, past-year remission from cannabis depression, and the absence of psychiatric disorders in the past year (APD) (i.e., no suicidal ideation, depressive episodes, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorders, or any substance dependence). PMH is comprised of three factors: APD, happiness or life satisfaction and social and psychological well-being. Results. Among those with a history of cannabis dependence, 72% were in remission from cannabis dependence. Although 53% were free of major psychiatric disorders and any substance dependence and 43% of respondents were in PMH, these percentages were dramatically lower than those without a history of cannabis dependence (92% and 74%, respectively). Positive outcomes were more common among women, older respondents, those with higher levels of social support, and those who had never had major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusion. Although many Canadians with a history of cannabis dependence achieve remission and a large minority are truly resilient and achieve PMH, many are failing to thrive. Targeted outreach is warranted for the most vulnerable individuals with a history of cannabis dependence (e.g., men, younger respondents, those with low social support and a history of mental illness).
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Apr 2020 06:50:01 +000
       
  • Assessment of Knowledge and Practice on Hepatitis B Infection Prevention
           and Associated Factors among Health Science Students in Woldia University,
           Northeast Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Hepatitis B virus is a global problem, with 66% of all the world population living in areas where there are high levels of infection. HBV is the leading risk factor for HCC globally and accounts for at least 50% of cases of HCC. Medical and health science students, being part of the health-care system, are exposed to the infection as a risk as other health-care workers when they come in contact with patients and contaminated instruments. Objective. The main aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of hepatitis B virus infection prevention and its associated factors among health science students in Woldia University. Methods. Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 30 to May 30, 2019, among health science students of Woldia University who had previous clinical attachments. Two hundred students were selected by the systematic random sampling method. Association of dependent and independent variables was computed using a bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model. P
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 08:50:00 +000
       
  • Are Invasive Procedures and a Longer Hospital Stay Increasing the Risk of
           Healthcare-Associated Infections among the Admitted Patients at Hiwot Fana
           Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia'

    • Abstract: Background. Healthcare-associated infection is a major public health problem, in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Majorities of the cause of these infections were preventable. Understanding the potential risk factors is important to reduce the impact of these avoidable infections. The study was aimed to identify factors associated with healthcare-associated infections among patients admitted at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 433 patients over a period of five months at Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained from a patient admitted for 48 hours and above in the four wards (surgical, medical, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics) using a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to identify predictors of healthcare-associated infections. A p value
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 10:50:00 +000
       
  • Predictors of Low Birth Weight at Lumbini Provincial Hospital, Nepal: A
           Hospital-Based Unmatched Case Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as the birth weight of live born infants below 2500 g, regardless of gestational age. It is a public health problem caused by factors that are potentially modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine the socioeconomic, obstetric, and maternal factors associated with LBW in Lumbini Provincial Hospital, Nepal. Methods. The study was conducted using case control study design with 1 : 2 case control ratio. A total of 105 cases and 210 controls were taken in this study. Data were entered on Epi data software version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 25 for analysis. Characteristics of the sample were described using mean and standard deviation. Bivariate analysis was done to assess the association between dependent and independent variables. The ultimate measure of association was odds ratio. Variables found to be associated with bivariate analysis were entered into a multivariable logistic regression model to identify predictors of LBW. Results. The mean age of the participants was 25.98 years with ±4.40 standard deviation. Mothers with literate educational background (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.13–0.81), housewife (AOR 2.63, 95% CI 1.11–6.20), vaginal mode of delivery (AOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25–0.82), gestational age
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 11:35:01 +000
       
  • Mood Responses to Passive and Active Motion Leg Cycling Exercise in
           Healthy Sedentary Young Adults

    • Abstract: Previous studies suggest that passive motion exercise (PME) may be useful for overcoming exercise limitations associated with a sedentary lifestyle, orthopedic disorders, and various other debilitating conditions. Negative mood response is one of the factors that limit a person’s ability to exercise. Therefore, this study tests the hypothesis that the mood response associated with PME is not different than the mood response associated with active motion exercise (AME). Eight women and seven men participated in the study and were administrated the Profile of Mood States (POMS) during modes of PME and AME in a randomized order. Outcome of the POMS consisted of the total mood disturbance score [(feelings of tension + depression + fatigue + anger + confusion) − vigor]. ANOVA was used to determine significance of differences in total mood disturbance, oxygen uptake (V.O2), and middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) at baseline and immediately after 30-minute conditions of PME and AME. Postexercise total mood disturbance score was significantly decreased for both conditions (PME baseline 29.2 ± 5.2 vs. postexercise 16.4 ± 6.8, ) and AME baseline 22.4 ± 4.4 vs. postexercise 13.1 ± 5.2, ). These senses of changes in feelings were associated with significant physiological increases in V.O2 and MCAv during both PME and AME (). These results demonstrate that physiological and mood responses to passive and active motion cycling exercise are not different. Future studies should determine whether passive motion cycling exercise is a useful preventive medicine strategy for overcoming various disease-related exercise limitations and counteracting the adverse effects of sedentary lifestyles.
      PubDate: Sat, 29 Feb 2020 08:20:02 +000
       
  • Effects of Routine Checkups and Chronic Conditions on Middle-Aged Patients
           with Diabetes

    • Abstract: Purpose. Middle-aged males and females with diabetes are more likely to have poor physical (PH) and mental health (MH); however, there is limited research determining the relationship between MH and PH and routine check-up in diabetic middle-aged adults, especially by gender. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PH and MH status differ by routine check-up in middle-aged (age 45–64) adults with diabetes in the general population. Methods. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the 2017 BRFSS conducted by the CDC for adults aged 45–64 who reported having diabetes in Florida (), Kentucky (), Maryland (), New York (), and Ohio (). Multiple logistic regression by state and gender was used to determine the relationship between MH and PH status and routine check-up while controlling for health-related, socioeconomic, and demographic factors. Results. Across states, up to one-half reported good PH (32–50%), over one-half reported good MH (46–67%), and most reported having a routine check-up (87–93%). Adjusted analysis indicated that MH and PH were not significantly related to routine check-up, but both were inversely related to having diabetes plus two other health conditions. Conclusions. Overall, routine check-up was not related to good PH and MH in this target population; however, a number of health conditions were inversely related to good PH and MH status. In a primary care setting for this target population, there may be a low to moderate prevalence of good PH and MH and a high prevalence of having a routine check-up and having multiple health conditions. It is recommended to automatically screen this target population for PH, MH, other chronic conditions, and physical activity and treat concurrently.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Feb 2020 07:20:00 +000
       
  • Determinants of Noncompletion of the Third Dose of Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine
           in Pregnant Women in Dschang Health District, Cameroon

    • Abstract: Introduction. Tetanus vaccination plays an important role in the fight against neonatal mortality. Our study aimed to determine the noncompletion rate of the 3rd dose of tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTV) and to analyze the associated factors in pregnant women. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2 hospitals of Dschang Health District and targeting all women at least in their second gestation coming for antenatal consultation. Upon informed consent by the participant, a prepared questionnaire was administered. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS v22.0 with results presented in means and proportions. Logistic regression was used at two levels to identify independently associated factors for noncompletion of the third dose of TTV with a significance set at 5%. Results. A total of 380 pregnant women were recruited in this study of mean age 27 ± 5.2 yrs, 70% being married, more than 80% having at least secondary education, and 31.8% of them being students. It was noted that 172 (45.26%) of these women had not received the third dose of TTV. The analysis of the adjusted effects showed that not going to postnatal consultation (aOR = 6.75; 3.98–11.49, ), not accompanying her baby to vaccination (aOR = 3.784; 1.803–7.942, ), and being single (aOR = 1.87; 1.05–3.3, ) were independently associated with the above noncompletion rate. Conclusion. Tetanus vaccination coverage is not yet optimal in Dschang Health District and is associated with marital status as well as postgestational behavior of the mothers. There is thus the need to put in place strategies that will provide social support to single mothers as well as encourage women to attend postnatal consultation and to accompany their own children for vaccination. Furthermore, community-based vaccination could capture some of the lost women thus optimizing the overall vaccination coverage.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 06:20:00 +000
       
  • Self-Collected Specimens Revealed a Higher Vaccine- and Non-Vaccine-Type
           Human Papillomavirus Prevalences in a Cross-Sectional Study in Akuse

    • Abstract: Background. Population-specific epidemiologic data on human Papillomavirus infection, which are limited in most of the SubSaharan African countries, are necessary for effective cervical cancer prevention. This study aimed to generate population-specific data on human Papillomavirus infections, and determine which of these, self-collected and provider-collected specimens, gives a higher estimate of the prevalence of human Papillomaviruses, including vaccine and non-vaccine-type human Papillomavirus. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, following a questionnaire-based collection of epidemiological data, self-, and provider-collected specimens, obtained from women 15−65 years of age, were analysed for human Papillomavirus types by a nested-multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and for cervical lesions by Pap testing. HPV data were categorised according to risk type and vaccine types for further analysis. Results. The difference between the overall human Papillomavirus infection prevalences obtained with the self-collected specimens, 43.1% (95% CI of 38.0–51.0%) and that with the provider-collected samples, 23.3% (95% CI of 19.0–31.0%) were significant (). The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-type human Papillomaviruses was 12.3% with self-collected specimens, but 6.0% with provider-collected specimens. For the nonavalent vaccine-types, the prevalences were 26.6% and 16.7% respectively. There were multiple infections involving both vaccine-preventable and nonvaccine preventable high-risk human Papillomavirus genotypes. Conclusion. The Akuse subdistrict can, therefore, be said to have a high burden of human Papillomavirus infections, which included nonvaccine types, as detected with both self-collected and provider-collected specimens. These imply that self-collection is to be given a higher consideration as a means for a population-based high-risk human Papillomavirus infections burdens assessment/screening. Additionally, even with a successful implementation of the HPV vaccination, if introduced in Ghana, there is still the need to continue with the screening of women.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 12:05:01 +000
       
 
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