Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 342 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 342 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 99)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 76, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 220)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Emergency Medicine International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.298
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-2840 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2859
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [342 journals]
  • A Cross-Sectional Study on Subjective Fever Assessment in Children by
           Palpation: Are Fathers as Reliable as Mothers'

    • Abstract: Background. Fever is common in pediatric patients. Often, parents rely solely on palpation when assessing their child’s fever. The objective of the current study was to determine the accuracy of parents in detecting their child’s fever by palpation. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the emergency department (ED) of a tertiary pediatric hospital. Infants and children, 0–4 years of age, presenting to the ED with both parents were included. Parents were separately asked if their child had a fever and, if so, were asked to assess the temperature by palpation. A nurse obtained the rectal temperature. The primary outcome measure was the accuracy of fathers and mothers in detecting fever. Results. A total of 170 children with their parents were enrolled. The mean ages of the children, mothers, and fathers were 18.9 (SD 0.8) months, 31.1 (SD 6.4) years, and 33.7 (SD 6.9) years, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between mothers and fathers in the ability to assess fever by palpation (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.39,−1.08). Sensitivities for detecting fever by palpation for mothers and father were 86.4% and 88.2%, respectively (specificity among mothers: 54.2% and specificity among fathers: 43.1%). The overall negative and positive predictive values were 65.9% (95% CI 55%–75.7%) and 75.7% (95% CI 69.9%–80.8%), respectively. Conclusions. Mothers and fathers do not differ in their ability to accurately assess their child’s fever by palpation. The low positive and negative predictive values indicate that if temperature was not measured, physicians cannot rely on parents’ reports.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Feb 2020 15:35:07 +000
  • Patients with Liver Cirrhosis as Frequent Attenders of Emergency

    • Abstract: Objectives. Frequent attendance for nonemergency problems to emergency departments (EDs) contributes to ED overcrowding, resulting in medical care delays, increased medical errors, and social and economic burdens. Most studies regarding frequent attenders of EDs examine general patients without classifying certain subgroups. This study aimed to investigate patients with liver cirrhosis who present repeatedly to the ED. Methods. This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of adult patients with a history of liver cirrhosis presenting to the ED from January 2011 to December 2015. We included patients with cirrhosis whose first ED visit occurred during the study period. We went far back for 20 years and excluded patients with any ED visits (including both cirrhosis and noncirrhosis-related ones) before the study period. We categorized frequent attenders as patients with more than 4 ED visits within 12 months after the first ED visit; infrequent attenders were those who did not meet this criterion. Results. A total of 3513 patients with cirrhosis were included in this retrospective cohort study. Compared with the infrequent attenders, frequent attenders had a higher rate of presentations due to hepatic encephalopathy (15.2% vs 13.7%, ) and ascites (10% vs 4%, ). A Kaplan–Meir survival analysis revealed that frequent attendance was not associated with increased mortality during the study period (hazard ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.92–1.14; ).Conclusions. Hepatic encephalopathy and ascites account for more ED visits in frequent than in infrequent attenders. Our findings provide information for those planning outpatient support for patients with cirrhosis. Further research is warranted.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Feb 2020 09:35:08 +000
  • Admission Decisions Made by Emergency Physicians Can Reduce the Emergency
           Department Length of Stay for Medical Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Emergency department (ED) overcrowding is a worldwide problem that poses a threat to patient safety by causing treatment delays and increasing mortality. Consultations are common and important in the emergency medicine profession and are associated with longer ED length of stay (LOS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of admission decisions by emergency physicians without consultations on the ED LOS and other quality indicators. Methods. The study was a retrospective observational study comparing the ED LOS of patients admitted to the internal medicine (IM) department before and after the policy change regarding admission decisions that was implemented in October 2016. During and after the policy change, emergency physicians decided how to arrange for and treat medical patients by processing their admission and providing follow-up care without consultations. The ED LOS and other indicators of patients admitted to the IM department were compared between the study period (January to June 2017) and the control period (January to June 2016). Results. The median ED LOS of patients admitted to the IM department decreased from 673 (IQR: 347–1,369) minutes in the control period to 237 (IQR: 166–364) minutes in the study period. There were no significant differences in the interdepartmental transfer rate or in-hospital mortality between the two periods. Conclusions. The admission decisions regarding medical patients made by emergency physicians without specialty consultations reduced the ED LOS without a significant negative effect on mortality or hospital LOS.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Feb 2020 09:20:01 +000
  • Serum TLR9 and NF-κB Biochemical Markers in Patients with Acute
           Pancreatitis on Admission

    • Abstract: Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum TLR9 and NF-κB levels in patients for the diagnosis and prognostication of AP in the emergency department. Methods. In the current study, we looked at the TLR9 and NF-κB pathways in a cohort of 45 acute pancreatitis patients and compared them with the control group. We also divided the patient groups as mild-moderate or severe and compared the biomarker levels between the groups. Results. Of the patients with acute pancreatitis, 22 (49%) were male and 23 (51%) were female. The mean age of the patient group was 62 years, with a range of 25–95 years. The control group consisted of 19 (43.1%) male and 25 (56.9%) female patients. The serum TLR9 and NF-κB values were significantly higher than those of the control group [1104.44 ± 339.20 vs. 702.08 ± 203.94; and 8.04 ± 1.76 vs. 4.76 ± 1.13; , respectively]. We found that TLR9 and NF-κB had a significant discriminative ability, while the cutoff value for TLR9 was 950.4, with a sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 93% (), and the cutoff value for NF-κB was 6.32, with a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 100% ().Conclusion. We demonstrated that the TLR9 and NF-κB pathway is activated in acute pancreatitis and increases the inflammatory process. This may help to further understand the pathogenesis of disorder, diagnosis, and clinical severity. We proposed that blockage of these inflammatory pathways may play a role in the prevention of the disease progression and development of inflammatory complications.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Feb 2020 01:05:07 +000
  • Evaluation of the Relationship between Early Troponin Clearance and
           Short-Term Mortality in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    • Abstract: Objective. In patients with CKD, cTn concentrations may be elevated in the absence of AMI, which is a predicted finding caused by chronic structural heart disease rather than acute injury. The increase in troponin level observed in noncardiac conditions provides conflicting results when predicting mortality. Low lactate clearance was associated with increased mortality. Lactate clearance is calculated as follows: (early lactate − late lactate/early lactate) 100. We aimed to investigate whether troponin clearance calculated according to this formula had an effect on short-term mortality. Methods. The study included 300 patients with chronic renal failure who had a sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score ≥3. By taking the baseline troponin at the time of emergency presentation as reference and comparing them with the fourth-hour troponin values, troponin clearance was investigated in the evaluation of mortality among hospitalized patients with CKD within the first month after discharge. The data obtained were analyzed using the SPSS data analysis software version 20.0. Student’s t-test was used for the parametric data, and the Chi-squared test for the nonparametric data. Results. Of the 300 patients evaluated, 189 patients survived (mean age 66.20 ± 14.597 years), and 111 died (mean age 74.81 ± 12.916 years). Troponin clearance was detected in 40 of the 111 patients in the mortality group and 119 of the 189 patients in the survival group. Troponin clearance was significantly more frequent in surviving patients ().Conclusion. Troponin clearance can be considered as a valuable leading indicator of survival, but higher levels of troponin clearance did not lead to higher survival rates.
      PubDate: Fri, 31 Jan 2020 14:05:07 +000
  • Pattern and Outcome of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury at Hawassa
           University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern Ethiopia:
           Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death/disability in children. The Glasgow coma scale and other parameters are used for treatment/follow-up of TBI. Childhood TBI data are scarce from sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to determine the pattern and predictors of the TBI outcome in Southern Ethiopia. Methods. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2017 to September 2018 at Hawassa University Hospital. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Significant associations were declared at a value of
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jan 2020 03:50:05 +000
  • Plasma Procalcitonin Is Useful for Predicting the Severity of Acute

    • Abstract: Background. Acute cholecystitis is a common complication of cholelithiasis. Delayed diagnosis may constitute morbidity and mortality; therefore, early diagnosis and determining the severity of acute cholecystitis are crucial. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the validity of blood procalcitonin (PCT) levels in assessing the severity of acute cholecystitis. Methods. The Emergency Department (ED) patients diagnosed as acute cholecystitis were included in the study. Patients were allocated into three severity grades according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013. PCT level was measured after the clinical and radiological diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in the ED. Results. Ninety-five patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis, among them 48 of were male. Forty patients (42.1%) were allocated to grade 1, 19 (20%) to grade 2, and 36 (37.9%) to grade 3. The median values of PCT were 0.104 ng/ml, 0.353 ng/ml, and 1.466 ng/ml for grade 1, 2, and 3 patients, respectively ().Conclusion. Blood procalcitonin levels can be used to determine the severity of acute cholecystitis effectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jan 2020 07:05:05 +000
  • Interleukin-33 (IL-33) as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Factor in Traumatic
           Brain Injury

    • Abstract: Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine involved in interleukin-1 family. Role of IL-33 in immune system activation is well described in the literature. IL-33 has been identified as an endogenous alarm signal (alarmin) to alert various types of immune cells to trauma. In this narrative review, we aimed to underline the diagnostic and prognostic importance of IL-33 in trauma, particularly in brain trauma.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jan 2020 15:05:03 +000
  • Vital Signs Directed Therapy for the Critically Ill: Improved Adherence to
           the Treatment Protocol Two Years after Implementation in an Intensive Care
           Unit in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Treating deranged vital signs is a mainstay of critical care throughout the world. In an ICU in a university hospital in Tanzania, the implementation of the Vital Signs Directed Therapy Protocol in 2014 led to an increase in acute treatments for deranged vital signs. The mortality rate for hypotensive patients decreased from 92% to 69%. In this study, the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the implementation two years later. An observational, patient-record-based study was conducted in the ICU in August 2016. Data on deranged vital signs and acute treatments were extracted from the patients’ charts. Adherence to the protocol, defined as an acute treatment in the same or subsequent hour following a deranged vital sign, was calculated and compared with before and immediately after implementation. Two-hundred and eighty-nine deranged vital signs were included. Adherence was 29.8% two years after implementation, compared with 16.6% () immediately after implementation and 2.9% () before implementation. Consequently, the implementation of the Vital Signs Directed Therapy Protocol appears to have led to a sustainable increase in the treatment of deranged vital signs. The protocol may have potential to improve patient safety in other settings where critically ill patients are managed.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 12:20:03 +000
  • No Sedation, No Traction, and No Need for Assistance: Analysis of New
           Prakash’s Method of Shoulder Reduction

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Shoulder dislocations, which often occur anterior, account for about half of all dislocations. There are numerous reduction methods reported for the conservative treatment of acute anterior dislocations. However, there is still an ongoing search for an optimal method given the procedure time, possible complications, success rates, and need for sedation/analgesia in existing methods. This study seeks to explore the effectiveness and safety of Prakash’s method in the treatment of acute shoulder dislocations, which is a novel method in the treatment of anterior shoulder dislocations. Materials and Methods. A total of 19 patients who were admitted to the emergency department with the diagnosis of anterior shoulder dislocation participated in this study. The diagnosis of shoulder dislocation was established in the emergency department with physical examination and anteroposterior shoulder radiography. The method was applied only once to the patients in the sitting position by the same physician without using any help, traction, anesthesia, analgesia, and myorelaxant. Results. The mean age of the patients was 37.3 ± 13.1 years. Among them, 36.8% were female and 63.2% were male. Recurrent dislocations were observed in 21.1% of the patients. The success rate of the method was 94.7% . No complication was noted in the patients. The mean procedure time was 243 ± 38 seconds. Conclusion. Prakash’s method is a safe method for anterior shoulder dislocations that can be quickly performed with no need for sedation, assistance, and traction and has a high success rate.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jan 2020 08:05:04 +000
  • A Novel Index for Prompt Prediction of Severity in Patients with Unstable
           Angina Pectoris

    • Abstract: Objectives. Rapid risk stratification by emergency department (ED) physicians to evaluate patients with chest pain for predicting the short-term occurrence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels and compare with the modified heart score (m-HS) and stress testing to predict the severity of high-risk patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) in the ED. Methods. This study is prospective which included 316 patients with UAP and 316 control healthy subjects. The study took place from 01 April 2016, until 01 April 2017, in Medipol University. Result. The mean PLR levels in the UAP group were higher than those in the control group (). The mean PLR of the m-HS ≥4 group was higher than that in the m-HS ≤3 group (). The mean levels of PLR in the subgroups based on the stress testing positivity were higher than those in the stress testing negative subgroup (). PLR levels were positively correlated with the m-HS, stress testing, and treatment decision in this study (r = 0.559; ;r = 0.582; ;r = 0.789; , respectively). Conclusion. A positive correlation was determined with an increase in m-HS, treatment decision, and positive exercise testing as the PLR levels increased, indicating the severity of high risk of UAP in the ED.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jan 2020 08:20:02 +000
  • The Impact of Emergency Interventions and Patient Characteristics on the
           Risk of Heart Failure in Patients with Nontraumatic OHCA

    • Abstract: Background. Since out-of-hospital cardiac arrest- (OHCA-) related dysfunction (ischemic/reperfusion injury and inflammatory response) might result in long-term impairment, we suspect that new-onset heart failure might be common in long-term survivors. However, these relationships had not been well addressed, and we aimed to analyze the impact of emergency interventions and patient characteristics on the risk of new-onset heart failure in patients with nontraumatic OHCA. Methods. The Taiwanese government healthcare database contains data for 49,101 nontraumatic OHCA adult patients from 2011-2012, which were analyzed in this study. Nontraumatic OHCA patients who survived to the intensive care unit (ICU) were included as the study group (n = 7,321). Matched patients (n = 21,963) were recruited as a comparison group. Patients with any history of heart failure or cardiac arrest were not included in either group. All patients were followed-up for 6 months for the identification of new-onset heart failure. Adjustments were made for demographics, age, emergency interventions, and comorbidities as potential risk factors. Results. In all, 3.84% (n = 281) of OHCA patients suffered new-onset heart failure, while only 1.24% (n = 272) of matched patients in the comparison group suffered new-onset heart failure. Strong risk factors for heart failure were age (60–75 years, HR: 11.4; 95% CI: 9–14.4), medical history (myocardial infarction, HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 2.05–2.98 and cardiomyopathy, HR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.45–5.94), and comorbidities during hospitalization (ischemic heart disease, HR: 4.5; 95% CI: 3.46–5.86). Only extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) decreased the risk of heart failure. Most (53.6%) heart failure events occurred within 60 days after OHCA. Conclusion. An age from 61 to 75 years, a history of myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy, and ischemic heart disease or infection as comorbidities occurring during hospitalization were strong risk factors for new-onset heart failure in OHCA patients. However, ECMO could decrease this risk. More importantly, most heart failure events occurred within 60 days after OHCA.
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Dec 2019 17:05:02 +000
  • Presentations Related to Acute Paracetamol Intoxication in an Urban
           Emergency Department in Switzerland

    • Abstract: Aim. To investigate the characteristics of Emergency Department (ED) presentations due to acute paracetamol intoxication. Methods. Retrospective observational study of patients presenting to the ED of Bern University Hospital between May 1, 2012, and October 31, 2018, due to a paracetamol overdose (defined as intake of>4 g/24 h). Cases were identified using the full-text search of the electronic patient database and were grouped into intentional (suicidal/parasuicidal) and unintentional intoxications (e.g., patient unaware of maximal daily dose). Results. During the study period, 181 cases were included and 143 (79%) of those were intentional. Compared to the patients in the unintentional group, patients in the intentional group were more often female (85% vs 45%, ) and younger (median age 23.0 vs 43.5 years, ), more frequently suffered from psychiatric comorbidities (93%, (including 49% with borderline personality disorder) vs 24%, ), and paracetamol was more often taken as a single dose (80% vs 13%, ). Although the median daily ingested dose was lower in the unintentional than in the intentional group (8.2 g vs 12.9 g, ), patients in the unintentional group presented later (29% vs 84% within 24 h of ingestion, ), included more cases of acute liver failure (nine (24%) vs six (4%), ), and were more often hospitalised (24% vs 52% treated as outpatients, ). There were no significant differences between the groups regarding drug-induced liver injury (seven cases (5%) in the intentional and one (3%) in the unintentional group) or fatalities (one in each group). Conclusions. The majority of presentations due to paracetamol poisoning were intentional, most commonly in female patients with borderline personality disorder. Patients with unintentional paracetamol intoxication had worse outcomes with respect to acute liver failure and hospitalisation. Future preventive measures should raise awareness of paracetamol toxicity in the general population and encourage particular attention and frequent follow-ups when prescribing paracetamol for vulnerable groups.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Dec 2019 04:20:08 +000
  • The Use of Drones in Emergency Medicine: Practical and Legal Aspects

    • Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles, also known as drones, can play a significant role in military and civil emergency medicine. The aim of the study was to present the real possibilities of using them in rescue operations and to provide examples from all over the world. Unmanned aerial vehicles can be applied to transport goods on demand, provide blood in urban areas, save sinking people, analyse the scale of damages, monitor large human gatherings, perform exploration activities, deliver blood samples and other analysis material, provide automated external defibrillators, support rescue operations and air transport, and perform agricultural activities. One must, however, be aware of the existing regulations regarding drone flights as an appearance of an unreported unmanned aircraft in the controlled space is identified worldwide as affecting aviation safety.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Dec 2019 12:05:15 +000
  • Clinical Profile and Outcome of Esophageal Button Battery Ingestion in
           Children: An 8-Year Retrospective Case Series

    • Abstract: Objective. To present the clinical profile and outcomes of esophageal button battery ingestion cases treated at our institution over an 8-year period. Methods. A total of 17 children who presented after ingesting a button battery and were treated at a tertiary care clinic over an 8-year period were included in this retrospective case series study. Data on patient demographics and esophageal location of the battery, time from ingestion to admission, symptoms, grade of mucosal injury, size of the battery, management, complications, and follow-up outcome were recorded. Results. Median age was 29 months (range, 2–99 months). Boys comprised (, 64.7%) of the study population. The most common location was the proximal esophagus (, 58.8%). The median time from ingestion to admission was 6 h (range, 3–24 h). Hypersalivation alone (, 35.3%) or together with vomiting (, 29.4%) was the most common symptom. Grade IIA mucosal injury was noted in six (, 35.3%) patients. The diameter of the battery was a median of 18.0 mm (range, 14–22 mm). We did not observe any correlation between the size of the battery and the grade of the injury. Early postoperative complications were encountered in one patient (, 5.8%) and late postoperative complications were noted in eight patients (, 47.1%) which required further esophageal dilatations, and follow-up revealed normal findings in eight patients (, 47.1%) and mortality occurred in one patient. Conclusion. The current case series study describing the clinical profiles and outcomes of 17 children who had ingested an esophageal button battery revealed male predominance, young patient age, and admission after a median of 6 h (3–24 h) of ingestion with nonspecific symptoms. Our findings confirm the success of rigid endoscopy to remove esophageal button batteries and indicate the likelihood of severe complications after removal.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 14:15:05 +000
  • Epidemiological Study on the Status of Nutrition-Support Therapies by
           Emergency Physicians in China

    • Abstract: Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the current status of nutrition-support therapies by emergency physicians in China and to provide an evidence-based case to improve the regulation of enteral and parenteral nutrition-support therapies. Methods. Physicians from the Emergency Branch of the China Geriatrics Society were enrolled in the present survey. A questionnaire related to nutrition-support therapy, including the time, location, ways, indications, complications, and nutrition-support training for physicians was answered. Results. 527 questionnaires were collected from over 300 hospitals in 25 provinces of China. The time to initiation of emergency nutrition support was often delayed. Furthermore, the treatment intensity and standardized training of physicians are weaknesses concerning nutrition support. Treatment standardization has been significantly improved, including blood glucose monitoring, precaution and management of complications, and the use of immunomodulators. Conclusions. Emergency physicians should pay attention to early identifying and providing nutrition support to those patients who need it. Finally, standardized training should be developed for emergency nutrition-support therapy.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 14:05:06 +000
  • Development and Implementation of Short Courses to Support the
           Establishment of a Prehospital System in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons
           Learned from Tanzania

    • Abstract: Background. Tanzania has no formal prehospital system. The Tanzania Ministry of Health launched a formal prehospital system to address this gap. The Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) was tasked by the Ministry of Health to develop and implement a multicadre/provider prehospital curriculum so as to produce necessary healthcare providers to support the prehospital system. We aim to describe the process of designing and implementing the multicadre/provider prehospital short courses. The lessons learned can help inform similar initiatives in low- and middle-income countries. Methods. MUHAS collaborated with local and international Emergency Medicine and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) specialists to form the Emergency Medical Systems Team (EMST) that developed and implemented four short courses on prehospital care. The EMST used a six-step approach to develop and implement the curriculum: problem identification, general needs assessment, targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, and implementation. The EMST modified current best EMS practices, protocols, and curricula to be context and resource appropriate in Tanzania. Results. We developed four prehospital short courses: Basic Ambulance Provider (BAP), Basic Ambulance Attendant (BAAT), Community First Aid (CFA), and EMS Dispatcher courses. The curriculum was vetted and approved by MUHAS, and courses were launched in November 2018. By the end of July 2019, a total of 63 BAPs, 104 BAATs, 25 EMS Dispatchers, and 287 CFAs had graduated from the programs. The main lessons learned are the importance of a practical approach to EMS development and working with the existing government cadre/provider scheme to ensure sustainability of the project; clearly defining scope of practice of EMS providers before curriculum development; and concurrent development of a multicadre/provider curriculum to better address the logistical barriers of implementation. Conclusion. We have provided an overview of the process of designing and implementing four short courses to train multiple cadres/providers of prehospital system providers in Tanzania. We believe this model of curricula development and implementation can be replicated in other countries across Africa.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 13:05:27 +000
  • Comparison of Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale, and Revised
           Trauma Score in Predicting the Mortality and Prolonged ICU Stay of
           Traumatic Young Children: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the capacity of commonly used trauma scoring systems such as the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) to predict outcomes in young children with traumatic injuries. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted for the period from 2009 to 2016 in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Medical Hospital, a level I trauma center. We included all children under the age of 6 years admitted to the hospital via the emergency department with any traumatic injury and compared the trauma scores of GCS, ISS, and RTS on patients’ outcome. The primary outcomes were mortality and prolonged Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, with the latter defined as an ICU stay longer than 14 days. The secondary outcome was the hospital length of stay (HLOS). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also adopted with the value of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) for comparing trauma score prediction with patient mortality. Cutoff values from each trauma score for mortality prediction were also measured by determining the point along the ROC curve where Youden’s index was maximum. Results. We included a total of 938 patients in this study, with a mean age of 3.1 ± 1.82 years. The mortality rate was 0.9%, and 93 (9.9%) patients had a prolonged ICU stay. An elevated ISS (34  19.9 vs. 5  5.1, ), lower GCS (8  5.0 vs. 15  1.3, ), and lower RTS (5.58  1.498 vs. 7.64  0.640, ) were all associated with mortality. All three scores were considered to be independent risk factors of mortality and prolonged ICU stay and had a linear correlation with increased HLOS. With regard to predicting mortality, ISS has the highest AUC value (ISS: 0.975; GCS: 0.864; and RTS: 0.899). The prediction cutoff values of ISS, GCS, and RTS on mortality were 15, 11, and 7, respectively. Conclusion. Regarding traumatic injuries in young children, worse ISS, GCS, and RTS were all associated with increased mortality, prolonged ICU stay, and longer hospital LOS. Of these scoring systems, ISS was the best at predicting mortality.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Dec 2019 12:05:16 +000
  • Discharge against Medical Advice (DAMA) from an Emergency Department of a
           Tertiary Care Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Background. The discharge against medical advice (DAMA) in the Emergency Department (ED) is an issue of great concern because it may result in adverse consequences at a later stage. The reported worldwide prevalence of DAMA ranges from 0.07 to 20% for emergency admissions. The outcomes of DAMA can have significantly damaging effects, causing possible relapses of disease, readmission, and increases in medical costs for the patient. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the predictors of DAMA in ED. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study. The medical records used were those of all the patients (n = 11513) admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) of King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAAUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2017 and 2018. A thorough analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 22. Descriptive statistics were reported for quantitative and categorical variables and assessed by independent t-test/chi-square/ANOVA (analysis of variance), where appropriate. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% CI (confidence interval) were reported by performing logistic regression. A value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant throughout the study. Results. The prevalence of DAMA in our study was 1%. In a multivariable analysis, after adjusting for the other covariates, we observed a significant interaction between age and gender. It was observed that the odds of DAMA for ≤40-year-old males were 3.12 times higher than those of a ≤40-year-old female ( value 
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Nov 2019 14:15:08 +000
  • Challenges Faced by Prehospital Emergency Physicians Providing Emergency
           Care to Patients with Advanced Incurable Diseases

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of our study was to investigate challenges faced by emergency physicians (EPs) who provide prehospital emergency care to patients with advanced incurable diseases and family caregivers in their familiar home environment. Methods. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews with open-ended questions to collect data from 24 EPs. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. We identified nine categories of challenges: structural conditions of prehospital emergency care, medical documentation and orders, finding optimal patient-centered therapy, uncertainty about legal consequences, challenges at the individual (EP) level, challenges at the emergency team level, family caregiver’s emotions, coping and understanding of patient’s illness, patient’s wishes, coping and understanding of patient’s illness, and social, cultural, and religious background of patients and families. EPs strengthened that the integrations of specialized prehospital palliative care services improved emergency care by providing resources to patients and family caregivers, enhancing the quality and availability of medical documentation and accessibility of aftercare in emergencies. Areas of improvement that were identified were to promote emergency physicians’ knowledge and skills in palliative care, communication, and family caregiver support by education and training. Furthermore, structures for better care on-site, thorough medical documentation, and specialized palliative care emergency facilities in hospital and prehospital care were requested. Conclusion. Prehospital emergency care in patients with advanced incurable diseases in their familiar home environment may be improved by training EPs in palliative care, communication, and caregiver support competences. Results underline the importance of collaborative specialized palliative care and prehospital emergency care.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Nov 2019 12:05:33 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Imbalanced Regional Development of Acute Ischemic Stroke
           Care in Emergency Departments in China”

    • PubDate: Thu, 21 Nov 2019 06:05:14 +000
  • Neurosurgical Care of Nonpowder Firearm Injuries: A Narrative Review of
           the Literature

    • Abstract: Background. Nonpowder firearms discharge a projectile using compressed gases. Unlike traditional firearms, there is a perception that nonpowder guns do not cause serious injury. However, intracranial injury disproportionally affects children and can cause significant neurological disabilities and mortality. Management of nonpowder firearm injuries has received little attention in the literature and presents unique surgical challenges. Materials and Methods. We conducted a narrative review of the literature of the management of nonpowder firearm injuries with particular emphasis on intracranial injury. Results. Modern nonpowder firearms have muzzle velocities which are capable of penetrating the skin, eyes, and bone. Direct intracranial injury commonly results from entrance of projectile through thinner portions of the skull. Operative intervention is needed to debride and safely explore the trajectory to remove fragments which can easily cause neurovascular injury. Conclusions. Neurosurgeons play a crucial role in managing serious nonpowder firearm injuries. A multidisciplinary team is needed to manage the direct results of penetrating injury and long-term sequalae.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Nov 2019 07:05:14 +000
  • Comparison of Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Four-Level and
           Three-District Triage Standard and the Australasian Triage Scale

    • Abstract: Emergency triage is an important tool for prioritizing urgent or critical patients, and its effect needs to be investigated and evaluated. This observational study aimed to compare the reliability and validity of the Chinese four-level and three-district triage standard (CHT) and the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS) in an adult emergency department of a general hospital in China. From 2016-01 to 2017-01, twelve nurses independently performed on-site triage of 254 patients and 1552 patients to assess the scales’ reliability and validity, respectively. The interrater reliability, as assessed by the weighted k scores, was 0.686 (95% CI 0.608–0.757) for the CHT and 0.731 (95% CI 0.663–0.790) for the ATS, and the k scores between the CHT and the ATS were 0.630 (95% CI 0.594–0.669). Temperature, respiration, pulse, blood oxygen saturation, waiting time, treatment time, emergency disposition, hospitalization rate, and mortality were significantly associated with the triage levels of the CHT and ATS (). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve values of the CHT and ATS for predicting intensive care treatment were 0.845 (95% CI: 0.825–0.866) and 0.740 (95% CI: 0.715–0.765), respectively. The reliability and validity of the CHT and ATS were moderate, and both of them can be used to identify critical patients in emergency departments. It is necessary to further improve the triage system in terms of structure and content.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 16:05:19 +000
  • Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Oro-Cervical
           Region (LRINEC-OC): A Possible Diagnostic Tool for Emergencies of the
           Oro-Cervical Region

    • Abstract: Aim. Oro-cervical necrotizing fasciitis (OCNF) treatment requires early surgical debridement and opening of the wound, and therefore, early diagnosis is very important. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis (LRINEC) score based on blood test data has recently been proposed as an auxiliary diagnostic tool. However, in some cases, it is difficult to diagnose OCNF. We performed a pooled analysis of patients with OCNF at Gunma University Hospital and literature cases, with the goal of designing a new auxiliary diagnostic tool for OCNF by adding physical characteristics of the oro-cervical region to blood test data in the first examination. Methods. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to select predictors of OCNF. The LRINEC-Oro-Cervical (OC) score was then designed using correlation coefficients of items selected in logistic regression analysis. A cutoff value for the LRINEC-OC score was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results. CRP, WBC, Cr, and skin flare in the cervical and precordial regions were extracted as independent factors () and evaluated as predictors of OCNF. The LRINEC-OC score for the prediction of OCNF was designed using the regression coefficients in logistic analysis. The cutoff value for the LRINEC-OC score was 6 points with a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 93.4%, and the AUC was 0.909. Conclusion. Delays in diagnosis and surgical treatment for OCNF led to a fatal prognosis, and the potential utility of the LRINEC-OC score for improving the prognosis was shown in this study.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Nov 2019 14:05:15 +000
  • Significance of Early Postoperative Arterial Lactic Acid, Inferior Vena
           Cava Variability, and Central Venous Pressure in Hypovolemic Shock

    • Abstract: Introduction. Up to one-third of patients admitted to the ICU are in circulatory shock, and early recognition of the condition is vital if subsequent tissue injuries are to be avoided. We would like to know what role the arterial lactic acid, inferior vena cava variability, and CVP (central venous pressure) play in the early stages of shock. Methods. This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent surgical resuscitation in the Department of Critical Care Medicine. We use the ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve to evaluate the significance of each indicator in the diagnosis. For correlation analysis between groups, we first use linear regression for processing and then analysis with correlation. Results. The ROC curve analysis shows that the area under the curve of the lactic acid group was 0.9272, the area under the curve of the inferior vena cava variability group was 0.8652, and the area under the curve of the CVP group was 0.633. Correlation analysis shows that the inferior vena cava variability and arterial lactic acid Pearson’s r = 0.2863 and CVP and arterial lactic acid Pearson’s r = 0.0729. Conclusion. The diagnostic value of arterial lactate is still very high and can still be used as an early warning indicator to help clinicians be alert to the microcirculatory disorders that have emerged quietly. The degree of inferior vena cava variability is linearly related to arterial lactic acid and can also be used as a reference indicator for early evaluation of shock. The diagnostic value of CVP is obviously lower.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Nov 2019 00:09:39 +000
  • Cognitive Impairment among Cardiac Arrest Survivors in the ICU: A
           Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Background. Recent studies have presented the effects of cardiac arrest on long-term cognitive function and quality of life. However, no study has evaluated cognitive function in the early stage after regaining consciousness. Purpose. The objectives of this study were to analyse the incidence, clinical course, and associated factors of cognitive impairment of cardiac arrest survivors in intensive care unit (ICU). Patients and methods. We administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to cardiac arrest survivors who were treated with targeted temperature management (TTM) immediately after regaining consciousness. Patients whose MMSE scores indicated impaired cognitive function (MMSE 
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Nov 2019 00:09:55 +000
  • A Health Records Review of Outpatient Referrals from the Emergency

    • Abstract: Objectives. Many patients discharged home from the emergency department (ED) require urgent outpatient consultation with a specialty service. We sought to identify the best- and worst-performing services with regard to time to outpatient consultation, the proportion of patients lost to follow-up, the rate of related return ED visits prior to consultation, and common strategies used by our top-performing clinics. Methods. We conducted a health records review of The Ottawa Hospital ED visits during four 1-week periods. All consecutive adult outpatient consultation requests were included for chart review and were followed up to 12 months. Outcome measures included demographics, referral attendance rates, incomplete referrals, return ED visits, and time intervals. Services with at least 15 consultation requests were included for data analysis and qualitative mapping of their referral processes. Results. Of the 963 patients who met inclusion criteria, 803 (83.4%) attended their appointment, while 160 (16.6%) were lost to follow-up. The overall median time to successful consultation was 9 days (IQR = 2–27). 92 (9.6%) patients returned to the ED with a related complaint. The top-performing clinics included ophthalmology, orthopedics, and thrombosis (median = 1, 8, 1 days; incomplete consultation = 3%, 4%, 6%; return ED visits = 0%, 6%, 2% respectively). The bottom-performing clinics included otorhinolaryngology, neurology, and gynecology (median = 47, 39, 27 days; incomplete consultation = 50%, 41%, 37%; return ED visits = 11%, 15%, 26%, respectively). Processes incorporated by top-performing clinics included reserving appointment slots for emergency referrals, structured referral forms, and centralized booking. Conclusions. We found a substantial variability in both the waiting times and reliability of outpatient referrals from the ED. Top-performing clinics incorporate common referral processes.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 16:05:17 +000
  • Comparison of i-Gel as a Conduit for Intubation between under Fiberoptic
           Guidance and Blind Endotracheal Intubation during Cardiopulmonary
           Resuscitation: A Randomized Simulation Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. This study aimed to compare intubation performances among i-gel blind intubation (IGI), i-gel bronchoscopic intubation (IBRI), and intubation using Macintosh laryngoscope (MCL) applying two kinds of endotracheal tube during chest compressions. We hypothesized that IGI using wire-reinforced silicone (WRS) tube could achieve endotracheal intubation most rapidly and successfully. Methods. In 23 emergency physicians, a prospective randomized crossover manikin study was conducted to examine the three intubation techniques using two kinds of endotracheal tubes. The primary outcome was the intubation time. The secondary outcome was the cumulative success rate for each intubation technique. A significant difference was considered when identifying between two devices or in post hoc analysis of the comparison among three devices. Results. The mean intubation time using IGI was shorter () than that of using IBRI and MCL in both endotracheal tubes (17.6 vs. 29.3 vs. 20.2 in conventional polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube; 14.6 vs. 27.4 vs. 19.9 in WRS tube; sec). There were no significant () differences between PVC and WRS tubes for each intubation technique. The intubation time to reach 100% cumulative success rate was also shorter in IGI () than that in IBRI and MCL in both PVC and WRS tubes. Conclusions. IGI was an equally successful and faster technique compared with IBRI or MCL regardless of the use of PVC or WRS tube. IGI might be an appropriate technique for emergent intubation by experienced intubators during chest compressions.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 16:05:15 +000
  • Defining New Research Questions and Protocols in the Field of Traumatic
           Brain Injury through Public Engagement: Preliminary Results and Review of
           the Literature

    • Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of death and disability in the age group below 40 years. The financial cost of loss of earnings and medical care presents a massive burden to family, society, social care, and healthcare, the cost of which is estimated at £1 billion per annum (about brain injury (online)). At present, we still lack a full understanding on the pathophysiology of TBI, and biomarkers represent the next frontier of breakthrough discoveries. Unfortunately, many tenets limit their widespread adoption. Brain tissue sampling is the mainstay of diagnosis in neuro-oncology; following on this path, we hypothesise that information gleaned from neural tissue samples obtained in TBI patients upon hospital admission may correlate with outcome data in TBI patients, enabling an early, accurate, and more comprehensive pathological classification, with the intent of guiding treatment and future research. We proposed various methods of tissue sampling at opportunistic times: two methods rely on a dedicated sample being taken; the remainder relies on tissue that would otherwise be discarded. To gauge acceptance of this, and as per the guidelines set out by the National Research Ethics Service, we conducted a survey of TBI and non-TBI patients admitted to our Trauma ward and their families. 100 responses were collected between December 2017 and July 2018, incorporating two redesigns in response to patient feedback. 75.0% of respondents said that they would consent to a brain biopsy performed at the time of insertion of an intracranial pressure (ICP) bolt. 7.0% replied negatively and 18.0% did not know. 70.0% would consent to insertion of a jugular bulb catheter to obtain paired intracranial venous samples and peripheral samples for analysis of biomarkers. Over 94.0% would consent to neural tissue from ICP probes, external ventricular drains (EVD), and lumbar drains (LD) to be salvaged, and 95.0% would consent to intraoperative samples for further analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 16:05:12 +000
  • Predictive Factors and Clinical Prediction Score for Serious Intracranial
           Causes in Acute Nontraumatic Headache at an Emergency Department

    • Abstract: Purpose. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictive factors and develop a clinical prediction score to identify serious intracranial causes in acute nontraumatic headache (NTH). Methods. A retrospective chart review study was conducted from 2013 to 2018 in acute NTH patients who visited the emergency department. The patients were divided into serious intracranial headache and nonserious intracranial headache groups. The two groups were compared in regard to the baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, physical examination, investigation, and diagnosis. The significant factors to predict a serious intracranial cause were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. The coefficients from the multivariate logistic regression were used to plot the receiver operating characteristic curve to develop a clinical prediction score. Results. From 2,372 patients, 454 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 454 patients with acute NTH, 88 (19.4%) patients were serious intracranial cause. The seven significant factors that predicted serious intracranial cause were abrupt onset (odds ratio (OR) 7.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.77‒22.91), awakening pain (OR 3.14, 95% CI 4.15–6.82), duration of headache >1 week (OR 10.59, 95% CI 2.9–38.7), fever (OR 6.01, 95% CI 2.07–17.46), worst headache ever (OR 12.95, 95% CI 5.69–29.45), alteration of consciousness (OR 13.55, 95% CI 2.07‒88.88), and localizing neurological deficit (OR 5.28, 95% CI 1.6‒17.46). A score ≥3 out of 10 points of the clinical prediction score was likely to identify a serious intracranial cause of acute NTH with a sensitivity and specificity of 87.50% (95% CI 78.73–93.59%) and 87.70% (95% CI 83.90–90.89%), respectively. The area under the curve was 0.933. Conclusion. Abrupt onset, awakening pain, duration of headache >1 week, fever, worst headache ever, alteration of consciousness, and localizing neurological deficit were the significant predictive factors for serious intracranial cause of acute NTH.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Oct 2019 16:05:11 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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