Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 235)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Emergency Medicine International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.298
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-2840 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2859
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Preoperative Risk Factors for Short-Term Postoperative Mortality of Acute
           Mesenteric Ischemia after Laparotomy: A Systematic Review and

    • Abstract: Objective. Our objective was to comprehensively present the evidence of preoperative risk factors for short-term postoperative mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia after laparotomy. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched from January 2000 to January 2020. Studies evaluating the postoperative risk factors for short-term postoperative mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia after laparotomy were included. The outcome extracted were patients’ demographics, medical history, and preoperative laboratory tests. Results. Twenty studies (5011 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Studies were of high quality, with a median Newcastle-Ottawa Scale Score of 7. Summary short-term postoperative mortality was 44.38% (range, 18.80%–67.80%). Across included studies, 49 potential risk factors were examined, at least two studies. Meta-analysis of predictors based on more than three studies identified the following preoperative risk factors for higher short-term postoperative mortality risk: old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57–2.30), arterial occlusive mesenteric ischemia versus mesenteric venous thrombosis (OR, 2.45, 95% CI 1.12–5.33), heart failure (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.03–1.72), renal disorders (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.24–2.07), and peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00–1.91). Nonsurvivors were older (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.32, 95% CI 0.24–0.40), had higher creatinine levels (SMD 0.50, 95% CI 0.25–0.75), and had lower platelet counts (SMD −0.32, 95% CI −0.50 to −0.14). Conclusion. The short-term postoperative mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia who underwent laparotomy is still high. A better understanding of these risk factors may help in the early identification of high-risk patients, optimization of surgical procedure, and improvement of perioperative management.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Oct 2020 13:05:00 +000
  • Occurrence and Impact of Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Major Adverse
           Cardiovascular Events during Sepsis: A 15-Year Observational Study

    • Abstract: Objective. Sepsis patients are at risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), but few data are available on the occurrence of GIB and MACEs and their impact on sepsis outcomes. Methods. The medical claims records of 220,082 patients admitted for sepsis between 1999 and 2013 were retrieved from the nationwide database. The adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of composite outcomes including the hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with a MACE or GIB were estimated by multivariate logistic regression and joint effect analyses. Results. The enrollees were 70.15 ± 15.17 years of age with a hospital mortality rate of 38.91%. GIB developed in 3.80% of the patients; MACEs included ischemic stroke in 1.54%, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in 0.92%, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 1.59%. Both ICH and AMI significantly increased the risk of (1) ICU admission (aOR = 8.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.84–9.42 for ICH and aOR = 4.78, 95% CI: 4.21–5.42 for AMI, respectively), (2) receiving MV (aOR = 3.92, 95% CI: 3.52–4.40 and aOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.84–2.16, respectively), and (3) the hospital mortality (aOR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.98–1.19 and aOR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.19, respectively). However, sepsis with GIB or ischemic stroke increased only the risk of ICU admission and MV but not the hospital mortality (aOR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.93–1.03 for GIB and aOR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.78–0.91 for ischemic stroke, respectively). Conclusions. GIB and MACEs significantly increased the risk of ICU admission and receiving MV but not the hospital mortality, which was independently associated with both AMI and ICH. Early prevention can at least reduce the complexity of clinical course and even the hospital mortality.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Sep 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • D-Dimer Combined with Fibrinogen Predicts the Risk of Venous Thrombosis in
           Fracture Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. While D-dimer can successfully diagnose venous thrombosis due to its excellent negative predictive value (NPV), it cannot be used to detect venous thromboembolism (VTE) because of its low positive predictive value (PPV). This study aims to investigate if a combination of using D-dimer and fibrinogen can improve PPV in the VTE diagnosis. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed various data including D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, ultrasound, and others collected from 10775 traumatic fracture patients and categorized them into two groups of VTE and non-VTE. By comparing the difference between the two groups, we employ multiple logistic regression to find risk factors that are useful to detect VTE. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the diagnostic yield of using fibrinogen, D-dimer, and their combination, respectively. Also, these data were classified into quartiles by patient age. We perform the same analysis on the quartiles and find if the patient’s age has an impact on diagnosing VTE. Results. The univariate analysis demonstrated that five factors of age, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significant to predict VTE. ROC showed that D-dimer was more useful than fibrinogen for the diagnosis of VTE, while the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.7296 for D-dimer and 0.5209 for fibrinogen. The cutoff point of D-dimer and fibrinogen was 424.89 ng/ml and 3.543 g/L, respectively. The specificity of fibrinogen was 0.777 which was better than D-dimer, while the sensitivity of fibrinogen was lower than that of D-dimer. Both PPV and NPV were similar in D-dimer and fibrinogen. The PPV of combining D-dimer and fibrinogen in ages Q3 (60  70) was better than using either D-dimer or fibrinogen. Conclusions. Fibrinogen is a promising strategy for the diagnosis of subclinical VTE and postoperative VTE. In particular, a combination of D-dimer and fibrinogen can improve the PPV to successfully diagnose VTE in traumatic fracture patients who are more than 60 years old. Levels of Evidence. This assay is a diagnostic test at level II.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2020 14:50:00 +000
  • Early and Ultraearly Administration of Tranexamic Acid in Traumatic Brain
           Injury: Our 8-Year-Long Clinical Experience

    • Abstract: Introduction. The most important result of head trauma, which can develop with a blunt or penetrating mechanism, is traumatic brain injury. Tranexamic acid (TXA) can be used safely in multiple trauma. Recent studies showed that TXA can be useful in management of intracerebral hemorrhage, especially in reducing the amount of bleeding. The TXA given in the first 3 hours has been shown to reduce mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of tranexamic acid used in patients with traumatic brain injury. Method. Patients with trauma in the emergency room between January 2012 and January 2020 were screened in this retrospective study. The inclusion criteria were being over the age of 18 years, tranexamic acid administration in the emergency department, and traumatic brain injury on brain computerized tomography (CT) and control CT imaging after 6 hours. Results. The number of study patients was 51. The median score of GCS was 12.00 (8.00–15.00). Subdural hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage were the most common findings on brain CT scans. In the group TXA treatment for less than 1 hour, the arrival MAP was low and the pulse was high ( and , respectively). All the patients were admitted with multiple trauma. None of the 51 patients had thrombotic complications and died due to head injury. Conclusion. TXA appears to be a safe drug with few side effects in the short term in head injuries. According to our experience, it comes to mind earlier in multiple trauma, especially in head trauma with pelvic trauma.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Sep 2020 09:20:03 +000
  • Reasons for Undesirable Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with Appendicitis:
           The Experience of a Tertiary Center

    • Abstract: Background. Although laparoscopic appendectomy increases its popularity today, the answer to the question of whether to perform open or laparoscopic appendectomy during pregnancy is appropriate in many studies, and the choice of surgery depends on the surgeon. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the variables that affect undesirable pregnancy outcomes that occur as a result of appendicitis during pregnancy. Methods. Seventy-eight pregnant patients with acute appendicitis who underwent laparoscopic or open technique intervention enrolled in this retrospective study. In addition to the demographic structure of the patients, surgical technique, the number of pregnancies, multiple pregnancy status, surgical pathologies, laboratory values, radiological imaging methods, and length of hospital stay were evaluated. The severity of appendicitis was classified according to the pathology results. The patients were divided into two groups according to the outcomes of their pregnancy. Preterm delivery and abortion involved in the study as a single complication section. Results. The mean age of the pregnant patients was 28.6 ± 5. Of the 78 pregnant women with appendicitis, 47.4% had their first pregnancy, 37.2% had their second pregnancy, and 15.4% had 3 or more pregnancies. The preterm delivery and abortus were 19.5% in the open appendectomy (OA) group and 16.2% in the laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) group. No statistically significant difference was detected in this group in terms of appendicitis pathology triggering preterm delivery or abortion ( 0.075). When white blood count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated by laboratory findings, CRP was found to be statistically significantly higher in patients with preterm birth ( 0.042). Conclusion. Consequently, acute appendicitis may cause serious intra-abdominal infection and inflammation in addition to the complexity of the diagnosis due to the nature of pregnancy, as well as undesired pregnancy outcomes with the surgical technique, or independently with other variables.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 23:20:03 +000
  • Appendix Neuroendocrine Tumor: Retrospective Analysis of 4026 Appendectomy
           Patients in a Single Center

    • Abstract: Background/Aim. Appendix tumors are mostly incidentally identified in patients who were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. They are detected in approximately 1% of appendectomy specimens. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) account for over 50% of appendix neoplasms. NETs appearing in the appendix can cause carcinoid syndrome. In our study, we aimed to retrospectively examine the clinical features of patients who underwent appendectomy with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and diagnosed with appendix NET in the postoperative period. Materials/Methods. The records of 4026 patients who were operated with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis between January 2008 and January 2020 at the Department of General Surgery at the Sakarya University Faculty of Medicine, were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical findings, demographic data, surgical findings, and results of the patients with appendix NET, as a result of histopathology, were examined in detail. Results. 16 of 4026 patients were reported as NET. Nine of the patients were male, and seven were female. The average age was 33 (19–49). Any of the patients had no signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome. All tumors were located at the tip of the appendix, and the mean tumor diameter was 0.85 cm (0.3–2.5 cm). As a result of pathology, one patient had mesoappendix and one patient had serosa invasion. Right hemicolectomy was applied to both patients. In other patients, meso, serosa, and lymphatic invasion were not detected. Tumor size was 2.5 cm in one of the patients, 1.5 cm in one, and 1.4 cm in the other, and the others were below 1 cm. In the postoperative follow-up, all the patients were discharged on average 2.71 (2–6 days) days without any complications. Conclusion. Appendix NETs are mostly asymptomatic and localized in a distal third of the appendix. Symptoms are mostly related to tumor size and distant metastases. Clinical behavior and prognosis can best be predicted by tumor size. Complementary hemicolectomy is recommended for tumors larger than 2 cm and tumors smaller than 1 to 2 cm, such as mesoappendix invasion, positive or uncertain surgical margin, high proliferative rate, and angioinvasion. For tumors whose diameter is less than 1 cm, simple appendectomy alone is sufficient.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Sep 2020 08:50:02 +000
  • CPR Compression Rotation Every One Minute Versus Two Minutes: A Randomized
           Cross-Over Manikin Study

    • Abstract: Background. The current basic life support guidelines recommend two-minute shifts for providing chest compressions when two rescuers are performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. However, various studies have found that rescuer fatigue can occur within one minute, coupled with a decay in the quality of chest compressions. Our aim was to compare chest compression quality metrics and rescuer fatigue between alternating rescuers in performing one- and two-minute chest compressions. Methods. This prospective randomized cross-over study was conducted at Songklanagarind Hospital, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand. We enrolled sixth-year medical students and residents and randomly grouped them into pairs to perform 8 minutes of chest compression, utilizing both the one-minute and two-minute scenarios on a manikin. The primary end points were chest compression depth and rate. The secondary end points included rescuers’ fatigue, respiratory rate, and heart rate. Results. One hundred four participants were recruited. Compared with participants in the two-minute group, participants in the one-minute group had significantly higher mean (standard deviation, SD) compression depth (mm) (45.8 (7.2) vs. 44.5 (7.1), ) but there was no difference in the mean (SD) rate (compressions per min) (116.1 (12.5) vs. 117.8 (12.4), ), respectively. The rescuers in the one-minute group had significantly less fatigue () and change in respiratory rate (), but there was no difference in the change of heart rate () between the two groups. Conclusion. There were a significantly higher compression depth and lower rescuer fatigue in the 1-minute chest compression group compared with the 2-minute group. This trial is registered with TCTR20170823001.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 02:35:05 +000
  • Clinical Difference between Acute Appendicitis and Acute Right-Sided
           Colonic Diverticulitis

    • Abstract: Background. Clinical presentations of acute appendicitis (AA) and acute right-sided colonic diverticulitis (ARCD) are similar. However, the usual treatment for each disease differs between surgical and conservative management. The aim of this study was to identify clinical differences between AA and ARCD. Method. We performed a single-center retrospective study on adult patients, with uncomplicated AA and ARCD confirmed by computed tomography, who visited an emergency department between March 2018 and August 2019. Clinical variables including past medical history, presented symptoms and signs, and laboratory findings were compared between the two groups. A logistic regression analysis was subsequently performed to differentiate ARCD from AA based on results of univariate analyses. Results. A total of 212 (79.1%) and 56 (20.9%) patients were enrolled in AA and ARSD groups, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a past history of diverticulitis [OR: 102.679 (95% CI: 9.964–1058.055), ] was associated with ARCD, while ketonuria [OR: 2.907 (95% CI: 1.091–7.745), ], anorexia [OR: 21.544 (95% CI: 3.905–118.868), ], and neutrophilia [OR: 3.406 (95% CI: 1.243–9.336), ] were associated with AA. Conclusion. Anorexia, neutrophilia, and ketonuria were predictors of AA while a history of diverticulitis was a predictor of ARCD.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:20:17 +000
  • Comparison of Dopamine and Norepinephrine Use for the Treatment of
           Hypotension in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients with Return of
           Spontaneous Circulation

    • Abstract: In patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), hypotension is common after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Both dopamine and norepinephrine are recommended as inotropic therapeutic agents. This study aimed to determine the impact of the use of these two medications on hypotension. This is a multicenter retrospective cohort study. OHCA patients with ROSC were divided into three groups according to the post resuscitation inotropic agent used for treatment in the emergency department, namely, dopamine, norepinephrine, and dopamine and norepinephrine combined therapy. Thirty-day survival and favorable neurologic performance were analyzed among the three study groups. The 30-day survival and favorable neurologic performance rates in the three study groups were 12.5%, 13.0%, and 6.8% as well as 4.9%, 4.3%, and 1.2%, respectively. On controlling the potential confounding factors by logistic regression, there was no difference between dopamine and norepinephrine treatment in survival and neurologic performance (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48–2.06; aOR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.28–2.53). The dopamine and norepinephrine combined treatment group had worse outcome (aOR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.35–1.18; aOR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.05–0.89). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in post-ROSC hypotension treatment between dopamine and norepinephrine in 30-day survival and favorable neurologic performance rates.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Aug 2020 10:20:09 +000
  • The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Trauma Team Leader Paradigm at a
           Tertiary Trauma Center: 10-Year Experience

    • Abstract: Background. To illustrate the impact of the implementation of a multidisciplinary TTL program in 2005 on the mortality of trauma patients in a level 1 trauma center as well as admission rates and length of stay. Methods. Retrospective observational study of all trauma patients included in the provincial trauma database at the Montreal General Hospital between 1998 and 2015. The primary outcome studied was in-hospital mortality. The secondary outcomes studied were hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) rates of admission and hospital and ICU length of stay. Results. 24,107 patients were included. We observed a statistically significant reduction in mortality of 1.25% or a relative reduction of 16% ( value = 0.0058; rate ratio 0.844 (95% CI 0.747–0.952)). ICU admissions were also significantly reduced where we observed a statistically significant absolute reduction of 4.46% or a relative reduction of 14% ( value = 8.38 × 10−7; rate ratio 0.859 (95% CI 0.808–0.912)). The ICU length of stay was increased by 0.91 days or 19.03% ( value = 0.016 (95% CI 0.167–1.655)). There was no observed change in overall length of stay (13.97 days pre-TTL and 12.91 post-TTL ( value = 0.13; estimate −1.053 (95% CI −2.424–0.318))). Conclusions. This article suggests that multidisciplinary TTL model may be beneficial in the care of trauma patients. Further subgroup analysis may help determine which patients could benefit more.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2020 06:20:02 +000
  • A Study of the Pattern of Admissions to the Accident and Emergency (A&E)
           Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Introduction. The latest national healthcare reform policies of Sri Lanka include the development of accident and emergency (A&E) departments in all major hospitals. Provincial General Hospital Kurunegala (PGHK) is a home to the first established A&E department in Sri Lanka. PGHK provides services to a population of 2.4 million spread out in the North Western Province and part of the Sabaragamuwa Province. This study was carried out to identify the pattern of all admissions to the A&E department of PGHK. Methods. The prospective observational study was carried out from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017 (one year) to identify the pattern of admissions to the A&E department. Results. There were 49,213 admissions to PGHK’s A&E department during the study period. The average number of admissions was 135 (±17.9) per day. The percentage of deaths in the A&E department was 0.21%. The mean age of admitted patients was 46.7 (±21.7) years. A further 62% of admitted patients were males. The number of medical, surgical, paediatric, and gynaecological and obstetrical admissions was 55%, 42%, 3.5%, and 0.22%, respectively. Among the common emergency medical presentations, 34% were chest pain, 11% patients presented with unilateral weakness and/or slurring of speech, 10% covered dyspnoea, and 9% complained of dizziness/giddiness. Among emergency surgical presentations, 83% were trauma due to accidents, of which 27% were road-traffic-related accidents (RTAs). Discussion. The A&E department of PGHK provides services to a significantly high number of health emergencies every day. The majority of these admissions was due to chest pain and trauma related to accidents. The lower recorded number of paediatric and gynaecological and obstetrical emergencies presented to the A&E department is a result of a government policy mandating the admission of these types of patients directly to their respective wards. Further infrastructure development, staff recruitment, and training have to be planned and implemented to address the significantly high number of admissions to the A&E Department of PGHK.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Aug 2020 05:50:02 +000
  • Emergency Combination of Four Drugs for Bloodstream Infection Caused by
           Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Severe Agranulocytosis Patients
           with Hematologic Malignancies after Hematopoietic Stem Cell

    • Abstract: Bloodstream infection (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria is a global threat. However, an effective treatment regimen is still controversial and inadequate due to the rapid deterioration caused by the bacteria. In immunocompromised and neutropenic patients, MDR-BSI is an emergency, which causes treatment-related mortality. In this study, four agranulocytosis patients with hematologic malignancies after HSCT receiving treatment for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae- (CRE-) BSI were included. Conventional treatment using two to three combined antibiotics was administered in the first and second patients. Combination treatment using four drugs, polymyxin B, high-dose tigecycline, fosfomycin, and double-dose carbapenem, was administered in the third and fourth patients. None of the patients receiving conventional treatment survived. Both patients receiving combination treatment using four drugs survived. Therefore, four-drug combination therapy may be needed in CRE-BSI patients who experienced severe agranulocytosis after HSCT. The efficacy of the four-drug combination treatment for CRE-BSI patients as well as the adverse effects need to be further studied.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Aug 2020 14:05:04 +000
  • Accidental and Deliberate Self-Poisoning with Medications and Medication
           Errors among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Context. Pharmaceutical products are the leading cause accidental poisoning in middle- and high-income countries. Patterns of poisoning with medicinal drugs change across different geographic regions and over decades owing to variability in prescription practice, sociocultural factors, safe storage of medicines, and free availability of over the counter medications. Methods. This multicentre descriptive study was conducted over a seven-year period (February 2007 to January 2014) to assess patterns and trends of medicinal drug-related poisoning among children less than 12 years of age in thirty-six hospitals across rural Sri Lanka. Children with both accidental and deliberate medication poisonings and medication errors were recruited to the study. Data on poisoning events and medication errors were gathered via patient/parent interviews using multistructured questionnaires that assessed demographic factors, first aid measures, location and circumstances of poisoning, clinical management, and complications. In addition, focus group discussions were performed on all children and their families who had deliberate poisoning events and medication errors. Results and Conclusions. Among 1621 children presented with acute poisoning over seven years of age, 410 children had acute poisoning with medications. Male children (225, 54.9%) outnumbered female children. Paracetomol (137, 35.6%), salbutamol (55, 14.3%), and chlorpheniramine (35, 9.1%) were the most commonly poisoned medications. Prospective data at Anuradhapura teaching hospital (n = 112) revealed that unsafe first aid measures were practiced on 22 (19.6%) children. Although the majority of children remained asymptomatic (61, 54.5%), neurological symptoms (34, 67%) were predominantly seen in symptomatic children. The majority of poisonings took place within home premises (76, 67.9%). There were 16 reports of medication errors (14.2% of acute poisoning events) either due to erroneous administration by caregivers or erroneous issue of medicines by health workers. The current study did not observe mortality following medication poisonings. This study brings to light the burden of medicinal drug-related poisoning morbidity among children in rural Sri Lanka. Potentially, interventions such as community educational initiatives, written safety warnings, increased use of child resistant containers, and enforcement of laws to bring down accidental medication poisonings need to be implemented, and their effectiveness should be evaluated.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 17:50:01 +000
  • Effect of Prehospital Epinephrine on Outcomes of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac
           Arrest: A Bayesian Network Approach

    • Abstract: Background. The benefit of prehospital epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) was shown in a recent large placebo-controlled trial. However, placebo-controlled studies cannot identify the nonpharmacologic influences on concurrent or downstream events that might modify the main effect positively or negatively. We sought to identify the real-world effect of epinephrine from a clinical registry using Bayesian network with time-sequence constraints. Methods. We analyzed a prospective regional registry of OHCA where a prehospital advanced life support (ALS) protocol named “Smart ALS (SALS)” was gradually implemented from July 2015 to December 2016. Using Bayesian network, a causal structure was estimated. The effect of epinephrine and SALS program was modelled based on the structure using extended Cox-regression and logistic regression, respectively. Results. Among 4324 patients, SALS was applied to 2351 (54.4%) and epinephrine was administered in 1644 (38.0%). Epinephrine was associated with faster ROSC rate in nonshockable rhythm (HR: 2.02, 6.94, and 7.43; 95% CI: 1.08–3.78, 4.15–11.61, and 2.92–18.91, respectively, for 1–10, 11–20, and >20 minutes) while it was associated with slower rate up to 20 minutes in shockable rhythm (HR: 0.40, 0.50, and 2.20; 95% CI: 0.21–0.76, 0.32–0.77, and 0.76–6.33). SALS was associated with increased prehospital ROSC and neurologic recovery in noncardiac etiology (HR: 5.36 and 2.05; 95% CI: 3.48–8.24 and 1.40–3.01, respectively, for nonshockable and shockable rhythm). Conclusions. Epinephrine was associated with faster ROSC rate in nonshockable rhythm but slower rate in shockable rhythm up to 20 minutes. SALS was associated with improved prehospital ROSC and neurologic recovery in noncardiac etiology.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 17:20:00 +000
  • Effective Method Using a Stool in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) on
           Dialysis Chair

    • Abstract: Background. Heart failure is the leading cause of death in dialysis patients. Cardiac arrest due to hypotension may also occur during dialysis therapy. If cardiac arrest is elicited, manual chest compressions (MCCs) should be started as soon as possible. However, all types of dialysis chairs are not stable for MCC, because there is no steady support between the backboard of the dialysis chair and the floor. These conditions may alter the effectiveness of MCC. Methods. We investigated whether a round chair is effective in supporting the dialysis chair for MCC. Four adult males performed MCC on a mannequin placed on three dialysis chairs. MCC was performed in sets of 2 (each set was 100 times per minute) per person, with and without a round chair. A total of 4,800 compressions were performed by four executors. Results. When the chair was not used as a stabilizer, the mean values of the fluctuation range were 20.8 ± 8.1 mm, 18.7 ± 5.5 mm, and 12.8 ± 1.8 mm, respectively. When the chair was used, the mean values of the fluctuation range were 6.1 ± 1.1 mm, 7.5 ± 2.1 mm, and 1.0 ± 0 mm, decreasing by 70%, 59%, and 92%. Conclusion. MCC performed with the stool under the backrest as a stabilizer was effective in supporting the dialysis chair.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 14:20:09 +000
  • The Patient’s Gender Influencing the Accuracy of Diagnosis and Proposed
           Sepsis Treatment in Constructed Cases

    • Abstract: Background. Male sex is an independent risk factor for sepsis development. In addition to immunological gender differences, women less often receive sepsis treatment once diagnosed. Gender differences have also been described in other medical conditions, such as acute coronary syndrome. Aim. To study whether the gender of patients influenced physicians’ tendency to suspect sepsis and propose correct initial sepsis treatment in constructed cases. Method. Four cases were constructed to fulfil the sepsis-3 criteria as well as raise clinical suspicions of other common medical differential diagnoses. Two of the cases were drafted in two versions, only differing in the gender of the patient. The two versions were randomly distributed to all clinical physicians in a medical region in Sweden. The responding physicians were asked to state the three most important diagnoses and the three most important initial treatments for each case. If sepsis were among the stated diagnoses together with fluids and antibiotics, the case was considered as correctly identified and initially treated sepsis. Results. 120 hospital physicians answered the cases. In the case the patient was a female, the respondents correctly identified and treated sepsis significantly more often than if the patient was of the male sex (Case 1: 12/58 vs 2/62, and Case 2: 25/62 vs 13/58, ).Conclusion. A low proportion of Swedish physicians identified and proposed treatment for sepsis in four constructed cases. In the case the patient strongly mimicked other diagnoses common in the male sex, the male cases were less often correctly identified and treated for sepsis.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jul 2020 06:35:01 +000
  • Peculiarities and Consequences of Different Angiographic Patterns of STEMI
           Patients Receiving Coronary Angiography Only: Data from a Large Primary
           PCI Registry

    • Abstract: Background. Inappropriate cardiac catheterization lab activation together with false-positive angiographies and no-culprit found coronary interventions are now reported as costly to the medical system, influencing STEMI process efficiency. We aimed to analyze data from a high-volume interventional centre (>1000 primary PCIs/year) exploring etiologies and reporting characteristics from all “blank” coronary angiographies in STEMI. Methods. In this retrospective observational single-centre cohort study, we reported two-year data from a primary PCI registry (2035 patients). “Angio-only” cases were assigned to one of these categories: (a) Takotsubo syndrome; (b) coronary embolisation; (c) myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries; (d) myocarditis; (e) CABG-referred; (f) normal coronary arteries (mostly diagnostic errors); and (g)others (refusals and death prior angioplasty). Univariate analysis assessed correlations between each category and cardiovascular risk factors. Results. 412 STEMI patients received coronary angiography “only,” accounting for 20.2% of cath lab activations. Barely 77 patients had diagnostic errors (3.8% from all patients) implying false-activations. 40% of “angio-only” patients (n = 165) were referred to surgery due to severe atherosclerosis or mechanical complications. Patients with diagnostic errors and normal arteries displayed strong correlations with all cardiovascular risk factors. Probably, numerous risk factors “convinced” emergency department staff to call for an angio. Conclusions. STEMI network professionals often confront with coronary angiography “only” situations. We propose a classification according to etiologies. Next, STEMI guidelines should include audit recommendations and specific thresholds regarding “angio-only” patients, with specific focus on MINOCA, CABG referrals, and diagnostic errors. These measures will have a double impact: a better management of the patient, and a clearer perception about the usefulness of the investments.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 07:05:04 +000
  • Prevalence of Geriatric Syndromes and the Need for Hospice Care in Older
           Patients of the Emergency Department: A Study in an Asian Medical Center

    • Abstract: Background. The prevalence of geriatric syndromes and the need for hospice care in the emergency department (ED) in Asian populations remain unclear. This study was conducted to fill the data gap. Methods. Using a newly developed emergency geriatric assessment (EGA), we investigated the prevalence of geriatric syndromes and the need for hospice care in older ED patients of a tertiary medical center between September 1, 2016, and January 31, 2017. Results. We recruited a total of 693 patients with a mean age of 78.0 years (standard deviation 8.2 years), comprising 46.6% of females. According to age subgroups, 37.4% of patients were aged 65–74 years, 37.4% were aged 75–84 years, and 25.2% were aged ≥85 years. The prevalence rates of geriatric syndromes were as follows: delirium (11.4%), depression (23.4%), dementia (43.1%), deterioration of activities of daily living (ADL) for
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 12:50:01 +000
  • Emergency Department Screening for Unhealthy Alcohol and Drug Use with a
           Brief Tablet-Based Questionnaire

    • Abstract: Background. Screening for unhealthy alcohol and drug use in the emergency department (ED) can be challenging due to crowding, lack of privacy, and overburdened staff. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility and utility of a brief tablet-based screening method in the ED and if patients would consider a face-to-face meeting with a certified alcohol and drug counselor (CADC) for more in-depth screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) helpful via this interface. Methods. A tablet-based questionnaire was offered to 500 patients. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18, Emergency Severity Index 2–5, and English comprehension. Subjects were excluded if they had evidence of acute intoxication and/or received sedating medication. Results. A total of 283 (57%) subjects were enrolled over a 4-week period, which represented an increase of 183% over the monthly average of patients referred for SBIRT by the CADC prior to the study. There were 131 (46%) who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol and drug use, with 51 (39%) and 37 (28%) who screened positive for solely unhealthy alcohol use and drug use/drug use disorders, respectively. There were 43 (33%) who screened positive for combined unhealthy alcohol and drug use. Despite willingness to participate in the tablet-based questionnaire, only 20 (15%) with a positive screen indicated via the tablet that a face-to-face meeting with the CADC for further SBIRT would be helpful. Conclusion. Brief tablet-based screening for unhealthy alcohol and drug use in the ED was an effective method to increase the number of adult patients identified than solely by their treating clinicians. However, only a minority of subjects screening positive using this interface believed a face-to-face meeting with the CADC for further SBIRT would be helpful.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 07:50:05 +000
  • Are Pediatric Triage Systems Reliable in the Emergency Department'

    • Abstract: Background. Few studies have focused on the agreement level of pediatric triage scales (PTSs). The aim of this meta-analytic review was to examine the level of inter-rater reliability of PTSs. Methods. Detailed searches of a number of electronic databases were performed up to 1 March 2019. Studies that reported sample sizes, reliability coefficients, and a comprehensive description of the assessment of the inter-rater reliability of PTSs were included. The articles were selected according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) taxonomy. Two reviewers were involved in the study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction and performed the review process. The effect size was estimated by z-transformation of reliability coefficients. Data were pooled with random-effects models, and a metaregression analysis was performed based on the method of moments estimator. Results. Thirteen studies were included. The pooled coefficient for the level of agreement was 0.727 (confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.650–0.790). The level of agreement on PTSs was substantial, with a value of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.202–0.297) for the Australasian Triage Scale (ATS), 0.571 (95% CI: 0.372–0.720) for the Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS), 0.810 (95% CI: 0.711–0.877) for the Emergency Severity Index (ESI), and 0.755 (95% CI: 0.522–0.883) for the Manchester Triage System (MTS). Conclusions. Overall, the reliability of pediatric triage systems was substantial, and this level of agreement should be considered acceptable for triage in the pediatric emergency department. Further studies on the level of agreement of pediatric triage systems are needed.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 10:35:00 +000
  • Factors Associated with Treatment Failure in Patients with Acute
           Exacerbation of COPD Admitted to the Emergency Department Observation Unit

    • Abstract: Objective. We aimed to identify factors associated with treatment failure in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) admitted to the emergency department observation unit (EDOU). Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and October 31, 2019. The electronic medical records were reviewed of patients with AECOPD admitted to the EDOU. The patients were divided into treatment failure and treatment success groups. Treatment failure was defined as prolonged stay at the EDOU (>48 h) or COPD-related ED revisit (within 72 h) or readmission within 1 month. The two groups were compared and analyzed using univariable and multivariable analyses by logistic regression. Results. Of the 220 patients enrolled, 82 (37.3%) developed treatment failure. Factors associated with treatment failure included arrhythmias (odds ratio [OR] 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–13.9), diabetic mellitus (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09–4.95), long-term oxygen therapy (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.08–7.72), short-acting beta-agonist use (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.98–18.62), pneumonia findings on chest X-ray (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.06–9.95), and ED length of stay less than 4 h (OR 2, 95% CI 1.08–3.73). Conclusion. Arrhythmias, diabetic mellitus, long-term oxygen therapy, short-acting beta-agonist use, pneumonia findings on chest X-ray, and ED length of stay
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 12:20:08 +000
  • Continuous Hemofiltration Reduces Mortality in Severe Acute Pancreatitis:
           A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a deadly condition, with a mortality rate ranging from 15% to 30%. Recently, blood purification therapy has been adopted in administrating SAP patients. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of continuous hemofiltration therapy for SAP. Methods. A systematic search of Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase was carried out until October 1st, 2019. Prospective studies comparing outcomes for SAP patients between continuous hemofiltration and standard therapy were enrolled. Results. Continuous hemofiltration therapy was associated with lower level of PACHE II score (MD = −1.49; 95% CI: −2.69 to −0.29, ), CRP (MD = −1.56 mg/L; 95% CI: −2.64 to −0.47, ), Cr (MD = −3.57 umol/L; 95% CI: −5.50 to −1.65, ), and Bun (MD = −3.63 mmol/L; 95% CI: −6.07 to −1.20, ) at 72 h after onset of treatment. Continuous hemofiltration therapy was associated with shorter length of abdominal pain relief time (MD = −1.82 hours; 95% CI: −2.93 to −0.71, ), lower surgery rate (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.78, ), and mortality rate (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.77, ).Conclusions. continuous hemofiltration therapy could effectively alleviate SAP as early as 72 hours after onset of treatment, lowering the level of Bun, Cr, CRP, and APACHE II scores. Continuous hemofiltration therapy could confer SAP patients with lower mortality rates.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 12:20:07 +000
  • The Association of Extreme Tachycardia and Sustained Return of Spontaneous
           Circulation after Nontraumatic Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    • Abstract: Objective. Heart rate (HR), an essential vital sign that reflects hemodynamic stability, is influenced by myocardial oxygen demand, coronary blood flow, and myocardial performance. HR at the time of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) could be influenced by the β1-adrenergic effect of the epinephrine administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and its effect could be decreased in patients who have the failing heart. We aimed to investigate the association between HR at the time of ROSC and the outcomes of adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Methods. This study was a secondary analysis of a cardiac arrest registry from a single institution from January 2008 to July 2014. The OHCA patients who achieved ROSC at the emergency department (ED) were included, and HR was retrieved from an electrocardiogram or vital sign at the time of ROSC. The patients were categorized into four groups according to the HR (bradycardia (HR 
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 12:20:06 +000
  • The Association between Emergency Department Super-Utilizer Status and
           Willingness to Participate in Research

    • Abstract: Background. Research based on emergency departments (EDs) primarily focuses on medical conditions. There is limited research that investigates patients who willingly participate in research. This current study explored ED super-utilizers’ (SUs’) and nonsuper-utilizers’ (NSUs’) attitudes toward research. Objective. The study assesses the willingness of SUs to participate in research. We hypothesize that the SU population will be as interested as nonutilizers in participating in medical research. Methods. This prospective observational study stratified participants into SU and NSU cohorts based on their self-reported number of ED visits within 6 months. Surveys were captured in a secured database and analyzed using SAS 9.4. Results. 7,481 completed questionnaires. SUs were more interested in participating in all types of research compared to NSUs. Both groups were most willing to participate in surveys. Neither group was particularly interested in studies that required medications. SUs were not more willing to participate in studies without payment than NSUs. Both groups trusted researchers at the same rates. Conclusion. Although rarely included in medical research, SUs were more willing to participate in nearly all types of research and expressed a similar trust in medical research when compared to nonsuper-utilizers.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 12:20:05 +000
  • Blunt Isolated Small Bowel Perforation Intervention: Does a Delay in
           Management Matter'

    • Abstract: Purpose. Blunt small bowel injury is rare, and its timely diagnosis may be difficult. The effects of a delayed intervention on prognosis are unclear. We aimed to determine whether the time to surgical intervention affects outcomes in patients with blunt small bowel perforation. Methods. The study was performed between March 2010 and December 2018 in adults (age>18 years) who initially underwent computed tomography and small bowel surgery only and survived more than one day postoperatively. They were categorized into three groups based on injury-to-surgery time intervals: ≤8, 8–24, and>24 h; similarly, they were also categorized into two groups of ≤24 and>24 h. Results. Bowel resection, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) LOS, morbidity, and mortality were analyzed as outcomes in 52 patients. The number of patients in the three groups (≤8, 8–24, and>24 h) based on the time-to-surgery was 33, 13, and 6, respectively. On comparing the three groups, there were no significant differences in LOS (24 [18–35], 21 [10–40], and 28 [20–98] days, respectively; ), ICU LOS (2 [1–12], 4 [2–26], and 11 [7–14] days; respectively, ), mortality (3% (n = 1), 15% (n = 2), and 0%, respectively; ), and morbidity (46% (n = 15), 39% (n = 5), and 50% (n = 3), respectively; ). However, there was a significant difference between the groups in bowel resection (67% (n = 22), 31% (n = 4), and 83% (n = 5), respectively; ). Additionally, there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups (≤24 and>24 h) with small bowel perforation. Conclusions. Delay in surgical intervention following blunt abdominal trauma may not affect the outcomes of patients with small bowel injuries, such as LOS, ICU LOS, morbidity, and mortality, except bowel resection.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jun 2020 06:35:01 +000
  • Intersigmoid Hernia: A Forgotten Diagnosis—A Systematic Review of the

    • Abstract: Introduction. Intersigmoid hernia is a hernia of the small bowel into the intersigmoid fossa. It is well known to be a rare condition. Recent reports reveal that the preoperative differentiation of intersigmoid hernias is difficult and the diagnosis is often confirmed during the laparotomic exploration. Due to the vague clinical manifestation in most cases, the surgical treatment is frequently delayed. Materials and Methods. In this study, we systematically reviewed the literature up to 2019 covering 114 studies and 124 patients with an intersigmoid hernia. The purpose of this work is to improve the understanding of the anatomical aspects, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of intersigmoid hernia so as to assist the preoperative differentiation of these hernias when presented as acute abdomen in the emergency department. Results. The diameter of the intersigmoid recess was reported with mean 2.65 cm (range 1–10 cm, SD 1.15 cm) and the length of the incarcerated small intestine was between 3 cm (min) and 150 cm (max): mean 25.25 cm, SD 35.04 cm. The diameter of the sigmoid recess was greater in patients who underwent resection due to strangulation (mean 3.31 cm, SD 1.53 cm) compared to those who underwent only reduction of the hernia (mean 2.35 cm, SD 0.74 cm). The time from onset to operation was less in patients undergoing resection surgery due to throttling (mean 3.03 days, SD 3.01 days) compared to those who underwent only a reduction of hernia incarceration (mean 8.49 days, SD 6.83 days). Conclusion. Intersigmoid hernia is often a forgotten diagnosis and a clinical challange due to its anatomical characteristics.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 16:05:01 +000
  • Dispatcher-Assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Disparity between Urban
           and Rural Areas

    • Abstract: Object. To compare the provision and effectiveness of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DACPR) in rural and urban areas. Methods. Patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were prospectively registered in Taichung. The 29 districts of Taichung city were divided into urban and rural areas based on whether the population density is more than 1,000 people per square kilometer. Prehospital data were collected according to the Utstein-style template, and telephone auditory records were collected by a dispatch center. Results. 2,716 patients were enrolled during the study period. 88.4% OHCA occurred in urban areas and 11.6% in rural areas. 74.9% after dispatcher assistance, laypersons performed CPR in urban areas and 67.7% in rural areas (). The proportion of laypersons continued CPR until an emergency medical technician’s (EMT) arrival was higher in the urban areas (59.57% vs 52.27%, ). Laypersons continued CPR until an EMT’ arrival would increase the chance of return of spontaneous circulation in urban and rural areas, with adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.82–1.27, and aOR of 1.49, 95% CI of 0.80–2.80, respectively. Continued laypersons CPR until the EMT’ arrival also improved survival with favorable neurological function, with aOR of 1.16, 95% CI of 0.61–2.20 in urban areas and aOR of 2.90 95% CI of 0.18–46.81 in rural areas. Conclusion. Bystanders in urban areas exhibited higher ratio of acceptance of DACPR. However, after DACPR intervention, prognosis improvement was considerably higher in rural areas than in urban areas.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 08:50:10 +000
  • Medical Liability of Residents in Taiwan Criminal Court: An Analysis of
           Closed Malpractice Cases

    • Abstract: Objective. By analyzing closed criminal malpractice claims involving resident physicians, we aimed to clarify the characteristics of litigations and examine the litigious errors leading to guilty verdicts. Design. A retrospective descriptive study. Setting/Study Participants. The verdicts pertaining to physicians recorded on the national database of the Taiwan justice system were reviewed. Main Outcome Measures. The characteristics of litigations were documented. Negligence and guilty verdicts were further analyzed to identify litigious errors. Results. Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2014, from a total of 436 closed criminal malpractice cases, 40 included resident physicians. Five (12.5%) cases received guilty verdicts with mean imprisonment sentences of 5.4 ± 4.1 months. An average of 77.2 months was required for the final adjudication, and surgery residents were involved most frequently (38.9%). Attending physicians were codefendants in 82.5% of cases and were declared guilty in 60% of them. Sepsis (37.5%) was the most common disease in the 40 cases examined, followed by operation/procedure complications (25%). Performance errors (70%) were more than twice as common than diagnostic errors (30%), but the percentage of guilty verdicts in performance error cases was much lower (7.1% vs. 25%). Four negligence cases received nonguilty verdicts, which were mostly due to lack of causation. Conclusion. Closed criminal malpractice cases involving residents took on average 6.22 years to conclude. Performance errors accounted for 70% of cases, with treatment of sepsis and operation/procedure complications predominant. To reduce medicolegal risk, residents should learn experiences from analyzing malpractice cases to avoid similar litigious pitfalls.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 08:20:07 +000
  • Fluoroscopic Stenting as a Bridge to Surgery versus Emergency Management
           for Malignant Obstruction of the Colon

    • Abstract: Aim. To investigate the feasibility of a SEMS (self-expandable metallic stent) as a bridge to surgery for malignant colonic obstruction. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 83 patients that were in accordance with inclusion criteria; of these, 33 patients that underwent fluoroscopy-guided SEMS placement followed by elective curative resection were classified as a SEMS group and 50 patients, who received emergency surgery (ES), were classified as an ES group. The clinicopathological characteristics, surgery-related parameters, complications, and three-year survival rate were compared between the two groups. Results. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in any of the clinicopathologic characteristics except for higher preoperative absolute neutrophil count in the ES group (). Compared to the ES group, the SEMS group has significantly more cases, which featured a laparoscopic approach (72.7% vs. 14.0%, ), lower overall stoma rate (0% vs. 34.0%, ), and lower overall postoperative morbidity (27.3% vs. 56.0%, ). The oncological outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups in terms of three-year overall survival (). The technical and clinical success rates of stent placement were 91.7% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion. Patients treated with the stent-surgery approach had significant short-term superiorities and similar long-term outcomes, compared to patients who had emergency surgery alone. The SEMS is, therefore, safe and feasible as a bridge to surgery for malignant colonic obstruction.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 08:05:11 +000
  • Recruiting Medical Students for a First Responder Project in the Social
           Age: Direct Contact Still Outperforms Social Media

    • Abstract: Introduction. Efficient recruitment of first responders (FRs) is crucial for long-term success of any FR project. FRs are laypersons who are trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), medical professionals, and firemen, police officers, and other professions with a duty of help. As social media are widely used for rapid communication, we carried out a prospective observational study to test the hypothesis that recruitment of FRs via social media is more efficient than recruitment via direct face-to-face contact. Methods. Following ethics committee agreement, we informed 600 medical students about becoming FRs when they attended a didactic lecture about the FR project or during their mandatory CPR-course. Furthermore, recruitment was opened to medical students through Facebook, which accessed ∼1,000 medical students to see if they expressed interest in becoming FRs. All of the recruited students successfully completed the FR training. We then used an online questionnaire to ask these students how they had been recruited. Results. Out of 63 registered student FRs, 59 responded to the online questionnaire. Overall, 15.3% of these FR students were recruited via social media. The majority (78.0%) were recruited through direct contact. Conclusions. Despite widespread use of social media, over three-quarters of these medical students were recruited to the FR project via direct personal contact. This suggests that the advantage of a larger reachable population using social media does not outweigh the impact of personal contact with experts.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:20:08 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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