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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 71)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Emergency Medicine International
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.298
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-2840 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2859
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Development and Utilization of 3D Printed Material for Thoracotomy

    • Abstract: Medical simulation is a widely used training modality especially for procedures that are technically difficult or rare. The use of simulations for educational purposes has increased dramatically over the years, with most emergency medicine (EM) programs primarily using mannequin-based simulations to teach medical students and residents. This simulation built using 3D printed materials is a reasonable and cheaper alternative option for practicing procedures. Repeated simulations may help further increase comfort levels in performing an emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) in particular, and perhaps this can be extrapolated to all invasive procedures. Using this model, a simulation training conducted with EM residents at an inner city teaching hospital showed improved confidence. A total of 21 residents participated in each of the three surveys [(1) upon arrival, (2) after watching the educational video, and (3) after participating in the simulation]. Their comfort levels increased from baseline after watching the educational video (9.5%). The comfort level further improved from baseline after performing the hands on simulation (71.4%).
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Nov 2018 06:03:04 +000
  • Assessing the Prevalence of Incidental Findings Identified by CTPA in
           Women of Reproductive Age

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Though multiple studies have evaluated the prevalence of incidental findings identified by CTPA, none have done so with a focus on reproductive-age females with normal chest X-ray (CXR). Due to a comparatively lower breast radiation dose, the oft-recommended alternative to CTPA in this patient group is a V/Q scan. However, these are limited in their assessment of these alternate findings; therefore, it is of particular importance to evaluate the likelihood of these findings on CT in this patient group, which is the goal of this study. Methods. Through a review of our PACS system, female patients aged 18-50 years who underwent diagnostic CTPA prior to April 1, 2017, were identified. The 100 most recent cases which had a normal CXR within 48 hours of CTPA were included. Incidental/non-PE findings were then divided into PE-positive (PE+) and PE-negative (PE-), and subcategorized into types I, II, III, and nil non-PE finding groups. Type I findings required immediate follow-up or intervention, type II findings required outpatient follow-up, and type III findings required no follow-up or were previously known. Results. PE was detected in 15% of scans. Type I findings were found in 8% of patients (0% of PE+, 9.4% of PE-), type II findings in 10% of patients (13.3% of PE+, 9.4% of PE-), type III findings in 34% of patients (40% of PE+, 32.9% of PE-), and nil non-PE finding in 48% of patients (46.7% PE+, 48.2% of PE-). Conclusion. While CTPA identifies incidental findings in the majority of patients, a small minority of these findings are likely to alter immediate management. In the context in increased radiation risk, this strengthens the argument that alternate imaging modalities such as V/Q should be strongly considered for the investigation of potential PE in women of reproductive age with normal CXR.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Nov 2018 06:15:14 +000
  • Gender Differences and Work-Family Conflicts among Emergency Physicians
           with Intention to Leave

    • Abstract: Backgrounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among intention to leave, emergency physician clinical activities, work-family conflicts, and gender differences in emergency physicians (EPs). Methods. The survey instrument was a self-administered questionnaire containing basic demographic information and characteristics of clinical activities. The work-family conflicts were assessed by the Chinese version of the work-family conflict (WIF) scale. The questionnaires were mailed to board-certified EPs between January 2014 and August 2014. Student’s t-test, Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the difference between subgroups. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with intention to leave and gender differences. Results. The study included 222 respondents for analysis after exclusions. Compared with physicians not planning to leave, those planning to leave ED practice showed higher dissatisfaction with their clinical work hours (50.0% versus 31.4%, p = 0.035) and night/day shift ratio (52.9% versus 31.0%, p = 0.013) and tended to work with night/day shift ratio exceeding 40% (67.6% versus 45.7%, p = 0.019). Female physicians were more likely to leave ED practice (females versus males, 26.5% versus 10.1%, p = 0.008). A significantly higher level of WIF scale was noted in the group with intention to leave ED practice (3.7 ± 0.6 versus 3.3 ± 0.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Females and EPs with higher level of WIF scale were more likely to leave emergency clinical practice. Instead of the number of clinical practice hours, the satisfaction with the clinical work hours and night shift frequency were significantly associated with the intention to leave.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Does Gender Influence Physiological Tolerance in Resuscitators When Using
           Personal Protection Equipment against Biological Hazards'

    • Abstract: Introduction. Certain professions, such as those related to emergency services, have usually been performed by men, progressively incorporating women into these professions. The main objective of our study was to determine, according to gender, how the use of level D biohazard personal protection equipment (PPE) affects emergency professionals during the performance of resuscitation. Materials and Methods. An uncontrolled quasi-experimental study was performed on 96 volunteers selected by means of random sampling stratified by gender. Baseline and final vital signs of the assessment activity were analyzed. This activity involves volunteers performing a simulated resuscitation in a controlled environment whilst wearing personal protective suits in a biohazard situation. Results. Analyzing the physiological tolerance pattern parameter by parameter, and according to gender, through a univariate model, we can observe that there is no interaction between tolerance and gender; that is, having good or bad tolerance does not depend on gender. Conclusion. This specialized skilled work can be performed by any properly trained professional.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Serum Cortisol as a Predictor of Major Adverse Pulmonary Event in
           Emergency Department Acutely Dyspneic Patients

    • Abstract: Cortisol is a steroid hormone released from the adrenal glands in response to stressful conditions. Elevated cortisol levels have been described in stress, but it is unclear whether these are associated with adverse outcomes. In this study, we assess whether cortisol levels drawn in patients presenting with dyspnea to the ED were a predictor of major adverse pulmonary event (MAPE). In 87 patients presenting with dyspnea to the ED, cortisol levels were determined. Patients were then assessed to determine the following MAPE: endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the ED, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and in-hospital all-cause mortality. Forty-four patients (50.6%) were female and 33 (37.9%) were diagnosed with heart failure. Cortisol levels in patients with and without MAPE were 34.3μg/dL and 23.8μg/dL, respectively (p
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Oct 2018 08:38:09 +000
  • Clinical Effects of Activated Charcoal Unavailability on Treatment
           Outcomes for Oral Drug Poisoned Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Activated charcoal is the most frequently and widely used oral decontaminating agent in emergency departments (EDs). However, there is some debate about its clinical benefits and risks. In Korea, activated charcoal with sorbitol was unavailable as of the mid-2015, and our hospital had been unable to use it from September 2015. This study examined the differences of clinical features and outcomes of patients during the periods charcoal was and was not available. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who had visited an urban tertiary academic ED for oral drug poisoning between January 2013 and January 2017. Results. For the charcoal-available period, 413 patients were identified and for the charcoal-unavailable period, 221. Activated charcoal was used in the treatment of 141 patients (34%) during the available period. The mortality rates during the available and unavailable periods were 1.9 and 0.9%, respectively (p = 0.507). There was also no interperiod difference in the development of aspiration pneumonia (9.9 versus 9.5%, p = 0.864), the endotracheal intubation rate (8.4 versus 7.2%, p = 0.586), and vasopressor use (5.3 versus 5.0%, p = 0.85). Intensive care unit (ICU) admission was higher in the unavailable period (5.8 versus 13.6%, p = 0.001). ICU days were lower in the unavailable period (10 [4.5-19] versus 4 [3-9], p = 0.01). Hospital admission (43.3 versus 29.9%, p = 0.001) was lower in the unavailable period. Conclusions. In this single center study, there appeared to be no difference in mortality, intubation rates, or vasopressor use between the charcoal-available and charcoal-unavailable periods.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Oct 2018 07:27:32 +000
  • Closing the Equity Gap of Access to Emergency Departments of Private
           Hospitals in Thailand

    • Abstract: Background. Previous policy implementation in 2012 to incentivize private hospitals in Thailand, a country with universal health coverage, to provide free-of-charge emergency care using DRG-based payment resulted in an equity gap of access and copayment. To bridge the gap, strategic policies involving financial and legal interventions were implemented in 2017. This study aims to assess whether this new approach would be able to fill the gap. Methods. We analyzed an administrative dataset of over 20,206 patients visiting private hospital EDs from April 2017 to October 2017 requested for the preauthorization of access to emergency care in the first 72 hours free of charge. The association between types of insurance and the approval status was explored using logistic regression equation adjusting for age, modes of access, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and Glasgow coma scores. Results and Discussion. The strategic policies implementation resulted in reversing ED payer mix from the most privileged scheme, having the major share of ED visit, to the least privileged scheme. The data showed an increasing trend of ED visits to private hospitals indicates the acceptance of the financial incentive. Obvious differences in degrees of urgency between authorized and unauthorized patients suggested the role of preauthorization as a barrier to the noncritical patient visiting the ED. Furthermore, our study depicted the gender disparity between authorized and unauthorized patients which might indicate a delay in care seeking among critical female patients. Lessons learned for policymakers in low-and-middle income countries attempting to close the equity gap of access to private hospital EDs are discussed.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Diagnostic Value of Irisin in Pediatric Patients with Acute Abdominal

    • Abstract: Objectives. Diagnosis of pediatric patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain is not always easy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of irisin, a peptide hormone with reactivity shown in the appendix and neutrophils, in the differential diagnosis of pediatric patients with acute abdominal pain. Methods. 162 subjects consenting to participate, including 112 patients presenting to the Pediatric Emergency and Pediatric Surgery clinics with acute abdominal pain and 50 controls, were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected from all patients following initial examination for irisin, WBC, and CRP investigation. Results. Mean irisin levels in cases of acute appendicitis (AA) and perforated appendicitis (PA) were statistically significantly higher compared to nonspecific abdominal pains and the control group. No statistically significant difference was observed in irisin levels between AA and PA cases. WBC and CRP levels were also significantly higher in cases of AA and PA compared to nonspecific abdominal pains. Conclusions. Differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pains in children and deciding on surgery are a difficult and complex process. Our study shows that irisin can be a useful biomarker in differentiating AA and PA from other acute abdominal pains in children.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Sep 2018 07:01:13 +000
  • Clinical Predictors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteremia in Emergency

    • Abstract: Objectives. Pseudomonas aeruginosa shows higher mortality rate compared to other bacterial infections and is susceptible to a limited number of antimicrobial agents. Considering inadequate empirical treatment of Pseudomonas bacteremia has been associated with increased mortality, it is important for emergency physicians to identify infections by P. aeruginosa. Methods. This was a single-center retrospective case-control study to investigate the clinical predictors of patients diagnosed as Pseudomonas bacteremia in the emergency department (ED) from June 2012 to December 2016. Patients with blood culture positive for Escherichia coli in the same period were chosen as the control group, and type of infection was matched for each patient. Results. A total of 54 cases with Pseudomonas bacteremia and 108 controls with E. coli bacteremia were included. In the case group, 76% was community-acquired infection, 44% received inappropriate empirical treatment in the ED, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. Multiple logistic regression showed that respiratory tract infection was an independent risk factor for Pseudomonas bacteremia (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.78-23.06; p = 0.004), whereas underlying diabetes mellitus (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.61; p = 0.004) and presentation as urinary tract infection (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.18; p < 0.001) were negative clinical predictors. Conclusions. We suggest that antipseudomonal antibiotics should be considered beyond simple coverage of Gram-negative bacteria in the ED, especially if the patient is likely to have pneumonia. Having diabetes or presenting with urinary tract infection could be clinical factors unfavorable to use of antipseudomonal antibiotics.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Retrospective Multivariate Analysis of Data from Children with Suspected
           Appendicitis: A New Tool for Diagnosis

    • Abstract: Background. Decision-making for management may sometimes be difficult in acute appendicitis (AA). Various diagnostic scoring systems exist, but their sensitivity and specificity rates are far from ideal. In this study, the determination of the predictors and the effect of radiological data and developing a new scoring system were aimed. Methods. Medical records of patients who were hospitalized for AA between February 2012 and October 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All data were compared between patients with and without appendicitis. The multivariate analysis was performed to define significant variables and to examine the sensitivity and specificity of each group of predictors including radiological data. A new scoring system (NSS) was formed and was compared with two existing scoring systems: pediatric appendicitis score (PAS) and Alvarado scoring system (ASS) by using reclassification method. Results. Negative appendectomy rate was 11.3%. Statistical analysis identified 21 independently significant variables. The heel drop test had the highest odds ratio. Sensitivity and specificity rates of clinical predictors were 84.6% and 94.8%, respectively. Radiological predictors increased the sensitivity rate to 86.9%. Sensitivity and specificity rates for PAS, ASS, and NSS were 86.8% and 83.9%, 84.7% and 81.6%, and 96.8% and 95.6%, respectively. The “re-assessed negative appendectomy rate” was 6.2% and false positive results were remarkably more common in patients with duration of symptoms less than 24 hours. Conclusion. Radiological data improves the accuracy of diagnosis. Containing detailed clinical and radiological data, NSS performs superiorly to PAS and ASS, regarding sensitivity and specificity without any age limitation. The efficiency of NSS may be enhanced by determining different predictors for different phases of the inflammatory process.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Sustainable Ambulance Operation Model in a Low-Resource Country (the
           Democratic Republic of Congo)

    • Abstract: Due to an increase in traffic collisions, the demand for prehospital medical services is on the rise, even in low-resource countries where emergency ambulance services have not been previously provided. To build a sustainable and continuous prehospital ambulance operation model, it is necessary to consider the medical system and economic conditions of the corresponding country. In an attempt to construct a prehospital ambulance operation model that ensures continuous operation, a pilot “emergency patient transporting service from field to hospital” operation was established for approximately three months in Kinshasa, the capital of the DR Congo. To construct a continuously operating model even after the pilot operation, willingness to pay (WTP) by type of emergency medical and transport service was investigated by implementing the contingent valuation method (CVM). Using CVM, the WTP for prehospital emergency services targeting ambulance services personnel, patients, policemen, and hospital staff participating in the pilot operation was calculated. The results of the pilot operation revealed that there were a total of 212 patients with a mean patient number of 2.4 per day. A total of 155 patients used the services for hospital transport, while 121 patients used the services for traffic collisions. Traffic collisions were the category in which ambulance services were most frequently needed (66.2%). Pay services were most frequently utilized in the home-visit services category (40.9%). Based on these results, eight independently operated ambulance operation models and sixteen models that utilize hospital medical personnel and policemen already belonging to existing institutions were proposed. In an effort to implement emergency medical ambulance services in the DR Congo, medical staff receiving pay for performance (incentive pay) should be deployed in the field and on call. Accordingly, with respect to sustainable development goals, various pay-for-service models should be used.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 06:42:51 +000
  • Teaching Residents Chest Tubes: Simulation Task Trainer or Cadaver

    • Abstract: Objective. To compare simulation task trainers (sim) with cadaver for teaching chest tube insertion to junior residents. Methods. Prospective study involving postgraduate year (PGY) one and two emergency medicine (EM) and PGY-1 surgery residents. Residents were randomized into sim or cadaver groups based on prior experience and trained using deliberate practice. Primary outcomes were confidence in placing a chest tube and ability to place a chest tube in a clinical setting during a seven-month follow-up period. Secondary outcomes include skill retention, using an objective assessment checklist of 15 critical steps in chest tube placement, and confidence after seven months. Results. Sixteen residents were randomized to cadaver (n=8) and simulation (n=8) groups. Both groups posttraining had statistically significant increase in confidence. No significant difference existed between groups for median posttraining assessment scores (13.5 sim v 15 cadaver). There was no statistically significant difference between groups for confidence at any point measured. There was moderate correlation (0.58) between number of clinical attempts reported in a seven-month follow-up period and final assessment score. Conclusion. Both sim and cadaver models are effective modalities for teaching chest tube placement. Medical education programs can use either modalities to train learners without notable differences in confidence.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 09:48:01 +000
  • The Effect of a Mechanical Compression Device and Supraglottic Airway on
           Flow Time: A Simulation Study of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in a
           High-Rise Building

    • Abstract: High-rise buildings present unique challenges to providing high-quality CPR. We investigated the effect of using a mechanical compressor and supraglottic airway on flow time and CPR quality in simulated cardiac arrests occurring within a high-rise building. Twelve teams of EMS providers performed CPR according to 4 scenarios: manual compression and ventilation through bag-valve-mask (MAB) or supraglottic airway (MAS); mechanical compression and ventilation through bag-valve-mask (MEB) or supraglottic airway (MES). Chest compression indices did not differ significantly among the groups. The mechanical compression groups had a higher flow time fraction from exiting the elevator until the manikin was loaded into the ambulance than the manual compression groups. The supraglottic airway groups had higher flow time fractions from entering the elevator until the end of the scenario than the bag-valve-mask groups. The total flow time fraction was lowest in the MAB group and was highest in the MEB group (P < 0.001). In simulated cardiac arrest in a high-rise building, the use of a supraglottic airway maintained flow time at a level similar to that observed with the use of a mechanical compressor. Moreover, the use of a mechanical compressor and a supraglottic airway increased the flow time most effectively.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Payment Reforms for Prehospital Care Services in a Middle Income Country:
           Assessing Implementation and Patient Outcomes Using a Mixed-Methods

    • Abstract: Introduction. Financing health systems constitutes a key element of well-functioning healthcare system. Prior to 2015, two new financial arrangements (direct-pay and E-claim systems) were introduced on a voluntary basis which aimed to pool more financial resources and improve cash flow of prehospital care systems. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the effects of direct-pay system in terms of (a) timeliness of reimbursement to EMS agencies, (b) changes in clinical care processes, and (c) the outcomes of patient care as compared to previous system; (2) identify the reasons for or against EMS agencies to participate in direct-pay system mechanisms; (3) identify the emerging issues with potential to significantly further the advancement of EMS systems. Using a mixed-methods approach, retrospective datasets of 3,769,399 individual records of call responses from 2015 to 2017 were analyzed which compared EMS units with the direct-pay system against those without in terms of time flow of claim data and patient outcomes. For qualitative data, in-depth interviews were conducted. Results. EMS units participating in both systems had the highest percentages of financial claim being made in time as compared to those not participating in any (p=0.012). However, there were not any practically meaningful differences between EMS units participating and not participating in either of the payment systems in terms of patient care such as appropriateness of response time, airway management, and outcome of treatment. Analysis of data from focus-group and individual interviews ended up with a causal loop diagram demonstrating potential explanatory mechanisms for those findings. Conclusion. It is evident that progress has been made in terms of mobilising more financial inputs and improving financial information flow. However, there is no evidence of any changes in patient outcomes and quality of care. Furthermore, whether the progress is meaningful in filling the gaps of financial demands of the prehospital care systems is still questionable. Room for future improvement of prehospital care systems was discussed with implications for other countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Dust Storms and Climatological Factors on Mortality and
           Morbidity of Cardiovascular Diseases Admitted to ED

    • Abstract: Objective. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Desert Dust Storms and Climatological Factors on Mortality and Morbidity of Cardiovascular Diseases admitted to emergency department in Gaziantep. Method. Hospital records, obtained between September 01, 2009 and January 31, 2014, from four state hospitals in Gaziantep, Turkey, were compared to meteorological and climatological data. Statistical analysis was performed by Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) for windows version 24.0. Results. 168,467 patients were included in this study. 83% of the patients had chest pain and 17% of patients had cardiac failure (CF). An increase in inpatient hospitalization due to CF was observed and corresponded to the duration of dust storms measured by number of days. However, there was no significant increase in emergency department (ED) presentations. There was no significant association of cardiac related mortality and coinciding presence of a dust storm or higher recorded temperature. The association of increases in temperature levels and the presence of dust storms with “acute coronary syndrome- (ACS-) related emergency service presentations, inpatient hospitalization, and mortality” were statistically significant. The relationship between the increase in PM10 levels due to causes unrelated to dust storms and the outpatient application, admission, and mortality due to heart failure was not significant. The increase in particle matter 10 (PM) levels due to causes outside the dust storm caused a significant increase in outpatient application, hospitalization, and mortality originated from ACS. Conclusion. Increased number of dust storms resulted in a higher prevalence of mortality due to ACS while mortality due to heart failure remained unchanged. Admission, hospitalization, and mortality due to chest pain both dependent and independent of ACS were increased by the presence of dust storms, PM10 elevation, and maximum temperature.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Evaluation of Skin and Soft Tissue Infection Outcomes and Admission
           Decisions in Emergency Department Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Skin and soft tissue infections are common presenting complaints for Emergency Department (ED) patients. Although they are common, there remain no definitive guidelines on decisions of admission for these patients. Objectives. To determine the influence of demographic and clinical information of those presenting with skin and soft tissue infection(s) (SSTI) on both disposition and treatment failure. Methods. We prospectively enrolled adults with SSTI seen at a large urban ED. Secondary outcome was treatment failure. Statistics utilized t-tests and multivariate logistic regression. Results. We enrolled 125 subjects and 32 were admitted. 15.2% of patients failed treatment with both increasing age and infection area correlating with admission. IV drug use (IVDU) (OR: 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9 to 50.0) and recent antibiotic use (OR: 2.9; 95% CI 1.003 to 8.333) independently predicted admission. Age and recent surgery in the area of infection (OR: 6.4; 95% CI 1.3 to 30.8) showed positive association with treatment failure. IV antibiotics (OR: 22.3; 95% CI 2.8 to 179.4) and admission (OR: 12.1; 95% CI 2.9 to 50.4) strongly predicted treatment failure. Conclusions. Age, infection size, IVDU, and recent antibiotics predicted admission. Age, recent surgery at infection site, IV antibiotics, and admission correlated with treatment failure.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Expert-Performed Endotracheal Intubation-Related Complications in Trauma
           Patients: Incidence, Possible Risk Factors, and Outcomes in the
           Prehospital Setting and Emergency Department

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine complication rates and possible risk factors of expert-performed endotracheal intubation (ETI) in patients with trauma, in both the prehospital setting and the emergency department. We also investigated how the occurrence of ETI-related complications affected the survival of trauma patients. This single-center retrospective observational study included all injured patients who underwent anesthesiologist-performed ETI from 2007 to 2017. ETI-related complications were defined as hypoxemia, unrecognized esophageal intubation, regurgitation, cardiac arrest, ETI failure rescued by emergency surgical airway, dental trauma, cuff leak, and mainstem bronchus intubation. Of the 537 patients included, 23.5% experienced at least one complication. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that low Glasgow Coma Scale Score (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88–0.98), elevated heart rate (AOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00–1.02), and three or more ETI attempts (AOR, 15.71; 95% CI, 3.37–73.2) were independent predictors of ETI-related complications. We also found that ETI-related complications decreased the likelihood of survival of trauma patients (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.38–0.95), independently of age, male sex, Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale Score, and off-hours presentation. Our results suggest that airway management in trauma patients carries a very high risk; this finding has implications for the practice of airway management in injured patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Etiological Spectrum of Febrile Encephalopathy in Adult Patients: A
           Cross-Sectional Study from a Developing Country

    • Abstract: The profile of febrile encephalopathy varies based on different demographic and geographical characteristics of the study population. This retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the etiological spectrum of febrile encephalopathy in hospitalized adult patients. A total of 293 patients with the mean age of 49.7 ± 23 were evaluated of whom 77.1% presented with encephalopathy syndrome. The most common diagnosis in patients with clinical syndromes suggestive of central nervous system (CNS) infection was sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) (22.9%), followed by bacterial meningitis (14%) and neurotuberculosis (9.9%). The comparison between the elderly and young adults showed that, in the young adults, bacterial meningitis and neurotuberculosis, and in the elderly SAE, are among the most common causes of clinical syndromes suggestive of CNS infection including febrile encephalopathy in our region. Moreover, we illustrated an upward trend for the proportion of diagnosing CNS infections among those who underwent diagnostic LP, from 40.4% in 2011 to 70% in 2015, that could be indicative of an increasing threshold for performing LP at least in our center in recent years. Whether these changes have been associated with increasing the rate of diagnostic errors or not needs to be evaluated in future studies.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Equestrian Injury Presentations to a Regional Trauma Centre in Ireland

    • Abstract: Background. The Irish Equestrian industry provides over 12,500 full time job equivalents contributing in excess of €454 million to the Irish economy annually. For such an important industry there is a paucity of information relating to equestrian injuries. Aims. The aim of this study was to determine the demographics, characteristics, and outcomes of equestrian related injuries presenting to the emergency department of a regional trauma centre in Ireland over the course of one year. Methods. Retrospective analysis of all 30,700 presentations to the emergency department (ED) of the Midland Regional Hospital (MRH) Tullamore in 2013 was performed to identify equestrian related presentations. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, radiology results, management, and follow-up data were collected and analysed using Microsoft Excel software. Results. A total of 149 equestrian related presentations were identified during the study period. There were significantly more females involved in equestrian injuries than males (58% versus 42%). Falling from a horse contributed to significantly more presentations and admissions than any other cause. 36% of presentations were associated with a radiological abnormality. Types of injuries identified included skeletal fractures (27.5%), joint dislocation/subluxation (5%), concussion (12.5%), and splenic laceration/intraperitoneal haemorrhage (1%). Admission or transfer to tertiary care was required for 18% of equestrian injuries. Only 43% of presentations were discharged back to primary care from the emergency department. Conclusion. This study identifies a high incidence of morbidities associated with equestrian presentations. In addition we recognised populations at risk of specific injuries and described high-risk mechanisms of injury.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Screening Test for At-Risk Drinking: Development of New Abbreviated
           Version of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test for Young and
           Middle-Aged Adults

    • Abstract: Several abbreviated versions of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) have been developed for use in high-volume clinical situations such as emergency departments. In this study, we developed a new abbreviated version of AUDIT called the Screening Tool for At-risk Drinking (STAD) for young and middle-aged adults, consisting of two questions that reflect the structure of the AUDIT questionnaire using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). To derive the abbreviated test considering AUDIT item structure, we performed confirmatory factor analysis on the 10 AUDIT questions in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV. To validate the new abbreviated test, we analyzed the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) on the KNHANES V-VI except for the KNHANES VI-2. Based on the two-factor structure of AUDIT, question (Q) 3 and Q7 were finally selected for STAD. In validation, AUROC was significantly wider for STAD than for AUDIT-QF, which has the same number of questions. There was no significant difference between AUDIT-C, consisting of three questions, and STAD. It can be used as a simple and reliable screening test in clinical settings.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Burden and Outcomes of Abdominal Pain among Children Presenting to an
           Emergency Department of a Tertiary Hospital in Tanzania: A Descriptive
           Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Abdominal pain in children can represent benign conditions or life-threatening emergencies. Aetiologies of paediatric abdominal pain vary geographically and have not been studied in acute care settings in East Africa. This study describes the clinical profiles and outcomes of children presenting with undifferentiated abdominal pain to the Emergency Department of Muhimbili National Hospital (ED-MNH). Methods. This was a prospective cohort study of children below 18 years of age presenting to the ED-MNH with abdominal pain. A structured case report form was used to collect data on patients from June to December 2016. Data included demographics, clinical presentation, and mortality. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Results. Out of 1855 children who presented to ED-MNH, 184 (%) met inclusion criteria, and all were enrolled. The median age was 3.5 years (IQR: 1.3–7.0 years) and 124 (67.4%) were male. Most (138 [%]) were referred from peripheral hospitals. The most frequent ED providers’ diagnoses were hernia (34 [%]) and intra-abdominal malignancy (19 [%]). From the ED, 37 (20.1%) were discharged home, 83 (45.1%) were admitted to medical wards, and 48 (26.1%) were admitted to surgical wards. 16 (8.7%) underwent an operation. 24-hour, seven-day, and three-month mortality rates were 1.1%, 6.5%, and 14.5%, respectively. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12.2%. Multivariate analysis showed that age below 5 years, female sex, and haemoglobin less than 10.9 g/dl were significant factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Discussion and Conclusion. Abdominal pain is a common complaint among paediatric patients presenting to the ED-MNH. This presentation was associated with a high admission rate and a high mortality rate. Age below 5 years, female sex, and haemoglobin less than 10.9 g/dl were associated with mortality. Further studies and quality improvement efforts should focus on identifying aetiologies, risk stratification, and appropriate interventions to optimise patients outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • International Scope of Emergency Ultrasound: Barriers in Applying

    • Abstract: Background. While ultrasound (US) use for internal jugular central venous catheter (CVC) placement is standard of care in North America, most developing countries have not adopted this practice. Previous surveys of North American physicians have identified lack of training and equipment availability as the most important barriers to the use of US. Objective. We sought to identify perceived barriers to the use of US to guide CVC insertion in a resource-constrained environment. Methods. Prior to an US-guided CVC placement training course conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, physicians were asked to complete a survey to determine previous experience and perceived barriers. Survey responses were analyzed using summary statistics and the Rank-Sum test based on different specialty, gender, and previous US experience. Results. There were 23 physicians who completed the course and the survey. 52% (95% CI: 0.30–0.73) had put in >20 CVCs. 21.7% (95% CI: 0.08–0.44) of participants had previous US training, but none in the use of US for CVC insertion. The respondents expressed agreement with statements describing the ease of the use and improved success rate with US guidance. There was less agreement to statements describing the relative convenience and cost effectiveness of US CVC placement compared to the landmark technique. The main perceived barriers to utilization of US guidance included lack of training and limited availability of US equipment and sterile sheaths. Conclusion. Perceived barriers to US-guided CVC placement in our population closely mirrored those found among North American physicians, including lack of training and limited availability of US machines and equipment. These barriers have the potential to be addressed by targeted educational and administrative interventions.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Retrospective 10-Year Analysis of Water Absorbent Bead Ingestion in

    • Abstract: Aim. This retrospective case series was designed to evaluate the clinical experience of pediatric patients who had ingested water absorbent beads (WABs) and review the relevant literature. Materials and Methods. A retrospective chart analysis of 21 children who were admitted to the emergency service or outpatient clinic with complaints of swallowing WABs during a 10-year period was performed. The patients were divided into two groups: 6 patients who were hospitalized and 15 patients who were observed as outpatients for groups 1 and 2, respectively. All data were screened with respect to presentation, age, gender, clinical and radiological findings, modalities of treatment, and follow-up. Results. All patients were asymptomatic with uneventful outcomes. Laboratory studies, X-ray, and ultrasound examinations revealed normal results. None of the patients underwent surgery or other medical procedures. Gastrointestinal system obstruction or any other pathological findings were not detected after WAB ingestion. No complications were identified during follow-up. Discussion. This first clinical study showed that asymptomatic patients do not require inpatient observation and laboratory investigations, X-ray, and ultrasound. However, results of the present study cannot be generalized to children of all ages due to the few cases of bowel obstruction reported to date in small children.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 May 2018 07:43:11 +000
  • An Evaluation of a Modified CTAS at an Accident and Emergency Department
           in a Developing Country

    • Abstract: Objectives. To review the modified Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale used in an accident and emergency department in Trinidad and Tobago. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Times from assignment of triage category to being seen by a physician were collected from the patient notes on the days of presentation and compared to the reference standards. Times from decision to admit to obtaining a bed were also recorded. Results. 200 patients were included in the study. The median waiting time for patients in the immediate/blue category was 3 minutes (range = 3); for the red category, it was 31.2 minutes (range = 121.8); in the yellow category, it was 61.8 minutes (range = 805.2). The overall admission rate was 30.5%, with an admission rate of 25% for the blue category; 20% of patients in the red category waited more than 4 hours for a hospital bed. Conclusion. The patients assigned to the blue category were being seen almost immediately. Less critical persons wait longer than the reference times and this may be due to structural factors such as staffing. The admission rates per category highlighted a low admission rate for the blue category (25%), which is unusual. This study highlights the need for a further study to review clinical presentation, assignment to triage category, and outcomes.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 07:58:25 +000
  • Ambulance Nurses’ Competence and Perception of Competence in
           Prehospital Trauma Care

    • Abstract: Introduction. We focus on trauma care conducted in the context of a simulated traumatic event. This is in this study defined as a four-meter fall onto a hard surface, resulting in severe injuries to extremities in the form of bilateral open femur fractures, an open tibia fracture, and a closed pelvic fracture, all fractures bleeding extensively. Methods. The simulated trauma care competence of 63 ambulance nurses in prehospital emergency care was quantitatively evaluated along with their perception of their sufficiency. Data was collected by means of simulated trauma care and a questionnaire. Results. Life-saving interventions were not consistently performed. Time to perform interventions could be considered long due to the life-threatening situation. In comparison, the ambulance nurses’ perception of the sufficiency of their theoretical and practical knowledge and skills for trauma care scored high. In contrast, the perception of having sufficient ethical training for trauma care scored low. Discussion. This study suggests there is no guarantee that the ambulance nurses’ perception of theoretical and practical knowledge and skill level corresponds with their performed knowledge and skill. The ambulance nurses rated themselves having sufficient theoretical and practical knowledge and skills while the score of trauma care can be considered quite low.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Accuracy of Point-of-Care Ultrasound in Detecting Small Bowel
           Obstruction in Emergency Department

    • Abstract: Radiological imaging plays an essential role in the evaluation of a patient with suspected small bowel obstruction (SBO). In a few studies, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been utilized as a primary imaging modality in patients with suspected SBO. POCUS has been shown to be an accurate tool in the diagnosis of SBO with multiple research studies noting a consistent high sensitivity with a range of 94–100% and specificity of 81–100%. Specific sonographic findings that increase the likelihood of SBO include dilatation of small bowel loops > 25 mm, altered intestinal peristalsis, increased thickness of the bowel wall, and intraperitoneal fluid accumulation. Studies also reported that emergency physicians could apply this technique with limited and short-term ultrasound training. In this article, we aim to review the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound examinations performed by emergency physicians in patients with suspected SBO.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study of Workplace Violence against
           Prehospital Emergency Medical Technicians

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. Workplace violence is a global phenomenon and violation of human rights affects the people’s self-esteem and quality of work and causes inequality, discrimination, disorder, and conflict at work. The present study was carried out aiming at determining the workplace violence against the prehospital emergency medical technicians (PEMTs) in three provinces of Fars, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, and Bushehr, Iran. Materials and Methods. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study in which 206 PEMTs from Fars, Bushehr, and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad provinces participated. Simple random sampling was used in this study. In order to collect data, a researcher-made tool was used. Descriptive statistics and SPSS® software version 22 were used to analyze the data. Results. Among various types of workplace violence, the most frequent ones were verbal violence (78.1%), physical violence (60.3%), and cultural violence (31.7%), respectively. The most important factor in the occurrence of workplace violence was the lack of the awareness of people about the duties of the PEMTs. With regard to the handling of the violent situations, the results indicated that 61.6% of the personnel asked the attacker to calm down. 48.5% of PEMTs believed that violence was normal in their work. Conclusion. Due to the high rate of workplace violence against PEMTs, it is suggested that methods such as formal training and retraining programs for the employees, general education with regard to the duties of the PEMTs, and socially supporting them should be used to reduce and control violence.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Point-of-Care Diagnostic Device for Traumatic Pneumothorax: Low
           Sensitivity of the Unblinded PneumoScan™

    • Abstract: Background. Traumatic Pneumothorax (PTX) is a potentially life-threatening injury. It requires a fast and accurate diagnosis and treatment, but diagnostic tools are limited. A new point-of-care device (PneumoScan) based on micropower impulse radar (MIR) promises to diagnose a PTX within seconds. In this study, we compare standard diagnostics with PneumoScan during shock-trauma-room management. Patients and Methods. Patients with blunt or penetrating chest trauma were consecutively included in the study. All patients were examined including clinical examination with auscultation (CE) and supine chest radiography (CXR). In addition, PneumoScan-readings and thoracic ultrasound scan (US) were performed. Computed tomography (CT) served as gold standard. Results. CT scan revealed PTX in 11 patients. PneumoScan detected two PTX correctly but missed nine. 15 false-positive results were found by PneumoScan, leading to a sensitivity of 20% and specificity of 80%. Six PTX were detected through CE (sensitivity: 54,5%). CXR detected four (sensitivity: 27,3%) and thoracic US two PTX correctly (sensitivity: 25%). Conclusion. The unblinded PneumoScan prototype did not confirm the promising results of previous studies. The examined standard diagnostics and thoracic US showed rather weak sensitivity as well. Until now, there is no appropriate point-of-care tool to rule out PTX.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Relationship of Meteorological and Air Pollution Parameters with Pneumonia
           in Elderly Patients

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between pneumonia and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation, airborne particles, sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrite oxide (NO), and nitric oxide (NOX)) in patients with the diagnosis of pneumonia in the emergency department. Methods. Our study was performed retrospectively with patients over 65 years of age who were diagnosed with pneumonia. The meteorological variables in the days of diagnosing pneumonia were compared with the meteorological variables in the days without diagnosis of pneumonia. The sociodemographic characteristics, complete blood count of the patients, and meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity, precipitation, airborne particles, SO2, CO, NO2, NO, and NOX) were investigated. Results. When the temperature was high and low, the number of days consulted due to pneumonia was related to low air temperature (). During the periods when PM 10, NO, NO2, NOX, and CO levels were high, the number of days referred for pneumonia was increased (). Conclusion. As a result, climatic (temperature, humidity, pressure levels, rain, etc.) and environmental factors (airborne particles, CO, NO, and NOX) were found to be effective in the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to pneumonia.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Remember the Drive Home' An Assessment of Emergency Providers’
           Sleep Deficit

    • Abstract: Objective. Sleep deprivation decreases work performance and predisposes workers to deleterious health outcomes. We sought to evaluate sleep hygiene and fatigue among emergency physicians. Methods. In March–June 2016, physicians and residents at an academic emergency medicine program were invited to complete a survey evaluating sleep and alertness. Results. Six attending physicians and 26 residents completed the survey. Among six personal priorities, sleep ranked fourth behind family, work, and leisure. 75% stated poor sleep impedes effectiveness as a physician while 53% noted difficulty falling asleep before a night shift. In the last three months, 39% of subjects forgot driving home from a shift, and 34% had fallen asleep while driving. 34% used medications to assist with sleep (including melatonin (36%), alcohol (27%), and prescription drugs (9%)). Most providers attested to phone (88%) and television exposure (69%) immediately prior to goal sleep onset. Conclusion. Despite sleep being identified as a priority among EM physicians, deleterious habits remain. Poor sleep affects perceived effectiveness and personal safety, as evidenced by a significant portion of providers falling asleep on the commute home. Night shift is the chief obstacle to optimal sleep hygiene.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jan 2018 08:06:06 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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