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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 339 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 197)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Critical Care Research and Practice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.499
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 12  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-1305 - ISSN (Online) 2090-1313
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Corrigendum to “Factors Associated with the Incidence and Severity of
           New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Adult Critically Ill Patients”

    • PubDate: Tue, 29 Jan 2019 08:05:22 +000
       
  • Anemia, Blood Transfusion, and Filter Life Span in Critically Ill Patients
           Requiring Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Acute Kidney Injury: A
           Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Filter clotting is frequent during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), which increases anemia risk. We studied anemia and blood transfusion in critically ill patients requiring CRRT for acute kidney injury and assessed the relationship between CRRT filter life span and PRBC transfusion. Methods. A case-control study was conducted at a tertiary-care intensive care unit (ICU) where CRRT cases were matched with controls for age, gender, admission category, and severity of illness. Daily hemoglobin levels, blood transfusions, and life span of CRRT filter were noted. CCRT patients were categorized according to the median of the filter life span (20 hours). Results. Ninety-five cases and 102 controls were enrolled. The hemoglobin level on admission was similar in the two groups, yet cases had significantly lower hemoglobin levels than controls (72.8 ± 15.3 versus 82.5 ± 20.7 g/L, ) during ICU stay. Anemia
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Jan 2019 13:05:06 +000
       
  • Procalcitonin Value Is an Early Prognostic Factor Related to Mortality in
           Admission to Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Introduction. Procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are already known predictive markers in serious bacterial infections, and it is emphasized that these biomarkers can be used as a marker of increased mortality in critically ill patients. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the initial serum PCT and CRP levels on the outcome of patients in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and find out if these biomarkers can be used to predict mortality. Materials and Methods. The relationship between the initial serum PCT and CRP levels and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) support, inotropic drug need, acute renal kidney injury (AKI), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), mortality, and hospitalization period was investigated retrospectively. Results. In total, 418 suitable patients (226 males and 192 females) were included in the study. Age distributions of patients ranged from 1 month to 17 years. There was a statistically significant relationship between PCT levels in the first biochemical analysis performed during admission and MV support, inotropic drug use, mortality, ARF, hospitalization in the intensive care unit, CRRT and blood component transfusion. There was a statistically significant relationship between CRP levels and MV support, NIV, inotropic drug use, mortality, AKI, hospitalization in the intensive care unit, CRRT, and blood component transfusion. Conclusion. We suggest that the initial PCT and CRP levels during admission can be used to predict the outcome of patients in PICU.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Support Surfaces on the Incidence of Pressure Injuries in
           Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Purpose. To analyze whether a viscoelastic mattress support surface can reduce the incidence of stage 2 pressure injuries compared to a standard hospital mattress with pyramidal overlay in critically ill patients. Method. A randomized clinical trial with intention-to-treat analysis was carried out recruiting patients with Braden scale ≤14 on intensive care unit admission from April 2016 to April 2017. Patients were allocated into two groups: intervention group (viscoelastic mattress) and control group (standard mattress with pyramidal overlay). The level of significance adopted was 5%. Results. A total of 62 patients were included in the study. There was a predominance of males (53%) and the mean age was 67.9 (SD 18.8) years. There were no differences in clinical or severity characteristics between the patients in the control group and the intervention group. Pressure injuries occurred in 35 patients, with a median time of 7 days (ITQ 4–10) from admission. The frequency of pressure injuries was higher in the control group (80.6%) compared to the intervention group (32.2%; ).Conclusions. Viscoelastic support surfaces reduced the incidence of pressure injuries in moderate or higher risk critically ill patients when compared to pyramidal support surfaces.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Ex Vivo Evaluation of Secretion-Clearing Device in Reducing Airway
           Resistance within Endotracheal Tubes

    • Abstract: Background. Secretions accumulate in endotracheal tubes’ (ETT) lumens upon their placement in patients. The secretions impact airway resistance and pressure. Secretions potentiate prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Our primary objective in this study was to evaluate an ETT-clearing device (ETT-CD) in its ability to remove secretions from ex vivo ETT lumens. Methods. Forty ETTs, obtained from intensive care patients at extubation, were individually placed into a ventilator field performance testing simulator at 37°C. The pressure drop through the ETTs was measured at a flow rate of 60 L/min before and after cleaning with the ETT-CD and compared with unused, similarly sized controls tubes. The ETT-CD was inserted into an ETT until the tip reached Murphy’s eye (hole in the side) of the ETT. The wiper, set back from the tip, was expanded by ETT-CD handle activation. As the ETT-CD was removed, the distal wiper extracted secretions from the ETT lumen. Results. Forty ETTs were tested with nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Before being cleared with the ETT-CD, the median pressure drop in the extubated 7.5 mm ETTs was 17.8 cm H2O; after ETT-CD use, it was 12.3. The cleared ETTs were significantly improved over the ETTs before being cleared (); however, there remained a significant difference between the cleared ETTs and the control tubes (), indicating the clearing was not to the level of an unused ETT. Similar results were determined for the 8.0 mm ETTs. Conclusions. For the 7.5 mm and the 8.0 mm EETs, the ETT-CD improved effective patency of the ETTs over the uncleared ETTs, independent of occlusion location, tube size, or length of tube. However, there remained a significant difference between the cleared tubes and controls.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role of Antifungals in Pediatric Critical Care Invasive Fungal
           Infections

    • Abstract: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have seen considerable increase in pediatric intensive care units over the past several decades. IFIs are predominantly caused by Candida species, and candidemia is the third most common cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs) in children. IFIs are opportunistic infections that affect pediatric patients in critical care resulting in significant morbidity and mortality especially in those with a compromised immune system. IFIs are the leading cause of death in children with comorbidities such as immunosuppression, and pediatric ICU admission has been shown to be an independent risk factor for mortality. Management of IFI and fungal sepsis is broad and encompasses several key components that include prompt initiation of therapy and rapid source identification and control. This study reviews important antifungals in the pediatric critical care setting including the pharmacologic properties, antifungal spectrum, adverse effects, and clinical uses of agents belonging to the four major classes of antifungals—the polyenes, azoles, echinocandins, and pyrimidine analogue flucytosine. The polyenes and azoles are the most often used classes of antifungals. The echinocandins are a relatively newer class of antifungal agents that offer excellent Candida activity and are currently recommended as the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Current Evidence for the Use of Smoflipid® Emulsion in Critical Care
           Patients for Parenteral Nutrition

    • Abstract: There are strong data showing that malnutrition is highly prevalent in intensive care unit patients (20–50% in the worldwide), presenting a negative accumulated body energy balance. This results in an increased mortality, infections, and hospital length stay with high costs associated with the total treatment. Parenteral nutrition is the first option when the patient’s physical condition is not suitable for oral nutrient intake. It is composed essentially by lipids as an energy source, metabolic, and structural function. However, these patients also require a mixture of essential and nonessential fatty acids (SMOF emulsions) to supply not only energy needs but also restore immunological, anti-inflammatory, and proregenerative functions. A revision of the safety and efficacy of Smoflipid® in patients requiring long-term parenteral nutrition was discussed here. Although controversial data are available indicating the contraindications or effectiveness of its use, most of studies presented indicate favorable benefits associated with improved clinical outcomes. The reported roles of this supplementation include positive immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects, positive impact in liver function, reduction of hospital stay, and nosocomial infections as additional contributions to its energetic role, which in many cases results in reduced total costs per patient. Finally, many authors propose that the use of Smoflipid® should become a gold standard of parenteral nutrition in intensive unit care patients and that the costs associated with this supplement should not be limiting for its use, not only to improve the clinical outcome but also to reduce the treatment costs.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Emerging Evidence concerning the Role of Sirtuins in Sepsis

    • Abstract: Sepsis, a dysregulated host response to infection, is a major public health concern. Though experimental and clinical studies relating to sepsis are increasing, the mechanism of sepsis is not completely understood. To date, numerous studies have shown that sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog), which belong to the class III histone deacetylases, may have a varied, or even opposite, effect in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Notably, downstream mechanisms of sirtuins are not fully understood. The sirtuin family consists of sirtuins 1–7; among them, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is the most studied one, during the development of sepsis. Furthermore, other sirtuin members are also confirmed to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory or metabolic signaling following sepsis. In addition, sirtuins may interact with each other to form a precise regulatory mechanism in different phases of sepsis. Therefore, in this review, by accumulating data from PubMed, we intend to explain the role of sirtuin in sepsis, which we hope will pave the way for further experimental study and the potential future clinical applications of sirtuins.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Nov 2018 06:18:25 +000
       
  • Gait Speed Is Not Associated with Vasogenic Shock or Cardiogenic Shock
           following Cardiac Surgery, but Is Associated with Increased Hospital
           Length of Stay

    • Abstract: Objective. Frailty has been associated with adverse outcomes following cardiac surgery. Gait speed has been validated as a marker of frailty. Slow gait speed has been found to be associated with mortality after cardiac surgery. However, it is unknown why slow gait speed predisposes to cardiac surgical mortality. Design. A retrospective analysis. Participants. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery who had a 5-meter walk test performed preoperatively ( of 1735 total surgical patients) from January 2013 to March 2017. Setting. A tertiary care academic hospital. Measurements and main results. Gait speeds were stratified by tertiles: 1 m/s. There was no difference in the incidence of cardiogenic or vasogenic shock when comparing the gait speed groups. Total hospital length of stay was significantly different among the gait speed groups (). Also, patients in the slowest gait speed tertile had a significant association with need for a postoperative permanent pacemaker ().Conclusion. There was no significant association between gait speed and the incidence of cardiogenic or vasogenic shock after cardiac surgery. Gait speed was associated with increased hospital length of stay and need for a permanent pacemaker after cardiac surgery.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 08:22:19 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Temporal Distribution of Extrasystoles in Septic ICU
           Patients: The Feasibility of Predicting Fluid Responsiveness Using
           Extrasystoles

    • Abstract: Background. Extrasystoles may be useful for predicting the response to fluid therapy in hemodynamically unstable patients but their prevalence is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the availability of extrasystoles in intensive care unit patients diagnosed with sepsis. The study aim was not to validate the fluid responsiveness prediction ability of extrasystoles. Methods. Twenty-four-hour ECG recordings from a convenience sample of 50 patients diagnosed with sepsis were extracted from the MIMIC-II waveform database, and ECGs were visually examined for correct QRS complex detection. Custom-made algorithms identified potential extrasystoles based on RR intervals. Two raters visually confirmed or rejected the potential extrasystoles and then classified them as ventricular, supraventricular, or unknown origin. Extrasystole availability was calculated as extrasystolic coverage for each 24 h ECG recording, that is, the percentage of the 24 h recording where an extrasystole had occurred in the preceding 30 minutes. Results. Mean extrasystolic coverage was 53.3% (confidence interval: [42.8; 63.6]%) and ventricular extrasystolic coverage was 21.4 [13.5; 29.8]%. Interrater reliability was strong for confirming/rejecting extrasystoles. Conclusions. Extrasystoles are available for fluid responsiveness prediction in septic patients in about half of the time. With this extrasystolic availability, we believe the method to be considered for clinical use, provided that future studies validate the method’s fluid responsiveness prediction ability.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Creatinine- and Cystatin C-Based Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease and
           Acute Kidney Disease in AKI Survivors

    • Abstract: Background. Renal dysfunction after acute kidney injury (AKI) is common, potentially modifiable, but poorly understood. Acute kidney disease (AKD) describes renal dysfunction 7 to 90 days after AKI and is determined by percentage change in creatinine from baseline. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 persisting for more than 90 days. We compared CKD incidence using both creatinine- and cystatin C-based GFR with AKD incidence at 90 days in AKI survivors. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted in a Swedish intensive care unit (ICU) between 2008 and 2010. We included AKI patients alive at 90 days. We excluded patients 100 years, death before follow-up, CKD prior to admission, and follow-up before 60 days or beyond 270 days. Creatinine and cystatin C were measured at 90 days and converted to eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2). Results. We included 274 patients. At 90-day follow-up, the median creatinine eGFR (MDRD) was 81.6 (IQR 58.6–106.8) and median cystatin C eGFR was 51.5 (IQR 35.8–70.7). The incidence of CKD (eGFR 
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Institutional Incidence of Severe tPA-Induced Angioedema in Ischemic
           Cerebral Vascular Accidents

    • Abstract: Introduction. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is commonly used in ischemic cerebral vascular accidents (CVAs). tPA is generally well tolerated; however, orolingual angioedema is a well-documented adverse effect. Angioedema is generally mild, transient, and unilateral but can manifest as severe, life-threatening upper airway obstruction requiring intubation. Reported incidence for all severities ranges from one to five percent, whereas reported incidence of severe cases ranges from 0.18 to 1 percent of patients receiving tPA for ischemic CVA. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and middle cerebral artery distribution have been associated with a higher risk of developing angioedema. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of severe tPA-induced angioedema and its effects on length of stay (LOS) and death. Methods. A retrospective chart review of patients receiving tPA for ischemic CVA from January 2014 through December 2016 was conducted at a large tertiary center with Comprehensive Stroke Center designation. Subjects were eighteen or older. Baseline demographics and clinical data were collected. Results. 147 patients were included with four developing severe angioedema due to tPA resulting in an incidence of 2.72%. All four were female. The median LOS was thirty days for patients with angioedema and twelve days for those without. The survival probability was higher in the angioedema group and mean time to death was twenty-two days in the angioedema group and twenty-one days in the nonangioedema group. Twenty-five patients died, one from the angioedema group. ACE inhibitor use was found to have an OR of 7.72. Conclusion. This study found a higher incidence of severe angioedema than that reported. Development of severe angioedema increased length of stay but was not shown to worsen outcomes in regards to death. Consistent with previous studies, ACE inhibitor use was associated with a higher risk of developing angioedema.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Outcome in Patients with Isolated Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain
           Injury

    • Abstract: Introduction. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major cause of death. Withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment (WLST) can be initiated if there is little anticipated chance of recovery to an acceptable quality of life. The aim of this study was firstly to investigate WLST rates in patients with moderate to severe isolated TBI and secondly to assess outcome data in the survivor group. Material and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was performed. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with moderate or severe isolated TBI admitted to the ICU of a single academic hospital between 2011 and 2015 were included. Exclusion criteria were isolated spinal cord injury and referrals to and from other hospitals. Gathered data included demographics, mortality, cause of death, WLST, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score after three months. Good functional outcome was defined as GOS > 3. Results. Of 367 patients, 179 patients were included after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. 55 died during admission (33%), of whom 45 (82%) after WLST. Patients undergoing WLST were older, had worse neurological performance at presentation, and had more radiological abnormalities than patients without WLST. The decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment was made on the day of admission in 40% of patients. In 33% of these patients, this decision was made while the patient was in the Emergency Department. 71% of survivors had a good functional outcome after three months. No patient left hospital with an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or suffered from UWS after three months. One patient died within three months of discharge. Conclusion. In-hospital mortality in isolated brain injured patients was 33%. The vast majority died after a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. None of the patients were discharged with an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome.
      PubDate: Sun, 23 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Characteristics, Outcomes, and Cost Patterns of High-Cost Patients in the
           Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Background. ICU care is costly, and there is a large variation in cost among patients. Methods. This is an observational study conducted at two ICUs in an academic centre. We compared the demographics, clinical data, and outcomes of the highest decile of patients by total costs, to the rest of the population. Results. A total of 7,849 patients were included. The high-cost group had a longer median ICU length of stay (26 versus 4 days, ) and amounted to 49% of total costs. In-hospital mortality was lower in the high-cost group (21.1% versus 28.4%, ). Fewer high-cost patients were discharged home (23.9% versus 45.2%, ), and a large proportion were transferred to long-term care (35.1% versus 12.1%, ). Patients with younger age or a diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage, acute respiratory failure, or complications of procedures were more likely to be high cost. Conclusions. High-cost users utilized half of the total costs. While cost is associated with LOS, other drivers include younger age or admission for respiratory failure, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or after a procedural complication. Cost-reduction interventions should incorporate strategies to optimize critical care use among these patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Emergency Laparotomy in the Critically Ill: Futility at the Bedside

    • Abstract: Background. Critically ill patients are often evaluated for an intra-abdominal catastrophe. In the absence of a preoperative diagnosis, abdominal exploration may be offered despite desperate circumstances. We hypothesize that (1) abdominal exploration for such patients is associated with a high mortality and (2) commonly obtained physiologic measures at laparotomy anticipate mortality. Methods. All acute care surgery (ACS) patients undergoing emergency laparotomy at a quaternary referral center during a 3-year period were reviewed. Inclusion was defined by emergency laparotomy in the operating room (OR) in a patient with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥4 or bedside laparotomy in the ICU (BSL). Mortality was the primary endpoint and was stratified by demographics, admitting service, surgical findings, and physiology. Comparisons between OR and BSL were by Fisher’s exact and Mann–Whitney tests. Results. 144 patients underwent emergency laparotomy (45 BSL vs. 99 OR). Overall mortality was 55.6% (77.8% BSL vs. 45.5% OR; ). Mortality by admitting service was cardiac 71.4% (), medical 70% (), ACS 42% (), and other 36.4% () services. Preoperative lactate levels were higher in nonsurvivors (2.7 vs. 8.5 mmol/L, ), as was vasopressor use (62.5% vs. 97.5%, ), acute kidney injury (51.6% vs. 72.5%, ), leukocytosis (53.1% vs. 71.3%, ), and anemia (45.3% vs. 71.3%, ). The presence of any identifiable abdominal pathology established a 90% mortality rate. Conclusions. The need for BSL portends an extremely high mortality rate and is likely useful in preintervention counselling. Emergency OR laparotomy leads to mortality in nearly half of such patients and is anticipatable based on concurrent abnormal physiology.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Buprenorphine versus Morphine in Paediatric Acute Pain: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction. In lab-based studies, buprenorphine appears to have a ceiling effect on respiratory depression but not on analgesia. There is increasing evidence in adult patients that buprenorphine has no ceiling effect on analgesia or side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and adverse effects of buprenorphine versus morphine in paediatric acute pain. Methods. A systematic review of five databases was performed until May 2018. Only randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion. The outcomes of interest included pain, respiratory depression, nausea, sedation, dizziness, and pruritus. Results. Four randomised controlled trials () were included. The only outcome measuring analgesic efficacy was time to breakthrough analgesia. Buprenorphine had a significant increase in time to breakthrough analgesia by 114.98 minutes compared to morphine (95% CI = 42.94 to 187.01; I2 = 0; ). There was no significant difference in the rates of adverse effects. Conclusions. Buprenorphine provided a longer duration of analgesia than morphine. This in combination with its unique sublingual preparation could prove particularly advantageous in the paediatric population. The studies included are likely underpowered to detect differences in the incidence of adverse effects; therefore, the same precautions should be taken as with any other opioid.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Aug 2018 08:36:42 +000
       
  • Predictors of Major Depressive Disorder following Intensive Care of
           Chronically Critically Ill Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common condition following treatment in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Long-term data on MDD in chronically critically ill (CCI) patients are scarce. Hence, the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency and predictors of MDD after intensive care of CCI patients. Materials and Methods. In a prospective cohort study, patients with long-term mechanical ventilation requirements () were assessed with respect to a diagnosis of MDD, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, three and six months after the transfer from acute ICU to post-acute ICU. Sociodemographic, psychological, and clinical risk factors with values ≤ 0.1 were identified in a univariate logistic regression analysis and entered in a multivariable logistic regression model. A mediator analysis was run using the bootstrapping method, testing the mediating effect of perceived helplessness during the ICU stay, between the recalled traumatic experience from the ICU and a post-ICU MDD. Results. 17.6% () of the patients showed a full- or subsyndromal MDD. Perceived helplessness, recalled experiences of a traumatic event from the ICU, symptoms of acute stress disorder, and the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after ICU could be identified as significant predictors of MDD. In a mediator analysis, perceived helplessness could be proved as a mediator. Conclusions. Every fifth CCI patient suffers from MDD up to six months after being discharged from ICU. Particularly, perceived helplessness during the ICU stay seems to mainly affect the long-term evolvement of MDD. CCI patients with symptoms of acute stress disorder/PTSD should also be screened for MDD.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Updates in Neurocritical Care

    • PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Proposal for an Intermediate Care Unit-Quality Measurement Framework

    • Abstract: Rationale, Aims, and Objectives. The Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU) is a hospital unit which is logistically situated between the hospital ward and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). There is debate regarding the value of the IMCU. Understanding its value is compromised by the lack of adequate quality indicators. Therefore, this study identifies currently used IMCU indicators and evaluates their usefulness. Methods. Through a systematic literature search, currently used quality indicators were identified and evaluated for their importance using a proposed IMCU-specific quality measurement framework. Results. From 4034 titles and abstracts, 168 articles were selected for full-text review. Of these, 22 articles were included, which reported IMCU quality at the level of the IMCU (n = 12), the ICU (n = 5), both IMCU and ICU (n = 3) or hospital level (n = 2). At the IMCU, the IMCU mortality (n = 16), discharge-to-ICU rate (n = 7), in-hospital IMCU mortality (n = 7), and length of stay (n = 6) were most frequently reported. Three studies compared the effect of different structures of the IMCU on its utilization or hospital outcome. Conclusions. Current focus in IMCU quality research is towards measuring quality at the IMCU itself. Since the influence of the structure of IMCUs on its utilization and its effects on hospital outcome are only rarely investigated, attention should shift towards these important issues in further research. The proposed IMCU quality measurement framework can thereby serve as a helpful tool.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Improved Outcomes following the Establishment of a Neurocritical Care Unit
           in Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Background. Dedicated neurocritical care units have dramatically improved the management and outcome following brain injury worldwide. Aim. This is the first study in the Middle East to evaluate the clinical impact of a neurocritical care unit (NCCU) launched within the diverse clinical setting of a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU). Design and Methods. A retrospective before and after cohort study comparing the outcomes of neurologically injured patients. Group one met criteria for NCCU admission but were admitted to the general ICU as the NCCU was not yet operational (group 1). Group two were subsequently admitted thereafter to the NCCU once it had opened (group 2). The primary outcome was all-cause ICU and hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were ICU length of stay (LOS), predictors of ICU and hospital discharge, ICU discharge Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), frequency of tracheostomies, ICP monitoring, and operative interventions. Results. Admission to NCCU was a significant predictor of increased hospital discharge with an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% CI: 1.3–4.1; ). Group 2 (n = 208 patients) compared to Group 1 (n = 364 patients) had a significantly lower ICU LOS (15 versus 21.4 days). Group 2 also had lower ICU and hospital mortality rates (5.3% versus 10.2% and 9.1% versus 19.5%, respectively; all ). Group 2 patients had higher discharge GCS and underwent fewer tracheostomies but more interventional procedures (all ). Conclusion. Admission to NCCU, within a polyvalent Middle Eastern ICU, was associated with significantly decreased mortality and increased hospital discharge.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Quadriceps and
           Diaphragm in Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. Deep and respiratory muscle disorders are commonly observed in critically ill patients. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is an alternative to mobilize and to exercise that does not require active patient participation and can be used on bedridden patients. Objective. Evaluate the effectiveness of the NMES therapy in quadriceps versus diaphragm subjects in mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods. Sixty-seven subjects in MV were included, divided into 3 groups: (a) control group (CG, ), (b) stimulation of quadriceps (quadriceps group–QG, ), and (c) stimulation of diaphragm (diaphragm group–DG, ). The QG and DG patients received consecutive daily electrical stimulation sessions at specific points from the first day of randomization until ICU discharge. Respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, MV time, length of hospitalization, and functional independence score (the Functional Status Score-ICU) were recorded. Results. There were studied (QG), (DG), and (CG) patients. Peripheral muscle strength improved significantly in the QG (). Functional independence at ICU discharge was significantly better in QG (), and the QG presented a better Barthel Index compared to DG and CG () and also presented better FSS compared to CG (). Conclusions. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps had best outcomes for peripheral muscle strength compared with controls or electrical stimulation of diaphragm among mechanically ventilated critically ill subjects and promoted functional independence and decreased length of hospitalization.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Reversal Strategies for Intracranial Hemorrhage Related to Direct Oral
           Anticoagulant Medications

    • Abstract: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are a new class of anticoagulants that directly inhibit either thrombin or factor Xa in the coagulation cascade. They are being increasingly used instead of warfarin or other vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Adverse side effects of DOACs may result in hemorrhagic complications, including life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), though to a much lesser degree than VKAs. Currently there are relatively limited indications for DOACS but their usage is certain to expand with the availability of their respective specific reversal agents. Currently, only idarucizumab (antidote for dabigatran) has been United States Food and Drug Administration- (FDA-) approved, but others (andexanet-α and ciraparantag) may be approved in near future, and the development and availability of such reversal agents have the potential to dramatically change the current anticoagulant use by providing reversal of multiple oral anticoagulants. Until all the DOACs have FDA-approved reversal agents, the treatment of the dreaded side effects of bleeding is challenging. This article is an attempt to provide an overview of the management of hemorrhage, especially ICH, related to DOAC use.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Update in the Early Management and Reperfusion Strategies of Patients with
           Acute Ischemic Stroke

    • Abstract: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains a leading cause of death and long-term disability. The paradigms on prehospital care, reperfusion therapies, and postreperfusion management of patients with AIS continue to evolve. After the publication of pivotal clinical trials, endovascular thrombectomy has become part of the standard of care in selected cases of AIS since 2015. New stroke guidelines have been recently published, and the time window for mechanical thrombectomy has now been extended up to 24 hours. This review aims to provide a focused up-to-date review for the early management of adult patients with AIS and introduce the new upcoming areas of ongoing research.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Combination of APACHE Scoring Systems with Adductor Pollicis Muscle
           Thickness for the Prediction of Mortality in Patients Who Spend More Than
           One Day in the Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Background. The objective of the present study was to compare the ability of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) scoring systems with the combination of an anthropometric variable score “adductor pollicis muscle (APM) thickness” to the APACHE systems in predicting mortality in the intensive care unit. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted with the APM thickness in the dominant hand, and APACHE II and III scores were measured for each patient upon admission. Given scores for the APM thickness were added to APACHE score systems to make two composite scores of APACHE II-APM and APACHE III-APM. The accuracy of the two composite models and APACHE II and III systems in predicting mortality of patients was compared using the area under the ROC curve. Results. Three hundred and four patients with the mean age of 54.75 ± 18.28 years were studied, of which 96 (31.57%) patients died. Median (interquartile range) of APACHE II and III scores was 15 (12–20) and 47 (33–66), respectively. Median (interquartile range) of APM thickness was 15 (12–17) mm, respectively. The area under the ROC curves for the prediction of mortality was 0.771 (95% CI: 0.715–0.827), 0.802 (95% CI: 0.751–0.854), 0.851 (95% CI: 0.807–0.896), and 0.865 (95% CI: 0.822–0.908) for APACHE II, APACHE III, APACHE II-APM, and APACHE III-APM, respectively. Conclusion. Although improvements in the area under ROC curves were not statistically significant when the APM thickness added to the APACHE systems, but the numerical value added to AUCs are considerable.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Exploring Factors Affecting the Emergency Specialists’ Decision-Making
           in Case of Emergencies in Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction. Appropriate decision-making is essential in emergency situations; however, little information is available on how emergency decision-makers decide on the emergency status of the patients shifted to the emergency department of the hospital. This study aimed at explaining the factors that influence the emergency specialists’ decision-making in case of emergency conditions in patients. Methods. This study was carried out with a qualitative content analysis approach. The participants were selected based on purposive sampling by the emergency specialists. The data were collected through semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the method proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. Results. The core theme of the study was “efforts to perceive the acute health threats of the patient.” This theme was derived from the main classes, including “the identification of the acute threats based on the patient’s condition” and “the identification of the acute threats based on peripheral conditions.” Conclusions. The conditions governing the decision-making process about patients in the emergency department differ from the conditions in other health-care departments at hospitals. Emergency specialists may have several approaches to decide about the patients’ emergency conditions. Therefore, notably, the emergency specialists’ working conditions and the others’ expectations from these specialists should be considered.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Design and Deployment of a Pediatric Cardiac Arrest Surveillance System

    • Abstract: Objective. We aimed to increase detection of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events and collection of physiologic and performance data for use in quality improvement (QI) efforts. Materials and Methods. We developed a workflow-driven surveillance system that leveraged organizational information technology systems to trigger CPR detection and analysis processes. We characterized detection by notification source, type, location, and year, and compared it to previous methods of detection. Results. From 1/1/2013 through 12/31/2015, there were 2,986 unique notifications associated with 2,145 events, 317 requiring CPR. PICU and PEDS-ED accounted for 65% of CPR events, whereas floor care areas were responsible for only 3% of events. 100% of PEDS-OR and >70% of PICU CPR events would not have been included in QI efforts. Performance data from both defibrillator and bedside monitor increased annually. (2013: 1%; 2014: 18%; 2015: 27%). Discussion. After deployment of this system, detection has increased ∼9-fold and performance data collection increased annually. Had the system not been deployed, 100% of PEDS-OR and 50–70% of PICU, NICU, and PEDS-ED events would have been missed. Conclusion. By leveraging hospital information technology and medical device data, identification of pediatric cardiac arrest with an associated increased capture in the proportion of objective performance data is possible.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 06:25:56 +000
       
  • Clinical Utility of a Structured Program to Reduce the Risk of
           Health-Related Quality of Life Impairment after Discharge from Intensive
           Care Unit: A Real-World Experience

    • Abstract: Background. Postdischarge deterioration in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a major clinical issue for patients after an intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. A significant proportion of these patients is known to develop a progressive worsening of mental and physical performance—the so-called post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). Aim. We aimed at exploring the effects of a structured program for the management of ICU patients, aimed at improving postdischarge HRQoL and reducing the risk of PICS. Methods. A total of 159 patients hospitalized in our ICU with a length of stay >72 hours were enrolled in an institutional management protocol including specific recommendations: adequate sedation and analgesia protocols, to ensure a valid delirium prevention strategy, and to provide a planned midterm after discharge. The main endpoint was the occurrence of PICS at the 6-month follow-up visitation, defined as an abnormal physical or mental score in the SF-12 questionnaire in the presence of clinical evidence of new or worsening impairment in physical, cognitive, or mental health status. An additional questionnaire was administered, to assess the effects of ICU-related memories. Results. Most patients positively rated their health at the 6-month follow-up and had no significant impairment in physical or mental health status. The mean normalized values of the physical and mental component of the SF-12 score were 46 ± 11 and 48 ± 14, suggesting a normal physical and mental health status in most patients. Twenty-nine patients (18.2%) showed evidence of PICS. Similar good results were found by the questionnaire of memories. In multivariable analysis, no variable was found to predict the risk of PICS in our population. Conclusion. In this real-world analysis that lacks a control group, patients who used a program aimed at minimizing the risk of HRQoL deterioration and PICS reported a good perception of their state of health with a relatively low prevalence of PICS.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 07:17:26 +000
       
  • Updates in Refractory Status Epilepticus

    • Abstract: Refractory status epilepticus is defined as persistent seizures despite appropriate use of two intravenous medications, one of which is a benzodiazepine. It can be seen in up to 40% of cases of status epilepticus with an acute symptomatic etiology as the most likely cause. New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently coined term for refractory status epilepticus where no apparent cause is found after initial testing. A large proportion of NORSE cases are eventually found to have an autoimmune etiology needing immunomodulatory treatment. Management of refractory status epilepticus involves treatment of an underlying etiology in addition to intravenous anesthetics and antiepileptic drugs. Alternative treatment options including diet therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, and surgical resection in case of a focal lesion should be considered. Short-term and long-term outcomes tend to be poor with significant morbidity and mortality with only one-third of patients reaching baseline neurological status.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • New Optic Nerve Sonography Quality Criteria in the Diagnostic Evaluation
           of Traumatic Brain Injury

    • Abstract: Background. New sonographic quality criteria to optimize optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements were suggested. The latter were correlated to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Aim. We investigated whether ONSD measurements were correlated to simultaneous ICP measurements in severe TBI. Methods. Forty patients with severe TBI (Marshall Scale ≥II and GCS ≤8) participated in the study. All patients had an intraparenchymal ICP catheter inserted, while ONSD was measured bilaterally, upon admission and over the next 48 hours, based on the new sonographic criteria. A total of 400 ONSD measurements were performed, while mean ONSD values of both eyes were used in the analysis. Results. ONSD measurements were strongly correlated to ICP values (). Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that the ONSD cutoff value for predicting elevated ICP was 6.4 mm when using the mean of both eyes (AUC = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.95; sensitivity = 85.3%, specificity = 82.6%). Linear regression analysis nested models revealed that sex () and height () were significant predictors of ONSD values. Conclusion. When applying the new sonographic quality criteria, ONSD is strongly correlated to ICP in severe TBI. Whether to use such criteria to monitor ONSD as a proxy for ICP trend in TBI remains to be further explored.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Child Psychiatry Engagement in the Management of Delirium in Critically
           Ill Children

    • Abstract: Objectives. To characterize the engagement of child psychiatry by pediatric intensivists in cases of suspected delirium in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) prior to implementation of a delirium management algorithm with regards to recommendations, antipsychotic prescribing, and follow-up after PICU discharge. Design. Retrospective chart review. Setting. Single-center tertiary PICU. Subjects. Sixteen patients who received child psychiatry consultation for suspected delirium while in the PICU. Measurements and Main Results. Child psychiatry was consulted for 50 patients in the PICU during the 2-year period. Sixteen (32%) of these consultations were for delirium, and 15 (94%) of these patients were diagnosed with hyperactive delirium. Eighty-one percent of the patients were prescribed an antipsychotic, and over half of these patients had been initiated on the antipsychotic prior to child psychiatry consultation. All patients who transitioned from the PICU to the general floor received child psychiatry follow-up.Conclusions. Child psychiatry can play an integral role in collaborative management of PICU delirium. Continuity of care with child psychiatry after transfer or discharge is particularly important given the prevalence of antipsychotic use. Furthermore, the results of this retrospective study would suggest that staff education surrounding the delirium screening tool increased awareness of delirium, resulting in an increase in child psychiatry consultations.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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