Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Critical Care Research and Practice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.499
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-1305 - ISSN (Online) 2090-1313
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • How Much PEEP Does High Flow Deliver via Tracheostomy' A Literature
           Review and Benchtop Experiment

    • Abstract: Background. High flow tracheostomy (HFT) is a commonly used weaning and humidification strategy for tracheostomised patients, but little is known as to how much PEEP or mechanical benefit it offers. Patient anatomy and device characteristics differentiate it from high flow nasal cannula and the physiological effects observed. Objectives. (1) To review the available literature on the effects of HFT on airway pressure and indices of gas exchange. (2) To quantify PEEP generated by a HFT  circuit. Methods. A randomised benchtop experiment was conducted, with a size 8 uncuffed Portex tracheostomy connected to an Optiflow™ with Airvo 2™ humidifier system. The tracheostomy tube was partially immersed in water to give rise to a column of water within the inner surface of the tube. An air fluid interface was generated with flows of 40 L/min, 50 L/min, and 60 L/min. The amount of potential PEEP (pPEEP) generated was determined by the distance the water column was pushed downward by the flow delivered. Findings. Overall 40 L/min, 50 L/min, and 60 L/min provided pPEEP of approximately 0.3 cmH2O, 0.5 cmH2O, and 0.9 cmH2O, respectively. There was a statistically significant change in pPEEP with change in flows from 40–60 L/min with an average change in pPEEP of 0.25–0.35 cmH2O per 10 L/min flow ( value
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jan 2021 12:35:01 +000
  • A Retrospective Analysis of Thromboembolic Phenomena in Mechanically
           Ventilated Patients with COVID-19

    • Abstract: Background. Recent studies have shown an increased prevalence of thromboembolic disease in critically ill patients with the novel SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). However, the use of enhanced anticoagulation therapy in these patients remains controversial. Objectives. To determine the incidence of thromboembolic phenomena (TEP) and hemorrhagic events (HEs) in intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients. Methods. One hundred and sixty ICU patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. Clinical examination results, laboratory data, and imaging studies (computed tomography/Doppler ultrasound scans) for these patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Outcome measures including days on mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay, and day-28 mortality were recorded. Results. Sixty patients (37.5%) developed TEP including thirty patients with deep vein thrombosis, 55 patients with pulmonary embolism, and 7 patients with arterial thromboembolism. Cardiac arrhythmias, lymphocytopenia, and increased D-dimers were more frequently observed in the TEP group compared to the non-TEP group of patients (all ). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a cutoff D-dimer level of 3.0 μg/mL for predicting PE were 74.5%, 95.1%, 86.8%, and 91.9%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced HEs, which were more frequently observed in the TEP group (). Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher in the TEP group (60%) compared to the non-TEP group (30%) of patients ().Conclusions. The rates of TEP and HEs in mechanically ventilated critically ill COVID-19 patients were 37. 5% and 8.1%. Twenty-eight-day mortality was higher in the TEP group (60%) compared to the non-TEP group (30%) of patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jan 2021 09:50:00 +000
  • Effect of Training Eye Care Clinical Guideline for ICU Patients on
           Clinical Competence of Eye Care in Nurses

    • Abstract: Introduction. Sight is one of the most important and vital human senses. Lack of proper eye care (EC) in anesthetized patients can lead to serious ocular complications and even vision loss. Insufficient knowledge, attitude, and skills of nurses are considered as a barrier to providing EC in the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of training EC clinical practice guidelines for ICU patients on nurses’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of EC. Methods. This was an interventional study with a pre-post design performed on 60 ICU nurses. For the experimental group, EC clinical guideline training was performed for anesthetized patients in three sessions. The data collection tool included nurses’ clinical competence of the EC questionnaire with a possible score range of 0–86. This tool consists of three domains, including knowledge (0–18), attitude (0–28), and practice (0–40), which was completed in a self-assessment manner before and three months after the training program. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS16. Findings. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice after the intervention in the experimental and control groups were 15.03 ± 2.72 and 11.11 ± 3.50, 25.65 ± 3.47 and 22.07 ± 3.08, and 33.88 ± 4.14 and 28.5 ± 55.08, respectively, which were statistically significant (). Also, the total score of clinical competence of EC after the intervention in the experimental and control groups was 74.56 ± 7.93 and 61.74 ± 9.66, which showed a significant difference ().Conclusion. Training nurses based on EC clinical guidelines for anesthetized patients can improve the knowledge, attitude, and practice of ICU nurses. Evidence-based EC practice requires continuous training based on clinical guidelines and EC practice monitoring by nursing managers according to EC clinical guideline for an anesthetized patient.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jan 2021 09:35:00 +000
  • Critical Incident Disclosing Behaviors and Associated Factors among Nurses
           Working in Amhara Region Referral Hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Though the goal of healthcare institutions is patient safety, errors have been committed by healthcare providers. Incident reporting behavior enhances patient safety by reducing the repeated occurrence of errors in the health facility. Therefore, this study aims to identify incident disclosing behaviors and associated factors among nurses working in referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among randomly selected 319 nurses working in referral hospitals of Amhara region from March 1–30, 2019. Data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Data were coded and entered into EpiData 4.2 software and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25 for analysis. All variables with value
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Jan 2021 14:05:00 +000
  • Identification of the Range of Nursing Skills Used to Provide Social
           Support for Mothers of Preterm Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care

    • Abstract: Background. Hospitalization of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is a stressful experience for parents. Iranian NICUs do not have specified levels of care, nor do they integrate supportive methods of parent support such as family-centered care approaches. This study investigated the range and types of neonatal nursing support, as perceived by mothers of preterm infants, and its association with mothers’ satisfaction with infant care in the NICU. Methods. This is a descriptive, correlational study of mothers of preterm infants who were hospitalized in three different NICUs in Iran. A convenience sampling method was used. Data were collected using three questionnaires that identified (i) demographic information; (ii) social support available; and (iii) parent satisfaction with infant care. Results. Mothers (N = 110) generally rated the support from nurses as being moderate. Correlation analysis identified a moderate association of neonatal nurse social support domains for affirmational (r = 0.44) and concrete aid (r = 0.41), a moderately strong association for affectional support (r = 0.64), and total social support (r = 0.60) with mothers’ satisfaction. Conclusion. There were positive associations between social support from nurses and mothers’ satisfaction with the care of their infants. Therefore, planning to promote and create opportunities for neonatal nurses to support mothers in NICU is important to promote increased maternal satisfaction in infant care.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jan 2021 08:50:00 +000
  • Hemodynamic Characteristics of Mechanically Ventilated COVID-19 Patients:
           A Cohort Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Solid data on cardiovascular derangements in critically ill COVID-19 patients remain scarce. The aim of this study is to describe hemodynamic characteristics in a cohort of COVID-19-related critically ill patients. Methods. A retrospective observational cohort study in twenty-eight consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Pulse contour analysis-derived data were obtained from all patients, using the PiCCO® system. Results. The mean arterial pressure increased from 77 ± 10 mmHg on day 1 to 84 ± 9 mmHg on day 21 (), in combination with the rapid tapering and cessation of norepinephrine and the gradual use of antihypertensive drugs in the vast majority of patients. The cardiac index increased significantly from 2.8 ± 0.7 L/min/m2 on day 1 to 4.0 ± 0.8 L/min/m2 on day 21 (). Dobutamine was administered in only two patients. Mean markers of left ventricular contractility and peripheral perfusion, as well as lactate levels, remained within the normal range. Despite a constant fluid balance, extravascular lung water index decreased significantly from 17 ± 7 mL/kg on day 1 to 11 ± 4 mL/kg on day 21 (). Simultaneously, intrapulmonary right-to-left shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) decreased significantly from 27 ± 10% in week 1 to 15 ± 9% in week 3 (). PaO2/FiO2 ratio improved from 159 ± 53 mmHg to 319 ± 53 mmHg (), but static lung compliance remained unchanged. Conclusions. In general, this cohort of patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure showed a marked rise in blood pressure over time, not accompanied by distinctive markers of circulatory failure. Characteristically, increased extravascular lung water, vascular permeability, and intrapulmonary shunt diminished over time, concomitant with an improvement in gas exchange.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jan 2021 09:20:00 +000
  • Lung Ultrasound and Sonographic Subpleural Consolidation in COVID-19
           Pneumonia Correlate with Disease Severity

    • Abstract: Introduction. One of the ultrasonic features of COVID-19 pneumonia is the presence of subpleural consolidation (SPC), and the number of SPCs varies among patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Aim. To examine the relationship between disease severity and the number of SPCs on admission. Methodology. This observational, prospective, single‐center study included patients with suspected COVID-19 infection who had been transferred to the ICU. A specialized intensivist in critical care ultrasound performed lung ultrasound (LUS) and echocardiography within 12 hours of a patient’s admission to the ICU. The aeration score was calculated, and the total number of SPCs was quantified in 12 zones of the LUS. Results. Of 109 patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia, 77 (71%) were confirmed. The median patient age was 53 (82–36) years, and 81 of the patients (73.7%) were men. The aeration score and the counts of subpleural consolidation in each zone were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia ( and , respectively). There was an inverse relationship between PO2/FiO2, the aeration score, and the number of subpleural consolidations. The higher the number of SPCs, the worse the PO2/FiO2 will be. Conclusions. Sonographic SPC counts correlate well with the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia and PO2/FiO2. The number of SPCs should be considered when using LUS to assess disease severity.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jan 2021 12:20:00 +000
  • Current Physical Therapy Practice in the Intensive Care Unit in Saudi
           Arabia: A Multicentre Cross-Sectional Survey

    • Abstract: Background. Early mobilisation of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with positive health benefits. Research literature lacks insight into the current status of ICU physical therapy (PT) practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Aim. To determine the current standard of ICU PT practice, attitude, and barriers. Methods. A questionnaire was e-mailed to physiotherapists (PTs) working in the hospital. The questions pertained to experience, qualification, barriers, and most frequently encountered case scenarios in the ICU. Results. The response rate was 28.1% (124/442). Frequent cases referred to the PTs were traumatic paraplegia (n = 111, 89%) and stroke (n = 102, 82.3%) as compared to congestive heart failure (n = 20, 16.1%) and pulmonary infections (n = 7, 5.6%). The preferred treatment of choice among PTs was chest physiotherapy (n = 102, 82.2%) and positioning (n = 73, 58.8%), whereas functional electrical stimulation (n = 12, 9.6%) was least preferred irrespective of the condition. Perceived barriers in the ICU PT management were of low confidence in managing cases (n = 89, 71.7%) followed by inadequate training (n = 53, 42.7%), and the least quoted barrier was a communication gap between the critical care team members (n = 8, 6.4%). Conclusion. PTs reported significant variation in the choice of treatment for different clinical cases inside ICU. The main barriers in the ICU setting were low confidence and inadequate training.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 09:20:00 +000
  • Area under the Curve-Based Dosing of Vancomycin in Critically Ill Patients
           Using 6-Hour Urine Creatinine Clearance Measurement

    • Abstract: Background. The area under the curve- (AUC-) guided vancomycin dosing is the best strategy for individualized therapy in critical illnesses. Since AUC can be calculated directly using drug clearance (CLvan), any parameter estimating CLvan will be able to achieve the goal of 24-hour AUC (AUC24 h). The present study was aimed to determine CLvan based on 6-hour urine creatinine clearance measurement in critically ill patients with normal renal function. Method. 23 adult critically ill patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min who received vancomycin infusion were enrolled in this pilot study. Vancomycin pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for each patient using serum concentration data and a one-compartment model provided by MONOLIX software using stochastic approximation expectation-maximization (SAEM) algorithm. Correlation of CLvan with the measured creatinine clearance in 6-hour urine collection (CL6 h) and estimated creatinine clearance by the Cockcroft–Gault formula (CLCG) was investigated. Results. Data analysis revealed that CL6 h had a stronger correlation with CLvan rather than CLCG (r = 0.823 vs. 0.594; vs. 0.003). The relationship between CLvan and CL6 h was utilized to develop the following equation for estimating CLvan: CLvan (mL/min) = ─137.4 + CL6 h (mL/min) + 2.5 IBW (kg) (R2 = 0.826, ). Regarding the described model, the following equation can be used to calculate the empirical dose of vancomycin for achieving the therapeutic goals in critically ill patients without renal impairment: total daily dose of vancomycin (mg) = (─137.4CL6-h (mL/min) + 2.5 IBW (kg)) × 0.06 AUC24 h ( Conclusion. For AUC estimation, CLvan can be obtained by collecting urine in a 6-hour period with good approximation in critically ill patients with normal renal function.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Dec 2020 16:20:01 +000
  • Sleep Promotion among Critically Ill Patients: Earplugs/Eye Mask versus
           Ocean Sound—A Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    • Abstract: Background. Poor sleep quality is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), where several factors including environmental factors contribute to sleep deprivation. Objective. This study aims to assess and compare the effectiveness of earplugs and eye mask versus ocean sound on sleep quality among ICU patients. Design. A true experimental crossover design was used. Setting. Medical ICU of the Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Hospital, Mullana, India. Participants. Sixty-eight patients admitted in the medical ICU were randomly allocated by lottery methods into group 1 and group 2. Methods. Nocturnal nine-hour (10 : 00 pm to 7 : 00 am) for a four-night period were measured. Earplugs and eye mask versus ocean sound were crossed over between two groups. Subjective sleep quality of four nights was assessed using a structured sleep quality scale. Scores for each question range from 0 to 3, with a higher score indicating poor sleep quality. Results. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was a significant change in the sleep quality score (), which showed that sleep quality score was improved after the administration of earplugs and eye mask and ocean sound. Fisher’s LSD post hoc comparison showed a significant difference ().Conclusion. Earplugs and eye mask were better than ocean sound in improving sleep quality. Earplugs, eye mask, and ocean sound are safe and cost effective, which could be used as an adjuvant to pharmacological interventions to improve sleep quality among ICU patients. However, further research in this area needs to be conducted. This trial is registered with NCT03215212.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Dec 2020 07:20:01 +000
  • Simulation-Based Rapid Development and Implementation of a Novel Barrier
           Enclosure for Use in COVID-19 Patients: The SplashGuard CG

    • Abstract: Background. The current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in over 54,800,000 SARS-CoV-2 infections worldwide with a mortality rate of around 2.5%. As observed in other airborne viral infections such as influenza and SARS-CoV-1, healthcare workers are at high risk for infection when performing aerosol-generating medical procedures (AGMP). Additionally, the threats of a global shortage of standard personal protective equipment (PPE) prompted many healthcare workers to explore alternative protective enclosures, such as the “aerosol box” invented by a Taiwanese anesthetist. Our study includes the design process of a protective barrier enclosure and its subsequent clinical implementation in the management of critically ill adults and children infected with SARS-CoV-2. Methods and Results. The barrier enclosure was designed for use in our tertiary care facility and named “SplashGuard CG” (CG for Care Givers). The device has been adapted using a multi- and interdisciplinary approach, with collaboration between physicians, respiratory therapists, nurses, and biomechanical engineers. Computer-aided design and simulation sessions throughout the entire process facilitated the rapid and safe implementation of the SplashGuard CG in different settings (intensive care unit, emergency department, and the operating room) during AGMPs such as bag-valve-mask ventilation, nasopharyngeal suctioning, intubation and extubation, and noninvasive ventilation. Indications for use and anticipatory precautions were communicated to all healthcare workers using the SplashGuard CG. The entire process was completed within one month. Conclusion. The rapid design, development, and clinical implementation of a new barrier enclosure, the “SplashGuard CG,” was feasible in this time of crisis thanks to close collaboration between medical and engineering teams and the use of recurring simulation sessions to test and improve the initial prototypes. Following this accelerated process, it is necessary to maintain team skills, monitor any undesirable effects, and evaluate and continuously improve this new device.
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Dec 2020 05:35:00 +000
  • The Effect of Fluid Overload on Attributable Morbidity after Cardiac
           Surgery: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Although the detrimental effects of excessive perioperative fluid administration are generally well established, data in the setting of cardiac surgery remain less robust. Methods. In this retrospective single-center observational study, the total fluid balance in the first 12 hours during and after surgery was evaluated. Primary endpoint was the relationship between total fluid balance and the incidence of prolonged mechanical ventilation. For this purpose, data were divided into quartiles (Q); prolonged mechanical ventilation and prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the ICU were defined as Q4. Secondary endpoints were prolonged LOS in the ICU, incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI; defined as a 1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine during, relative to baseline), and ICU mortality. Results. In a 3-year period, 748 patients were included. In a univariate analysis, the median duration of mechanical ventilation was 2.9 h [2.4–3.7] in Q1 of the fluid balance and increased significantly to 4.7 h [3.1–9.2] in Q4 of the fluid balance . In addition, patients in Q4 of the fluid balance had a significantly longer LOS in the ICU, as well as a higher incidence of AKI and ICU mortality. In a multivariate analysis, Q4 of the fluid balance was independently associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 4.9, CI 2.9–8.4, ) and prolonged LOS in the ICU (OR 11.3 CI 6.1–20,9, ), but not with the incidence of AKI or ICU mortality. Conclusions. Perioperative fluid administration in cardiac surgery patients was independently associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and prolonged LOS in the ICU.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 15:35:00 +000
  • Effectiveness, Safety, and Barriers to Early Mobilization in the Intensive
           Care Unit

    • Abstract: Purpose. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are generally confined to bed leading to limited mobility that may have detrimental effects on different body systems. Early mobilization prevents or reduces these effects and improves outcomes in patients following critical illness. The purpose of this review is to summarize different aspects of early mobilization in intensive care. Methods. Electronic databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus were searched using a combination of keywords. Full-text articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. Results. Fifty-six studies on various aspects such as the effectiveness of early mobilization in various intensive care units, newer techniques in early mobilization, outcome measures for physical function in the intensive care unit, safety, and practice and barriers to early mobilization were included. Conclusion: Early mobilization is found to have positive effects on various outcomes in patients with or without mechanical ventilation. The newer techniques can be used to facilitate early mobilization. Scoring systems—specific to the ICU—are available and should be used to quantify patients’ status at different intervals of time. Early mobilization is not commonly practiced in many countries. Various barriers to early mobilization have been identified, and different strategies can be used to overcome them.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 03:35:00 +000
  • Prone Position after Liberation from Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation in
           COVID-19 Respiratory Failure

    • Abstract: Objective and Rationale. Prone positioning of nonintubated patients has prevented intubation and mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A number of patients in a recently published cohort have undergone postextubation prone positioning (PEPP) following liberation from prolonged mechanical ventilation in attempt to prevent reintubation. The objective of this study is to systematically search the literature for reports of PEPP as well as describe the feasibility and outcomes of PEPP in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. Design. This is a retrospective case series describing the feasibility and tolerability of postextubation prone positioning (PEPP) and its impact on physiologic parameters in a tertiary intensive care unit during the COVID-19 pandemic. Setting and Patients. This study was conducted on patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure hospitalized in a tertiary Intensive Care Unit at Surrey Memorial Hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. Measurements and Results. We did not find prior reports of PEPP following prolonged intubation in the literature. Four patients underwent a total of 13 PEPP sessions following liberation from prolonged mechanical ventilation. Each patient underwent a median of 3 prone sessions (IQR: 2, 4.25) lasting a median of 1.5 hours (IQR: 1.2, 2.1). PEPP sessions were associated with a reduction in median oxygen requirements, patient respiratory rate, and reintubation rate. The sessions were well tolerated by patients, nursing, and the allied health team. Conclusions. The novel practice of PEPP after liberation from prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure is feasible and well tolerated, and may be associated with favourable clinical outcomes including improvement in oxygenation and respiratory rate and a low rate of reintubation. Larger prospective studies of PEPP are warranted.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Nov 2020 05:20:00 +000
  • Central Venous Catheter Insertion: A Scoring System for Evaluation of Both
           the Procedure and the Operator (CVCI Score/Gaber Score)

    • Abstract: Introduction. Currently, there is no method to assess the performance while inserting a central venous catheter. We suggest a new scoring system for evaluation of both the technique as well as the operator, and then we applied it for the comparison between the landmark and ultrasound techniques to assess its validity. Methods. Four hundred patients were divided into two equal groups: group (A): internal jugular vein (IJV) and group (B): subclavian vein (SV). The landmark technique and the ultrasound guidance were used equally (100 patients for each) in both groups. Results. In group (A), 20% of patients in the landmark group achieved score 4, while 82% of patients in the ultrasound group achieved the same score. This suggests that the ultrasound technique for catheterization of IJV decreased overall complications and improved the success rate. In group (B), there were 70% of patients in the landmark group who achieved score 5, while 49% of patients in the ultrasound group achieved the same score which proposes that the landmark technique might be deceptively better than the ultrasound technique for catheterization of SV. This could be because the time required for catheterization of SV by the ultrasound technique was longer than that in the landmark technique. Overall complications of 15% with the landmark technique vs. 2% with ultrasound guidance in this group of patients are not only statistically significant but also increase morbidity and mortality with a highly invasive procedure. Complications and their incidences are by far more significant than seconds of time. Our results suggest that the ultrasound technique could decrease the incidence of overall complications, but it is time-consuming in group (B). These results support the validity of our new scoring system. Conclusion. We suggest a new scoring system for CVC insertion that can be used for evaluation of both the technique and the operator. It can evaluate the performance of junior staff and follow their progress. It can be applied in the medical and critical care practice as well as the quality management privileges and protocols.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 06:50:01 +000
  • The Attitudes of Relatives of ICU Patients toward Informed Consent for
           Clinical Research

    • Abstract: Background. Informed consent is a key ethical requirement for biomedical research that is implemented to ensure autonomy and voluntary participation. However, patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be unconscious or severely ill and thus lack the capacity for decisions about research participation. Thus, relatives or guardians are usually asked to provide informed consent prior to the inclusion of ICU patients in research. Aims. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and preferences of relatives of ICU patients toward informed consent in biomedical research in Jordan. Subjects and Methods. A sample of 184 relatives with a critically ill next of kin in the ICU was anonymously surveyed regarding their attitudes and preferences toward giving informed consent for biomedical research on behalf of their patients. Results. The study showed that the majority of relatives had a positive attitude toward the informed consent process on behalf of their patients in the ICU (72.3%). The perception that participation in research would be directly beneficial to their patient was the most significant reason to provide informed consent among relatives. The degree of relatedness to the patient was significantly associated with the decision to provide informed consent on behalf of the patients in the ICU. Additionally, more than 70% of the relatives strongly agreed to take part in clinical research if they were to be unconscious patients in the ICU. Moreover, the majority of the respondents agreed that their first-degree relatives would give consent on their behalf. Conclusion. Relatives with a critically ill next of kin in the ICU had positive attitudes toward providing informed consent on behalf of their patients. This was motivated by the direct benefit from the research to their patient.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Oct 2020 13:50:00 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of ICU, CCU, and Emergency Wards
           Nurses in Kermanshah, Iran, regarding Organ Donation

    • Abstract: Background. Providing an organ for donation is a major problem worldwide and nurses play an important role in facilitating the process of organ donation. This study is aimed at investigating the knowledge, attitude, and performance of nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards regarding organ donation. Methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, 185 nurses working in ICU, CCU, and emergency wards were studied through systematic random sampling. The data collection was done by a self-administered questionnaire. Results. The mean knowledge of nurses was 8.9 ± 1.4 out of 10. There was a significant relationship between knowledge of nurses regarding donation and religion and having organ donation card (). The mean attitude of nurses was 7.8 ± 2.2 out of 8. The variables, including “having a donation card and marriage,” were associated with attitude of nurses toward organ donation. The mean performance of nurses was 0.4 ± 0.7 out of 3. There was a significant relationship between performance of nurses and having a donation card (). Knowledge was the strongest predictor of nurses’ performance ().Conclusion. The studied nurses showed sufficient knowledge and favorable attitude toward organ donation; however, they had poor performance. It is suggested to hold training courses to improve performance of nurses. The revision of the nursing students’ curriculum as future nurses should also be considered.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Sep 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Dermatological Manifestations in the Intensive Care Unit: A Practical

    • Abstract: Dermatological problems are not usually related to intensive medicine because they are considered to have a low impact on the evolution of critical patients. Despite this, dermatological manifestations (DMs) are relatively frequent in critically ill patients. In rare cases, DMs will be the main diagnosis and will require intensive treatment due to acute skin failure. In contrast, DMs can be a reflection of underlying systemic diseases, and their identification may be key to their diagnosis. On other occasions, DMs are lesions that appear in the evolution of critical patients and are due to factors derived from the stay or intensive treatment. Lastly, DMs can accompany patients and must be taken into account in the comprehensive pathology management. Several factors must be considered when addressing DMs: on the one hand, the moment of appearance, morphology, location, and associated treatment and, on the other hand, aetiopathogenesis and classification of the cutaneous lesion. DMs can be classified into 4 groups: life-threatening DMs (uncommon but compromise the patient's life); DMs associated with systemic diseases where skin lesions accompany the pathology that requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU); DMs secondary to the management of the critical patient that considers the cutaneous manifestations that appear in the evolution mainly of infectious or allergic origin; and DMs previously present in the patient and unrelated to the critical process. This review provides a characterization of DMs in ICU patients to establish a better identification and classification and to understand their interrelation with critical illnesses.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Sep 2020 10:20:00 +000
  • Lactate Arterial-Central Venous Gradient among COVID-19 Patients in ICU: A
           Potential Tool in the Clinical Practice

    • Abstract: Objective. In physiological conditions, arterial blood lactate concentration is equal to or lower than central venous blood lactate concentration. A reversal in this rate (i.e., higher lactate concentration in central venous blood), which could reflect a derangement in the mitochondrial metabolism of lung cells induced by inflammation, has been previously reported in patients with ARDS but has been never explored in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to explore if the COVID-19-induced lung cell damage was mirrored by an arterial lactatemia higher than the central venous one; then if the administration of anti-inflammatory therapy (i.e., canakinumab 300 mg subcutaneous) could normalize such abnormal lactate a-cv difference. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted, started on March 25, 2020, for a duration of 10 days, enrolling 21 patients affected by severe COVID-19 pneumonia undergoing mechanical ventilation consecutively admitted to the ICU of the Rimini Hospital, Italy. Arterial and central venous blood samples were contemporarily collected to calculate the difference between arterial and central venous lactate (Delta a-cv lactate) concentrations within 24 h from tracheal intubation (T0) and 24 hours after canakinumab administration (T1). Results. At T0, 19 of 21 (90.5%) patients showed a pathologic Delta a-cv lactate (median 0.15 mmol/L; IQR 0.07–0.25). In the 13 patients undergoing canakinumab administration, at T1, Delta a-cv lactate decreased in 92.3% of cases, the decrease being statistically significant (T0: median 0.24, IQR 0.09–0.31 mmol/L; T1: median −0.01, IQR −0.08–0.04 mmol/L; ).Conclusion. A reversed Delta a-cv lactate might be interpreted as one of the effects of COVID-19-related cytokine storm, which could reflect a derangement in the mitochondrial metabolism of lung cells induced by severe inflammation or other uncoupling mediators. In addition, Delta a-cv lactate decrease might also reflect the anti-inflammatory activity of canakinumab. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by larger outcome studies.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2020 16:20:00 +000
  • Effect of Exogenous Melatonin Administration in Critically Ill Patients on
           Delirium and Sleep: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction. Sleep deprivation is a contributor for delirium in intensive care. Melatonin has been proposed as a pharmacological strategy to improve sleep, but studies have shown that the increase in plasma levels of melatonin do not correlate to a beneficial clinical effect; in addition, melatonin’s short half-life may be a major limitation to achieving therapeutic levels. This study applies a previously published novel regimen of melatonin with proven sustained levels of melatonin during a 12 h period. In this study, the aim is to determine if such melatonin dosing positively influences on the sleep architecture and the incidence of delirium in intensive care. Methods. Single center, randomized control trial with consecutive recruitment over 5 years. Medical and surgical patients were in a recovery phase, all weaning from mechanical ventilation. Randomized allocation to placebo or enteral melatonin, using a previously described regimen (loading dose of 3 mg at 21 h, followed by 0.5 mg hourly maintenance dose until 03am through a nasogastric tube). Sleep recordings were performed using polysomnogram at baseline (prior to intervention) and the third night on melatonin (postintervention recording). Delirium was assessed using the Richmond Agitation and the Confusion Assessment Method Scales. Environmental light and noise levels were recorded using a luxmeter and sound meter. Results. 80 patients were screened, but 33 were recruited. Sleep studies showed no statistical differences on arousal index or length of sleep. Baseline delirium scores showed no difference between groups when compared to postintervention scores. RASS scores were 1 in both groups at baseline, compared to zero (drug group) and 0.5 (placebo group) posttreatment. CAM scores were zero (drug group) and 1 (placebo group) at baseline, compared to zero (in both groups) postintervention. Conclusion. High levels of plasma melatonin during the overnight period of intensive care cohort patients did not improve sleep nor decreased the prevalence of delirium. This trial is registered with
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2020 12:05:00 +000
  • Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Septic
           Shock Based on Sepsis-3 Definition: A Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography

    • Abstract: Introduction. Left ventricular dysfunction is quite common in septic shock. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel, highly sensitive method for assessing left ventricular function, capable of detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction, which is not identified with conventional echocardiography. We sought to evaluate subclinical left ventricular systolic function in patients with septic shock using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Methods. From May 2017 to December 2018, patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock based on the sepsis-3 definition were included. Patients with other causes of cardiac dysfunction were excluded. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed for all the patients within 24 hours of diagnosis. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed using conventional echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Results. Patients with septic shock (n = 90) (study group) and 37 matched patients with sepsis but no septic shock (control group) were included. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by conventional echocardiography showed no significant difference between two groups (58.2 ± 9.9 vs. 58.6 ± 8.3, ). The global longitudinal strain (GLS) by STE was significantly reduced in patients with septic shock compared with that in the control (−14.6 ± 3.3 vs. −17.1 ± 3.3, ). Based on the cutoff value of GLS ≥ −15% for the definition of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this dysfunction was detected in 50 patients with septic shock (55.6%) and in 6 patients in the control group (16.2%) ().Conclusions. Speckle-tracking echocardiography can detect early subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction via the left ventricular global longitudinal strain compared with conventional echocardiographic parameters in patients with septic shock.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Sep 2020 09:35:01 +000
  • Bioreactance-Based Noninvasive Fluid Responsiveness and Cardiac Output
           Monitoring: A Pilot Study in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid
           Hemorrhage and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Management of volume status, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output are core elements in approaching the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For the prevention and treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), euvolemia is advocated and caution is made towards the avoidance of hypervolemia. Induced hypertension and cardiac output augmentation are the mainstays of medical management during active DCI, whereas the older triple-H paradigm has fallen out of favor due to lack of demonstrable physiological or clinical benefits and serious concern for adverse effects such as pulmonary edema and multiorgan system dysfunction. Furthermore, insight into clinical hemodynamics of patients with SAH becomes salient when one considers the frequently associated cardiac and pulmonary manifestations of the disease such as SAH-associated cardiomyopathy and neurogenic pulmonary edema. In terms of fluid and volume targets, less attention has been paid to dynamic markers of fluid responsiveness despite the well-established, in the general critical care literature, superiority of these as compared to traditionally used static markers such as central venous pressure (CVP). Based on this literature and sound pathophysiologic reasoning, reliance on static markers (such as CVP) is unjustified when one attempts to assess strategies augmenting stroke volume (SV), arterial blood pressure, and oxygen delivery. There are several options for continuous bedside cardiorespiratory monitoring and optimization of SAH patients. We, here, review a noninvasive monitoring technique based on thoracic bioreactance and focusing on continuous cardiac output and fluid responsiveness markers.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 14:05:00 +000
  • The Validity of SOFA Score to Predict Mortality in Adult Patients with
           Cardiogenic Shock on Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    • Abstract: Background. Venoarterial ECMO is increasingly used in resuscitation of adult patients with cardiogenic shock with variable mortality reports worldwide. Our objectives were to study the variables associated with hospital mortality in adult patients supported with VA-ECMO and to determine the validity of repeated assessments of those patients by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score for prediction of hospital mortality. We retrospectively studied adult patients admitted to the cardiac surgical critical care unit with cardiogenic shock supported with VA-ECMO from January 2015 to August 2019 in our tertiary care hospital. Results. One hundred and six patients supported with VA-ECMO were included in our study with in-hospital mortality of 56.6%. The mean age of studied patients was 40.2 ± 14.4 years, and the patients were mostly males (69.8%) with a mean BMI of 26.5 ± 7 without statistically significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors. Presence of CKD, chronic atrial fibrillation, and cardiac surgeries was significantly more frequent in the nonsurvivors group. The nonsurvivors had more frequent AKI (), more haemodialysis use (), more gastrointestinal bleeding (), more ICH (), and fewer ICU days () compared to the survivors group. The mean peak blood lactate level was 11 ± 3 vs 16.7 ± 3.3, , and the mean lactate level after 24 hours of ECMO initiation was 2.2 ± 0.9 vs 7.9 ± 5.7, , in the survivors and nonsurvivors, respectively. Initial SOFA score ≥13 measured upon ICU admission had a 85% sensitivity and 73.9% specificity for predicting hospital mortality [AUROC = 0.862, 95% CI: 0.791–0.932; ] with 81% PPV, 79.1% NPV, and 80.2% accuracy while SOFA score ≥13 at day 3 had 100% sensitivity and 91.3% specificity for predicting mortality with 93.8% PPV, 100% NPV, and 96.2% accuracy [AUROC = 0.995, 95% CI: 0.986–1; ]. The ∆1 SOFA (3-1) ≥2 had 95% sensitivity and 93.5% specificity for predicting hospital mortality [AUROC = 0.958, 95% CI: 0.913–1; ] with 95% PPV, 93.5% NPV, and 94.3% accuracy. SOFA score ≥15 at day 5 had 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity for predicting mortality with 99% accuracy [AUROC = 0.994, 95% CI: 0.982–1; ]. The ∆2 SOFA (5-1) ≥2 had 90% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity for predicting hospital mortality [AUROC = 0.958, 95% CI: 0.909–1; ] with 97.8% PPV, 90% NPV, and 94.8% accuracy. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that increasing ∆1 SOFA score (OR = 2.506, 95% CI: 1.681–3.735, ) and increasing blood lactate level (OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.015–1.898, ) were significantly associated with hospital mortality after VA-ECMO support for adults with cardiogenic shock. Conclusion. The use of VA-ECMO in adult patients with cardiogenic shock is still associated with high mortality. Serial evaluation of those patients with SOFA score during the first few days of ECMO support is a good predictor of hospital mortality. Increase in SOFA score after 48 hours and hyperlactataemia are significantly associated with increased hospital mortality.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • Maximal Glycemic Difference, the Possible Strongest Glycemic Variability
           Parameter to Predict Mortality in ICU Patients

    • Abstract: Background. This retrospective study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose and glycemic variability with mortality and to identify the strongest glycemic variability parameter for predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. A total of 528 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit were included in this study. Blood glucose levels during the first 24 hours of admission were recorded and calculated to determine the glycemic variability. Significant glycemic variability parameters, including the standard deviation, coefficient of variation, maximal blood glucose difference, and J-index, were subsequently compared between intensive care unit survivors and nonsurvivors. A binary logistic regression was performed to identify independent factors associated with mortality. To determine the strongest glycemic variability parameter to predict mortality, the area under the receiver operating characteristic of each glycemic variability parameter was determined, and a pairwise comparison was performed. Results. Among the 528 patients, 17.8% (96/528) were nonsurvivors. Both survivor and nonsurvivor groups were clinically comparable. However, nonsurvivors had significantly higher median APACHE-II scores (23 [21, 27] vs. 18 [14, 22];  
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2020 12:50:00 +000
  • The Development of Critical Care Medicine in China: From SARS to COVID-19

    • Abstract: Background. Critical care medicine is a branch of medical science that deals with the characteristics and regularity of life-threatening processes initiated by any injury or disease and, accordingly, relevant treatment for patients with critical illness. Conceptions of critical care medicine in China stemmed in the early 1970s. Ever since the establishment of the first intensive care unit (ICU) along with the increasingly incomparable role of ICU in medical practices, critical care medicine has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medical and health system. Currently, critical care medicine as a secondary clinical discipline and a well-constructed science is in sustainable development on the way towards systematization and standardization. Methods. The gross domestic product (GDP) and population data were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics. The number of ICUs, ICU beds, and hospital beds and other data regarding ICU staffing and facility resources were obtained from the Yearbook of Health in the People’s Republic of China and National Bureau of Statistics. The mortality rates of SARS and COVID-19 and the number of health workers aiding Hubei amid COVID-19 pandemic were obtained from the National Health Commission. Findings. Critical care medicine in mainland China has made significant strides: both quantity and quality are progressing at a fast pace after SARS in 2003. Although there exist some disparities in healthcare personnel and medical resources, they have not hindered the country from mobilizing its healthcare workers and resources against a public health emergency.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 12:20:00 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors towards Physical Assessment
           among Nurses Working in Intensive Care Units: A Multicenter
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Nurses working in the intensive care unit play an essential role in detecting patients at risk of deterioration through ongoing assessment and action in response to changing health status. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards physical assessment on critically ill patients among nurses working in the intensive care unit at Amhara regional state referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019. The research hypothesis: there is poor physical assessment knowledge, poor physical assessment attitude, and there are factors that are likely to affect nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards physical assessment providing this care to critically ill patients at Amhara regional state referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 299 nurses from March to September 2019. A convenience sampling method was used. Data were entered by using Epi Info 7.2.2 and analyzed by using STATA 14. The result was computed by descriptive statistics and to explore predictors of knowledge, and attitude linear regression analysis models were fitted, and the adjusted unstandardized beta (β) coefficient at 95% CI was used. A -value
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Intravenous Fluid of Choice in Major Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic

    • Abstract: Background. Intravenous fluid therapy plays a role in maintaining the hemodynamic status for tissue perfusion and electrolyte hemostasis during surgery. Recent trials in critically ill patients reported serious side effects of some types of fluids. Since the most suitable type of fluid is debatable, a consensus in perioperative patients has not been reached. Method. We performed a systematic review of randomized control trials (RCTs) that compared two or more types of fluids in major abdominal surgery. The outcomes were related to bleeding, hemodynamic status, length of hospital stay, and complications, such as kidney injury, electrolyte abnormality, major cardiac adverse event, nausea, vomiting, and mortality. A literature search was performed using Medline and EMBASE up to December 2019. The data were pooled to investigate the effect of fluid on macrocirculation and intravascular volume effect. Results. Forty-three RCTs were included. Eighteen fluids were compared: nine were crystalloids and nine were colloids. The results were categorized into macrocirculation and intravascular volume effect, microcirculation, anti-inflammatory parameters, vascular permeability, renal function (colloids), renal function and electrolytes (crystalloids), coagulation and bleeding, return of bowel function, and postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV). We found that no specific type of fluid led to mortality and every type of colloid was equivalent in volume expansion and did not cause kidney injury. However, hydroxyethyl starch and dextran may lead to increased bleeding. Normal saline can cause kidney injury which can lead to renal replacement therapy, and dextrose fluid can decrease PONV. Conclusion. In our opinion, it is safe to give a balanced crystalloid as the maintenance fluid and give a colloid, such as HES130/0.4, 4% gelatin, or human albumin, as a volume expander.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Mortality Predictors and Associated Factors in Patients in the Intensive
           Care Unit: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been associated to an array of risk factors. Identification of risk factors potentially contribute to predict and reduce mortality rates in the ICU. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with the mortality and to analyze the survival. Method. A cross-sectional study conducted in two clinical and surgical ICU in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. We enrolled 316 patients with at least 48 h of hospitalization, minimum age of 18 years old, sedated or weaned, with RASS ≥ −3, between July 2017 and April 2018. We categorized data in (1) age and gender, (2) clinical condition, and (3) prevalence of delirium. Data from enrolled patients were collected from enrollment until death or ICU discharge. Patients’ outcomes were categorized in (1) death and (2) nondeath (discharge). Results. Twenty-one percent of participants died. Age (53 ± 17 years vs. 45 ± 18 years, ), electrolyte disturbance (30.3% vs 18.1%, ), glycemic index (33.3% vs 18.2%, ), tube feeding (83.3% vs 67.1%, ), mechanical ventilation (50% vs 35.7%, ), sedation with fentanyl (24.2 vs 13.6, ), use of insulin (33.8% vs 21.7%, ), and higher Charlson score (2.61 vs 2.17, ) were significantly associated with death on the adjusted model. However, the regression model indicated that patients admitted from the emergency (HR = 0.40, ) and glycemic index alterations (HR = 1.68, ) were associated with mortality. There was no statistically significant difference () in survival between patients with and without delirium, based on the survival analysis and length of hospitalization. Conclusion. The prevalence of death was 21%, and age, electrolyte disturbance, glycemic index, tube feeding, mechanical ventilation, sedation with fentanyl, use of insulin, and higher Charlson score were associated with mortality.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 19:20:01 +000
  • Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in the
           Intensive Care Unit: A Single-Center Study from Jordan

    • Abstract: Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common serious problem affecting critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU). It increases their morbidity, mortality, length of ICU stay, and long-term risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in Jordan. Medical records of patients admitted to the medical ICU between 2013 and 2015 were reviewed. We aimed to identify the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI. Acute kidney injury network (AKIN) classification was used to define and stage AKI. Results. 2530 patients were admitted to medical ICU, and the incidence of AKI was 31.6%, mainly in stage 1 (59.4%). In multivariate analysis, increasing age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 (95% CI 1.1–1.3), P = 0.0001) and higher APACHE II score (OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.7), P = 0.001) were predictors of AKI, with 20.4% of patients started on hemodialysis. At the time of discharge, 58% of patients with AKI died compared to 51.3% of patients without AKI (P = 0.05). 88% of patients with AKIN 3 died by the time of discharge compared to patients with AKIN 2 and 1 (75.3% and 61.2% respectively, P = 0.001). Conclusion. AKI is common in ICU patients, and it increases mortality and morbidity. Close attention for earlier detection and addressing risk factors for AKI is needed to decrease incidence, complications, and mortality.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • Continuous Estimation of Cardiac Output in Critical Care: A Noninvasive
           Method Based on Pulse Wave Transit Time Compared with Transpulmonary

    • Abstract: Purpose. Estimation of cardiac output (CO) and evaluation of change in CO as a result of therapeutic interventions are essential in critical care medicine. Whether noninvasive tools estimating CO, such as continuous cardiac output (esCCOTM) methods, are sufficiently accurate and precise to guide therapy needs further evaluation. We compared esCCOTM with an established method, namely, transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD). Patients and Methods. In a single center mixed ICU, esCCOTM was compared with the TPTD method in 38 patients. The primary endpoint was accuracy and precision. The cardiac output was assessed by two investigators at baseline and after eight hours. Results. In 38 critically ill patients, the two methods correlated significantly (r = 0.742). The Bland–Altman analysis showed a bias of 1.6 l/min with limits of agreement of −1.76 l/min and +4.98 l/min. The percentage error for COesCCO was 47%. The correlation of trends in cardiac output after eight hours was significant (r = 0.442), with a concordance of 74%. The performance of COesCCO could not be linked to the patient’s condition. Conclusion. The accuracy and precision of the esCCOTM method were not clinically acceptable for our critical patients. EsCCOTM also failed to reliably detect changes in cardiac output.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 12:35:01 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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