Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 233)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Critical Care Research and Practice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.499
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 13  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-1305 - ISSN (Online) 2090-1313
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • The Attitudes of Relatives of ICU Patients toward Informed Consent for
           Clinical Research

    • Abstract: Background. Informed consent is a key ethical requirement for biomedical research that is implemented to ensure autonomy and voluntary participation. However, patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) may be unconscious or severely ill and thus lack the capacity for decisions about research participation. Thus, relatives or guardians are usually asked to provide informed consent prior to the inclusion of ICU patients in research. Aims. This study aimed to assess the attitudes and preferences of relatives of ICU patients toward informed consent in biomedical research in Jordan. Subjects and Methods. A sample of 184 relatives with a critically ill next of kin in the ICU was anonymously surveyed regarding their attitudes and preferences toward giving informed consent for biomedical research on behalf of their patients. Results. The study showed that the majority of relatives had a positive attitude toward the informed consent process on behalf of their patients in the ICU (72.3%). The perception that participation in research would be directly beneficial to their patient was the most significant reason to provide informed consent among relatives. The degree of relatedness to the patient was significantly associated with the decision to provide informed consent on behalf of the patients in the ICU. Additionally, more than 70% of the relatives strongly agreed to take part in clinical research if they were to be unconscious patients in the ICU. Moreover, the majority of the respondents agreed that their first-degree relatives would give consent on their behalf. Conclusion. Relatives with a critically ill next of kin in the ICU had positive attitudes toward providing informed consent on behalf of their patients. This was motivated by the direct benefit from the research to their patient.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Oct 2020 13:50:00 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Performance of ICU, CCU, and Emergency Wards
           Nurses in Kermanshah, Iran, regarding Organ Donation

    • Abstract: Background. Providing an organ for donation is a major problem worldwide and nurses play an important role in facilitating the process of organ donation. This study is aimed at investigating the knowledge, attitude, and performance of nurses working in the ICU, CCU, and emergency wards regarding organ donation. Methods. In this descriptive-analytical study, 185 nurses working in ICU, CCU, and emergency wards were studied through systematic random sampling. The data collection was done by a self-administered questionnaire. Results. The mean knowledge of nurses was 8.9 ± 1.4 out of 10. There was a significant relationship between knowledge of nurses regarding donation and religion and having organ donation card (). The mean attitude of nurses was 7.8 ± 2.2 out of 8. The variables, including “having a donation card and marriage,” were associated with attitude of nurses toward organ donation. The mean performance of nurses was 0.4 ± 0.7 out of 3. There was a significant relationship between performance of nurses and having a donation card (). Knowledge was the strongest predictor of nurses’ performance ().Conclusion. The studied nurses showed sufficient knowledge and favorable attitude toward organ donation; however, they had poor performance. It is suggested to hold training courses to improve performance of nurses. The revision of the nursing students’ curriculum as future nurses should also be considered.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Sep 2020 15:20:00 +000
  • Dermatological Manifestations in the Intensive Care Unit: A Practical

    • Abstract: Dermatological problems are not usually related to intensive medicine because they are considered to have a low impact on the evolution of critical patients. Despite this, dermatological manifestations (DMs) are relatively frequent in critically ill patients. In rare cases, DMs will be the main diagnosis and will require intensive treatment due to acute skin failure. In contrast, DMs can be a reflection of underlying systemic diseases, and their identification may be key to their diagnosis. On other occasions, DMs are lesions that appear in the evolution of critical patients and are due to factors derived from the stay or intensive treatment. Lastly, DMs can accompany patients and must be taken into account in the comprehensive pathology management. Several factors must be considered when addressing DMs: on the one hand, the moment of appearance, morphology, location, and associated treatment and, on the other hand, aetiopathogenesis and classification of the cutaneous lesion. DMs can be classified into 4 groups: life-threatening DMs (uncommon but compromise the patient's life); DMs associated with systemic diseases where skin lesions accompany the pathology that requires admission to the intensive care unit (ICU); DMs secondary to the management of the critical patient that considers the cutaneous manifestations that appear in the evolution mainly of infectious or allergic origin; and DMs previously present in the patient and unrelated to the critical process. This review provides a characterization of DMs in ICU patients to establish a better identification and classification and to understand their interrelation with critical illnesses.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Sep 2020 10:20:00 +000
  • Lactate Arterial-Central Venous Gradient among COVID-19 Patients in ICU: A
           Potential Tool in the Clinical Practice

    • Abstract: Objective. In physiological conditions, arterial blood lactate concentration is equal to or lower than central venous blood lactate concentration. A reversal in this rate (i.e., higher lactate concentration in central venous blood), which could reflect a derangement in the mitochondrial metabolism of lung cells induced by inflammation, has been previously reported in patients with ARDS but has been never explored in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to explore if the COVID-19-induced lung cell damage was mirrored by an arterial lactatemia higher than the central venous one; then if the administration of anti-inflammatory therapy (i.e., canakinumab 300 mg subcutaneous) could normalize such abnormal lactate a-cv difference. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted, started on March 25, 2020, for a duration of 10 days, enrolling 21 patients affected by severe COVID-19 pneumonia undergoing mechanical ventilation consecutively admitted to the ICU of the Rimini Hospital, Italy. Arterial and central venous blood samples were contemporarily collected to calculate the difference between arterial and central venous lactate (Delta a-cv lactate) concentrations within 24 h from tracheal intubation (T0) and 24 hours after canakinumab administration (T1). Results. At T0, 19 of 21 (90.5%) patients showed a pathologic Delta a-cv lactate (median 0.15 mmol/L; IQR 0.07–0.25). In the 13 patients undergoing canakinumab administration, at T1, Delta a-cv lactate decreased in 92.3% of cases, the decrease being statistically significant (T0: median 0.24, IQR 0.09–0.31 mmol/L; T1: median −0.01, IQR −0.08–0.04 mmol/L; ).Conclusion. A reversed Delta a-cv lactate might be interpreted as one of the effects of COVID-19-related cytokine storm, which could reflect a derangement in the mitochondrial metabolism of lung cells induced by severe inflammation or other uncoupling mediators. In addition, Delta a-cv lactate decrease might also reflect the anti-inflammatory activity of canakinumab. Our preliminary findings need to be confirmed by larger outcome studies.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2020 16:20:00 +000
  • Effect of Exogenous Melatonin Administration in Critically Ill Patients on
           Delirium and Sleep: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Introduction. Sleep deprivation is a contributor for delirium in intensive care. Melatonin has been proposed as a pharmacological strategy to improve sleep, but studies have shown that the increase in plasma levels of melatonin do not correlate to a beneficial clinical effect; in addition, melatonin’s short half-life may be a major limitation to achieving therapeutic levels. This study applies a previously published novel regimen of melatonin with proven sustained levels of melatonin during a 12 h period. In this study, the aim is to determine if such melatonin dosing positively influences on the sleep architecture and the incidence of delirium in intensive care. Methods. Single center, randomized control trial with consecutive recruitment over 5 years. Medical and surgical patients were in a recovery phase, all weaning from mechanical ventilation. Randomized allocation to placebo or enteral melatonin, using a previously described regimen (loading dose of 3 mg at 21 h, followed by 0.5 mg hourly maintenance dose until 03am through a nasogastric tube). Sleep recordings were performed using polysomnogram at baseline (prior to intervention) and the third night on melatonin (postintervention recording). Delirium was assessed using the Richmond Agitation and the Confusion Assessment Method Scales. Environmental light and noise levels were recorded using a luxmeter and sound meter. Results. 80 patients were screened, but 33 were recruited. Sleep studies showed no statistical differences on arousal index or length of sleep. Baseline delirium scores showed no difference between groups when compared to postintervention scores. RASS scores were 1 in both groups at baseline, compared to zero (drug group) and 0.5 (placebo group) posttreatment. CAM scores were zero (drug group) and 1 (placebo group) at baseline, compared to zero (in both groups) postintervention. Conclusion. High levels of plasma melatonin during the overnight period of intensive care cohort patients did not improve sleep nor decreased the prevalence of delirium. This trial is registered with
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2020 12:05:00 +000
  • Subclinical Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients with Septic
           Shock Based on Sepsis-3 Definition: A Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography

    • Abstract: Introduction. Left ventricular dysfunction is quite common in septic shock. Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a novel, highly sensitive method for assessing left ventricular function, capable of detecting subclinical myocardial dysfunction, which is not identified with conventional echocardiography. We sought to evaluate subclinical left ventricular systolic function in patients with septic shock using speckle-tracking echocardiography. Methods. From May 2017 to December 2018, patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock based on the sepsis-3 definition were included. Patients with other causes of cardiac dysfunction were excluded. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed for all the patients within 24 hours of diagnosis. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed using conventional echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Results. Patients with septic shock (n = 90) (study group) and 37 matched patients with sepsis but no septic shock (control group) were included. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by conventional echocardiography showed no significant difference between two groups (58.2 ± 9.9 vs. 58.6 ± 8.3, ). The global longitudinal strain (GLS) by STE was significantly reduced in patients with septic shock compared with that in the control (−14.6 ± 3.3 vs. −17.1 ± 3.3, ). Based on the cutoff value of GLS ≥ −15% for the definition of subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction, this dysfunction was detected in 50 patients with septic shock (55.6%) and in 6 patients in the control group (16.2%) ().Conclusions. Speckle-tracking echocardiography can detect early subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction via the left ventricular global longitudinal strain compared with conventional echocardiographic parameters in patients with septic shock.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Sep 2020 09:35:01 +000
  • Bioreactance-Based Noninvasive Fluid Responsiveness and Cardiac Output
           Monitoring: A Pilot Study in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid
           Hemorrhage and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Management of volume status, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output are core elements in approaching the patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For the prevention and treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), euvolemia is advocated and caution is made towards the avoidance of hypervolemia. Induced hypertension and cardiac output augmentation are the mainstays of medical management during active DCI, whereas the older triple-H paradigm has fallen out of favor due to lack of demonstrable physiological or clinical benefits and serious concern for adverse effects such as pulmonary edema and multiorgan system dysfunction. Furthermore, insight into clinical hemodynamics of patients with SAH becomes salient when one considers the frequently associated cardiac and pulmonary manifestations of the disease such as SAH-associated cardiomyopathy and neurogenic pulmonary edema. In terms of fluid and volume targets, less attention has been paid to dynamic markers of fluid responsiveness despite the well-established, in the general critical care literature, superiority of these as compared to traditionally used static markers such as central venous pressure (CVP). Based on this literature and sound pathophysiologic reasoning, reliance on static markers (such as CVP) is unjustified when one attempts to assess strategies augmenting stroke volume (SV), arterial blood pressure, and oxygen delivery. There are several options for continuous bedside cardiorespiratory monitoring and optimization of SAH patients. We, here, review a noninvasive monitoring technique based on thoracic bioreactance and focusing on continuous cardiac output and fluid responsiveness markers.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 14:05:00 +000
  • The Validity of SOFA Score to Predict Mortality in Adult Patients with
           Cardiogenic Shock on Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    • Abstract: Background. Venoarterial ECMO is increasingly used in resuscitation of adult patients with cardiogenic shock with variable mortality reports worldwide. Our objectives were to study the variables associated with hospital mortality in adult patients supported with VA-ECMO and to determine the validity of repeated assessments of those patients by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score for prediction of hospital mortality. We retrospectively studied adult patients admitted to the cardiac surgical critical care unit with cardiogenic shock supported with VA-ECMO from January 2015 to August 2019 in our tertiary care hospital. Results. One hundred and six patients supported with VA-ECMO were included in our study with in-hospital mortality of 56.6%. The mean age of studied patients was 40.2 ± 14.4 years, and the patients were mostly males (69.8%) with a mean BMI of 26.5 ± 7 without statistically significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors. Presence of CKD, chronic atrial fibrillation, and cardiac surgeries was significantly more frequent in the nonsurvivors group. The nonsurvivors had more frequent AKI (), more haemodialysis use (), more gastrointestinal bleeding (), more ICH (), and fewer ICU days () compared to the survivors group. The mean peak blood lactate level was 11 ± 3 vs 16.7 ± 3.3, , and the mean lactate level after 24 hours of ECMO initiation was 2.2 ± 0.9 vs 7.9 ± 5.7, , in the survivors and nonsurvivors, respectively. Initial SOFA score ≥13 measured upon ICU admission had a 85% sensitivity and 73.9% specificity for predicting hospital mortality [AUROC = 0.862, 95% CI: 0.791–0.932; ] with 81% PPV, 79.1% NPV, and 80.2% accuracy while SOFA score ≥13 at day 3 had 100% sensitivity and 91.3% specificity for predicting mortality with 93.8% PPV, 100% NPV, and 96.2% accuracy [AUROC = 0.995, 95% CI: 0.986–1; ]. The ∆1 SOFA (3-1) ≥2 had 95% sensitivity and 93.5% specificity for predicting hospital mortality [AUROC = 0.958, 95% CI: 0.913–1; ] with 95% PPV, 93.5% NPV, and 94.3% accuracy. SOFA score ≥15 at day 5 had 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity for predicting mortality with 99% accuracy [AUROC = 0.994, 95% CI: 0.982–1; ]. The ∆2 SOFA (5-1) ≥2 had 90% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity for predicting hospital mortality [AUROC = 0.958, 95% CI: 0.909–1; ] with 97.8% PPV, 90% NPV, and 94.8% accuracy. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that increasing ∆1 SOFA score (OR = 2.506, 95% CI: 1.681–3.735, ) and increasing blood lactate level (OR = 1.388, 95% CI: 1.015–1.898, ) were significantly associated with hospital mortality after VA-ECMO support for adults with cardiogenic shock. Conclusion. The use of VA-ECMO in adult patients with cardiogenic shock is still associated with high mortality. Serial evaluation of those patients with SOFA score during the first few days of ECMO support is a good predictor of hospital mortality. Increase in SOFA score after 48 hours and hyperlactataemia are significantly associated with increased hospital mortality.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • Maximal Glycemic Difference, the Possible Strongest Glycemic Variability
           Parameter to Predict Mortality in ICU Patients

    • Abstract: Background. This retrospective study aimed to determine the correlation of blood glucose and glycemic variability with mortality and to identify the strongest glycemic variability parameter for predicting mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. A total of 528 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit were included in this study. Blood glucose levels during the first 24 hours of admission were recorded and calculated to determine the glycemic variability. Significant glycemic variability parameters, including the standard deviation, coefficient of variation, maximal blood glucose difference, and J-index, were subsequently compared between intensive care unit survivors and nonsurvivors. A binary logistic regression was performed to identify independent factors associated with mortality. To determine the strongest glycemic variability parameter to predict mortality, the area under the receiver operating characteristic of each glycemic variability parameter was determined, and a pairwise comparison was performed. Results. Among the 528 patients, 17.8% (96/528) were nonsurvivors. Both survivor and nonsurvivor groups were clinically comparable. However, nonsurvivors had significantly higher median APACHE-II scores (23 [21, 27] vs. 18 [14, 22];  
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Aug 2020 12:50:00 +000
  • The Development of Critical Care Medicine in China: From SARS to COVID-19

    • Abstract: Background. Critical care medicine is a branch of medical science that deals with the characteristics and regularity of life-threatening processes initiated by any injury or disease and, accordingly, relevant treatment for patients with critical illness. Conceptions of critical care medicine in China stemmed in the early 1970s. Ever since the establishment of the first intensive care unit (ICU) along with the increasingly incomparable role of ICU in medical practices, critical care medicine has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medical and health system. Currently, critical care medicine as a secondary clinical discipline and a well-constructed science is in sustainable development on the way towards systematization and standardization. Methods. The gross domestic product (GDP) and population data were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics. The number of ICUs, ICU beds, and hospital beds and other data regarding ICU staffing and facility resources were obtained from the Yearbook of Health in the People’s Republic of China and National Bureau of Statistics. The mortality rates of SARS and COVID-19 and the number of health workers aiding Hubei amid COVID-19 pandemic were obtained from the National Health Commission. Findings. Critical care medicine in mainland China has made significant strides: both quantity and quality are progressing at a fast pace after SARS in 2003. Although there exist some disparities in healthcare personnel and medical resources, they have not hindered the country from mobilizing its healthcare workers and resources against a public health emergency.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 12:20:00 +000
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors towards Physical Assessment
           among Nurses Working in Intensive Care Units: A Multicenter
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Nurses working in the intensive care unit play an essential role in detecting patients at risk of deterioration through ongoing assessment and action in response to changing health status. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards physical assessment on critically ill patients among nurses working in the intensive care unit at Amhara regional state referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019. The research hypothesis: there is poor physical assessment knowledge, poor physical assessment attitude, and there are factors that are likely to affect nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards physical assessment providing this care to critically ill patients at Amhara regional state referral hospitals, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 299 nurses from March to September 2019. A convenience sampling method was used. Data were entered by using Epi Info 7.2.2 and analyzed by using STATA 14. The result was computed by descriptive statistics and to explore predictors of knowledge, and attitude linear regression analysis models were fitted, and the adjusted unstandardized beta (β) coefficient at 95% CI was used. A -value
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Aug 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Intravenous Fluid of Choice in Major Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic

    • Abstract: Background. Intravenous fluid therapy plays a role in maintaining the hemodynamic status for tissue perfusion and electrolyte hemostasis during surgery. Recent trials in critically ill patients reported serious side effects of some types of fluids. Since the most suitable type of fluid is debatable, a consensus in perioperative patients has not been reached. Method. We performed a systematic review of randomized control trials (RCTs) that compared two or more types of fluids in major abdominal surgery. The outcomes were related to bleeding, hemodynamic status, length of hospital stay, and complications, such as kidney injury, electrolyte abnormality, major cardiac adverse event, nausea, vomiting, and mortality. A literature search was performed using Medline and EMBASE up to December 2019. The data were pooled to investigate the effect of fluid on macrocirculation and intravascular volume effect. Results. Forty-three RCTs were included. Eighteen fluids were compared: nine were crystalloids and nine were colloids. The results were categorized into macrocirculation and intravascular volume effect, microcirculation, anti-inflammatory parameters, vascular permeability, renal function (colloids), renal function and electrolytes (crystalloids), coagulation and bleeding, return of bowel function, and postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV). We found that no specific type of fluid led to mortality and every type of colloid was equivalent in volume expansion and did not cause kidney injury. However, hydroxyethyl starch and dextran may lead to increased bleeding. Normal saline can cause kidney injury which can lead to renal replacement therapy, and dextrose fluid can decrease PONV. Conclusion. In our opinion, it is safe to give a balanced crystalloid as the maintenance fluid and give a colloid, such as HES130/0.4, 4% gelatin, or human albumin, as a volume expander.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Mortality Predictors and Associated Factors in Patients in the Intensive
           Care Unit: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been associated to an array of risk factors. Identification of risk factors potentially contribute to predict and reduce mortality rates in the ICU. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with the mortality and to analyze the survival. Method. A cross-sectional study conducted in two clinical and surgical ICU in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. We enrolled 316 patients with at least 48 h of hospitalization, minimum age of 18 years old, sedated or weaned, with RASS ≥ −3, between July 2017 and April 2018. We categorized data in (1) age and gender, (2) clinical condition, and (3) prevalence of delirium. Data from enrolled patients were collected from enrollment until death or ICU discharge. Patients’ outcomes were categorized in (1) death and (2) nondeath (discharge). Results. Twenty-one percent of participants died. Age (53 ± 17 years vs. 45 ± 18 years, ), electrolyte disturbance (30.3% vs 18.1%, ), glycemic index (33.3% vs 18.2%, ), tube feeding (83.3% vs 67.1%, ), mechanical ventilation (50% vs 35.7%, ), sedation with fentanyl (24.2 vs 13.6, ), use of insulin (33.8% vs 21.7%, ), and higher Charlson score (2.61 vs 2.17, ) were significantly associated with death on the adjusted model. However, the regression model indicated that patients admitted from the emergency (HR = 0.40, ) and glycemic index alterations (HR = 1.68, ) were associated with mortality. There was no statistically significant difference () in survival between patients with and without delirium, based on the survival analysis and length of hospitalization. Conclusion. The prevalence of death was 21%, and age, electrolyte disturbance, glycemic index, tube feeding, mechanical ventilation, sedation with fentanyl, use of insulin, and higher Charlson score were associated with mortality.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 19:20:01 +000
  • Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcome of Acute Kidney Injury in the
           Intensive Care Unit: A Single-Center Study from Jordan

    • Abstract: Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common serious problem affecting critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU). It increases their morbidity, mortality, length of ICU stay, and long-term risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods. A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary hospital in Jordan. Medical records of patients admitted to the medical ICU between 2013 and 2015 were reviewed. We aimed to identify the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI. Acute kidney injury network (AKIN) classification was used to define and stage AKI. Results. 2530 patients were admitted to medical ICU, and the incidence of AKI was 31.6%, mainly in stage 1 (59.4%). In multivariate analysis, increasing age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 (95% CI 1.1–1.3), P = 0.0001) and higher APACHE II score (OR = 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.7), P = 0.001) were predictors of AKI, with 20.4% of patients started on hemodialysis. At the time of discharge, 58% of patients with AKI died compared to 51.3% of patients without AKI (P = 0.05). 88% of patients with AKIN 3 died by the time of discharge compared to patients with AKIN 2 and 1 (75.3% and 61.2% respectively, P = 0.001). Conclusion. AKI is common in ICU patients, and it increases mortality and morbidity. Close attention for earlier detection and addressing risk factors for AKI is needed to decrease incidence, complications, and mortality.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • Continuous Estimation of Cardiac Output in Critical Care: A Noninvasive
           Method Based on Pulse Wave Transit Time Compared with Transpulmonary

    • Abstract: Purpose. Estimation of cardiac output (CO) and evaluation of change in CO as a result of therapeutic interventions are essential in critical care medicine. Whether noninvasive tools estimating CO, such as continuous cardiac output (esCCOTM) methods, are sufficiently accurate and precise to guide therapy needs further evaluation. We compared esCCOTM with an established method, namely, transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD). Patients and Methods. In a single center mixed ICU, esCCOTM was compared with the TPTD method in 38 patients. The primary endpoint was accuracy and precision. The cardiac output was assessed by two investigators at baseline and after eight hours. Results. In 38 critically ill patients, the two methods correlated significantly (r = 0.742). The Bland–Altman analysis showed a bias of 1.6 l/min with limits of agreement of −1.76 l/min and +4.98 l/min. The percentage error for COesCCO was 47%. The correlation of trends in cardiac output after eight hours was significant (r = 0.442), with a concordance of 74%. The performance of COesCCO could not be linked to the patient’s condition. Conclusion. The accuracy and precision of the esCCOTM method were not clinically acceptable for our critical patients. EsCCOTM also failed to reliably detect changes in cardiac output.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 12:35:01 +000
  • Free Fatty Acids in CSF and Neurological Clinical Scores: Prognostic Value
           for Stroke Severity in ICU

    • Abstract: Introduction. Brain ischemia initiated significant increase in FFAs in animal studies. Accumulation of FFA can lead to liberation of inflammatory byproducts that contribute to neuronal death. Increased risk of systemic thromboembolism was seen in animal models after FFA infusion possibly through activation of factor XII by stearic acids. The clinical studies that examined the relation between stroke in humans and CSF biomarkers are infrequent. Aim of Work. We tried to evaluate the potential role of FFAs in CSF in the diagnosis and the prognosis of ICU patients with AIS while comparing the results to traditional neurological scoring systems. Patients and Methods. Our study included 80 patients who were admitted to ICU with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) within 24 hours of the onset of cerebral infarction. CSF samples were obtained at admission. The FFA levels were measured using the sensitive enzyme-based colorimetric method. The NIHSS, GCS, and mRS were evaluated at admission and at 30 days. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the stroke outcome according to FFA levels in CSF. Results. Worsening of the GCS (2 at 30 days. The ROC curve showed a cutoff value of 0.27 nmol/µl, specificity of 69.2%, and sensitivity of 59.7%. There was a significant correlation between FFA in CSF and the NIHSS ≥ 16 at 30 days. The ROC curve showed a cutoff value of 0.27 nmol/µl, specificity of 72.2%, and sensitivity of 62.9%. Our study subdivided patients according to infarction volume and compared the 2 subgroups with FFA in CSF. We found a significant difference between 2 subgroups. FFA levels showed a positive correlation with infarction volume ≥145 ml. The ROC curve showed a cutoff value of 0.25 nmol/µl, sensitivity of 76.9%, and specificity of 71.4%. Our study showed that FFA in CSF was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (0.37 + 0.26, value 0.007). The ROC curve showed a cutoff value of 0.27, specificity of 72.2%, and sensitivity of 62.9%. There was a positive correlation between FFA in CSF and neurological causes of mortality (0.48 + 0.38, value 0.037). The ROC curve showed a cutoff value of 0.37 nmol/µl, specificity of 76.1%, and sensitivity of 61.5%. Conclusion. FFA in CSF may serve as an independent prognostic biomarker for assessing the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke and the clinical outcome. It might be a useful biomarker for early detection of high-risk patients for poor outcome and hence more aggressive treatment.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 15:35:00 +000
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Interfacility Transport: An International

    • Abstract: Background. With the regionalization of specialty care, there is an increasing need for interfacility transport from local to regional hospitals. There are very limited data on rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during medical transport and relationship between transport-specific factors, such as transport program type and need of CPR during transport of critically ill patients. We present the first, multicenter, international report of CPR during medical transport using the large Ground and Air Medical qUality Transport (GAMUT) database. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the GAMUT database from January 2014 to March 2017 for CPR during transport. We determined the overall CPR rate and CPR rates for adult, pediatric, and neonatal transport programs. The rate of CPR per total transports was expressed as percentage, and then, Spearman’s rho nonparametric associations were determined between CPR and other quality metrics tracked in the GAMUT database. Examples include advanced airway presence, waveform capnography usage, average mobilization time from the start of referral until en route, 1st attempt intubation success rate, and DASH1A intubation success (definitive airway sans hypoxia/hypotension on 1st attempt). Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, and in the presence of overall significance, post hoc Bonferroni adjusted z tests were performed. Results. There were 72 programs that had at least one CPR event during the study period. The overall CPR rate was 0.42% (777 CPR episodes/184,272 patient contacts) from 115 programs reporting transport volume and CPR events from the GAMUT database during the study period. Adult, pediatric, and neonatal transport programs (n = 57, 40 and 16, respectively) had significantly different CPR rates () i.e., 0.68% (555/82,094), 0.18% (138/76,430), and 0.33% (73/21,823), respectively. Presence of an advanced airway and mobilization time was significantly associated with CPR episodes () (Rs = +0.41 and Rs  = −0.60, respectively). Other transport quality metrics such as waveform capnography, first attempt intubation, and DASH1A success rate were not significantly associated with CPR episodes. Conclusion. The overall CPR rate during medical transport is 0.42%. Adult, pediatric, and neonatal program types have significantly different overall rates of CPR. Presence of advanced airway and mobilization time had an association with the rate of CPR during transport.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Jul 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Effect of Early Mobilization on Respiratory and Limb Muscle Strength and
           Functionality of Nonintubated Patients in Critical Care: A Feasibility

    • Abstract: Purpose. To assess the potential effectiveness or efficacy of early mobilization on respiratory and peripheral muscle strengths and functionality in nonintubated patients. Methods. For 40 nonintubated patients over 18 years of age with over 24-hour intensive care unit (ICU) stay allocated to a single intervention, an incremental mobilization protocol was initiated. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP), peripheral muscle strength (handgrip strength (HGS) and Medical Research Council scale (MRC-s)), and functionality (FIM, ICF-BMS, PFIT-s, and FSS-ICU scales) were evaluated at ICU admission and discharge. Results. All outcomes were significantly improved (pre vs. post values): MIP (43.93 ± 21.95 vs. 54.12 ± 21.68 cmH2O; ), MEP (50.32 ± 28.65 vs. 60.30 ± 21.23; ), HGS (25.5 (9.58) vs. 27.5 (9.48); ), MRC-s (58.52 ± 2.84 vs. 59.47 ± 1.81; ), FIM (54.4 ± 22.79 vs. 69.48 ± 12.74), ICF-BMS (28.63 ± 16.19 vs. 14.03 ± 11.15), PFIT-s (9.55 ± 2.34 vs. 11.18 ± 1.32) (), and FSS-ICU (28.7 ± 9.1 vs. 32.6 ± 5.0; ). The ceiling effect at admission/discharge was in MRC-s (60/82.5%), FSS-ICU (50/70%), and FIM (35/62.5%). The floor effect occurred at discharge in ICF-BMS (7.5/52.5%). Conclusions. The early mobilization protocol seemed effective at maintaining/increasing the respiratory muscle strength and functionality of nonintubated patients in critical care. Ceiling effect was high for MRC-s, FSS-ICU, and FIM scales.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jun 2020 07:50:00 +000
  • Efficacy of Thiamine in the Treatment of Postcardiac Arrest Patients: A
           Randomized Controlled Study

    • Abstract: Background. Thiamine administration has been shown to improve survival in a postcardiac arrest animal study. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thiamine in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients following return of spontaneous circulation. Methods. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Thirty-seven OHCA patients were randomly assigned to receive either thiamine 100 mg every 8 hours or a placebo. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality. Results. Over the course of 2 years, 37 patients were randomized to either receive thiamine (n = 20) or a placebo (n = 17). The primary outcome was not different between the groups: 10/20 (50%) in the thiamine group vs. 8/17 (47.1%) in the placebo group ( by the log-rank test). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes between the groups (good neurological outcome, lactate level, and S100B level). Conclusions. In this study, there were no significant differences in survival outcome. Further studies with a larger population are necessary to confirm these results.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jun 2020 04:35:00 +000
  • Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Influencing Factors regarding Physical
           Restraint Use in the Intensive Care Unit: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional

    • Abstract: Background. Physical restraint is a common practice in the intensive care units which often result in frequent skin laceration at restraint site, limb edema, restricted circulation, and worsening of agitation that may even end in death. Despite the sensitivity of the problem, however, it is felt that there are nurses’ evidence-based practice gaps in Ethiopia. To emphasize the importance of this subject, relevant evidence is required to develop protocols and to raise evidence-based practices of health professionals. So, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and influencing factors of nurses regarding physical restraint use in the intensive care units in northwest Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was maintained from March to September 2019 at Amhara regional state referral hospitals, northwest Ethiopia. A total of 260 nurses in the intensive care units were invited to take part in the study by a convenience sampling technique. The Level of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Staff regarding Physical Restraints Questionnaire was used to assess the nurses’ knowledge and attitude. Linear regression analysis was employed to examine the influencing factors of knowledge and attitude. Adjusted unstandardized beta (β) coefficient with a 95% confidence interval was used to report the result of association with a value 
      PubDate: Fri, 22 May 2020 16:20:00 +000
  • Cardiovascular Safety of Clonidine and Dexmedetomidine in Critically Ill
           Patients after Cardiac Surgery

    • Abstract: Purpose. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the haemodynamic adverse effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients after cardiac surgery. Methods. 2769 patients were screened during the 30-month study period. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and norepinephrine requirements were assessed 3-hourly during the first 12 hours of the continuous drug infusion. Results are given as median (interquartile range) or numbers (percentages). Results. Patients receiving clonidine (n = 193) were younger (66 (57–73) vs 70 (63–77) years, ) and had a lower SAPS II (35 (27–48) vs 41 (31–54), ) compared with patients receiving dexmedetomidine (n = 141). At the start of the drug infusion, HR (90 (75–100) vs 90 (80–105) bpm, ), MAP (70 (65–80) vs 70 (65–75) mmHg, ), and norepinephrine (0.05 (0.00–0.11) vs 0.12 (0.03–0.19) mcg/kg/min, ) were recorded in patients with clonidine and dexmedetomidine. Bradycardia (HR 
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 06:50:00 +000
  • Is Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress the Key Contributor to Diaphragm Atrophy
           and Dysfunction in Critically Ill Patients'

    • Abstract: Diaphragm dysfunction is prevalent in the progress of respiratory dysfunction in various critical illnesses. Respiratory muscle weakness may result in insufficient ventilation, coughing reflection suppression, pulmonary infection, and difficulty in weaning off respirators. All of these further induce respiratory dysfunction and even threaten the patients’ survival. The potential mechanisms of diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction include impairment of myofiber protein anabolism, enhancement of myofiber protein degradation, release of inflammatory mediators, imbalance of metabolic hormones, myonuclear apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress. Among these contributors, mitochondrial oxidative stress is strongly implicated to play a key role in the process as it modulates diaphragm protein synthesis and degradation, induces protein oxidation and functional alteration, enhances apoptosis and autophagy, reduces mitochondrial energy supply, and is regulated by inflammatory cytokines via related signaling molecules. This review aims to provide a concise overview of pathological mechanisms of diaphragmatic dysfunction in critically ill patients, with special emphasis on the role and modulating mechanisms of mitochondrial oxidative stress.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Apr 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • Efficacy of Simple Eye Ointment, Polyethylene Cover, and Eyelid Taping in
           Prevention of Ocular Surface Disorders in Critically Ill Patients: A
           Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. Under normal conditions, the cornea of the eye is protected from bacterial invasion, physical injury, and drying by the presence of tears, eyelids, and blinking reflex. However, patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for several reasons including loss of consciousness, receiving sedative and neuromuscular blocking agents, and mechanical ventilation may lose eye-protective mechanisms causing exposure keratopathy. Therefore, this study intended to compare three eye care methods to prevent ocular surface disorders (OSDs) in ICU patients. Methods. This study was a double-blind clinical trial (IRCT: 201109225426N3,, in which 152 patients were randomized into three groups and each group underwent a different eye care procedure. The eye care methods included simple eye ointment, polyethylene cover, and eyelid taping. The eligible patients received the care procedure for seven days, and their corneas were examined daily for OSD by a portable slit lamp with fluorescein staining. Descriptive and analytical tests (ANOVA, chi-square, logistic regression, and zero-inflated Poisson regression) were used for statistical analysis by STATA14. Results. The odds of OSD (chances of getting an OSD grade between I and VI) in the ointment group were 0.19 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.41), and the odds of OSD in the polyethylene cover group were 0.06 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.20), showing a significant difference with the tape group (). Despite the lower odds of OSD in the cover group than in the ointment group, there was no significant between-group difference (). However, the mean OSD scores in both the ointment and polyethylene cover groups were significantly lower than that in the tape group. Conclusion. The results of this study showed that polyethylene cover followed by simple eye ointment and eyelid taping were the most effective methods in preventing OSD. Therefore, polyethylene cover and simple eye ointment are recommended as effective eye care methods in ICU.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 12:05:02 +000
  • Characterization and Outcome of Two Pediatric Intensive Care Units with
           Different Resources

    • Abstract: Background. The pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in developing countries have a higher mortality outcome due to a wide variety of causes. Identifying differences in the structure, patient characteristics, and outcome between PICUs with different resources may add evidence to the need for incorporating more PICUs with limited resources in the contemporary critical care research to improve the care provided for severely ill children. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted at Egyptian and Japanese PICUs as examples of resource-limited and resource-rich units, respectively. We collected and compared data of nonsurgical patients admitted between March 2018 and February 2019, including the patients’ demographics, diagnosis, PICU length of stay, outcome, predicted risk of mortality using pediatric index of mortality-2 (PIM-2), and functional neurological status using the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scale. Results. The Egyptian unit had a lower number of beds with a higher number of annual admission/bed than the Japanese unit. There was a shortage in the number of the skilled staff at the Egyptian unit. Nurse : patient ratios in both units were only similar at the nighttime (1 : 2). Most of the basic equipment and supplies were available at the Egyptian unit. Both actual and PIM-2 predicted mortalities were markedly higher for patients admitted to the Egyptian unit, and the mortality was significantly associated with age, severe sepsis, and PIM-2. The length of stay was shorter at the Egyptian unit. Conclusion. The inadequate structure and the burden of more severely ill children at the Egyptian unit appear to be the most important causes behind the higher mortality at this unit. Increasing the number of qualified staff and providing cost-effective equipment may help in improving the mortality outcome and the quality of care.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 07:05:01 +000
  • Early Driving Pressure Changes Predict Outcomes during Venovenous
           Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Distress

    • Abstract: Background. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) serves as a rescue therapy when systemic hypoxia persists despite conventional care for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Due to the extracorporeal gas exchange, the paO2/FiO2 ratio cannot be used as the primary marker for disease severity and progression. Therefore, we performed a propensity score-matched analysis to identify other potential predictors of outcomes in patients supported by ECMO therapy. Results. Between December 2014 and May 2018, 105 patients underwent venovenous ECMO in our institution. From these patients, we identified 28 who died during ECMO therapy and assigned 28 control patients using propensity score matching based on the following criteria: age, ARDS severity, and SAPSII score at admission. A statistical evaluation of the patient characteristics, intensive care data, morbidities, respiratory system variables, and outcomes was performed. The baseline patient characteristics did not differ between groups and ECMO was placed on day 1 in all patients. The analyzed variables of respiratory mechanics, such as the plateau pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and tidal volume, did not differ between groups. The driving pressure before ECMO was equal between the nonsurvivors and the controls. Twelve hours after initiation of ECMO therapy, the driving pressure decreased by 40.8% in the survivors but by only 20.1% in the nonsurvivors. Conclusions. We report that very early driving pressure changes can serve as an indicator of disease severity and predict patient survival following ECMO therapy.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Mar 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • Sonographic Assessment of Intravascular Fluid Estimate (SAFE) Score by
           Using Bedside Ultrasound in the Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Objective. The objective of the study was to use an ultrasound-based numerical scoring system for assessment of intravascular fluid estimate (SAFE) and test its validity. Methods. A prospective, observational study was carried out in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of an urban tertiary care teaching hospital. Patient’s intravascular volume status was assessed using the standard methods of heart rate, blood pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output, lactate and saturation of venous oxygen, and others. This was compared with assessment using bedside ultrasound evaluation of the cardiac function, inferior vena cava, lungs, and the internal jugular vein. Applying a numerical scoring system was evaluated by Fisher’s exact testing and multinomial logistic model to predict the volume status based on ultrasound scores and the classification accuracy. Results. 61 patients in the ICU were evaluated. 21 (34.4% of total) patients diagnosed with hypovolemia, and their ultrasound volume score was −4 in 14 (66.7%) patients, −3 in 5 (23.8%) patients, and 0 in 2 (9.5%) patients (). 18 (29.5% of total) patients diagnosed with euvolemia, and their ultrasound volume score was 0 in 11 (61.1%) patients, +1 in 4 (22.2%) patients, and −1 in 1 (5.6%) patient (). 22 (36.1% of total) patients diagnosed with hypervolemia, and their ultrasound volume score was +4 in 4 (18.2%) patients, +3 in 15 (68.2%) patients, and  + 1 in 1 (4.6%) patient (). We found a strong association between standard measures and the ultrasound score ().Conclusion. Using the SAFE scoring system to identify the IVV status in critically ill patients significantly correlates with the standard measures. A SAFE score of −4 to −2 more likely represents hypovolemia, −1 to +1 more likely represents euvolemia, and +2 to +4 more likely to be hypervolemia.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Feb 2020 13:20:00 +000
  • Genetic Diversity of Imipenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections
           at an Intensive Care Unit

    • Abstract: Introduction. Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (IRAB) represents a major clinical threat. Dissemination in critical care areas necessitates effective action measures including genotyping tools to study the clonality of these strains and trace their origin. The main aim of this study is to assess the genetic relatedness between IRAB isolates in our institution intensive care units (ICU) which are at a particular risk of outbreaks. Methods. Nonreplicate IRAB strains were serially collected over 3 years period (January 2016–December 2018) from patients admitted to the ICU. The isolates were phenotypically identified by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight- (MALDI-TOF-) based system (VITEK MS), and their susceptibility was tested by the phenotypic-based VITEK 2 system. Molecular fingerprinting was performed by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR) followed by hierarchal clustering. The patterns were analysed by the software of BioNumerics package version 7.6.3 (Applied Maths, Belgium). Results. A total of eighty IRAB were isolated from 31 colonization and 59 infection sites in patients admitted to the ICU. Sixty-two samples were respiratory in origin (77.5%). The generated dendrogram revealed distinct patterns for majority (95%) of the strains. Meropenem maintained activity against 43.8% of the imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. Conclusion. Meropenem can be a therapeutic option for imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. The banding patterns propose that multiple IRAB strains are circulating in the intensive care units of the institution. Drivers for this diversity need to be evaluated including antimicrobial consumption.
      PubDate: Fri, 21 Feb 2020 05:05:01 +000
  • Vasopressors and Nutrition Therapy: Safe Dose for the Outset of Enteral

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Patients with hemodynamic instability need to receive intensive treatment as fluid replacement and vasoactive drugs. In the meantime, it is supposed to initiate nutritional therapy within 24 to 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), as an essential part of patient’s intensive care and better outcomes. However, there are many controversies tangential to the prescription of enteral nutrition (EN) concomitant to the use of vasopressor and its doses. In this way, the present study aimed to identify what the literature presents of evidence to guide the clinical practice concerning the safe dose of vasopressors for the initiation of nutritional therapy in critically ill patients. Methods. This review was carried out in PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Medline databases. The descriptors were used to perform the search strategy: Critical Care, Intensive Care Units, Vasoconstrictor Agents, and Enteral Nutrition. Inclusion criteria were patients of both genders, over 18 years of age, using vasoactive drugs, with the possibility of receiving EN therapy, and articles written in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. In addition, exclusion criteria were case reports, non-papers, and repeated papers. Results. 10 articles met our inclusion criteria. Conclusion. It was observed that there are many controversies about the supply of EN in critically ill patients using vasopressor, especially about the safe dose, and it was not possible to identify a cutoff value for the beginning therapy. Despite the drug doses, clinical signs are still the most important parameters in the evaluation of EN tolerance.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 14:35:00 +000
  • Acute Kidney Injury Outcomes of Elderly and Nonelderly Patients in the
           Medical Intensive Care Unit of a University Hospital in a Developing

    • Abstract: Background. Aging is associated with a high risk of acute kidney injury (AKI), and the elderly with AKI show a higher mortality rate than those without AKI. In this study, we compared AKI outcomes between elderly and nonelderly patients in a university hospital in a developing country. Materials and Methods. This retrospective cohort study included patients with AKI who were admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU) between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2017. The patients were divided into the elderly (eAKI; age ≥65 years; n = 158) and nonelderly (nAKI; n = 142) groups. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, principle diagnosis, renal replacement therapy (RRT) requirement, hospital course, and in-hospital mortality were recorded. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results. The eAKI group included more females, patients with higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and patients with more comorbidities than the nAKI group. The etiology and staging of AKI were similar between the two groups. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality () and RRT requirement () between the two groups. After adjusting for covariates, the 28-day mortality rate was similar between the two groups (), but the 28-day RRT requirement was higher in the eAKI group than in the nAKI group ().Conclusion. Elderly and nonelderly ICU patients showed similar survival outcomes of AKI, although the elderly were at a higher risk of requiring RRT.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jan 2020 11:50:02 +000
  • Early Mobilization Interventions in the Intensive Care Unit: Ongoing and
           Unpublished Randomized Trials

    • Abstract: Background. Critical care societies recommend early mobilization (EM) as standard practice in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. However, there is limited randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence supporting EM’s effectiveness. Our objective was to identify ongoing or completed RCTs assessing EM’s effectiveness in the ICU. Method. We searched and the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry for ongoing or completed but not published RCTs in an ICU setting with objective outcome measures. Results. There were 14 RCTs included in the analysis. All studies were in the general or mixed ICU setting (). Half of the studies () were small RCTs (
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Jan 2020 14:35:06 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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