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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 293 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 293 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 196)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
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J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
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J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)

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Journal Cover Biochemistry Research International
  [SJR: 1.085]   [H-I: 17]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2090-2247 - ISSN (Online) 2090-2255
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [293 journals]
  • Streptozotocin-Induced Adaptive Modification of Mitochondrial
           Supercomplexes in Liver of Wistar Rats and the Protective Effect of
           Moringa oleifera Lam

    • Abstract: The increasing prevalence of diabetes continues to be a major health issue worldwide. Alteration of mitochondrial electron transport chain is a recognized hallmark of the diabetic-associated decline in liver bioenergetics; however, the molecular events involved are only poorly understood. Moringa oleifera is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, its role on mitochondrial functionality is not yet established. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera extract on supercomplex formation, ATPase activity, ROS production, GSH levels, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonylation. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation were increased in diabetic group. However, the levels were decreased in Moringa-treated diabetic rats. Analysis of in-gel activity showed an increase in all complex activities in the diabetic group, but spectrophotometric determinations of complex II and IV activities were unaffected in this treatment. However, we found an oxygen consumption abolition through complex I-III-IV pathway in the diabetic group treated with Moringa. While respiration with succinate feeding into complex II-III-IV was increased in the diabetic group. These findings suggest that hyperglycemia modifies oxygen consumption, supercomplexes formation, and increases ROS levels in mitochondria from the liver of STZ-diabetic rats, whereas M. oleifera may have a protective role against some alterations.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessment of Salivary Adipokines Resistin, Visfatin, and Ghrelin as Type
           2 Diabetes Mellitus Biomarkers

    • Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is emerging as a metabolic epidemic worldwide. Pathologically, dysregulation of many biological pathways precedes hyperglycemia and the clinical diagnosis of T2DM. Changing trajectories along the process of T2DM development necessitates frequent measurement of biomarkers for early identification of at-risk individuals and successful prevention. Increase in circulating inflammatory adipokines has been suggested as predictive of T2DM. Human saliva is an easily accessible biospecimen amenable for painless frequent collection and possesses nearly 50% of serum proteome. In this study, we measured the adipokines resistin, visfatin, TNF-α, and ghrelin as markers for T2DM in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) using specific assay kits. Resistin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher in T2DM saliva. Although the concentration of acylated or unacylated ghrelin was lower in diabetic saliva, the decrease was not significant. Since resistin and visfatin are biomarkers integral to T2DM pathology, their salivary assessments may receive clinical acceptance.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Postrecruitment Function of Yeast Med6 Protein during the Transcriptional
           Activation by Mediator Complex

    • Abstract: Med6 protein (Med6p) is a hallmark component of evolutionarily conserved Mediator complexes, and the genuine role of Med6p in Mediator functions remains elusive. For the functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Med6p (scMed6p), we generated a series of scMed6p mutants harboring a small internal deletion. Genetic analysis of these mutants revealed that three regions (amino acids 33–42 (Δ2), 125–134 (Δ5), and 157–166 (Δ6)) of scMed6p are required for cell viability and are located at highly conserved regions of Med6 homologs. Notably, the Med6p-Δ2 mutant was barely detectable in whole-cell extracts and purified Mediator, suggesting a loss of Mediator association and concurrent rapid degradation. Consistent with this, the recombinant forms of Med6p having these mutations partially (Δ2) restore or fail (Δ5 and Δ6) to restore in vitro transcriptional defects caused by temperature-sensitive med6 mutation. In an artificial recruitment assay, Mediator containing a LexA-fused wild-type Med6p or Med6p-Δ5 was recruited to the lexA operator region with TBP and activated reporter gene expression. However, the recruitment of Mediator containing LexA-Med6p-Δ6 to lexA operator region resulted in neither TBP recruitment nor reporter gene expression. This result demonstrates a pivotal role of Med6p in the postrecruitment function of Mediator, which is essential for transcriptional activation by Mediator.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Genistein Exposure Interferes with Pharmacokinetics of Celecoxib in SD
           Male Rats by UPLC-MS/MS

    • Abstract: Objective. To discuss the effects of genistein on the metabolism of celecoxib in vitro and in vivo. Method. In vitro, the effects of genistein on the metabolism of celecoxib were studied using rat and human liver microsomes. In vivo, pharmacokinetics of celecoxib was evaluated in rats with or without genistein. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into three groups: celecoxib (A group), celecoxib and 50 mg/kg genistein (B group), and celecoxib and 100 mg/kg genistein (C group). Single dose of 33.3 mg/kg celecoxib was orally administered 30 min after genistein ig. At 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h after celecoxib administration, 300–400 µl blood samples were collected and the concentration of celecoxib was analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Result. Genistein showed notable inhibitory effects on three microsomes. It affected pharmacokinetics of celecoxib in vivo experiments. Genistein had dramatically ability to suppress CYP2C9∗1 and ∗3. After pretreatment with genistein, AUC and Cmax of the C group were higher than B group. CLz/F of C group was lower than the B group. Conclusion. Genistein inhibits the conversion of celecoxib in vitro and in vivo. So, the dosage of celecoxib should be adjusted if it was used associated with genistein.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Dec 2017 09:45:40 +000
       
  • Biochemical Analysis of Histone Succinylation

    • Abstract: Posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins is used to regulate protein activity and stability. Histone PTMs are regarded as some of the most important, as they can directly regulate gene expression through chromatin reorganization. Recently, histone proteins were found to undergo succinylation, adding to other well-known PTMs such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. However, there is little information regarding the enzyme which catalyzes histone lysine succinylation. In fact, it is unclear whether this reaction is enzymatic. In this study, we tested histone succinylation activity in vitro using cell nuclear extracts of HepG2 cells. Although whole nuclear extracts did not show histone succinylation activity, we found that an SP 1.0 M KCl fraction of nuclear extracts indeed had such activity. These data offer the first direct evidence that histone succinylation is an enzymatic PTM as are other histone codes in the nucleus.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Antioxidant and Antiradical Properties of Selected Flavonoids and Phenolic
           Compounds

    • Abstract: Phenolic compounds and flavonoids are known by their antioxidant properties and one of the most important sources for humans is the diet. Due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA and BHT, natural novel antioxidants have become the focus of attention for protecting foods and beverages and reducing oxidative stress in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the total antioxidant, metal chelating, Fe3+ and Cu2+ reduction, and free radical scavenging activities of some phenolic and flavonoid compounds including malvin, oenin, ID-8, silychristin, callistephin, pelargonin, 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, and arachidonoyl dopamine. The antioxidant properties of these compounds at different concentrations (10–30 μg/mL) were compared with those of reference antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol, and trolox. Each substance showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, oenin, malvin, arachidonoyl dopamine, callistephin, silychristin, and 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid exhibited more effective antioxidant activity than that observed for the reference antioxidants. These results suggest that these novel compounds may function to protect foods and medicines and to reduce oxidative stress in vivo.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • In Vitro Evaluation of Essential Oils Derived from Piper nigrum
           (Piperaceae) and Citrus limonum (Rutaceae) against the Tick Rhipicephalus
           (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    • Abstract: The present research aimed to study the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of Citrus limonum and Piper nigrum essential oils against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. GC-MS analysis of C. limonum essential oil showed limonene (50.3%), β-pinene (14.4%), and γ-terpinene (11.7%) as the major components; P. nigrum oil was mainly composed of β-caryophyllene (26.2%), σ-ocymene (5.8%), and α-pinene (5.5%). Acaricide activity was evaluated at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% (v/v) of each plant oil, as well as 1 : 1 combination of both oils (5% : 5%, 2.5% : 2.5%, and 1.25% : 1.25% each), by immersing engorged R. microplus females for one minute. The LC90 of oils from C. limonum, P. nigrum, and the combination were 4.9%, 14.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. C. limonum essential oil caused 100% mortality of engorged females at the highest concentration (10%). P. nigrum essential oil inhibited egg-laying by up to 96% in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting it reduces tick fecundity. When combined, the oils presented toxicity as to C. limonum oil alone, but with stronger inhibition of oviposition (5% : 5%), indicating a possible additive effect against R. microplus. The present data provide support for further investigation of novel natural products to control bovine tick infestations.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Protective Effect of Naringenin-Oxime on Cisplatin-Induced Toxicity in
           Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the protective effect of naringenin-oxime (NOX) on cisplatin-induced major organ toxicity and DNA damage in rats. Thirty-five male Wistar albino rats were equally split into five groups as follows: control (i.p., 0.1 ml of saline), Cis administration (i.p., 7 mg/kg b.w.), NOX treatment (i.p., 20 mg/kg b.w., daily for ten days), Cis + NOX20, and Cis + NOX40 combination (i.p., 20 and 40 mg/kg b.w., daily for ten days). Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMC) were obtained from blood. Malondialdehyde, glutathione, total antioxidant and oxidant status, and catalase were measured in serum, liver, and kidney, and oxidative stress index was calculated. In parallel, paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were tested in liver and serum. We used 8-OHdOG as a marker for DNA damage in serum via ELISA and in PMBC via comet assay. Treatment with Cis elevated the levels of serum biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. Pretreatments of NOX restored biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in serum, renal, and liver tissues () and reduced 8-OHdG level, a finding further supported by comet assay in PBMC. Observations of the present study support the fact that treatment with NOX prevents Cis-induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and genotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 10:05:48 +000
       
  • Serum Transthyretin Level as a Plausible Marker for Diagnosis of Child
           Acute Malnutrition

    • Abstract: Malnutrition is a major underlying condition for mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia. The most important forms of malnutrition in Ethiopia are protein and energy deficiencies. There is no reliable laboratory method at present to assess acute malnutrition. Transthyretin is a homotetrameric serum protein with half-life of two days. The main objective of this study was to assess the estimation of serum transthyretin level as a useful diagnostic method to evaluate nutritional status of children. We used a newly designed transthyretin test kit to evaluate nutritional status of children admitted to our hospital. There is no national reference standard; hence we made a comparative study using anthropometric measurements and measurement of serum albumin level. A total of 102 children (51 controls and 51 study subjects) were included in this study. Transthyretin was found to be more sensitive to changes in acute malnutrition than albumin, and its level reflects recent dietary intake compared to overall nutritional status. The method is more sensitive and reliable for detection of acute malnutrition, along with anthropometric methods. Measurement of serum transthyretin level can be used as a valuable diagnostic method for assessment of acute malnutrition among children.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Synthesis and Evaluation of In Vitro Antibacterial and Antitumor
           Activities of Novel N,N-Disubstituted Schiff Bases

    • Abstract: To get inside the properties of N,N-disubstituted Schiff bases, we synthesized three high-yielding benzaldehyde Schiff bases. We used the reaction between salicylaldehyde and different diamine compounds, including diamine, ethanediamine, and o-phenylenediamine, determining the structure of obtained molecules by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. We thus evaluated the microbicidal and antitumor activity of these compounds, showing that salicylaldehyde-hydrazine hydrate Schiff base (compound 1a) significantly inhibited the growth of S. aureus; salicylaldehyde-o-phenylenediamine Schiff base (compound 1c) displayed a strong capability to inhibit the proliferation of leukemia cell lines K562 and HEL. Moreover, we observed that the antibacterial action of 1a might be associated with the regulation of the expression of key virulence genes in S. aureus. Compound 1c resulted in a strong apoptotic activity against leukemia cells, also affecting the cell cycle distribution. Overall, our novel N,N-disubstituted Schiff bases possess unique antibacterial or antitumor activities that exhibit the potent application prospect in prophylactic or therapeutic interventions, providing new insights for developing new antibacterial and anticancer chemical agents.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 08:24:50 +000
       
  • Elevated Cardiovascular Risks among Postmenopausal Women: A Community
           Based Case Control Study from Nepal

    • Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide which is more prevalent in women after menopause. Hormonal changes associated with menopause are accountable for dyslipidemic pattern that causes CVD and associated complications. Therefore, the present study was commenced to compare the lipid profile in pre- and postmenopausal women. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences (MMIHS) from February 2016 to July 2016. A total of 260 fasting samples were collected from healthy women, 130 from premenopausal and 130 from postmenopausal women, and analyzed for Total Cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TAG), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) as per the guideline provided by the reagent manufacturer (Human, Germany). All the parameters were analyzed by Stat Fax 3300 semi auto analyzer. TC, TAG, HDL-C, and LDL-C were highly significantly increased in postmenopausal women when compared to premenopausal women. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly elevated in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. BMI was significantly positively correlated with TC and TAG in both pre- and postmenopausal population and it was positively correlated with HDL-C in premenopausal population while negatively correlated in postmenopausal population. Since more of the atherogenic lipid parameters are increased in postmenopausal women, they appear to be more prone to have CVD and associated complications in near future. Hence, it is mandatory to monitor and manage dyslipidemic pattern in every woman experiencing menopause.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2017 09:56:28 +000
       
  • Biochemical Content of Cambium of Abies nephrolepis Eaten by Bears on the
           Far East of Russia

    • Abstract: The peculiarity of bears behavior of stripping of bark is typical for all species. We have described the damage to trees, by Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and brown bear (U. arctos) in Primorsky Krai and by brown bears on the Sakhalin Island during 1998–2015. In this study, we studied the damaged bark of the tree only in cases where it was clear that part of the cambium was eaten by bears. Cambium of species Abies nephrolepis is the most preferred for bear consumption in Primorsky Krai. We distinguished very large seasonal fluctuations in the amount of its consumption. The greatest interest of bears in this kind of food is in the summer time. We have analyzed the composition of the cambium of A. nephrolepis. These results suggest that the important purpose of the use of this kind of food is to restore and maintain the normal functioning of the intestines.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Salivary Distinctiveness and Modifications in Males with Diabetes and
           Behçet’s Disease

    • Abstract: Oral diseases associated with systematic diseases as metabolic and vasculitic have been included in this paper. This will enhance our understanding of the salivary function in promoting healthy oral condition. The study investigates the effects of type I and type II diabetes mellitus in well-controlled diabetic patients, in addition to Behçet disease (BD) on saliva flow rate (SFR), pH, the decay, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index, glucose, and major earth-alkaline ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) compared to healthy males and age-matched controls. Saliva samples were collected from 1403 male human subjects, distributed on 7 levels including 3 control groups, and analyzed. The symptoms and clinical observations were enrolled. A preprandial salivary glucose has illustrated statistically strong significant and positive correlations with and blood glucose levels. TIDM saliva showed lower pH, SFR, and Ca2+ but higher Mg2+, caries risk, and poor metabolic control. These led to dysfunction of secretory capacity of salivary glands. TIIDM proved higher SFR, DMFT, and glucose than TIDM patients. DM oral calcium has decreased by age while magnesium sharply slopes at seniority. BD oral fluid is associated with lower glucose and minerals but noticeably with both higher pH and DMFT.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Protective Effect of Edaravone against Carbon Monoxide Induced Apoptosis
           in Rat Primary Cultured Astrocytes

    • Abstract: Objective. To observe the protective effect of edaravone (Eda) on astrocytes after prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and further to investigate the potential mechanisms of Eda against CO-induced apoptosis. Methods. The rat primary cultured astrocytes were cultured in vitro and exposed to 1% CO for 24 h after being cultured with different concentrations of Eda. MTT assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of CO. Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate, membrane potential of mitochondria, and ROS level. The mRNA and protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results. Eda can significantly suppress cytotoxicity of CO, and it can significantly increase membrane potential of mitochondria and Bcl-2 expressions and significantly suppress the apoptosis rate, ROS level, Bax, and caspase-3 expressions. Conclusion. Eda protects against CO-induced apoptosis in rat primary cultured astrocytes through decreasing ROS production and subsequently inhibiting mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Feb 2017 08:34:11 +000
       
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Norathyriol and Mangiferin on
           α-Glucosidase

    • Abstract: Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin. Mangiferin has been reported to inhibit α-glucosidase. To the best of our knowledge, no study has been conducted to determine or compare those two compounds on inhibiting α-glucosidase in vitro and in vivo by far. In this study, we determined the inhibitory activity of norathyriol and mangiferin on α-glucosidase in vitro and evaluated their antidiabetic effect in diabetic mice. The results showed that norathyriol inhibited α-glucosidase in a noncompetitive manner with an IC50 value of 3.12 μM, which is more potent than mangiferin (IC50 = 358.54 μM) and positive drug acarbose (IC50 = 479.2 μM) in the zymological experiment. Both of norathyriol and mangiferin caused significant () reduction in fasting blood glucose and the blood glucose levels at two hours after carbohydrate loading and it was interesting that mangiferin and norathyriol can make the decline of the blood glucose earlier than other groups ever including normal group in the starch tolerance test. However, norathyriol and mangiferin did not significantly influence carbohydrate absorption in the glucose tolerance test. Therefore, the antidiabetic effects of norathyriol and mangiferin might be associated with α-glucosidase, and norathyriol was more potent than mangiferin.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jan 2017 09:05:03 +000
       
  • Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates

    • Abstract: Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i) the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii) the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii) the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Dec 2016 07:34:01 +000
       
  • Crystal Structures of Two Isozymes of Citrate Synthase from Sulfolobus
           tokodaii Strain 7

    • Abstract: Thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7 has two citrate synthase genes (ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS) in the genome with 45% sequence identity. Because they exhibit similar optimal temperatures of catalytic activity and thermal inactivation profiles, we performed structural comparisons between these isozymes to elucidate adaptation mechanisms to high temperatures in thermophilic CSs. The crystal structures of ST1805-CS and ST0587-CS were determined at 2.0 Å and 2.7 Å resolutions, respectively. Structural comparison reveals that both of them are dimeric enzymes composed of two identical subunits, and these dimeric structures are quite similar to those of citrate synthases from archaea and eubacteria. ST0587-CS has, however, 55 ion pairs within whole dimer structure, while having only 36 in ST1805-CS. Although the number and distributions of ion pairs are distinct from each other, intersubunit ion pairs between two domains of each isozyme are identical especially in interterminal region. Because the location and number of ion pairs are in a trend with other CSs from thermophilic microorganisms, the factors responsible for thermal adaptation of ST-CS isozymes are characterized by ion pairs in interterminal region.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Aug 2016 13:24:52 +000
       
  • Presynaptic Proteins as Markers of the Neurotoxic Activity of BmjeTX-I and
           BmjeTX-II Toxins from Bothrops marajoensis (Maraj├│ Lancehead) Snake Venom
           

    • Abstract: Neuromuscular preparations exposed to B. marajoensis venom show increases in the frequency of miniature end-plate potentials and twitch tension facilitation followed by presynaptic neuromuscular paralysis, without evidences of muscle damage. Considering that presynaptic toxins interfere into the machinery involved in neurotransmitter release (synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 proteins), the main objective of this communication is to analyze, by immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expression of the synaptic proteins, synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 and by myography, light, and transmission electron microscopy the pathology of motor nerve terminals and skeletal muscle fibres of chick biventer cervicis preparations (CBC) exposed in vitro to BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II toxins from B. marajoensis venom. CBC incubated with toxins showed irreversible twitch tension blockade and unaffected KCl- and ACh-evoked contractures, and the positive colabelling of acetylcholine receptors confirmed that their action was primarily at the motor nerve terminal. Hypercontraction and loose myofilaments and synaptic vesicle depletion and motor nerve damage indicated that the toxins displayed both myotoxic and neurotoxic effect. The blockade resulted from interference on synaptophysin, synaptobrevin, and SNAP25 proteins leading to the conclusion that BmjeTX-I and BmjeTX-II affected neurotransmitter release machinery by preventing the docking of synaptic vesicles to the axolemma of the nerve terminal.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Aug 2016 16:31:56 +000
       
  • Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in HIV-Infected Patients

    • Abstract: Renal disease is a common complication of HIV-infected patients, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, progression to AIDS, AIDS-defining illness, and mortality. Early and accurate identification of renal disease is therefore crucial to improve patient outcomes. The use of serum creatinine, along with proteinuria, to detect renal involvement is essentially to screen for markers of glomerular disease and may not be effective in detecting earlier stages of renal injury. Therefore, more sensitive and specific markers are needed in order to early identify HIV-infected patients at risk of renal disease. This review article summarizes some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury in HIV-infected patients and their clinical usefulness in the renal safety follow-up of TDF-treated patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Jul 2016 11:26:29 +000
       
  • A Bioinformatics Analysis Reveals a Group of MocR Bacterial
           Transcriptional Regulators Linked to a Family of Genes Coding for Membrane
           Proteins

    • Abstract: The MocR bacterial transcriptional regulators are characterized by an N-terminal domain, 60 residues long on average, possessing the winged-helix-turn-helix (wHTH) architecture responsible for DNA recognition and binding, linked to a large C-terminal domain (350 residues on average) that is homologous to fold type-I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AAT). These regulators are involved in the expression of genes taking part in several metabolic pathways directly or indirectly connected to PLP chemistry, many of which are still uncharacterized. A bioinformatics analysis is here reported that studied the features of a distinct group of MocR regulators predicted to be functionally linked to a family of homologous genes coding for integral membrane proteins of unknown function. This group occurs mainly in the Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria phyla. An analysis of the multiple sequence alignments of their wHTH and AAT domains suggested the presence of specificity-determining positions (SDPs). Mapping of SDPs onto a homology model of the AAT domain hinted at possible structural/functional roles in effector recognition. Likewise, SDPs in wHTH domain suggested the basis of specificity of Transcription Factor Binding Site recognition. The results reported represent a framework for rational design of experiments and for bioinformatics analysis of other MocR subgroups.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jun 2016 09:21:15 +000
       
  • Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    • Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts’ aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts’ extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 () which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Jun 2016 12:12:03 +000
       
  • Cetuximab and Cisplatin Show Different Combination Effect in
           Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells Lines via Inactivation of EGFR/AKT
           Signaling Pathway

    • Abstract: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant cancer in South China. Cisplatin is a classical chemotherapeutic employed for NPC treatment. Despite the use of cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy, distant failure still confuses clinicians and the outcome of metastatic NPC remains disappointing. Hence, a potent systemic therapy is needed for this cancer. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) represents a promising new therapeutic target in cancer. We predicted that combining the conventional cytotoxic drug cisplatin with the novel molecular-targeted agent cetuximab demonstrates a strong antitumor effect on NPC cells. In this study, we selected HNE1 and CNE2 cells, which have been proved to possess different EGFR expression levels, to validate our conjecture. The two-drug regimen showed a significant synergistic effect in HNE1 cells but an additive effect in CNE2 cells. Our results showed that cisplatin-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced by cetuximab in the high EGFR-expressing HNE1 cells but not in CNE2 cells. Further molecular mechanism study indicated that the EGFR/AKT pathway may play an important role in cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway and lead to the different antitumor effects of this two-drug regimen between HNE1 and CNE2 cells. Thus, the regimen may be applied in personalized NPC treatments.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 May 2016 14:25:45 +000
       
  • Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and
           Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    • Abstract: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 May 2016 06:23:07 +000
       
  • Perspective of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles Role in Biomedical Applications

    • Abstract: In recent years, although many review articles have been presented about bioapplications of magnetic nanoparticles by some research groups with different expertise such as chemistry, biology, medicine, pharmacology, and materials science and engineering, the majority of these reviews are insufficiently comprehensive in all related topics like magnetic aspects of process. In the current review, it is attempted to carry out the inclusive surveys on importance of magnetic nanoparticles and especially magnetite ones and their required conditions for appropriate performance in bioapplications. The main attentions of this paper are focused on magnetic features which are less considered. Accordingly, the review contains essential magnetic properties and their measurement methods, synthesis techniques, surface modification processes, and applications of magnetic nanoparticles.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2016 13:32:18 +000
       
  • Production of Laccase by Cochliobolus sp. Isolated from Plastic Dumped
           Soils and Their Ability to Degrade Low Molecular Weight PVC

    • Abstract: One of the utmost man-made problems faced today has been the ever-increasing plastic waste filling the world. It accounts for an estimated 20–30% (by volume) of municipal solid waste in landfill sites worldwide. Research on plastic biodegradation has been steadily growing over the past four decades. Several fungi have been identified that produce enzymes capable of plastic degradation in various laboratory conditions. This paper presents a study that determined the ability of fungi to degrade low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by the enzyme laccase. We have isolated a fungal species, Cochliobolus sp., from plastic dumped soils and they were cultured on Czapek Dox Agar slants at 30°C. The effectiveness of this fungal species on the degradation of commercial low molecular weight polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was studied under laboratory conditions. Significant differences were observed from the FTIR, GC-MS, and SEM results in between control and Cochliobolus sp. treated PVC.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 May 2016 11:47:50 +000
       
  • Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and
           ╬▓-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica
           F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    • Abstract: This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC) and submerged (SmC) cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 May 2016 09:53:11 +000
       
  • Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and
           Their Divergence

    • Abstract: In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 14:35:56 +000
       
  • Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in
           Rat Brain

    • Abstract: The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight). The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Apr 2016 14:16:47 +000
       
  • Purification and Characterization of a Novel Intracellular Sucrase Enzyme
           of Leishmania donovani Promastigotes

    • Abstract: The promastigote stage of Leishmania resides in the sand fly gut, enriched with sugar molecules. Recently we reported that Leishmania donovani possesses a sucrose uptake system and a stable pool of intracellular sucrose metabolizing enzyme. In the present study, we purified the intracellular sucrase nearly to its homogeneity and compared it with the purified extracellular sucrase. The estimated size of intracellular sucrase is ~112 kDa by gel filtration chromatography, native PAGE, and substrate staining. However, in SDS-PAGE, the protein is resolved at ~56 kDa, indicating the possibility of a homodimer in its native state. The kinetics of purified intracellular sucrase shows its higher substrate affinity with a of 1.61 mM than the extracellular form having a of 4.4 mM. The highly specific activity of intracellular sucrase towards sucrose is optimal at pH 6.0 and at 30°C. In this report the purification and characterization of intracellular sucrase provide evidence that sucrase enzyme exists at least in two different forms in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. This intracellular sucrase may support further intracellular utilization of transported sucrose.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Apr 2016 12:41:32 +000
       
  • Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D
           Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Apr 2016 13:13:19 +000
       
 
 
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