Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 234)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Nephrology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-214X - ISSN (Online) 2090-2158
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Induction Therapies for the Treatment
           of Patients with Proliferative Lupus Nephritis in South Africa

    • Abstract: Background. Lupus nephritis (LN) can be complicated with requirement for kidney replacement therapy and death. Efficacy of induction therapies using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCYC) has been reported from studies, but there is limited data in Africans comparing both treatments in patients with proliferative LN. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN diagnosed and treated with either MMF or IVCYC in a single centre in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 5-year period. The primary outcome was attaining complete remission after completion of induction therapy. Results. Of the 84 patients included, mean age was 29.6 ± 10.4 years and there was a female preponderance (88.1%). At baseline, there were significant differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and presence of glomerular crescents between both groups (). After completion of induction therapy, there was no significant difference in remission status (76.0% versus 87.5%; ) or relapse status (8.1% versus 10.3%; ) for the IVCYC and MMF groups, respectively. Mortality rate for the IVCYC group was 5.5 per 10,000 person-days of follow-up compared to 1.5 per 10,000 person-days of follow-up for the MMF group (), and there was no significant difference in infection-related adverse events between both groups. Estimated GFR at baseline was the only predictor of death (OR: 1.0 [0.9–1.0]; ).Conclusion. This study shows similar outcomes following induction treatment with MMF or IVCYC in patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN in South Africa. However, a prospective and randomized study is needed to adequately assess these outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Knowledge about COVID-19 and Practices among Hemodialysis Technicians in
           the COVID-19 Pandemic Era

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hemodialysis technicians play a crucial role in infection control practices in hemodialysis units. Thus, it is important to assess the knowledge and attitude towards COVID-19 among hemodialysis technicians in this pandemic situation. Materials and Methods. An online survey composed of 22 closed-ended questions using Google Forms was conducted in the month of April (13th to 19th) 2020. The survey consisted of questions regarding the knowledge of COVID-19 and current hemodialysis practice among hemodialysis technicians. The study was approved by the institutional ethics board. The survey was administered online through a mobile phone invitation. Basic statistics (mean and standard deviation or total number and percent) were computed for all covariates. Results. Out of 150, 115 technicians participated in the survey. 80.9% of the participants were males. The mean age of respondents was 28.22 + 6.97 years. Most of the respondents could correctly identify fever (87.8%), breathlessness (86.08%), and dry cough (81.7%) as the symptoms of COVID-19 infection. 75.7% of the technicians were aware that it can be transmitted by asymptomatic persons. 61.1% of the technicians were segregating patients who had symptoms such as fever and cough to the last shift of the day. 81.1% of the technicians read the guidelines issued by the Indian Society of Nephrology—COVID-19 working group. But, only 25.5% of the respondents could rightly identify to keep a minimum distance of two meters between two beds while dialyzing a suspected patient of COVID-19 along with other patients to minimise risk of COVID-19 transmission. 60% of the technicians have received hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis against coronavirus infection. Conclusion. Our study shows a significant knowledge gap among hemodialysis technicians about COVID-19. Effective COVID-19 education campaigns should be carried out intensively with relevant information among hemodialysis technicians to address the knowledge gap. A well-informed hemodialysis technician can prove to be a great tool to spread the right infection control practices among dialysis-dependent patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2020 13:50:02 +000
  • Chronic Kidney Disease among Diabetes Patients in Ethiopia: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Though different primary studies have reported the burden of chronic kidney disease among diabetes patients, their results have demonstrated substantial variation regarding its prevalence in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors among diabetes patients in Ethiopia. Method. PubMed, African Journals Online, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Wiley Online Library were searched to identify relevant studies. The I2 statistic was used to check heterogeneity across the included studies. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled effect size across studies. A funnel plot and Egger’s regression test were used to determine the presence of publication bias. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA™ version 14 software. Result. In this meta-analysis, a total of 12 studies with 4,075 study participants were included. The estimated prevalence of CKD among diabetes patients was found to be 35.52% (95% CI: 25.9–45.45, I2 = 96.3%) for CKD stages 1 to 5 and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.5–18.49, I2 = 91.1%) for CKD stages 3 to 5. Age greater than 60 years (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.56–5.73), female sex (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.69), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.38–5.51), body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.41–3.00), type 2 diabetes (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.73–3.73), poor glycemic control (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.34–3.02), fasting blood glucose >150 mg/dl (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.79–3.72), high density lipoprotein >40 mg/dl (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30–0.85–25), systolic blood pressure>140 mmHg (OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 2.24–4.74), and diabetic retinopathy (OR = 4.54; CI: 1.08–25) were significantly associated with CKD. Conclusion. This study revealed that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease remains high among diabetes patients in Ethiopia. This study found that a long duration of diabetes, age>60 years, diabetic retinopathy, female sex, family history of kidney disease, poor glycemic control, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and high level of high-density lipoprotein were associated with chronic kidney disease among diabetic patients. Therefore, situation-based interventions and context-specific preventive strategies should be developed to reduce the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease among diabetes patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Oct 2020 14:35:02 +000
  • Renal Dysfunction among HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in
           Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. HIV-associated renal dysfunction is common among infected patients; the growing burden of this condition may be partly accounted for by improved survival attributed to sustained viral suppression with antiretroviral therapies (ART). Some ART regimens are nephrotoxic and may potentially contribute to renal dysfunction observed in these patients. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of renal dysfunction among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and October 2019 among adults living with HIV on ART for 6 months or more attending CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 287 participants were screened for proteinuria and microalbuminuria using the Cybow 300 urine analyzer. Serum creatinine was tested for all participants, and it was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the CKD-EPI formula. Results. Out of 287 participants (72.1% female, mean age ± SD: 46.7 ± 10.6 years), about one-third (32.8%) had eGFR less than 90 ml/min, whereas 7% had eGFR less than 60 ml/min. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria were detected in 38.6% and 25.1% of participants, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, predictive determinants for renal dysfunction were higher viral loads (OR 2.5 (1.1–5.8), ), diabetes mellitus (OR 5.5 (1.6–18.6), ), and age above 60 years (OR 2.8 (1.0–7.3), ); however, this was not the case for serum CD4 counts (OR 1.25 (0.7–2.3), ).Conclusion. High prevalence of renal dysfunction among PLHIV on ART was noted in this study. Viral loads above 1000 cp/ml and diabetes mellitus were noted to be associated with increased risk for renal dysfunction.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Oct 2020 13:35:01 +000
  • Value of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin versus
           Conventional Biomarkers in Predicting Response to Treatment of Active
           Lupus Nephritis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Lupus nephritis (LN) affects almost two-thirds of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Despite initial aggressive therapy, up to 25% of patients with LN will progress to permanent renal damage. Conventional serum markers for LN lack the sensitivity of an ideal biomarker. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (UNGAL) is an excellent biomarker for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury and predicting renal outcomes. Objective. To measure UNGAL among LN patients to correlate its levels with renal disease activity and to investigate its predictive performance in response to induction therapy. Patients and Methods. 40 SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN class III, IV, or V were randomly selected. The study was conducted in the internal medicine department and outpatient clinic in Ain Shams University Hospitals and completed after six months. UNGAL was measured at baseline, three-month follow-up, and after complete induction therapy. Results. In LN patients at baseline, the mean serum creatinine was 2.57 ± 0.96 mg/dL and the mean UNGAL was 33.50 ± 18.34 ng/dL. Mean UNGAL levels of complete response, partial response, and nonresponse groups were 14.48 ± 2.99 ng/mL, 34.49 ± 4.09 ng/mL, and 62.07 ± 14.44 ng/mL, respectively. Based on the ROC curve, we found a better performance of baseline UNGAL to discriminate the complete response group from partial and nonresponse groups to predict response to induction, outperforming conventional biomarkers. The area under the curve was 0.943, and the best cutoff level was 26.5 ng/mL (92.31% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity). Conclusion. UNGAL performed better than conventional biomarkers in predicting response to treatment of active LN.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Oct 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Hemodialysis Adequacy and Its Impact on Long-Term Patient Survival in
           Demographically, Socially, and Culturally Homogeneous Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Impact of hemodialysis adequacy on patient survival is extensively studied. The current study compares the survival of chronic hemodialyzed, undocumented, uninsured, Afghan immigrant patients with that of a group of insured Iranian patients matched for underlying disease, age, weight, level of education, marital status, income, and number of comorbid conditions. Methods. Eighty chronic hemodialysis patients (mean age 42.8 ± 10.5 years) entered this historical cohort study in Mashhad, Iran, between January 2012 and January 2015. Half of the patients were undocumented, uninsured, Afghan immigrants (Group A) matched with forty insured Iranian patients (Group B). To compare the survival rate of the two patient groups, Kaplan–Meir survival analysis test was used. Results. Group A patients were underdialyzed with a weekly Kt/V which was significantly less in comparison with that of Group B (1.63 ± 0.63 versus 2.54 ± 0.12, value = 0.01). While Group A’s number of hemodialysis sessions per week was fewer than that of Group B (1.45 ± 0.56 versus 2.8 ± 0.41, value = 0.04), the mean of Kt/V in each hemodialysis session was higher in them, in comparison with Group B (1.43 ± 0.25 versus 1.3 ± 0.07, value = 0.045). In Group B and Group A patients, one-year survival was 70% versus 50%, two-year survival was 55% versus 30%, and three-year survival was 40% versus 20%, respectively ( values = 0.04, 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). In Cox regression analysis, hemodialysis adequacy and uninsurance were factors impacting patients’ survival (OR = 1.193 and 0.333, respectively). Conclusions. Undocumented, uninsured, inadequately hemodialyzed, Afghan patients had a significantly lower one-, two-, and three-year survival as opposed to their Iranian counterparts, probably due to lack of insurance.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Aug 2020 13:35:09 +000
  • MicroRNA-451 as an Early Predictor of Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetic

    • Abstract: Background. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Microalbuminuria is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is an inadequate marker for early diagnosis. MicroRNAs are not only new and promising markers for early diagnosis but also, but they may also play a role in the prevention of disease progression. Methods. This study included ninety patients with type 2 DM in addition to 30 control subjects. MicroRNA-451 expression in blood and plasma using real-time PCR was evaluated in addition to the classic diabetic nephropathy markers (serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and eGFR). Results. There was a significant difference between the studied groups versus control regarding serum creatinine, eGFR, urinary, and plasma microRNA-451 with . Patients with eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 showed a significantly higher plasma microRNA-451 (29.6 ± 1.6) and significantly lower urinary microRNA-451 (21 ± 0.9) in comparison to patients with eGFR>60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and . eGFR showed a positive correlation with urinary microRNA-451 and negative correlation with both plasma microRNA-451 and urinary albumin. Both plasma and urinary microRNA-451 are highly sensitive and specific markers for chronicity in diabetic nephropathy patients with sensitivity of 90.9% and 95.5% and specificity of 67.6% and 95.6%, respectively. Conclusion. MicroRNA-451 is a promising early biomarker for chronic kidney disease in diabetic nephropathy with high sensitivity and specificity.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Aug 2020 14:35:07 +000
  • Renal Tubular Cells from Hibernating Squirrels are Protected against
           Cisplatin Induced Apoptosis

    • Abstract: Hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels are characterized by tolerance of severe hypothermia and hypoperfusion during torpor, followed by periodic warm reperfusion during IBA, conditions which are lethal to nonhibernating mammals. The aim of the present study was to determine whether protection from apoptosis was specific to torpor arousal cycles during hibernation or will also apply to cisplatin treatment on squirrel renal tubular cells (RTECs) that were procured during hibernation. Squirrel and mouse RTECs were treated with cisplatin, a potent inducer of RTEC apoptosis. Squirrel RTECs subjected to cisplatin had significantly less apoptosis, no cleaved caspase-3, and increased XIAP, pAkt, and pBAD versus mouse RTECs. To determine whether XIAP and Akt1 are necessary for RTEC protection against cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death, gene expression of Akt1 or XIAP was silenced in squirrel RTECs. Squirrel RTECs deficient in Akt1 and XIAP had increased apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 when treated with cisplatin. Our results thus demonstrates that 13-lined ground squirrel RTECs possess intrinsic intracellular mechanisms by which they protect themselves from apoptotic cell death. Cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI) may be avoided in cancer patients by employing mechanisms used by squirrel RTECs to protect against cisplatin induced tubular cell apoptosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Aug 2020 13:35:03 +000
  • No Race-Ethnicity Adjustment in CKD-EPI Equations Is Required for
           Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Brazilian Population

    • Abstract: Background. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually estimated from equations using serum creatinine (sCr), with adjustment for gender, age, and race (black or nonblack). The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) is the preferred equation for adults, but it was validated for the United States population. We intended to evaluate if the race-ethnicity adjustment proposed for the sCr-based CKD-EPI equations is appropriate for the Brazilian population. Methods. CKD outpatients had blood samples collected for determination of sCr and serum cystatin C (sCys) levels. GFR was measured (mGFR) by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and used as the reference. We compared values of mGFR and estimated GFR (eGFR) by CKD-EPI equations based on sCr (eGFRCr) and on the combination of sCr and sCys (eGFRCr-Cys). For African Brazilian patients, eGFR was calculated either without or with race adjustment. Accuracy was considered acceptable if the difference between the values of eGFR and mGFR was ≤30% (P30). Results. 100 patients were enrolled (58 ± 14 years, 46% male, 39% white and 61% African Brazilian). Mean mGFR was 46.7 ± 29.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean eGFRCr and eGFRCr-Cys without race adjustment were 47.8 ± 30.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 46.4 ± 30.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The corresponding P30 accuracy values were 79.0% and 83.0%. In the African Brazilian subgroup, values for mean mGFR and eGFRCr either without or with race adjustment were 49.8 ± 32.2 ml/min/1.73 m2, 50.4 ± 32.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 58.4 ± 37.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 ( vs. mGFR), respectively. P30 accuracy values for eGFRCr either without or with race adjustment were 75.4% and 67.2%, respectively. Conclusions. The use of CKD-EPI equations without race-ethnicity adjustment seems more appropriate for the Brazilian population.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 07:20:02 +000
  • The Impact of CKD Anaemia on Patients: Incidence, Risk Factors, and
           Clinical Outcomes—A Systematic Literature Review

    • Abstract: Anaemia is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the risk factors for its development and its impact on outcomes have not been well synthesised. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to fully characterise the risk factors associated with the presence of anaemia in patients with CKD and a contemporary synthesis of the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with CKD and anaemia. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2002 until 2018 for studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of anaemia and associated risk factors and/or associations between haemoglobin (Hb) or anaemia and mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), hospitalisation, or CKD progression in adult patients with CKD. Extracted data were summarised as risk factors related to the incidence or prevalence of anaemia or the risk (hazard ratio (HR)) of outcome by Hb level (12 g/dL) in patients not on dialysis and in those receiving dialysis. 191 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria. The risk factor most associated with the prevalence of anaemia was CKD stage, followed by age and sex. Mean HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in patients with CKD on dialysis with Hb 12 g/dL were 1.56 (1.43–1.71), 1.17 (1.09–1.26), and 0.91 (0.87–0.96), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for nondialysis patients and for the risks of hospitalisation, MACE, and CKD progression. This is the first known systematic review to quantify the risk of adverse clinical outcomes based on Hb level in patients with CKD. Anaemia was consistently associated with greater mortality, hospitalisation, MACE, and CKD progression in patients with CKD, and risk increased with anaemia severity. Effective treatments that not only treat the anaemia but also reduce the risk of adverse clinical outcomes are essential to help reduce the burden of anaemia and its management in CKD.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:20:08 +000
  • ACTH Treatment for Management of Nephrotic Syndrome: A Systematic Review
           and Reappraisal

    • Abstract: Background. In recent years, the use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for treatment of proteinuria due to nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been heavily explored. ACTH therapy, which comes in the natural (H. P. Acthar Gel) or synthetic (tetracosactide) form, has resulted in remission in patients with immunosuppressive and steroid-resistant NS. However, the exact efficacy of ACTH therapy in the NS etiologies, such as membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change disease (MCD), lupus nephritis (LN), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), has not been determined. Objective. This systematic review analyzed the published literature on ACTH therapy in various NS etiologies to determine its efficacy. Methods. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was conducted for articles through June 2019. An additional search was performed on to search for additional trials and cross reference the results of our database search. The literature which studied synthetic or natural ACTH treatment in patients with known etiologies of NS was included. Studies were excluded when they consisted of a single case report or did not analyze the lone effect of ACTH in NS. Results. The initial search yielded a total of 411 papers, and 22 papers were included. In 214 MN patients, there was an overall remission of 40% (85/214) and an overall remission of 43% (42/98) in FSGS patients. In other etiologies, there were overall remissions of 78% (11/14), 31% (5/16), 40% (16/40), and 62% (8/13) in MCD, LN, IgAN, and MPGN patients, respectively. Conclusion. ACTH showed benefits in proteinuria reduction across all etiologies of NS. However, more randomized controlled studies with larger population sets and longer follow-ups are imperative to establish causal benefits. New studies into its efficacy in children are also necessary.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jun 2020 11:05:00 +000
  • A Simple Tenckhoff Catheter Placement Technique for Continuous Ambulatory
           Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) Using the Bandung Method

    • Abstract: Insertion of Tenckhoff catheters for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis by nephrologists remains uncommon in most developing countries, including Indonesia. The aim of this study is to describe our experience on a simple technique of Tenckhoff catheter insertion by a nephrologist called the Bandung method. We conducted a retrospective observational study from May 2012 until December 2018 in 230 patients with end-stage renal disease using the Bandung method, a blind percutaneous insertion approach modified from the Seldinger technique. Early complications after insertion were assessed. The mean age of patients was 47.28 years (range 14–84 years). Within 1 month after insertion, complications occurred in 34 patients: 13 (5.7%) malposition, 8 (3.5%) omental trapping, 6 (2.6%) outlow failure, 3 (1.3%) peritonitis, 1 (0.4%) catheter infections, 1 (0.4%) bleeding, 1 (0.4%) kinking, and 1 (0.4%) hernia. None of these complications led to catheter removal. One patient experienced a late (>1 month) post-insertion complication of malposition that could not be repositioned and led to catheter removal. The Bandung method is a simple, cost effective, and minimally invasive technique for Tenckhoff catheter insertion that is associated with the same rate of complications compared to other techniques. This technique may useful for application in developing countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:35:08 +000
  • Low-Dose Maintenance Intravenous Iron Therapy Can Prevent Anemia in
           Children with End-Stage Renal Disease Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis

    • Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is common in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on long-term hemodialysis receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. One approach to maintain the iron profile and hemoglobin levels is maintenance therapy with regular low doses of intravenous (IV) iron after initial iron repletion therapy; however, evidence for the benefits of this approach is lacking. This study evaluated the effect of IV iron maintenance therapy on anemia in children on regular hemodialysis. This retrospective cohort study included 41 pediatric ESRD patients with normal hemoglobin and iron status who underwent regular hemodialysis at the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Indonesia, between January 2015 and April 2019. Among these, 21 received IV iron maintenance therapy with two doses of 2 mg/kg of IV iron sucrose every 2 weeks (the treatment group) and 20 did not (the comparison group). Changes in hemoglobin and transferrin saturation were assessed after 6 weeks of observation and compared between the two groups. There was a significant reduction in the mean hemoglobin level compared with the baseline level in the comparison group (21 g/L; 95% CI, 9.3–33 g/L; ) but not in the treatment group (0.7 g/L; 95% CI, −6.6–8 g/L; ). The risk of anemia was lower in the treatment group (relative risk = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22–0.79; ). Although majority of the patients had high baseline ferritin level, this study indicates that in our setting, ferritin may not be a reliable parameter to review the iron status, as it can be affected by chronic inflammation. Hence, the decision to start IV iron maintenance therapy in patients with hyperferritinemia should consider the patient’s clinical condition and morbidity. To conclude, the coadministration of IV iron maintenance therapy is beneficial for maintaining hemoglobin levels and preventing anemia in children with ESRD who are undergoing regular hemodialysis, have achieved the target hemoglobin levels, and have normal iron status.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:20:09 +000
  • Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Rosuvastatin on Acute Kidney Injury
           Induced by Contrast Media in Rats

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the protective effect and mechanism of rosuvastatin on acute renal injury induced by a nonionic hypotonic contrast medium in rats. Methods. Forty-eight healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC); contrast medium control group (CM); and rosuvastatin intervention group (RI). The RI group was intragastrically administered with a 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin 12 h prior to the contrast exposure. All rats in CM and RI groups were inoculated with 10 mL/kg of chemical (IV) while the same volume of saline for the NC group. At 24 h and 72 h posttreatments, pathomorphological changes of renal tubules were documented, respectively, and several biochemical indicators were tested to assess renal injury of experimental rats. Results. Compared with the CM group, rats in the RI group showed significantly reduced injury of kidneys and decreased levels of biochemical indicators such as blood Scr, blood Cys-C, urine NAG, urine α1-MG, and urine mALB. The serum Hs-CRP in the CM group increased significantly from 24 h to 72 h (), but this was not observed in the rats of the RI group. In addition, SOD activity in the RI group was significantly increased () while SOD activity in renal tissue decreased significantly with time in the CM group ().Conclusion. Short-term intervention with rosuvastatin can lead to reduced kidney damage associated with the contrast agent by reducing the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Thus, rosuvastatin intervention has a protective effect on rats from contrast-induced nephropathy.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 09:20:02 +000
  • Prevalence of Hypothyroidism among Dialysis Patients in Palestine: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. The kidney affects the thyroid gland causing various derangements in its function whenever the kidney is impaired, even with a minor imperfection in its job, and this makes dialysis patients more prone to thyroid disorders with subsequent increase in mortality and morbidity. This study aims to assess the prevalence of thyroid disease (hypo- and hyperthyroidism) among dialysis patients and their associated factors. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the dialysis unit of An-Najah National University Hospital. 209 dialysis patients (60% were male, 57.6 ± 14.5 years, mean age) meeting our inclusion criteria were tested for thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in addition to routine laboratory tests. Findings. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was assessed as 16.3% (95% CI = 11.29% to 21.3%), overt hypothyroidism was 9.1%, and subclinical hypothyroidism was 7.2%. Subclinical hyperthyroidism prevalence was 1%, and no overt hyperthyroidism cases were reported. We observed no significant association between thyroid state and age, gender, duration of dialysis, or weight. Discussion. Hypothyroidism (both subclinical and overt type) is commonly seen in dialysis patients, and its symptoms are ordinary complains even in euthyroid dialysis patients, and this warrants screening programs and more studies on the efficacy of thyroid hormone supplements.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 10:05:01 +000
  • Autophagy and mTOR Pathways Mediate the Potential Renoprotective Effects
           of Vitamin D on Diabetic Nephropathy

    • Abstract: Introduction. Not only is diabetic nephropathy (DN) the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, but it also increases the risk of mortality up to fourteen times compared to normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Aim. The aim of the current study was the evaluation of the renoprotective effects of vitamin D in DN and the possible interplay between autophagy and mTOR pathways. Materials and Methods. Fifty male Wistar albino rats were divided (10/group) into control, DN group, insulin-treated DN group, vitamin D-treated DN group, and combined insulin and vitamin D-treated DN group. Assessments of systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, serum glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers, and rat kidney gene expression of mTOR were performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments of autophagy marker LC3 in rat kidneys were also performed. Results. DN was associated with significant increases in SBP, urinary albumin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, MDA, and mTOR gene expression (). However, there was significant decrease in creatinine clearance, serum insulin, GSH, and H score value of LC3 when compared with control group (). The combination of insulin and vitamin D treatment significantly restored DN changes when compared with the other treated groups, except in oxidative stress markers where there was an insignificant difference between the combination-treated and insulin-treated groups ().Conclusion. It has been concluded that vitamin D is a potent adjuvant therapy in treatment of DN via downregulation of mTOR gene expression, stimulation of autophagy, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive effects.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 09:20:03 +000
  • Spectrum and Clinical Characteristics of Renal Diseases in Ghanaian
           Adults: A 13-Year Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Background. Renal diseases over the years have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we assessed the spectrum and clinical characteristics of Ghanaians with renal diseases at the nephrology unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi. Methods. This was a retrospective hospital-based study conducted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) from the years 2005 to 2017. A non-randomized sampling approach was used to include 1426 participants who were diagnosed with AKI, CKD, ESRD, and nephrotic syndrome at the nephrology unit of KATH during the years under review. All the 1426 patients were eligible for the study. Demographic characteristics as well as clinical data such as the kind of renal disease presentation, causes of the renal disease, and the treatment options were also obtained from their records. Results. Overall, 1009 of the total participants had CKD (70.76%), 295 participants had ESRD (20.69%), 72 participants had AKI (5.05%), and 50 participants had nephrotic syndrome (3.51%). Furthermore, 69 (23.4%) participants with ESRD were on dialysis whiles 6 (8.3) and 17 (1.7) participants with only AKI and CKD superimposed AKI, respectively, were on dialysis. 226 (76.6%) participants with ESRD were on conservative therapy. Hypertension emerged as the major cause of renal disease presentation (53.93%) with bilateral leg edema (13.46%) being the major complaint. There was a significant association between CKD and age (). Nephrotic syndrome also showed a significant association with age ().Conclusion. This study revealed that patients at the nephrology unit of KATH, Ghana, are mainly adults between ages 46–55. The clinical pattern of renal diseases is dominated by CKD and ESRD. We conclude that hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and sepsis are the most common causes of renal diseases. The commonest clinical presentations are bilateral leg edema, palpitations, headache, breathlessness, dizziness, and vomiting. Early diagnosis and management of these conditions may prevent or delay the progress to end-stage renal disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 05:35:01 +000
  • Gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) Augmented Total Antioxidant Capacity and

    • Abstract: Background. Oxidative processes might increase in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) according to the current literature. Oxidative stress (OS) is a risk factor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications, which are major causes of mortality among ESRD patients. Haemodialysis (HD) is life-saving procedure, nevertheless it is an active chronic inflammatory status that could augment cardiovascular disease and increase mortality. Gum Arabic (GA) has been claimed to act as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in experimental studies and clinical trials. Therefore, we assumed GA supplementation among haemodialysis patients would reduce oxidative stress and consequently reduce the state of chronic inflammatory activation associated with haemodialysis. Methods. Forty end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients aged 18–80 years who were on regular haemodialysis in Arif Renal Center, Omdurman, Sudan, were recruited. All recruited patients met the inclusion criteria and signed informed consent prior to enrolment. The patients received 30 g/day of GA for 12 weeks. C-reactive protein (CRP) and complete blood count (CBC) were measured as baseline and monthly. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured before and after GA intake. Ethical approval from the National Medicines and Poisons Board was obtained. Results. Gum Arabic significantly augmented total antioxidant capacity level () (95% CI, 0.408–0.625) and also attenuated oxidative marker MDA and C-reactive protein ().Conclusions. GA has revealed potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in haemodialysis patients. Oral digestion of GA (30 g/day) decreased oxidative stress and inflammatory markers among haemodialysis patients. Trial registration. Identifier: NCT03214692, registered 11 July 2017 (prospective registration).
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 13:35:05 +000
  • N-terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Malnutrition in Patients on

    • Abstract: Natriuretic peptides, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are mainly known as diagnostic markers for heart failure with high diagnostic and prognostic values in the general population. In patients who are undergoing hemodialysis (HD), changes in NT-proBNP can be related to noncardiac problems such as fluid overload, inflammation, or malnutrition and can also be influenced by the dialysis characteristics. The current review aimed to summarize findings from studies on the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition in HD patients. Articles published after 2009 and over a ten-year period were considered for inclusion. We first briefly discuss the traditional functions of NT-proBNP, and after, we describe the functions of this prohormone by focusing on its relation with protein energy wasting (PEW) in HD patients. Mechanisms that could explain these relationships were also discussed. Overall, 7 studies in which the investigation of the relations between NT-proBNP and nutritional status in HD patients were among the main objects were taken into account. NT-proBNP levels correlated with several factors described in the 4 categories of markers indicative of PEW (body mass and composition, muscle mass, biochemical criteria, and dietary intakes) and/or were associated with PEW. Interactions between several parameters could be involved in the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition with a strong role of weight status. NT-proBNP is elevated in HD patients and is associated with malnutrition. Nevertheless, the prognostic value of NT-proBNP on nutritional status should be evaluated.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Mar 2020 11:50:01 +000
  • PPARγ and Its Agonists in Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global healthcare issue. CKD can progress to irreversible end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) or renal failure. The major risk factors for CKD include obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the key process involved in the disease development may lead to novel interventive strategies, which is currently lagging behind. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is one of the ligand-activated transcription factor superfamily members and is globally expressed in human tissues. Its agonists such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have been applied as effective antidiabetic drugs as they control insulin sensitivity in multiple metabolic tissues. Besides, TZDs exert protective effects in multiple other CKD risk disease contexts. As PPARγ is abundantly expressed in major kidney cells, its physiological roles in those cells have been studied in both cell and animal models. The function of PPARγ in the kidney ranges from energy metabolism, cell proliferation to inflammatory suppression, although major renal side effects of existing agonists (including TZDs) have been reported, which limited their application in treating CKD. In the current review, we systemically assess the function of PPARγ in CKDs and the benefits and current limitations of its agonists in the clinical applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 12:20:07 +000
  • Renal Volume in ADPKD Patient Evaluation

    • Abstract: The clinical manifestations of ADPKD are related to the growth of renal cysts. Renal volume has been recognised as the biomarker that is able to identify those patients at risk of complications (hypertension and haematuria) and at risk of progression to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). Recently, several scores have been introduced to predict the evolution of ADPKD. The Mayo Clinic Group developed a classification based on renal volume as measured by CT or MRI and corrected for age and height (Ht-TKV); this allowed predicting the evolution of the disease, but it has not been fully validated so far. In addition, it is used to identify patients labelled as “fast progressors” and eligible for Tolvaptan therapy according to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) recommendations. We studied 80 patients who underwent MRI and had been classified as ADPKD typical form (class 1A-1E). A significant correlation between renal volume, hypertension, and low GFR was found (). A progressive increase in disease severity has been found across the different Mayo classes; 41.2% were eligible for Tolvaptan therapy. The results demonstrate that the Mayo method is easy to perform and provides valid information in order to identify with rapidly progressing disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 12:05:04 +000
  • Clinical, Paraclinical, and Evolutionary Profiles of Kidney Failure in
           Gold Miners Hospitalized in a Nephrological Service in a Sub-Saharan
           African Country

    • Abstract: Introduction. The purpose of this preliminary study is to describe the clinical, paraclinical, and evolutionary profiles of gold miner patients with kidney failure hospitalized in the nephrology and haemodialysis service in the Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital of Ouagadougou (CHU-YO). Patients and Methods. This was a longitudinal and descriptive study with a retrospective collection of data for the period from February 1, 2013, to March 31, 2018. Included were all gold miner patients who stayed and worked at an artisanal gold mining site for at least three months and who were diagnosed with acute or chronic kidney failure during hospitalization in the nephrology service. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and paraclinical variables at admission and then three months later. Results. We included 50 patients; all were male and the average age was 29.4 ± 7.7 years. All patients were exposed to mercury and/or cyanide for an average of 4.5 ± 2.8 years. The average consultation/referral time for patients at the CHU-YO was 25.4 ± 14.9 days. The average of creatininemia was 2338.0 ± 791.4 μmol/L. Kidney failure was acute in five cases (10%) and chronic in the remaining 45 cases or 90%. Extrarenal purification was indicated in 43 cases (86%). It was not performed in nine of the 43 cases due to lack of financial resources for patients (six cases) or death prior to the onset of haemodialysis (three cases). Thirty-two of the 50 patients in the study (64% of cases) died. Conclusion. Chronic kidney failure in gold miners appears to be common and late-managed. A prospective study of kidney disease and its causes at gold mining sites and surrounding areas will assess the extent of the problem in the country and better clarify the prevention of these diseases in our country.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 14:20:08 +000
  • Adequacy of Hemodialysis and Its Associated Factors among Patients
           Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    • Abstract: The worldwide prevalence of maintenance hemodialysis continues to rise. An adequate delivery of hemodialysis dose as measured by Kt/V or urea reduction ratio is a crucial determinant of clinical outcome for chronic hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of hemodialysis and its associated factors among patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Dar es Salaam. This was a cross-sectional study done on patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in four dialysis centers in Dar es Salaam. Sociodemographic information and treatment characteristics were collected. Urea reduction rate and single-pool Kt/V were calculated to determine the adequacy of hemodialysis. The data were analyzed and any associated factors for inadequate hemodialysis were determined using a chi-square test and a logistic regression analysis. A total of 143 patients participated in the study. Males represented 65.7% of the study population. The mean age (±SD) was 51.7 ± 1.2 years. Only 34.3% (based on urea reduction ratio (URR)) and 40.6% (based on Kt/V) of patients received adequate hemodialysis. The univariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have inadequate dialysis (65.6% versus 48.0%, based on Kt/V). Patients using hemodialyzers with dialyzer surface area less than 1.4 m2 received significantly less hemodialysis dose than those with more than 1.4 m2 (69.0% versus 41.2%, , by URR) (62.7% versus 35.3%, , by Kt/V criteria). Patients who had hemoglobin
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 07:35:02 +000
  • Serum Sclerostin, Body Composition, and Sarcopenia in Hemodialysis
           Patients with Diabetes

    • Abstract: Sclerostin (Scl) is an osteoblast-inhibiting glycoprotein that is secreted mainly by osteocytes and is regulated by hormonal changes and skeletal loading. Decreased physical function and high serum Scl concentrations have been reported in chronic renal failure patients but little is known to date about the differences between diabetic and non-diabetic patients on hemodialysis who are susceptible to both sarcopenia and bone fragility. Objective.To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with serum Scl concentrations and metabolic parameters in 92 patients on hemodialysis. Anthropometric data and physical performance were evaluated in this study. Blood samples were collected for Scl, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, phosphate, PTH, and 25 OH-vitamin D measurements. Lean mass was evaluated using multifrequency electro-bioimpedance after dialysis session. Results. Mean age was 63.3 ± 13.6 years, 63% of patients were male, and 44.6% had diabetes. Mean body mass index (BMI) was higher in diabetics (26.6 ± 5.2 vs. 24.1 ± 3.7; ) and there were no differences in gait speed and handgrip strength between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. A low skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was identified in 65.2% of the participants, and among them 76.7% were men and 36.7% were diabetics. Mean serum Scl was 86.9 ± 39.0 pmol/L, which was higher in men (94.6 ± 41.7; ), in those individuals with low SMI (94.9 ± 40.7; ), and in diabetics (97.2 ± 46.6; ). After multivariate analysis and adjustments for potential confounders, high serum Scl was independently associated with low SMI and with the presence of diabetes. The following variables correlated positively with diabetes: blood pressure; BMI; waist circumference; waist/hip ratio; plasma glucose; serum Scl; and fat mass. Conclusions. We found higher serum Scl concentrations in hemodialysis patients with diabetes and these were inversely related to muscle mass.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Feb 2020 05:35:05 +000
  • Clinical and Economical Outcomes Associated with Parathyroidectomy: A
           5-Year Population-Based Study in a Middle-Income Country with Universal
           Health Coverage

    • Abstract: Parathyroidectomy (PTX) is one of the most frequently performed surgeries in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this study was to determine the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality and hospital readmission rates within the 30-day postoperative period, and the total cost of the care episode and to determine possible prognostic factors in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) adult patients taken to PTX in the Colombian contributory health system. Methods. Retrospective cohort study of ESRD adult patients affiliated to the Colombian contributory health system, on dialysis for at least 3 months, undergoing PTX between January 1, 2012, and November 30, 2016. The clinical outcomes evaluated were rehospitalization at 30 days, hospital stay, and ICU requirement. The costs associated with the hospitalization event in which the PTX was performed from the perspective of the third payer were estimated. Results. The study included 478 patients. The mortality rate was 2.09 per 100 surgeries, the ICU admission rate was 32.64 per 100 surgeries, the 30-day hospital readmission percentage of the postoperative period was 16.74%, and the average length of hospital stay was 5.02 days. The median total costs of care for the entire procedure was USD $ 7,814.27 (p25-p75: 3,922.03–9,372.68), with significant regional differences. The geographical region was shown as a prognostic factor associated with clinical outcomes and the cost of care. Conclusions. There are large regional differences in readmission, ICU admission and mortality rates, and costs of dialysis ESRD patients undergoing PTX belonging to the Colombian contributory regime. The geographic region behaves as an independent predictor of clinical outcomes and costs.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Jan 2020 13:35:14 +000
  • Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prediction of Outcomes in Contrast-Induced

    • Abstract: Background. Serum creatinine is suboptimal as a biomarker in the early diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). In this study, we investigated a panel of novel biomarkers in the early diagnosis of CIN and in assessing patient outcomes. Methods. This single-centre, nested, prospective case-controlled study included 30 patients with CIN and 60 matched controls. Serum and urine samples were collected before contrast administration and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and ≥5 days after contrast administration. Concentrations of NGAL, cystatin C, β2M, IL18, IL10, KIM1, and TNFα were determined using Luminex and ELISA assays. Outcomes were biomarker diagnostic discrimination performance for CIN and mortality after generation of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs). Results. Median serum levels for 24 h cystatin C () and 48 h β2M levels () and baseline urine NGAL () were higher in CIN patients compared to controls with AUROCs of 0.75, 0.78, and 0.74, respectively, for the early diagnosis of CIN. Serum β2M levels were higher in CIN patients at all time points. Elevated baseline serum concentrations of IL18 (),β2M (), TNFα (), and baseline urine KIM () and 24 h urine NGAL () were significantly associated with mortality. Baseline serum concentrations of IL18, β2M, and TNFα showed the best discrimination performance for mortality with AUROCs, all>0.80. Baseline NGAL was superior for excluding patients at risk for CIN, with positive and negative predictive ranges of 0.50–0.55 and 0.81–0.88, respectively. Cystatin C () and β2M () at 24 h independently predicted CIN risk. β2M predicted increased mortality of 40% at baseline and 50% at 24 hours. Conclusion. Serum cystatin C at 24 h was the best biomarker for CIN diagnosis, while baseline levels of serum IL18, β2M, and TNFα were best for predicting prognosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Jan 2020 13:05:03 +000
  • Renal Involvement in Children with Dengue Fever: A Study in Tertiary Care
           Hospital of Bangladesh

    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Dengue has emerged globally as the most relevant viral infection transmitted by a mosquito bite and represents a major threat to public health. Dengue-related renal manifestations such as proteinuria, hematuria, acute kidney injury (AKI), and rhabdomyolysis are not uncommon, and acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of dengue fever. There is relatively few data on the renal manifestations of dengue fever in children. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the incidence, characteristics, and clinical outcome of dengue fever with renal manifestations. Method. This prospective cross sectional study was conducted in Dr. M R Khan Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Dhaka, over a period of 1 year from January 2018 to December 2018. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the institute. A total number of 316 patients were admitted with the diagnosis of dengue fever either NS1 positive or antibody IgM positive or both IgM and IgG positive. Data were collected in a structured questionnaire form and were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. The disease severity was classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. Renal manifestations were divided into AKI groups using pRIFLE criteria. Proteinuria was defined as urinary protein >1+ (30 mg/dL) by dipstick test. Hematuria was defined as red blood cell (RBC) >5/μL in a fresh uncentrifuged urine specimen. Result. Among 316 dengue patients, thirty-one patients (9.8%) had renal involvement. Most of the patients (54.83%) with renal manifestations were aged between 1 and 5 years. A total of 14 patients were found to have proteinuria (4.4%). Nephrotic-range proteinuria was seen in only one patient (0.3%). AKI was defined by pRIFLE criteria and was seen in 13 patients (4.1%); among AKI 6 (46.15%) had risk, three patients (23.07%) had injury and 4 (30.7%) had failure and needed peritoneal dialysis. Death occurred in 3 patients (9.6%) in dengue with AKI who had failure. The incidence of renal manifestations (proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI) is as high as 9.8% among patients with dengue, and those with AKI had significant morbidity and mortality. Conclusion. Renal involvement in children with dengue is not uncommon. Dengue associated with AKI had significant mortality and morbidity.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jan 2020 12:20:06 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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