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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 281 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Nephrology
  [SJR: 0.926]   [H-I: 14]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2090-214X - ISSN (Online) 2090-2158
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Phosphate and Cardiovascular Disease beyond Chronic Kidney Disease and
           Vascular Calcification

    • Abstract: Phosphate is essential for life but its accumulation can be detrimental. In end-stage renal disease, widespread vascular calcification occurs as a result of chronic phosphate load. The accumulation of phosphate is likely to occur long before the rise in serum phosphate above the normal range since several observational studies in both general population and early-stage CKD patients have identified the relationship between high-normal serum phosphate and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Consumption of food high in phosphate increases both fasting and postprandial serum phosphate and habitual intake of high phosphate diet is associated with aging, cardiac hypertrophy, endothelial dysfunction, and subclinical atherosclerosis. The decline in renal function and dietary phosphate load can increase circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) which may have a direct impact on cardiomyocytes. Increased FGF-23 levels in both CKD and general populations are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and mortality. Increased extracellular phosphate directly affects endothelial cells causing cell apoptosis and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) causing transformation to osteogenic phenotype. Excess of calcium and phosphate in the circulation can promote the formation of protein-mineral complex called calciprotein particles (CPPs). In CKD, these CPPs contain less calcification inhibitors, induce inflammation, and promote VSMC calcification.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Murine Nephrotoxic Nephritis as a Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Abstract: Using the nonaccelerated murine nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) as a model of chronic kidney disease (CKD) could provide an easily inducible model that enables a rapid test of treatments. Originally, the NTN model was developed as an acute model of glomerulonephritis, but in this study we evaluate the model as a CKD model and compare CD1 and C57BL/6 female and male mice. CD1 mice have previously showed an increased susceptibility to CKD in other CKD models. NTN was induced by injecting nephrotoxic serum (NTS) and evaluated by CKD parameters including albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), mesangial expansion, and renal fibrosis. Both strains showed significant albuminuria on days 2-3 which remained significant until the last time point on days 36-37 supporting dysfunctional filtration also observed by a significantly declined GFR on days 5-6, 15–17, and 34–37. Both strains showed early progressive mesangial expansion and significant renal fibrosis within three weeks suggesting CKD development. CD1 and C57BL/6 females showed a similar disease progression, but female mice seemed more susceptible to NTS compared to male mice. The presence of albuminuria, GFR decline, mesangial expansion, and fibrosis showed that the NTN model is a relevant CKD model both in C57BL/6 and in CD1 mice.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Web-Based Platform to Collect Data from ESRD Patients Undergoing
           Dialysis: Methods and Preliminary Results from the Brazilian Dialysis
           Registry

    • Abstract: Introduction. The methods and initial results of a web-based platform to collect data from patients receiving maintenance dialysis in Brazil are reported. Methods. Companies providing management software for dialysis centers adapted their system to comply with a formulary of the Brazilian Society of Nephrology. Baseline and follow-up individual patients’ data were transmitted via Internet on monthly bases to the coordinating center from 2011 to 2017. Results. 73 dialysis centers provided information of 24,930 patients: 57% were male, 28% were 64 years old or older, and 13% were overweight/obese. Median dialysis vintage was 28 months. Hemodialysis was the most frequent initial therapy (93%) with venous catheters used in 64% of cases. Conventional hemodialysis remained the main current therapy (90%). Seropositivity for hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV was 2.7%, 1.1%, and 0.5%, respectively. Erythropoietin (53.9%), iron (35.1%), and sevelamer (23.4%) were the most used medications. Hemoglobin < 100 g/L and serum P > 1.74 mmol/L were present in 33.1% and 36.6% of the cases, respectively. The 5-year survival of incident cases (,538) was 57%. Conclusion. The initiative represents an innovative strategy to collect clinical and epidemiologic data of dialysis patients which may be applied to other settings and provides information that can contribute to guiding clinical practice and health care policy.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Disease
           in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Background. Proteinuria is a common feature of sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) that can progress to renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease. Microalbuminuria (MA) is the earliest manifestation of SCN and precedes the development of overt proteinuria. In addition to the renal consequences, MA is linked to cardiovascular complications. Periodic screening and early detection of MA allow early intervention that may reduce the risk of progression to advanced renal failure and cardiovascular diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MA in patients with SCD in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted at Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare (JHAH). Urine samples of SCD patients 18 years old and older were tested for the presence of MA using urinary albumin over creatinine ratio (ACR). Correlation was tested with multiple variables including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin level, blood pressure, blood transfusion history, pain episodes, and use of hydroxyurea. Results. Urine samples were tested on 72 patients. The mean age of the study cohort was years. Microalbuminuria was detected in 18 patients (25%). No correlation was found with any of the tested variables. Conclusion. Microalbuminuria is a common finding in patients with SCD in eastern Saudi Arabia. Patients with SCD should be screened for MA, and those with positive tests should probably be treated with antiproteinuric agents that may slow the progression to advanced stages of renal failure and decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 08:58:29 +000
       
  • Restless Legs Syndrome in Dialysis Patients: Does the Dialysis Modality
           Influence Its Occurrence and Severity'

    • Abstract: Background. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is more prevalent in chronic kidney patients than in the general population, but it is often diagnosed late and its predictors are unknown. Purpose. To diagnose RLS in a group of chronic kidney patients on dialysis, determine its frequency and severity, compare the prevalence and severity of the condition among dialytic modalities, and identify possible predictive factors in this population. Methods. An observational and cross-sectional study with 326 patients who had been on dialysis for more than 3 months, 241 on hemodialysis (HD) and 85 on automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD), using the criteria established by the International Study Group on RLS for the diagnosis and the RLS Rating Scale to determine its severity. Results. RLS was diagnosed in 19.3% of the patients, 52.4% with severe or very severe forms. Patients with and without RLS did not differ in clinical and demographic characteristics and dialytic modality; however, patients on APD presented higher RLS severity compared to the HD group. Conclusions. RLS is frequent in dialysis patients and occurs predominantly in its most severe forms; the dialytic modality seems to have no influence on its occurrence; however, it is more severe in patients on APD.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Feb 2018 07:05:29 +000
       
  • Low, rather than High, Body Mass Index Is a Risk Factor for Acute Kidney
           

    • Abstract: Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalised patients. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of having AKI for patients in the acute hospital setting is not known, particularly in the Asian population. Methods. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in Singapore, a multiethnic population. All patients aged ≥21 years and hospitalised from January to December 2013 were recruited. Results. A total of 12,555 patients were eligible for the analysis. A BMI of
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 08:25:54 +000
       
  • Cancer in ANCA-Associated Glomerulonephritis: A Registry-Based Cohort
           Study

    • Abstract: Background. Immunosuppressive therapy for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has been associated with increased malignancy risk. Objectives. To quantify the cancer risk associated with contemporary cyclophosphamide-sparing protocols. Methods. Patients from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry between 1988 and 2012 who had biopsy-verified pauci-immune glomerulonephritis and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) serology were included. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the study cohort with the general population. Results. The study cohort included 419 patients. During 3010 person-years, cancer developed in 41 patients (9.79%); the expected number of cancer cases was 37.5 (8.95%). The cohort had SIRs as follows: 1.09, all cancer types (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.49); 0.96, all types except nonmelanoma skin cancer (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.34); 3.40, nonmelanoma skin cancer (95% CI, 1.62 to 7.14); 3.52, hematologic cancer (95% CI, 1.32 to 9.37); 2.12, posttransplant cancer (95% CI, 1.01 to 4.44); and 1.53, during the 1–5-year follow-up after diagnosis (95% CI, 1.01 to 2.32). Conclusions. Cancer risk did not increase significantly in this cohort with ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis. However, increased risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer, posttransplant cancer, and hematologic cancer indicates an association between immunosuppression and malignancy.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 07:39:10 +000
       
  • Serial Galactose-Deficient IgA1 Levels in Children with IgA Nephropathy
           and Healthy Controls

    • Abstract: Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a key pathogenic factor for IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and a potential biomarker for the disease. This study examined serial serum Gd-IgA1 levels over 1 year in 13 children with IgAN and 40 healthy children, to determine whether or not serum Gd-IgA1 levels changed over time. Subjects were younger than 18 years of age. Follow-up measurements were scheduled 6 and/or 12 months later. Analysis of variance and regression models for repeated measures were used to estimate group and time effects. Serum Gd-IgA1 level was higher in initial samples for IgAN patients compared to those of healthy children . Serum Gd-IgA1 levels did not change over time for healthy controls but increased for IgAN patients . Serum Gd-IgA1 level was elevated for 9 children with IgAN at study entry and remained elevated. Two of the 4 IgAN patients with initially normal Gd-IgA1 levels had a subsequent elevated level. The persistent elevation of the serum Gd-IgA1 level in children with IgAN enhances its utility as a potential diagnostic test for IgAN.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dialysis Provision and Implications of Health Economics on Peritoneal
           Dialysis Utilization: A Review from a Malaysian Perspective

    • Abstract: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is managed by either lifesaving hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) or a kidney transplant. In Malaysia, the prevalence of dialysis-treated ESRD patients has shown an exponential growth from 504 per million population (pmp) in 2005 to 1155 pmp in 2014. There were 1046 pmp patients on HD and 109 pmp patients on PD in 2014. Kidney transplants are limited due to lack of donors. Malaysia adopts public-private financing model for dialysis. Majority of HD patients were treated in the private sector but almost all PD patients were treated in government facilities. Inequality in access to dialysis is visible within geographical regions where majority of HD centres are scattered around developed areas. The expenditure on dialysis has been escalating in recent years but economic evaluations of dialysis modalities are scarce. Evidence shows that health policies and reimbursement strategies influence dialysis provision. Increased uptake of PD can produce significant economic benefits and improve patients’ access to dialysis. As a result, some countries implemented a PD-First or Favored Policy to expand PD use. Thus, a current comparative costs analysis of dialysis is strongly recommended to assist decision-makers to establish a more equitable and economically sustainable dialysis provision in the future.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 06:58:16 +000
       
  • Complex Monitoring of Biochemical and Radionuclide Parameters in Patients
           with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma during Immunotherapy

    • Abstract: Study Objective. To study the effectiveness of complex monitoring of the kidney function, based on biochemical and radionuclide methods in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Materials and Methods. 41 mRCC patients after nephrectomy received nivolumab (n = 23) and interferon-α (n = 18) from 2015 to 2017. At baseline and 2 months after, all patients underwent blood chemistry, urinalysis, Rehberg test, and ELISA to determine serum levels of IL-17A, TGF-β, and erythropoietin. The monitoring of the renal function and urodynamics by complex renal scintigraphy (CRS) was used for all patients using a dual-detector gamma camera and simultaneous data recording in 2 projections. The interpretation of CRS data used the original SENS CRS technology. Study Results. Statistically significant correlations were established between IL-17A, TGF-β, and D (excretion rate of 99mTc-technephore from the parenchyma) and Rnfsc (a stable sign of nephrosclerosis), respectively. A significant correlation was established between the parameters of the complex functional monitoring with the prognosis for the risk of renal failure (RF) and efficacy of immunotherapy in mRCC. Conclusions. All mRCC patients after nephrectomy were recommended to undergo biochemical monitoring with inclusion of TGF-β and IL-17A, as well as radionuclide monitoring (CRS) to determine the RF risk at an early stage.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • NT-proBNP, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Nutritional Status in
           Hemodialysis Patients

    • Abstract: Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between NT-proBNP and malnutrition in HD patients while taking into account the four established categories of parameters for diagnosis of protein energy wasting (PEW). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in Afro-Caribbean dialysis patients. One component in each of the 4 categories for the wasting syndrome was retained: serum albumin ≤ 38 g/L, BMI ≤ 23 Kg/m2, serum creatinine ≤ 818 µmol/L, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) ≤ 0.8 g/kg/day. NT-proBNP was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. Two multivariate logistic regression models were performed to determine the parameters associated with high NT-proBNP concentrations. Results. In 207 HD patients, 16.9% had PEW (at least three components). LVEF lower than 60% was found in 13.8% of patients. NT-proBNP levels ranged from 125 to 33144 pg/mL. In model 1, high levels of NT-proBNP (≥6243 pg/mL) were independently associated with PEW OR 14.2 (3.25–62.4), male gender 2.80 (1.22–6.57), hsCRP > 5 mg/L 3.90 (1.77–8.57), and dialysis vintage > 3 years 3.84 (1.35–10.8). In model 2, LVEF OR was 0.93 (0.88–0.98). NT-proBNP concentrations were significantly higher when the PEW component number was higher. Conclusion. In dialysis patients, high NT-proBNP levels must draw attention to cardiac function but also to nutritional status.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Sep 2017 10:01:16 +000
       
  • Denosumab for Male Hemodialysis Patients with Low Bone Mineral Density: A
           Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Denosumab increases bone mineral density (BMD) in patients not receiving hemodialysis therapy. However, limited data are available in the literature concerning the use of denosumab in hemodialysis patients. We treated male hemodialysis patients with low radius BMD with denosumab therapy for 1 year and evaluated its effect on radius BMD. Seventeen patients were treated with denosumab 60 mg every 6 months, and 20 patients were not treated with denosumab (control group). At seven days, the mean corrected calcium level decreased from  mg to  mg (), and mean serum phosphorus decreased from  mg/dl to  mg/dl (). At 1 month, the corrected calcium and serum phosphorus levels were  mg/dl and  mg/dl, respectively. At 1 year, BMD increased by 2.6%  ± 4.4% in the denosumab group and decreased by 4.5%  ± 7.7% in the control group (). In our observational study, denosumab therapy represents an effective treatment for male dialysis patients with low BMD.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Sleep Parameters in Short Daily versus Conventional Dialysis: An
           Actigraphic Study

    • Abstract: Previous studies have observed worse sleep quality in patients undergoing conventional dialysis as compared to daily dialysis. Our aim was to compare the sleep parameters of patients undergoing daily or conventional dialysis using an objective measure (actigraphy). This cross-sectional study was performed in three dialysis centers, including a convenience sample (nonprobability sampling) of 73 patients (36 patients on daily hemodialysis and 37 patients on conventional hemodialysis). The following parameters were evaluated: nocturnal total sleep time (NTST), expressed in minutes; wake time after sleep onset (WASO), expressed in minutes; number of nighttime awakenings; daytime total sleep time (DTST), expressed in minutes; number of daytime naps; and nighttime percentage of sleep (% sleep). The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory were also administered. The mean age was 53.4  ±  17.0 years. After adjustment of confounding factors using multiple linear regression analysis, no difference in actigraphy parameters was detected between the groups: NTST (), WASO (), % sleep (), awakenings (), naps (), and DTST (). Different from previous studies employing qualitative analysis, the present assessment did not observe an influence of hemodialysis modality on objective sleep parameters in chronic renal patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Aug 2017 07:51:48 +000
       
  • Analysis of T Cell Subsets in Adult Primary/Idiopathic Minimal Change
           Disease: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Aim. To characterise infiltrating T cells in kidneys and circulating lymphocyte subsets of adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease. Methods. In a cohort of 9 adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change recruited consecutively at disease onset, we characterized (1) infiltrating immune cells in the kidneys using immunohistochemistry and (2) circulating lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry. As an exploratory analysis, association of the numbers and percentages of both kidney-infiltrating immune cells and the circulating lymphocyte subsets with kidney outcomes including deterioration of kidney function and proteinuria, as well as time to complete clinical remission up to 48 months of follow-up, was investigated. Results. In the recruited patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, we observed (a) a dominance of infiltrating T helper 17 cells and cytotoxic cells, comprising cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, over Foxp3+ Treg cells in the renal interstitium; (b) an increase in the circulating total CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood; and (c) an association of some of these parameters with kidney function and proteinuria. Conclusions. In primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, a relative numerical dominance of effector over regulatory T cells can be observed in kidney tissue and peripheral blood. However, larger confirmatory studies are necessary.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 08:25:19 +000
       
  • The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions

    • Abstract: Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 10:29:23 +000
       
  • Malignancy in Membranous Nephropathy: Evaluation of Incidence

    • Abstract: Background. Membranous nephropathy (MN) can be associated with malignancy. However, the relative risk for malignancy remains unclear. It has been reported that higher numbers of inflammatory cells seen in the glomeruli at biopsy correlate with the occurrence of malignancy in patients with MN and might be used to direct screening. Methods. We examined the occurrence of malignancy in 201 MN patients in Auckland, New Zealand. We also examined the pathology of renal biopsies from 17 MN patients with malignancies and compared the number of inflammatory cells per glomerulus with matched control patients with MN but no malignancy. Results. 40 malignancies were identified in 37 patients, 28 of which occurred after the MN diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 2.1 (95% CI, 1.3–2.85) which was similar between patients ≥ 60 years and those
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparative Performance of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular
           Filtration Rate Equations in the Malays: A Pilot Study in Tertiary
           Hospital in Malaysia

    • Abstract: Aim. To validate the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equations in Malay population attending our hospital in comparison with radiolabeled measured GFR. Methods. A cross-sectional study recruiting volunteered patients in the outpatient setting. Chromium EDTA (51Cr-EDTA) was used as measured GFR. The predictive capabilities of Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected for body surface area (CGBSA), four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4-MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations were calculated. Results. A total of 51 subjects were recruited with mean measured GFR 42.04 (17.70–111.10) ml/min/1.73 m2. Estimated GFR based on CGBSA, 4-MDRD, and CKD-EPI were 40.47 (16.52–115.52), 35.90 (14.00–98.00), and 37.24 (14.00–121.00), respectively. Higher accuracy was noted in 4-MDRD equations throughout all GFR groups except for subgroup of GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 where CGBSA was better. Conclusions. The 4-MDRD equation seems to perform better in estimating GFR in Malay CKD patients generally and specifically in the subgroup of GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and both BMI subgroups.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 09:22:23 +000
       
  • End-Stage Kidney Failure in Oman: An Analysis of Registry Data with an
           Emphasis on Congenital and Inherited Renal Diseases

    • Abstract: Globally, end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is a huge burden on health care systems. The aims of this study were to perform a comprehensive epidemiological and etiological report of ESKD patients commencing RRT in Oman with an emphasis on genetic causes and inherited kidney disease. All newly registered Omani patients with ESKD commencing RRT from 2001 until 2015 (,922) were analysed using the RRT register in Oman. All potentially genetic or inherited causes of ESKD were reviewed. In Oman, ESKD is more prevalent in males (57.1%) than females (42.9%) with a median age of incident ESKD of 53 years. Diabetic nephropathy was the most prevalent cause of ESKD (46%), followed by hypertensive nephropathy (19%), glomerulonephritis (15%), and inherited kidney disease (5%). For patients less than 20 years of age inherited kidney disease accounted for 32.5% of cases. Of this cohort with inherited renal disease, 40.3% had autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, 11.5% had congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, 9.4% had Alport syndrome, and 7.2% had autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease. This study represents a comprehensive population-based epidemiological and etiological report of ESKD patients in Oman commencing RRT. Inherited kidney disease was the leading cause of paediatric ESKD.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Gum Arabic Reduces C-Reactive Protein in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
           without Affecting Urea or Indoxyl Sulfate Levels

    • Abstract: Introduction. Gum Arabic (GA) is a complex polysaccharide with proven prebiotic properties and potentially beneficial systemic effects. Methods. We randomly allocated 36 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients to receive 10, 20, or 40 grams daily of GA for four weeks and studied the systemic effects of this intervention. Results. Thirty participants completed the study with baseline glomerular filtration rate  mL/min/1.7 m2. In contrast to previous observations, we found no effect on serum urea or creatinine levels. GA supplementation was associated with a small but statistically significant drop in serum sodium level ( to  mmol/L, = 0.002) without affecting other electrolytes, urine volume, or indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels. GA supplementation was also associated with a significant drop in C-reactive protein (CRP) level ( to  ng/mL, = 0.02) even in patients who received only 10 g/day ( to  ng/mL, = 0.03). Conclusions. Supplementing the diet of CKD patients with 10–40 g/day of GA significantly reduced CRP level which could have a positive impact on these patients’ morbidity and mortality. This trial is registered with Saudi Clinical Trial Registry number 15011402.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 May 2017 06:55:31 +000
       
  • R229Q Polymorphism of NPHS2 Gene in Group of Iraqi Children with
           Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome

    • Abstract: Background. The polymorphism R229Q is one of the most commonly reported podocin sequence variations among steroid-resistant nephrotic syndromes (SRNS). Aim of the Study. We investigated the frequency and risk of this polymorphism among a group of Iraqi children with SRNS and steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Patients and Methods. A prospective case control study which was conducted in Al-Imamein Al-Kadhimein Medical City, spanning the period from the 1st of April 2015 to 30th of November 2015. Study sample consisted of 54 children having NS, divided into 2 groups: patients group consisted of 27 children with SRNS, and control group involved 27 children with SSNS. Both were screened by real time polymerase chain reaction for R229Q in exon 5 of NPHS2 gene. Results. Molecular study showed R229Q polymorphism in 96.3% of SRNS and 100% of SSNS. There were no phenotypic or histologic characteristics of patients bearing homozygous R229Q polymorphism and the patients with heterozygous R229Q polymorphism. Conclusion. Polymorphism R229Q of NPHS2 gene is prevalent in Iraqi children with SRNS and SSNS. Further study needs to be done, for other exons and polymorphism of NPHS2 gene in those patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Expression of uPAR in Urinary Podocytes of Patients with Fabry Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Despite enzyme replacement therapy, Fabry nephropathy still progresses. Podocyturia is an irreversible event that antedates proteinuria and leads to chronic renal failure. We evaluated a potential mechanism of podocyte detachment via the expression of the urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPAR) in urinary podocytes of Fabry patients. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included controls () and Fabry patients () either untreated () or treated with agalsidase-β (). Variables. Variables are estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary protein : creatinine ratio, and urinary uPAR+ podocyte : creatinine ratio. uPAR mRNA expression in response to lyso-Gb3, a bioactive glycolipid accumulated in Fabry disease, was studied in cultured human podocytes. Results. Controls and Fabry patients had similar age, gender, and renal function. Urinary uPAR+ podocytes were higher in patients than in controls. Untreated patients were significantly younger; had more females, and presented lower urinary protein : creatinine ratios and significantly higher urinary uPAR+ podocytes than treated subjects. In treated patients, urinary uPAR+ podocytes correlated with urinary protein : creatinine ratio (; ). Lyso-Gb3 at concentrations found in the circulation of Fabry patients increased uPAR expression in cultured podocytes. Conclusions. Urinary podocytes expressing uPAR are increased in Fabry patients, especially in untreated patients. The potential contribution of uPAR expression to podocyte detachment merits further studies.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Febuxostat Attenuates Renal Damage besides Exerting Hypouricemic Effect in
           Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Aim. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of febuxostat, a novel inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (XO), on renal damage in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of STZ in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sham-injected rats served as controls. The control and diabetic rats were treated with and without febuxostat for 8 weeks, respectively. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected every 4 weeks. Rat livers were extracted for detecting gene expression, content, and bioactivity of XO. Results. Diabetic rats showed significantly increased serum uric acid (SUA), serum creatinine (SCr), and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Daily urinary albumin (UAE), uric acid (UUA), and creatinine (UCr) excretion were also significantly increased in these rats. In diabetic rats, at week 8, febuxostat decreased SUA by 18.9%, while UAA was increased by 52.0%. However, UCr and urinary urea nitrogen (UUN) levels remained unchanged, while SCr and BUN levels decreased by >30% in these rats. Although hepatic gene expression, content, and activity of XO increased significantly in diabetic rats, febuxostat only slightly decreased its content. Conclusions. Febuxostat significantly attenuated renal damage in STZ-induced diabetic rats in addition to exerting hypouricemic effect.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Incidence and Risk Factors for Early Acute Kidney Injury in Nonsurgical
           Patients: A Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) in the first days of hospitalization could prevent potentially fatal complications. However, epidemiological data are scarce, especially on nonsurgical patients. Objectives. To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with AKI within five days of hospitalization (EAKI). Methods. Prospective cohort of patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Department. Results. A total of 16% of 400 patients developed EAKI. The associated risk factors were prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs (2.21 OR; 95% CI 1.12–4.36, ), chronic kidney disease (CKD) in stages 3 to 5 (3.56 OR; 95% CI 1.55–8.18, ), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) at admission (5.05 OR; 95% CI 1.59–16.0, ). The median length of hospital stay was higher among patients who developed EAKI (8 [IQR 5–14] versus 6 [IQR 4–10], ) and was associated with an increased requirement for dialysis (4.87 OR 95% CI 2.54 to 8.97, ) and in-hospital death (3.45 OR; 95% CI 2.18 to 5.48, ). Conclusions. The incidence of EAKI in nonsurgical patients is similar to the worldwide incidence of AKI. The risk factors included CKD from stage 3 onwards, prehospital treatment with nephrotoxic drugs, and VTE at admission. EAKI is associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased mortality rate, and dialysis requirement.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Renal Function and Death in Older Women: Which eGFR Formula Should We
           Use'

    • Abstract: Background. The Berlin Initiative Study (BIS) eGFR equations were developed specifically for aged populations, but their predictive validity compared to standard formulae is unknown in older women. Methods. In a prospective study of 1289 community-dwelling older women (mean age 79.5 years), we compared the performance of the BIS1 SCr-based equation to the CKD- and the BIS2 SCr- and Scysc-based equation to the CKD- to predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Results. Prevalence of specific eGFR category (i.e., ≥75, 60–74, 45–59, and
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Factors Predicting Renal Function Outcome after Augmentation Cystoplasty

    • Abstract: We determined the cause of renal deterioration after augmentation cystoplasty (AC). Twenty-nine adult patients with refractory bladder dysfunction and who underwent ileocystoplasty from 2004 to 2015 were studied. Patients with a decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after augmentation were reviewed. The primary outcome was to determine the factors that might lead to deterioration of estimated GFR. Median follow-up was years. Significant bladder capacity, end filling pressure, and bladder compliance were achieved from median to  ml (), to  cm H2O (), and to (), respectively. Renal function remained stable and improved in 22 () patients from median eGFR to  ml/min/1.73 m2 (). Significant deterioration was found in 7 () patients from median eGFR to (). The causes of renal deterioration were noncompliance to self-catheterization (2 patients), posterior urethral valve/dysplastic kidneys (2 patients), and reflux/infection (2 patients). On multivariate analysis, recurrent pyelonephritis (OR 3.87, ) and noncompliance (OR 30.78, ) were significant. We concluded that AC is not the cause of progression to end-stage renal disease in patients with renal insufficiency.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 09:20:01 +000
       
  • Forecasting the Incidence and Prevalence of Patients with End-Stage Renal
           Disease in Malaysia up to the Year 2040

    • Abstract: Background. The incidence of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis has been growing rapidly in Malaysia from 18 per million population (pmp) in 1993 to 231 pmp in 2013. Objective. To forecast the incidence and prevalence of ESRD patients who will require dialysis treatment in Malaysia until 2040. Methodology. Univariate forecasting models using the number of new and current dialysis patients, by the Malaysian Dialysis and Transplant Registry from 1993 to 2013 were used. Four forecasting models were evaluated, and the model with the smallest error was selected for the prediction. Result. ARIMA (0, 2, 1) modeling with the lowest error was selected to predict both the incidence (RMSE = 135.50, MAPE = 2.85, and MAE = 87.71) and the prevalence (RMSE = 158.79, MAPE = 1.29, and MAE = 117.21) of dialysis patients. The estimated incidences of new dialysis patients in 2020 and 2040 are 10,208 and 19,418 cases, respectively, while the estimated prevalence is 51,269 and 106,249 cases. Conclusion. The growth of ESRD patients on dialysis in Malaysia can be expected to continue at an alarming rate. Effective steps to address and curb further increase in new patients requiring dialysis are urgently needed, in order to mitigate the expected financial and health catastrophes associated with the projected increase of such patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 07:12:21 +000
       
  • Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Management and Outcome: A Single Center
           Retrospective Analysis

    • Abstract: There is a paucity of information on outpatient management and risk factors for hospitalization and complications in childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS). We described the management, patient adherence, and inpatient and outpatient usage of 87 pediatric NS patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Statistical Area. Multivariable analyses were performed to examine the associations between patient characteristics and disease outcome. We found that 51% of the patients were treated with two or more immunosuppressants. Approximately half of the patients were noted to be nonadherent to medications and urine protein monitoring. The majority (71%) of patients were hospitalized at least once, with a median rate of 0.5 hospitalizations per patient year. Mean hospital length of stay was 4.0 (3.8) days. Fourteen percent of patients experienced at least one serious disease complication. Black race, frequently relapsing/steroid-dependent and steroid-resistant disease, and the first year following diagnosis were associated with higher hospitalization rates. The presence of comorbidities was associated with longer hospital length of stay and increased risk of serious disease complications. Our results highlight the high morbidity and burden of NS and point to particular patient subgroups that may be at increased risk for poor outcome.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:13:15 +000
       
  • Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists

    • Abstract: We propose that renal consults are enhanced by incorporating a nephrology-focused ultrasound protocol including ultrasound evaluation of cardiac contractility, the presence or absence of pericardial effusion, inferior vena cava size and collapsibility to guide volume management, bladder volume to assess for obstruction or retention, and kidney size and structure to potentially gauge chronicity of renal disease or identify other structural abnormalities. The benefits of immediate and ongoing assessment of cardiac function and intravascular volume status (prerenal), possible urinary obstruction or retention (postrenal), and potential etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease far outweigh the limitations of bedside ultrasonography performed by nephrologists. The alternative is reliance on formal ultrasonography, which creates a disconnect between those who order, perform, and interpret studies, creates delays between when clinical questions are asked and answered, and may increase expense. Ultrasound-enhanced physical examination provides immediate information about our patients, which frequently alters our assessments and management plans.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Apolipoprotein C-I Levels Are Associated with the Urinary Protein/Urinary
           Creatinine Ratio in Pediatric Idiopathic Steroid-Sensitive Nephrotic
           Syndrome: A Case Control Study

    • Abstract: Humoral factors may cause idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (
      ISSN S). In the present study, we analyzed serum proteins using mass spectrometry (MS) to identify proteins associated with the pathophysiology of pediatric
      ISSN S. We collected serial serum samples from 33 children during each
      ISSN S phase; Phase A1 is the acute phase prior to steroid treatment (STx), Phase A2 represents the remission period with STx, and Phase A3 represents the remission period after completion of STx. Children with normal urinalyses (Group B) and children with a nephrotic syndrome other than
      ISSN S (Group C) served as controls. No significant differences in urinary protein/urinary creatinine (UP/UCr) ratios were observed between the children with phase A1
      ISSN S and Group C. We used surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time of flight MS for sample analysis. Four ion peaks with a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 6,444, 6,626, 8,695, and 8,915 were significantly elevated during
      ISSN S Phase A1 compared to Phase A2, Phase A3, and Group C. The intensity of an m/z of 6,626 significantly correlated with the UP/UCr ratio and an m/z of 6,626 was identified as apolipoprotein C-I (Apo C-I). Apo C-I levels correlate with the UP/UCr ratio in pediatric
      ISSN S. Our findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of
      ISSN S.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jan 2017 11:01:49 +000
       
  • Clinical Utility of Urinary β2-Microglobulin in Detection of Early
           Nephropathy in African Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Studies have indicated that diabetic tubulopathy may occur earlier than glomerulopathy, therefore providing a potential avenue for earlier diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. Urinary beta-2-microglobulin (β2m) was investigated in this study as a potential biomarker in the detection of early nephropathy in type 2 diabetics. Methods. One hundred and two diabetic subjects and 103 controls that met the inclusion criteria had data (sociodemographic, medical history, physical examination, and laboratory) collected. Urinary β2m levels and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) were determined. Results. Elevated urinary β2m was more frequent among the diabetics (52%, 95% CI: 42.1–61.8%) than among the controls (32%, 95% CI: 22.9–41.2%). The frequency of microalbuminuria was higher in the diabetics (35.3%, 95% CI: 25.9–44.7%) than in the controls (15.5%, 95% CI: 8.4–22.6%). There was a positive correlation between urinary β2m and UAC (rho = 0.38, ). Multivariate analysis showed BMI (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05–1.45), eGFR (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), and presence of microalbuminuria (OR: 3.94, 95% CI: 1.32–11.77) as independent predictors of elevated urinary beta-2-microglobulin among the diabetics. Conclusion. Urinary β2m may be useful, either as a single test or as a component of a panel of tests, in the early detection of diabetic nephropathy.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jan 2017 07:35:19 +000
       
 
 
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