Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Nephrology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.697
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-214X - ISSN (Online) 2090-2158
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Effect of Prolonged-Release Pirfenidone on Renal Function in Septic Acute
           Kidney Injury Patients: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. There is no treatment for septic acute kidney injury (sAKI). The anti-inflammatory activity of prolonged-release pirfenidone (PR-PFD) could be beneficial in this clinical setting. Methods. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial in sAKI patients with nephrology consultation at the Civil Hospital of Guadalajara, in addition to the usual treatment of AKI associated with sepsis; patients were randomized to receive either PR-PFD at 1,200 mg/day (group A) or 600 mg/day (group B) or a matched placebo for 7 consecutive days. The primary objective was the decrease in serum creatinine (sCr) and increase in urinary volume (UV); the secondary objectives were changes in serum electrolytes, acid-base status, and mortality. Results. Between August 2016 and August 2017, 88 patients were randomized. The mean age was 54 (17 ± SD) years, and 47% were male. The main site of infection was the lung (39.8%), septic shock was present in 39.1% of the cases, and the mean SOFA score was 8.8 points. 28 patients received PFD 1,200 mg, 30 patients received PFD 600 mg, and 30 patients received placebo. During the study, sCr did not differ among the groups. The reversion rate of sCr, UV, and mortality was not different among the groups (,, and , respectively). Mild adverse events were not different among the groups. Conclusion. PR-PFD did not improve the clinical course of sAKI and seemed to be safe in terms of adverse events. This trial is registered with NCT02530359.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Jan 2021 14:50:01 +000
       
  • Cognition and Implementation of Disaster Preparedness among Japanese
           Dialysis Facilities

    • Abstract: Introduction. Few quantitative studies have explored disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities worldwide. This study examined the levels of disaster preparedness and their related factors in dialysis facilities in Japan. Methods. We conducted a mail survey using a self-administered questionnaire for key persons responsible for disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities (N = 904) associated with the Japanese Association of Dialysis Physicians. Levels of disaster preparedness were evaluated by the implementation rates of four domains: (1) patient, (2) administration, (3) network, and (4) safety. Additionally, we focused on cognitive factors related to disaster preparedness, such as risk perception, outcome expectancy, self-efficacy, self-responsibility, and support from the surroundings. Results. A total of 517 participants answered the survey (response rate: 57.2%). Implementation rates differed according to the domains of disaster preparedness. While the average implementation rate of the safety domain was 81.8%, each average implementation rate was 57.9%, 48.3%, and 38.4% for the administration, network, and patient domains, respectively. The study found that self-efficacy and support from the surroundings of the participants were significantly associated with the four domains of disaster preparedness. Alternatively, risk perception and support from surroundings were significantly associated with one particular domain each. Conclusion. Our results suggest that boosting self-efficacy and support from surroundings among key persons of disaster preparedness in dialysis facilities may contribute to the advancement of the different domains of disaster preparedness.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jan 2021 08:20:01 +000
       
  • A New Method for the Measurement of International Normalized Ratio in
           Hemodialysis Patients with Heparin-Locked Tunneled Dialysis Catheters

    • Abstract: Background. To measure International Normalized Ratio (INR) in hemodialysis patients with tunneled dialysis catheters (TDCs), blood sampling is frequently obtained via the catheter at the start of the session. INR measurements via finger-prick point of care testing (POCT) and via blood sampling taken from the dialysis circuit are evaluated as alternatives. Methods. In 14 hemodialysis patients with TDCs, treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA), INR measurements via POCT were compared with plasma INR samples taken via the catheter at the start of dialysis and via the dialysis circuit after 30 and 60 minutes during 3 nonconsecutive dialysis sessions. Results. Blood samples taken at the start of dialysis at the catheter site were frequently contaminated with heparin originating from the locking solution (unfractionated heparin concentration (UFH)>1.0 IU/ml in 13.2%). POCT INR at the start of dialysis was not different from plasma INR after 30 and 60 minutes (Wilcoxon test ,n = 37, and ,n = 36, respectively). Moreover, there was no difference between POCT INR at the start of dialysis and POCT INR after 30 and 60 minutes (Wilcoxon test and p = 0.801, respectively; n = 36). Passing and Bablok regression equation was used, y = 0.460 + 0.733x; n = 105. Treatment decisions based on these 2 methods showed a very good overall agreement (kappa = 0.810; 95% CI: 0.732–0.889; n = 105). Conclusions. Measuring plasma INR via the TDC at the start of dialysis should be abandoned. Measuring POCT INR via a finger prick at the start or even after 30 to 60 minutes is an alternative. The most elegant alternative is to take plasma INR samples via the dialysis circuit 30 minutes or later after the start of the dialysis.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 08:35:00 +000
       
  • Long-Term Prognosis of Hyperferritinemia Induced by Intravenous Iron
           Therapy in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: A 10-Year,
           Single-Center Study

    • Abstract: Optimal ferritin level in hemodialysis patients between Japan and other countries is controversial. Long-term side effects of iron supplementation in these patients remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate whether past hyperferritinemia in hemodialysis patients was associated with high risk of death and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CCVDs). This small retrospective cohort study included approximately 44 patients unintentionally supplemented with excessive intravenous iron. A significantly higher risk of CCVDs was observed in patients with initial serum ferritin levels ≥1000 ng/mL than in the remaining patients. High ferritin levels slowly decreased to
      PubDate: Fri, 18 Dec 2020 14:50:01 +000
       
  • Renal Transplant Pathology: Demographic Features and Histopathological
           Analysis of the Causes of Graft Dysfunction

    • Abstract: Background. Renal transplant has emerged as a preferred treatment modality in cases of end-stage renal disease; however, a small percentage of cases suffer from graft dysfunction. Aim. To evaluate the renal transplant biopsies and analyze the various causes of graft dysfunction. Materials and Methods. 163 renal transplant biopsies, reported between 2014 and 2019 and who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were evaluated with respect to demographics, clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Results. Of 163 patients, 26 (16%) were females and 137 (84%) were males with a mean age of 34 ± 7 years. 53 (32.5%) cases were of rejection (ABMR and TCMR), 1 (0.6%) was borderline, 15 were of IFTA, and rest of 94 cases (57.7%) belonged to the others category. SCr (serum creatinine) in cases of rejection was 3.85 ± 0.55 mg/dl. Causes of early graft dysfunction included active ABMR (7.1 ± 4.7 months), acute TCMR (5.5 months), and acute tubular necrosis (after 6 ± 2.2 months of transplant) while the causes of late rejection were CNIT and IFTA (34 ± 4.7 and 35 ± 7.8 months, respectively). Conclusion. Renal graft dysfunction still remains a concerning area for both clinicians and patients. Biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing the exact cause of graft dysfunction and in planning further management.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2020 08:20:03 +000
       
  • Bidirectional Interaction of Thyroid-Kidney Organs in Disease States

    • Abstract: Purpose. Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth, development, and physiology of the kidney. The kidney plays a key role in the metabolism, degradation, and excretion of thyroid hormones and its metabolites. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of disease states of thyroid-kidney organs and detecting the correlation between thyroid and kidney function abnormalities. Materials and Methods. In this retrospective study, a total of forty-five patients with thyroid and kidney dysfunction were investigated. Clinical features, laboratory data at initial presentation, management, and outcomes were collected. The paper has been written based on searching PubMed and Google Scholar to identify potentially relevant articles or abstracts. Median, percentage, mean ± standard deviation (SD), and the two-tailed t-test were used for statistical analyses. The correlation between variables was assessed by Pearson’s, Spearman’s correlation tests and regression analyses. Results. The mean ± SD of age of study patients was 48.2 ± 22.93 years (ranging from 1 to 90 years). There was no correlation between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate, and proteinuria. No association between antimicrosomal antibodies with estimated glomerular filtration rate was seen. Cardiovascular disease was the most common complication of overt hypothyroidism in kidney dysfunction patients. Conclusion. The present study showed more prevalence of primary hypothyroidism in comparison with other thyroid dysfunctions in patients with kidney dysfunction. Reduced mean values of thyroid function profiles after treatment suggest that this thyroid disease should be considered and ameliorated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with kidney disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 06:35:00 +000
       
  • A Comparison of Urine Dilution Ability between Adult Dominant Polycystic
           Kidney Disease, Other Chronic Kidney Diseases, and Healthy Control
           Subjects: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: The final dilution of urine is regulated via aquaporin-2 water channels in the distal part of the nephron. It is unclear whether urine dilution ability in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD patients) differs from other patients with similar degree of impaired renal function (non-ADPKD patients). The purpose of this case control study was to measure urine dilution ability in ADPKD patients compared to non-ADPKD patients and healthy controls. Methods. Eighteen ADPKD, 16 non-ADPKD patients (both with chronic kidney disease, stage I-IV), and 18 healthy controls received an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body weight. Urine was collected in 7 consecutive periods. We measured free water clearance (CH2O), urine osmolality, urine output, fractional excretion of sodium, urine aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), and urine epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaC). Blood samples were drawn four times (at baseline, 2 h, 4 h, and 6 hours after the water load) for analyses of plasma osmolality, vasopressin, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone. Brachial and central blood pressure was measured regularly during the test. Results. The three groups were age and gender matched, and the patient groups had similar renal function. One hour after water load, the ADPKD patients had an increased CH2O compared to non-ADPKD patients (2.97 ± 2.42 ml/min in ADPKD patients vs. 1.31 ± 1.50 ml/min in non-ADPKD patients, ). The reduction in u-AQP2 and u-ENaC occurred earlier in ADPKD than in non-ADPKD patients. Plasma concentrations of vasopressin, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone and blood pressure measurements did not show any differences that could explain the deviation in urine dilution capacity between the patient groups. Conclusions. ADPKD patients had a higher CH2O than non-ADPKD patients after an oral water load, and u-AQP2 and u-ENaC were more rapidly reduced than in non-ADPKD patients. Thus, urine-diluting capacity may be better preserved in ADPKD patients than in non-ADPKD patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 05:50:00 +000
       
  • Acute Kidney Injury Caused by Obstructive Nephropathy

    • Abstract: Acute kidney injury secondary to obstructive nephropathy is a frequent event that accounts for 5 to 10% of all acute kidney injury cases and has a great impact on the morbidity and mortality in those affected. The obstruction in the urinary tract has a profound impact on kidney function due to damage produced by ischemic and inflammatory factors that have been associated with intense fibrosis. This pathology is characterized by its effects on the management of fluids, electrolytes, and the acid-base mechanisms by the renal tubule; consequently, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, uremia, and anuria are seen during acute kidney injury due to obstructive nephropathy, and after drainage, polyuria may occur. Acute urine retention is the typical presentation. The diagnosis consists of a complete medical history and should include changes in urinary voiding and urgency and enuresis, history of urinary tract infections, hematuria, renal lithiasis, prior urinary interventions, and constipation. Imaging studies included tomography or ultrasound in which hydronephrosis can be seen. Management includes, in addition to drainage of the obstructed urinary tract system, providing supportive treatment, correcting all the metabolic abnormalities, and initiating renal replacement therapy when required. Although its recovery is in most cases favorable, it seems to be an undervalued event in nephrology and urology. This is because it is mistakenly believed that the resolution and recovery of kidney function is complete once the urinary tract is unobstructed. It can have serious kidney sequelae. In this review, we report the epidemiology, incidence, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of acute kidney injury due to obstructive nephropathy.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Nov 2020 06:35:01 +000
       
  • Hyponatraemia as a Predictor of Mortality in Medical Admissions in Ghana:
           A Comparative Study

    • Abstract: Background. Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in hospital admissions. It occurs in a quarter of medical admissions in Ghana, and it is associated with high mortality. Mortality has been suggested to be due to the underlying medical condition and not necessarily the hyponatraemia. We set out to compare the outcomes of patients with documented hyponatraemia as compared to those with normonatraemia in terms of mortality and length of hospital stay. Methods. We conducted a comparative analysis of patients with hyponatraemia and those with normonatraemia on the medical ward at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between May 2018 and December 2018. The medical diagnoses, demographics, and laboratory data of the patients were recorded. Participants’ age and gender were matched. Student’s t-test was used to test for differences in continuous variables when parametric and Wilcoxon signed-rank test for nonparametric variables. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. A value of
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Prevalence of APOL1 Risk Variants in Afro-Descendant
           Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in a Latin American Country”

    • PubDate: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 06:50:01 +000
       
  • The Association between the Activin A Serum Level and Carotid Intima-Media
           Thickness in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with high mortality rates, mainly as a result of cardiovascular complications. Meanwhile, recent studies have suggested a role of a homodimer protein called activin A in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) conditions that may exist in the vascular calcification and osteolytic process. Ultrasound examination of the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a noninvasive method to assess vascular calcification. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the activin A serum level and cIMT in patients with CKD at Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang, Indonesia. Methods. We conducted a hospital-based, cross-sectional study of consecutive CKD patients at the Department of Internal Medicine, Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, from July to November 2019. The level of activin A was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Meanwhile, cIMT measurements were collected by B-mode ultrasound imaging. Results. A total of 55 patients with CKD were included in this investigation. The median serum activin A level in these patients was 236.17 (116.33–283) pg/mL, while the median cIMT was 0.8 (0.6–1.45) mm. A relationship between the serum activin A level and cIMT (r  =  0.449; ) was observed. During multivariate analysis with linear regression, triglyceride , phosphate , and activin A serum levels were factors associated with cIMT. Conclusion. In this study, a relationship between the activin A serum level and cIMT in patients with CKD was identified. Vascular calcification should be screened for in all CKD patients by the measurement of cIMT.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Nov 2020 07:35:04 +000
       
  • Prevalence, Clinical Presentation, and Outcome of Tuberculosis in Patients
           with Chronic Kidney Disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health threat in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at higher risk of developing new infection as well as reactivation of TB. We aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical presentations, and outcome of TB in patients with CKD in Nepal. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), a tertiary level referral centre in Kathmandu, Nepal. We included patients older than 16 years with the diagnosis of CKD stage 3, 4, 5, and 5D (CKD 5 on maintenance dialysis); renal transplant recipients and patients living with HIV/AIDS were excluded. Tuberculosis was diagnosed based on clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Prior written informed consent was obtained. Approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of the Institute of Medicine. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using SPSS v21. Results. A total of 401 patients with CKD were included in the study (mean age, 50.92 ± 17.98 years; 64.8% male). The prevalence of TB in CKD patients was found to be 13.7% (55), out of which 49 were newly diagnosed cases. The most common clinical presentations of TB in CKD were anorexia (85.7%), fever (83.7%), weight loss (51%), and cough (49%). Thirty-eight patients (69.1%) had extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), 12 (21.8%) had pulmonary TB, 3 (5.5%) had disseminated TB, and 2 (3.6%) had miliary TB. Only 4.1% of cases were sputum smear positive. Pleural effusion (34.2%) was the most common EPTB. At 2 months of starting antitubercular therapy, 29 patients out of the 49 newly diagnosed cases of TB (59.2%) had responded to therapy. Mortality at 2 months was 28.6% (14 died amongst 49 patients). Four out of 49 patients (8.2%) did not improve, and 2 (4%) patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusion. Prevalence and mortality of TB were higher in patients with CKD. Special attention must be given to these people for timely diagnosis and treatment as the presentation is different and diagnosis can be missed.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Nov 2020 15:20:00 +000
       
  • Effect of a Supervised Peridialytic Exercise Program on Serum Asymmetric
           Dimethylarginine in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    • Abstract: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) have alarmingly high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) is the principal endogenous antiatherosclerotic molecule. Increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous NO synthase inhibitor, was strongly implicated in endothelial dysfunction, premature atherosclerosis, vascular events, and mortality. Regular physical exercise effectively decreased serum ADMA in several patient cohorts, but this potential benefit has not been specifically explored among MHD patients. Forty-four middle-aged ESRD patients treated with thrice-weekly MHD for ≥6 months completed a 6-months regimen of peridialytic lower limb exercise comprising predialytic 10–12 stretching cycles and 20–30 minutes of intradialytic pedaling cycles. Before and after the study, predialytic haemoglobin, serum ADMA, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Dialysis adequacy was assessed by single-pool Kt/V. The average total physical activity (PA) level was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). values
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Oct 2020 13:20:01 +000
       
  • Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Induction Therapies for the Treatment
           of Patients with Proliferative Lupus Nephritis in South Africa

    • Abstract: Background. Lupus nephritis (LN) can be complicated with requirement for kidney replacement therapy and death. Efficacy of induction therapies using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCYC) has been reported from studies, but there is limited data in Africans comparing both treatments in patients with proliferative LN. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN diagnosed and treated with either MMF or IVCYC in a single centre in Cape Town, South Africa, over a 5-year period. The primary outcome was attaining complete remission after completion of induction therapy. Results. Of the 84 patients included, mean age was 29.6 ± 10.4 years and there was a female preponderance (88.1%). At baseline, there were significant differences in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and presence of glomerular crescents between both groups (). After completion of induction therapy, there was no significant difference in remission status (76.0% versus 87.5%; ) or relapse status (8.1% versus 10.3%; ) for the IVCYC and MMF groups, respectively. Mortality rate for the IVCYC group was 5.5 per 10,000 person-days of follow-up compared to 1.5 per 10,000 person-days of follow-up for the MMF group (), and there was no significant difference in infection-related adverse events between both groups. Estimated GFR at baseline was the only predictor of death (OR: 1.0 [0.9–1.0]; ).Conclusion. This study shows similar outcomes following induction treatment with MMF or IVCYC in patients with biopsy-proven proliferative LN in South Africa. However, a prospective and randomized study is needed to adequately assess these outcomes.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
       
  • Knowledge about COVID-19 and Practices among Hemodialysis Technicians in
           the COVID-19 Pandemic Era

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hemodialysis technicians play a crucial role in infection control practices in hemodialysis units. Thus, it is important to assess the knowledge and attitude towards COVID-19 among hemodialysis technicians in this pandemic situation. Materials and Methods. An online survey composed of 22 closed-ended questions using Google Forms was conducted in the month of April (13th to 19th) 2020. The survey consisted of questions regarding the knowledge of COVID-19 and current hemodialysis practice among hemodialysis technicians. The study was approved by the institutional ethics board. The survey was administered online through a mobile phone invitation. Basic statistics (mean and standard deviation or total number and percent) were computed for all covariates. Results. Out of 150, 115 technicians participated in the survey. 80.9% of the participants were males. The mean age of respondents was 28.22 + 6.97 years. Most of the respondents could correctly identify fever (87.8%), breathlessness (86.08%), and dry cough (81.7%) as the symptoms of COVID-19 infection. 75.7% of the technicians were aware that it can be transmitted by asymptomatic persons. 61.1% of the technicians were segregating patients who had symptoms such as fever and cough to the last shift of the day. 81.1% of the technicians read the guidelines issued by the Indian Society of Nephrology—COVID-19 working group. But, only 25.5% of the respondents could rightly identify to keep a minimum distance of two meters between two beds while dialyzing a suspected patient of COVID-19 along with other patients to minimise risk of COVID-19 transmission. 60% of the technicians have received hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis against coronavirus infection. Conclusion. Our study shows a significant knowledge gap among hemodialysis technicians about COVID-19. Effective COVID-19 education campaigns should be carried out intensively with relevant information among hemodialysis technicians to address the knowledge gap. A well-informed hemodialysis technician can prove to be a great tool to spread the right infection control practices among dialysis-dependent patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2020 13:50:02 +000
       
  • Chronic Kidney Disease among Diabetes Patients in Ethiopia: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Though different primary studies have reported the burden of chronic kidney disease among diabetes patients, their results have demonstrated substantial variation regarding its prevalence in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors among diabetes patients in Ethiopia. Method. PubMed, African Journals Online, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Wiley Online Library were searched to identify relevant studies. The I2 statistic was used to check heterogeneity across the included studies. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled effect size across studies. A funnel plot and Egger’s regression test were used to determine the presence of publication bias. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA™ version 14 software. Result. In this meta-analysis, a total of 12 studies with 4,075 study participants were included. The estimated prevalence of CKD among diabetes patients was found to be 35.52% (95% CI: 25.9–45.45, I2 = 96.3%) for CKD stages 1 to 5 and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.5–18.49, I2 = 91.1%) for CKD stages 3 to 5. Age greater than 60 years (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.56–5.73), female sex (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 1.04–2.69), duration of diabetes >10 years (OR = 2.76; 95% CI: 1.38–5.51), body mass index >30 kg/m2 (OR = 2.06; 95% CI: 1.41–3.00), type 2 diabetes (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.73–3.73), poor glycemic control (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.34–3.02), fasting blood glucose >150 mg/dl (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.79–3.72), high density lipoprotein >40 mg/dl (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30–0.85–25), systolic blood pressure>140 mmHg (OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 2.24–4.74), and diabetic retinopathy (OR = 4.54; CI: 1.08–25) were significantly associated with CKD. Conclusion. This study revealed that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease remains high among diabetes patients in Ethiopia. This study found that a long duration of diabetes, age>60 years, diabetic retinopathy, female sex, family history of kidney disease, poor glycemic control, systolic blood pressure, overweight, and high level of high-density lipoprotein were associated with chronic kidney disease among diabetic patients. Therefore, situation-based interventions and context-specific preventive strategies should be developed to reduce the prevalence and risk factors of chronic kidney disease among diabetes patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Oct 2020 14:35:02 +000
       
  • Renal Dysfunction among HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in
           Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. HIV-associated renal dysfunction is common among infected patients; the growing burden of this condition may be partly accounted for by improved survival attributed to sustained viral suppression with antiretroviral therapies (ART). Some ART regimens are nephrotoxic and may potentially contribute to renal dysfunction observed in these patients. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of renal dysfunction among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and October 2019 among adults living with HIV on ART for 6 months or more attending CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 287 participants were screened for proteinuria and microalbuminuria using the Cybow 300 urine analyzer. Serum creatinine was tested for all participants, and it was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the CKD-EPI formula. Results. Out of 287 participants (72.1% female, mean age ± SD: 46.7 ± 10.6 years), about one-third (32.8%) had eGFR less than 90 ml/min, whereas 7% had eGFR less than 60 ml/min. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria were detected in 38.6% and 25.1% of participants, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, predictive determinants for renal dysfunction were higher viral loads (OR 2.5 (1.1–5.8), ), diabetes mellitus (OR 5.5 (1.6–18.6), ), and age above 60 years (OR 2.8 (1.0–7.3), ); however, this was not the case for serum CD4 counts (OR 1.25 (0.7–2.3), ).Conclusion. High prevalence of renal dysfunction among PLHIV on ART was noted in this study. Viral loads above 1000 cp/ml and diabetes mellitus were noted to be associated with increased risk for renal dysfunction.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Oct 2020 13:35:01 +000
       
  • Value of Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin versus
           Conventional Biomarkers in Predicting Response to Treatment of Active
           Lupus Nephritis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Lupus nephritis (LN) affects almost two-thirds of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Despite initial aggressive therapy, up to 25% of patients with LN will progress to permanent renal damage. Conventional serum markers for LN lack the sensitivity of an ideal biomarker. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (UNGAL) is an excellent biomarker for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury and predicting renal outcomes. Objective. To measure UNGAL among LN patients to correlate its levels with renal disease activity and to investigate its predictive performance in response to induction therapy. Patients and Methods. 40 SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN class III, IV, or V were randomly selected. The study was conducted in the internal medicine department and outpatient clinic in Ain Shams University Hospitals and completed after six months. UNGAL was measured at baseline, three-month follow-up, and after complete induction therapy. Results. In LN patients at baseline, the mean serum creatinine was 2.57 ± 0.96 mg/dL and the mean UNGAL was 33.50 ± 18.34 ng/dL. Mean UNGAL levels of complete response, partial response, and nonresponse groups were 14.48 ± 2.99 ng/mL, 34.49 ± 4.09 ng/mL, and 62.07 ± 14.44 ng/mL, respectively. Based on the ROC curve, we found a better performance of baseline UNGAL to discriminate the complete response group from partial and nonresponse groups to predict response to induction, outperforming conventional biomarkers. The area under the curve was 0.943, and the best cutoff level was 26.5 ng/mL (92.31% sensitivity and 88.89% specificity). Conclusion. UNGAL performed better than conventional biomarkers in predicting response to treatment of active LN.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Oct 2020 14:20:02 +000
       
  • Hemodialysis Adequacy and Its Impact on Long-Term Patient Survival in
           Demographically, Socially, and Culturally Homogeneous Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Impact of hemodialysis adequacy on patient survival is extensively studied. The current study compares the survival of chronic hemodialyzed, undocumented, uninsured, Afghan immigrant patients with that of a group of insured Iranian patients matched for underlying disease, age, weight, level of education, marital status, income, and number of comorbid conditions. Methods. Eighty chronic hemodialysis patients (mean age 42.8 ± 10.5 years) entered this historical cohort study in Mashhad, Iran, between January 2012 and January 2015. Half of the patients were undocumented, uninsured, Afghan immigrants (Group A) matched with forty insured Iranian patients (Group B). To compare the survival rate of the two patient groups, Kaplan–Meir survival analysis test was used. Results. Group A patients were underdialyzed with a weekly Kt/V which was significantly less in comparison with that of Group B (1.63 ± 0.63 versus 2.54 ± 0.12, value = 0.01). While Group A’s number of hemodialysis sessions per week was fewer than that of Group B (1.45 ± 0.56 versus 2.8 ± 0.41, value = 0.04), the mean of Kt/V in each hemodialysis session was higher in them, in comparison with Group B (1.43 ± 0.25 versus 1.3 ± 0.07, value = 0.045). In Group B and Group A patients, one-year survival was 70% versus 50%, two-year survival was 55% versus 30%, and three-year survival was 40% versus 20%, respectively ( values = 0.04, 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). In Cox regression analysis, hemodialysis adequacy and uninsurance were factors impacting patients’ survival (OR = 1.193 and 0.333, respectively). Conclusions. Undocumented, uninsured, inadequately hemodialyzed, Afghan patients had a significantly lower one-, two-, and three-year survival as opposed to their Iranian counterparts, probably due to lack of insurance.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Aug 2020 13:35:09 +000
       
  • MicroRNA-451 as an Early Predictor of Chronic Kidney Disease in Diabetic
           Nephropathy

    • Abstract: Background. Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Microalbuminuria is the cornerstone for the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. However, it is an inadequate marker for early diagnosis. MicroRNAs are not only new and promising markers for early diagnosis but also, but they may also play a role in the prevention of disease progression. Methods. This study included ninety patients with type 2 DM in addition to 30 control subjects. MicroRNA-451 expression in blood and plasma using real-time PCR was evaluated in addition to the classic diabetic nephropathy markers (serum creatinine, urinary albumin, and eGFR). Results. There was a significant difference between the studied groups versus control regarding serum creatinine, eGFR, urinary, and plasma microRNA-451 with . Patients with eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 showed a significantly higher plasma microRNA-451 (29.6 ± 1.6) and significantly lower urinary microRNA-451 (21 ± 0.9) in comparison to patients with eGFR>60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and . eGFR showed a positive correlation with urinary microRNA-451 and negative correlation with both plasma microRNA-451 and urinary albumin. Both plasma and urinary microRNA-451 are highly sensitive and specific markers for chronicity in diabetic nephropathy patients with sensitivity of 90.9% and 95.5% and specificity of 67.6% and 95.6%, respectively. Conclusion. MicroRNA-451 is a promising early biomarker for chronic kidney disease in diabetic nephropathy with high sensitivity and specificity.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Aug 2020 14:35:07 +000
       
  • Renal Tubular Cells from Hibernating Squirrels are Protected against
           Cisplatin Induced Apoptosis

    • Abstract: Hibernating 13-lined ground squirrels are characterized by tolerance of severe hypothermia and hypoperfusion during torpor, followed by periodic warm reperfusion during IBA, conditions which are lethal to nonhibernating mammals. The aim of the present study was to determine whether protection from apoptosis was specific to torpor arousal cycles during hibernation or will also apply to cisplatin treatment on squirrel renal tubular cells (RTECs) that were procured during hibernation. Squirrel and mouse RTECs were treated with cisplatin, a potent inducer of RTEC apoptosis. Squirrel RTECs subjected to cisplatin had significantly less apoptosis, no cleaved caspase-3, and increased XIAP, pAkt, and pBAD versus mouse RTECs. To determine whether XIAP and Akt1 are necessary for RTEC protection against cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death, gene expression of Akt1 or XIAP was silenced in squirrel RTECs. Squirrel RTECs deficient in Akt1 and XIAP had increased apoptosis and cleaved caspase-3 when treated with cisplatin. Our results thus demonstrates that 13-lined ground squirrel RTECs possess intrinsic intracellular mechanisms by which they protect themselves from apoptotic cell death. Cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI) may be avoided in cancer patients by employing mechanisms used by squirrel RTECs to protect against cisplatin induced tubular cell apoptosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Aug 2020 13:35:03 +000
       
  • No Race-Ethnicity Adjustment in CKD-EPI Equations Is Required for
           Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Brazilian Population

    • Abstract: Background. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is usually estimated from equations using serum creatinine (sCr), with adjustment for gender, age, and race (black or nonblack). The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) is the preferred equation for adults, but it was validated for the United States population. We intended to evaluate if the race-ethnicity adjustment proposed for the sCr-based CKD-EPI equations is appropriate for the Brazilian population. Methods. CKD outpatients had blood samples collected for determination of sCr and serum cystatin C (sCys) levels. GFR was measured (mGFR) by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and used as the reference. We compared values of mGFR and estimated GFR (eGFR) by CKD-EPI equations based on sCr (eGFRCr) and on the combination of sCr and sCys (eGFRCr-Cys). For African Brazilian patients, eGFR was calculated either without or with race adjustment. Accuracy was considered acceptable if the difference between the values of eGFR and mGFR was ≤30% (P30). Results. 100 patients were enrolled (58 ± 14 years, 46% male, 39% white and 61% African Brazilian). Mean mGFR was 46.7 ± 29.2 ml/min/1.73 m2. Mean eGFRCr and eGFRCr-Cys without race adjustment were 47.8 ± 30.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 and 46.4 ± 30.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The corresponding P30 accuracy values were 79.0% and 83.0%. In the African Brazilian subgroup, values for mean mGFR and eGFRCr either without or with race adjustment were 49.8 ± 32.2 ml/min/1.73 m2, 50.4 ± 32.7 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 58.4 ± 37.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 ( vs. mGFR), respectively. P30 accuracy values for eGFRCr either without or with race adjustment were 75.4% and 67.2%, respectively. Conclusions. The use of CKD-EPI equations without race-ethnicity adjustment seems more appropriate for the Brazilian population.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 07:20:02 +000
       
  • The Impact of CKD Anaemia on Patients: Incidence, Risk Factors, and
           Clinical Outcomes—A Systematic Literature Review

    • Abstract: Anaemia is a common consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the risk factors for its development and its impact on outcomes have not been well synthesised. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to fully characterise the risk factors associated with the presence of anaemia in patients with CKD and a contemporary synthesis of the risks of adverse outcomes in patients with CKD and anaemia. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from 2002 until 2018 for studies reporting the incidence or prevalence of anaemia and associated risk factors and/or associations between haemoglobin (Hb) or anaemia and mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE), hospitalisation, or CKD progression in adult patients with CKD. Extracted data were summarised as risk factors related to the incidence or prevalence of anaemia or the risk (hazard ratio (HR)) of outcome by Hb level (12 g/dL) in patients not on dialysis and in those receiving dialysis. 191 studies met the predefined inclusion criteria. The risk factor most associated with the prevalence of anaemia was CKD stage, followed by age and sex. Mean HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality in patients with CKD on dialysis with Hb 12 g/dL were 1.56 (1.43–1.71), 1.17 (1.09–1.26), and 0.91 (0.87–0.96), respectively. Similar patterns were observed for nondialysis patients and for the risks of hospitalisation, MACE, and CKD progression. This is the first known systematic review to quantify the risk of adverse clinical outcomes based on Hb level in patients with CKD. Anaemia was consistently associated with greater mortality, hospitalisation, MACE, and CKD progression in patients with CKD, and risk increased with anaemia severity. Effective treatments that not only treat the anaemia but also reduce the risk of adverse clinical outcomes are essential to help reduce the burden of anaemia and its management in CKD.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:20:08 +000
       
  • ACTH Treatment for Management of Nephrotic Syndrome: A Systematic Review
           and Reappraisal

    • Abstract: Background. In recent years, the use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for treatment of proteinuria due to nephrotic syndrome (NS) has been heavily explored. ACTH therapy, which comes in the natural (H. P. Acthar Gel) or synthetic (tetracosactide) form, has resulted in remission in patients with immunosuppressive and steroid-resistant NS. However, the exact efficacy of ACTH therapy in the NS etiologies, such as membranous nephropathy (MN), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change disease (MCD), lupus nephritis (LN), IgA nephropathy (IgAN), and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), has not been determined. Objective. This systematic review analyzed the published literature on ACTH therapy in various NS etiologies to determine its efficacy. Methods. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was conducted for articles through June 2019. An additional search was performed on clinicaltrials.gov to search for additional trials and cross reference the results of our database search. The literature which studied synthetic or natural ACTH treatment in patients with known etiologies of NS was included. Studies were excluded when they consisted of a single case report or did not analyze the lone effect of ACTH in NS. Results. The initial search yielded a total of 411 papers, and 22 papers were included. In 214 MN patients, there was an overall remission of 40% (85/214) and an overall remission of 43% (42/98) in FSGS patients. In other etiologies, there were overall remissions of 78% (11/14), 31% (5/16), 40% (16/40), and 62% (8/13) in MCD, LN, IgAN, and MPGN patients, respectively. Conclusion. ACTH showed benefits in proteinuria reduction across all etiologies of NS. However, more randomized controlled studies with larger population sets and longer follow-ups are imperative to establish causal benefits. New studies into its efficacy in children are also necessary.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jun 2020 11:05:00 +000
       
  • A Simple Tenckhoff Catheter Placement Technique for Continuous Ambulatory
           Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) Using the Bandung Method

    • Abstract: Insertion of Tenckhoff catheters for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis by nephrologists remains uncommon in most developing countries, including Indonesia. The aim of this study is to describe our experience on a simple technique of Tenckhoff catheter insertion by a nephrologist called the Bandung method. We conducted a retrospective observational study from May 2012 until December 2018 in 230 patients with end-stage renal disease using the Bandung method, a blind percutaneous insertion approach modified from the Seldinger technique. Early complications after insertion were assessed. The mean age of patients was 47.28 years (range 14–84 years). Within 1 month after insertion, complications occurred in 34 patients: 13 (5.7%) malposition, 8 (3.5%) omental trapping, 6 (2.6%) outlow failure, 3 (1.3%) peritonitis, 1 (0.4%) catheter infections, 1 (0.4%) bleeding, 1 (0.4%) kinking, and 1 (0.4%) hernia. None of these complications led to catheter removal. One patient experienced a late (>1 month) post-insertion complication of malposition that could not be repositioned and led to catheter removal. The Bandung method is a simple, cost effective, and minimally invasive technique for Tenckhoff catheter insertion that is associated with the same rate of complications compared to other techniques. This technique may useful for application in developing countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:35:08 +000
       
  • Low-Dose Maintenance Intravenous Iron Therapy Can Prevent Anemia in
           Children with End-Stage Renal Disease Undergoing Chronic Hemodialysis

    • Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia is common in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on long-term hemodialysis receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. One approach to maintain the iron profile and hemoglobin levels is maintenance therapy with regular low doses of intravenous (IV) iron after initial iron repletion therapy; however, evidence for the benefits of this approach is lacking. This study evaluated the effect of IV iron maintenance therapy on anemia in children on regular hemodialysis. This retrospective cohort study included 41 pediatric ESRD patients with normal hemoglobin and iron status who underwent regular hemodialysis at the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Indonesia, between January 2015 and April 2019. Among these, 21 received IV iron maintenance therapy with two doses of 2 mg/kg of IV iron sucrose every 2 weeks (the treatment group) and 20 did not (the comparison group). Changes in hemoglobin and transferrin saturation were assessed after 6 weeks of observation and compared between the two groups. There was a significant reduction in the mean hemoglobin level compared with the baseline level in the comparison group (21 g/L; 95% CI, 9.3–33 g/L; ) but not in the treatment group (0.7 g/L; 95% CI, −6.6–8 g/L; ). The risk of anemia was lower in the treatment group (relative risk = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22–0.79; ). Although majority of the patients had high baseline ferritin level, this study indicates that in our setting, ferritin may not be a reliable parameter to review the iron status, as it can be affected by chronic inflammation. Hence, the decision to start IV iron maintenance therapy in patients with hyperferritinemia should consider the patient’s clinical condition and morbidity. To conclude, the coadministration of IV iron maintenance therapy is beneficial for maintaining hemoglobin levels and preventing anemia in children with ESRD who are undergoing regular hemodialysis, have achieved the target hemoglobin levels, and have normal iron status.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:20:09 +000
       
  • Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Rosuvastatin on Acute Kidney Injury
           Induced by Contrast Media in Rats

    • Abstract: Objective. To explore the protective effect and mechanism of rosuvastatin on acute renal injury induced by a nonionic hypotonic contrast medium in rats. Methods. Forty-eight healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC); contrast medium control group (CM); and rosuvastatin intervention group (RI). The RI group was intragastrically administered with a 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin 12 h prior to the contrast exposure. All rats in CM and RI groups were inoculated with 10 mL/kg of chemical (IV) while the same volume of saline for the NC group. At 24 h and 72 h posttreatments, pathomorphological changes of renal tubules were documented, respectively, and several biochemical indicators were tested to assess renal injury of experimental rats. Results. Compared with the CM group, rats in the RI group showed significantly reduced injury of kidneys and decreased levels of biochemical indicators such as blood Scr, blood Cys-C, urine NAG, urine α1-MG, and urine mALB. The serum Hs-CRP in the CM group increased significantly from 24 h to 72 h (), but this was not observed in the rats of the RI group. In addition, SOD activity in the RI group was significantly increased () while SOD activity in renal tissue decreased significantly with time in the CM group ().Conclusion. Short-term intervention with rosuvastatin can lead to reduced kidney damage associated with the contrast agent by reducing the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. Thus, rosuvastatin intervention has a protective effect on rats from contrast-induced nephropathy.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 09:20:02 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Hypothyroidism among Dialysis Patients in Palestine: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. The kidney affects the thyroid gland causing various derangements in its function whenever the kidney is impaired, even with a minor imperfection in its job, and this makes dialysis patients more prone to thyroid disorders with subsequent increase in mortality and morbidity. This study aims to assess the prevalence of thyroid disease (hypo- and hyperthyroidism) among dialysis patients and their associated factors. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the dialysis unit of An-Najah National University Hospital. 209 dialysis patients (60% were male, 57.6 ± 14.5 years, mean age) meeting our inclusion criteria were tested for thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in addition to routine laboratory tests. Findings. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was assessed as 16.3% (95% CI = 11.29% to 21.3%), overt hypothyroidism was 9.1%, and subclinical hypothyroidism was 7.2%. Subclinical hyperthyroidism prevalence was 1%, and no overt hyperthyroidism cases were reported. We observed no significant association between thyroid state and age, gender, duration of dialysis, or weight. Discussion. Hypothyroidism (both subclinical and overt type) is commonly seen in dialysis patients, and its symptoms are ordinary complains even in euthyroid dialysis patients, and this warrants screening programs and more studies on the efficacy of thyroid hormone supplements.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 10:05:01 +000
       
  • Autophagy and mTOR Pathways Mediate the Potential Renoprotective Effects
           of Vitamin D on Diabetic Nephropathy

    • Abstract: Introduction. Not only is diabetic nephropathy (DN) the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, but it also increases the risk of mortality up to fourteen times compared to normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Aim. The aim of the current study was the evaluation of the renoprotective effects of vitamin D in DN and the possible interplay between autophagy and mTOR pathways. Materials and Methods. Fifty male Wistar albino rats were divided (10/group) into control, DN group, insulin-treated DN group, vitamin D-treated DN group, and combined insulin and vitamin D-treated DN group. Assessments of systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, serum glucose, insulin, urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers, and rat kidney gene expression of mTOR were performed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments of autophagy marker LC3 in rat kidneys were also performed. Results. DN was associated with significant increases in SBP, urinary albumin, serum glucose, urea, creatinine, inflammatory cytokines, MDA, and mTOR gene expression (). However, there was significant decrease in creatinine clearance, serum insulin, GSH, and H score value of LC3 when compared with control group (). The combination of insulin and vitamin D treatment significantly restored DN changes when compared with the other treated groups, except in oxidative stress markers where there was an insignificant difference between the combination-treated and insulin-treated groups ().Conclusion. It has been concluded that vitamin D is a potent adjuvant therapy in treatment of DN via downregulation of mTOR gene expression, stimulation of autophagy, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypotensive effects.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 09:20:03 +000
       
  • Spectrum and Clinical Characteristics of Renal Diseases in Ghanaian
           Adults: A 13-Year Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: Background. Renal diseases over the years have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we assessed the spectrum and clinical characteristics of Ghanaians with renal diseases at the nephrology unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi. Methods. This was a retrospective hospital-based study conducted at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) from the years 2005 to 2017. A non-randomized sampling approach was used to include 1426 participants who were diagnosed with AKI, CKD, ESRD, and nephrotic syndrome at the nephrology unit of KATH during the years under review. All the 1426 patients were eligible for the study. Demographic characteristics as well as clinical data such as the kind of renal disease presentation, causes of the renal disease, and the treatment options were also obtained from their records. Results. Overall, 1009 of the total participants had CKD (70.76%), 295 participants had ESRD (20.69%), 72 participants had AKI (5.05%), and 50 participants had nephrotic syndrome (3.51%). Furthermore, 69 (23.4%) participants with ESRD were on dialysis whiles 6 (8.3) and 17 (1.7) participants with only AKI and CKD superimposed AKI, respectively, were on dialysis. 226 (76.6%) participants with ESRD were on conservative therapy. Hypertension emerged as the major cause of renal disease presentation (53.93%) with bilateral leg edema (13.46%) being the major complaint. There was a significant association between CKD and age (). Nephrotic syndrome also showed a significant association with age ().Conclusion. This study revealed that patients at the nephrology unit of KATH, Ghana, are mainly adults between ages 46–55. The clinical pattern of renal diseases is dominated by CKD and ESRD. We conclude that hypertension, chronic glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, and sepsis are the most common causes of renal diseases. The commonest clinical presentations are bilateral leg edema, palpitations, headache, breathlessness, dizziness, and vomiting. Early diagnosis and management of these conditions may prevent or delay the progress to end-stage renal disease.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 05:35:01 +000
       
 
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