Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 226)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Cardiology Research and Practice
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.237
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Online) 2090-0597
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Left Ventricular End-Systolic Volume Is a Reliable Predictor of New-Onset
           Heart Failure with Preserved Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    • Abstract: Background. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes were reported to have prognostic efficacy in cardiac diseases. In particular, the end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) has been featured as the most reliable prognostic indicator. However, such efficacy in patients with LVEF ≥ 50% has not been elucidated. Methods. We screened the patients who received cardiac catheterization to evaluate coronary artery disease concomitantly with both left ventriculography and LV pressure recording using a catheter-tipped micromanometer and finally enrolled 355 patients with LVEF ≥ 50% and no history of heart failure (HF) after exclusion of the patients with severe coronary artery stenosis requiring early revascularization. Cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF was defined as adverse events. The prognostic value of LVESVI was investigated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results. A univariable analysis demonstrated that age, log BNP level, tau, peak − dP/dt, LVEF, LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), and LVESVI were associated with adverse events. A correlation analysis revealed that LVESVI was significantly associated with log BNP level (r = 0.356, ), +dP/dt (r = −0.324, ), −dP/dt (r = 0.391, ), and tau (r = 0.337, ). Multivariable analysis with a stepwise procedure using the variables with statistical significance in the univariable analysis revealed that aging, an increase in BNP level, and enlargement of LVESVI were significant prognostic indicators (age: HR: 1.071, 95% CI: 1.009–1.137, ; log BNP : HR : 1.533, 95% CI: 1.090–2.156, ; LVESVI : HR : 1.051, 95% CI: 1.011–1.093, , respectively). According to the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for adverse events, log BNP level of 3.23 pg/ml (BNP level: 25.3 pg/ml) and an LVESVI of 24.1 ml/m2 were optimal cutoff values (BNP : AUC : 0.753, , LVESVI : AUC : 0.729, , respectively). Conclusion. In patients with LVEF ≥ 50%, an increased LVESVI is related to the adverse events. LV contractile performance even in the range of preserved LVEF should be considered as a role of a prognostic indicator.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 15:35:02 +000
  • Ezetimibe and Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes: Current Evidence and

    • Abstract: Low-density lipoprotein lowering with statins has convincingly and consistently proven to reduce cardiovascular events in both primary and secondary prevention. However, despite high-dose statin therapy, residual cardiovascular risk remains and many patients also do not tolerate statins. Ezetimibe was initially projected as a frontline alternative to statin. It is an intestinal cholesterol absorption inhibitor with modest LDL lowering effects. But, major studies failed to demonstrate any beneficial effect of CV outcomes, and the drug was relegated to oblivion. IMPROVE-IT, a contemporary, large, and well-designed trial, unequivocally demonstrated reduction in CV outcomes with ezetimibe when added to statin therapy. The benefits are seen in both sexes, elderly, CKD, diabetes mellitus, and in patients with prior CABG. It also reduces biomarkers and induces plaque regression like statins. The drug has now established itself as an add-on therapy to statin when monotherapy fails to achieve LDL goals and when it is not tolerated. The combination therapy has excellent safety and efficacy record. It has now been endorsed by major guidelines too in management of dyslipidemia. Yes, ezetimibe can indeed improve cardiovascular outcomes!
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Jun 2020 12:05:00 +000
  • Screening of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Portable Transthoracic
           Echocardiography among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    • Abstract: Background. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) share common risk factors. Objectives. To assess the abdominal aortic diameter (AAD) among patients with ACS using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Methods. Patients with ACS admitted to our intensive cardiac care unit from December 2013 to June 2014 were screened prospectively for AAA via AAD measurement in the subcostal TTE view. AAA was defined as an aneurysm with a transverse diameter of ≥30 mm. Results. Sixty seven patients were included. The male-to-female sex ratio was 7 : 1. The vast majority of patients were admitted due to STEMI (73%), and the rest were equally divided as NSTEMI and unstable angina. The mean patient age was 58.4 ± 10.4 years. AAD measurements were feasible in 57 patients (85%); among them, AAA was diagnosed in six patients (10.5%). The average additional time required to measure the abdominal aorta was 4 ± 1 min. All patients with AAA were men and had a higher prevalence of smoking (83.3% vs. 60.6%, ) and a lower incidence of diabetes mellitus than those without aneurysm. The prevalence of AAA tended to be related to age (12.5% in those older than 60 years and 18.7% in those older than 65 years). Conclusions. The overall prevalence of AAA is significantly high among patients with ACS and increases with age. AAA screening as a part of routine cardiac TTE can be easily, rapidly, and feasibly performed and yield accurate findings. AAD measurement in the subcostal view should be implemented as a part of routine TTE in patients with ACS.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jun 2020 12:05:01 +000
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Cardiovascular Diseases: An Unexpected

    • Abstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), despite the significant advances in the diagnosis and treatments, still represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In order to improve and optimize CVD outcomes, artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to radically change the way we practice cardiology, especially in imaging, offering us novel tools to interpret data and make clinical decisions. AI techniques such as machine learning and deep learning can also improve medical knowledge due to the increase of the volume and complexity of the data, unlocking clinically relevant information. Likewise, the use of emerging communication and information technologies is becoming pivotal to create a pervasive healthcare service through which elderly and chronic disease patients can receive medical care at their home, reducing hospitalizations and improving quality of life. The aim of this review is to describe the contemporary state of artificial intelligence and digital health applied to cardiovascular medicine as well as to provide physicians with their potential not only in cardiac imaging but most of all in clinical practice.
      PubDate: Sat, 27 Jun 2020 08:35:03 +000
  • Association of Biomarker Level with Cardiovascular Events: Results of a
           4-Year Follow-Up Study

    • Abstract: Background. Given the high rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD), the primary and secondary CVD prevention is one of the public health priority. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are the major drivers of atherosclerosis development and progression. In this regard, the study of the biomarker application as a tool to better identify high-risk individuals is an up-to-date sector of modern cardiology. The simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers can increase the risk stratification for people who are not known to have cardiovascular events in their history. The study aimed to investigate the predictive value of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16), endocan, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in the cardiovascular event development in people who are not known to have cardiovascular events in their history. Method. We examined 363 people aged 30 to 65 who have been living permanently in the city of Saran, Karaganda region. The selected participants were people registered at a clinic at the city of Saran, who were screened between August and September 2014. Results. The follow-up period was 48 months (from August-September 2014 to November 2018). The results showed that CXCL16 (), endocan (), and H-FABP () biomarker levels are significantly higher in outcome groups compared with those of the no-outcome group. Univariate regression analysis proved the prognostic significance of all biomarkers in cardiovascular events development. The multivariate regression analysis after the adjustment confirmed that the CXCL16 increase was associated with the “composite endpoint” (CE) development () while the endocan increased due to the development of major cardiovascular events (MACE) (); we did not find the association of the risks of event development with the H-FABP level increase ().
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jun 2020 09:05:00 +000
  • Biomarkers for Predicting Left Atrial or Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus in
           Anticoagulated Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

    • Abstract: Purpose. Although atrial fibrillation (AF) is often associated with thromboembolic complications, there is no definite biomarker for detecting the presence of thrombi in the left atrial (LA) or left atrial appendage (LAA) in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods. NVAF patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to evaluate LA/LAA thrombus and spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) before AF ablation were included. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to explore the independent risk factors of LA/LAA thrombus and indicate the best cutoff point. Results. Of the 260 consecutive subjects (mean age: 63.67 ± 9.39 years; 42% women), 45 (17.3%) patients were with LA/LAA thrombus, 131 (50.4%) were with SEC, and 84 (32.3%) were with neither thrombus nor SEC. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (OR, 2.179; 95% CI: 1.191–3.987; ) and red cell distribution width (RDW) (OR, 2.398; 95% CI: 1.075–5.349; ) were independently correlated with the presence of LA/LAA thrombus but not D-dimer (OR, 0.999; 95% CI: 0.998–1.000; ). When all patients were divided into four groups based on the combination between RDW (cutoff value: 12.95%) and NT-proBNP levels (cutoff value: 368.9 ng/L), the rate of LA/LAA thrombus was the highest in the high RDW and NT-proBNP group. Conclusion. In anticoagulation patients with NVAF, elevated NT-proBNP and RDW are related to LA/LAA thrombus. Therefore, these might be considered as useful prognostic markers in the management and treatment of NVAF patients.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jun 2020 13:50:00 +000
  • Adaptive Autophagy Offers Cardiorenal Protection in Rats with Acute
           Myocardial Infarction

    • Abstract: Objective. Understanding the multifactorial changes involved in the kidney and heart after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is prerequisite for further mechanisms and early intervention, especially autophagy changes. Here, we discussed the role of adaptive autophagy in the heart and kidney of rats with AMI. Methods. A rat model of AMI was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. Animals were sacrificed at 2 and 4 weeks after the operation to assess the morphological and functional changes of the heart and kidney, as well as the autophagy pathway. In vitro, HK-2 and AC16 cell injuries and the autophagy pathway were assayed after autophagy was inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) in a hypoxia incubator. Results. We found that the left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP) significantly decreased in the model group at weeks 2 and 4. At weeks 2 and 4, the level of urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (uKIM1) of the model group was significantly higher than the sham group. At week 4, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalcin (uNGAL) and urinary albumin also significantly increased. At week 2, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II), ATG5, and Beclin1 were significantly elevated in the heart and kidney compared with the sham-operated rats, but there was no change in p62 levels. At week 4, LC3-II did not significantly increase and p62 levels significantly increased. In addition, 3-MA markedly increased KIM1, NGAL, and the activity of caspase-3 in the hypoxic HK-2 and AC16 cell. Conclusion. Autophagy will undergo adaptive changes and play a protective role in the heart and kidney of rats after AMI.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jun 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • Initial Experience Using the Radiofrequency Needle Visualization on the
           Electroanatomical Mapping System for Transseptal Puncture

    • Abstract: Introduction. Transseptal puncture (TSP) is a routine access route in patients with left-sided ablation substrates and is performed safely on fluoroscopy (+/− echocardiographic guidance). We report on our experience using a radiofrequency (RF) needle in an unselected group of patients to demonstrate safety and usefulness of direct tip visualization on the 3D electroanatomical mapping (EAM) system with specific emphasis on total radiation exposure. Methods and Results. We retrospectively reviewed 42 consecutive left-sided ablation procedures with TSP performed using an RF needle guided by fluoroscopy and/or EAM visualization by a single operator. The procedures included atrial fibrillation (n = 33), atrial tachycardia (n = 8), and ventricular tachycardia (n = 1) ablations. Fourteen of 41 patients had congenital heart disease, including 9 patients with previous septal closure. Twenty-two patients had at least one previous TSP. All TSPs were performed successfully and without complications. The overall median fluoroscopy time amounted to 3.2 min and median exposure of 199.5 µGym2. In a subgroup of patients (n = 27), the RF needle was visualized on the EAM system: median radiation time was 0.88 (interquartile range: 0–3.4) min and median exposure 33.5 [0–324.8] µGym2. Conclusions. TSP using an RF needle is an effective technique, also in congenital patients with artificial patch material and in normal patients with multiple previous TSPs. Moreover, the RF needle tip visualization on EAM allows a low (or even zero) fluoroscopy approach.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jun 2020 08:35:01 +000
  • Heparin-Binding Protein: A Novel Biomarker Linking Four Different
           Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases are an important group of diseases that seriously affect quality of life. Thus, their treatment warrants further study. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is a granulocyte protein derived from neutrophils. When an infection occurs, neutrophils release HBP, which can lead to elevated HBP levels in the blood. Therefore, HBP family members are said to be important indicators of infection. However, basic evidence is still lacking to confirm the possible relationship between HBP and cardiovascular diseases. Using bioinformatics methods, we investigated the role of the HBP network in normal hearts and hearts from patients with cardiovascular disease. First, we used the Open Targets database to obtain a list of HBP-encoding mRNAs related to atherosclerosis, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and myocardial ischemia. Then, we constructed an HBP gene interaction network map using STRING. Clustering coefficients were calculated using Cytoscape, and MCODE was used for subnet analysis. Finally, the proposed interstitial network of HBPs was established and analyzed by Metascape enrichment analysis of the relevant signaling pathways. The aggregation coefficient of the HBP interaction network was higher among hearts with the four cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis (0.496), myocarditis (0.631), myocardial infarction (0.532), and myocardial ischemia (0.551), than in normal hearts. Metascape analysis showed that “NABA_MATRISOME_ASSOCIATED” was a typical pathway with the highest value associated with epithelialization in all four diseases. Moreover, a large number of important HBPs were identified that may be significant for the treatment of these diseases. Therefore, HBPs do have a highly atopic connectivity network in cardiovascular diseases, and specific HBPs or signaling pathways may be used as targets for the development of new treatments for cardiovascular diseases.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • Purkinje Fibers in Canine False Tendons: New Anatomical and
           Electrophysiological Findings

    • Abstract: Introduction. Purkinje system and false tendons (FTs) are related to ventricular arrhythmia, but the association between Purkinje fibers and FTs is not clear. This study investigated the associations of anatomical and electrophysiological characteristics between Purkinje fibers and FTs. Methods and Results. We optimized the protocol of Lugol’s iodine solution staining of Purkinje fibers to study the anatomical structure and originated a novel electrophysiological mapping method, named the direct visual mapping (DVM) method, to study the electrophysiological characteristics. By using the above-mentioned innovations in 12 dogs, we found the following. (1) There was no Purkinje fiber found 0.5 cm–1.0 cm below the valve annulus or on the leaflets or chordae tendineae of the mitral valve or adjacent to the top 1/3 of the papillary muscle. (2) Purkinje fibers existed in all FTs, including smaller and tiny FTs. (3) The Purkinje fibers contained in the FTs extended from the proximal to the distal end, and their electrophysiological characteristics were similar to the fibers on the endocardium, including anterograde, retrograde, and decremental conduction and automaticity. Conclusions. Purkinje fibers are commonly found in FTs. The electrophysiological characteristics of the Purkinje fibers contained in FTs are similar to the fibers on the endocardium. FTs might have an anatomical and electrophysiological basis for ventricular arrhythmia.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 05:50:01 +000
  • Contemporary Results of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Obese

    • Abstract: Background. Little research has been conducted to explore the postoperative outcomes of obese patients after transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TF-TAVR). Objective. We investigated the influence of body mass index (BMI) on 1-year outcomes after TF-TAVR. Methods. We included retrospectively 1609 high- and intermediate-risk TAVR patients (mean EuroSCORE II 21 ± 11) operated under general anesthesia between March 2014 and March 2018 in central hospital, Bad Berka, Germany. We stratified the patients according to BMI. Results. Our demographic data analysis showed 41% of patients were male and the mean age was 78 (range, 61–92 years). According to the WHO classification, 33% patients had normal weight, 42% were defined as overweight, and 22% were obese. Obese patients showed statistically significant difference in their clinical parameters as having higher incidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; on the contrary, obese patients were found to be younger than others. We found no differences in valve types and sizes among the different BMI categories. Our mortality rate during the 1-year follow-up period was 17.8% (287 patients). Mortality was significantly higher in patients with BMI 
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jun 2020 05:50:00 +000
  • Aliskiren Improved the Endothelial Repair Capacity of Endothelial
           Progenitor Cells from Patients with Hypertension via the
           Tie2/PI3k/Akt/eNOS Signalling Pathway

    • Abstract: Background. Studies show that aliskiren exerts favourable effects not only on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) but also on endothelial function. However, the mechanism of the favourable effect of aliskiren on EPCs from patients with hypertension is unclear and remains to be further studied. Methods. The object of this study was to investigate and assess the in vitro function of EPCs pretreated with aliskiren. After treated with aliskiren, the human EPCs were transplanted into a nude mouse model of carotid artery injury, and the in vivo reendothelialization of injured artery was estimated by staining denuded areas with Evans blue dye via tail vein injection. Results. We found that aliskiren increased the in vitro migration, proliferation, and adhesion of EPCs from patients with hypertension in a dose-dependent manner and improved the reendothelialization capability of these EPCs. Furthermore, aliskiren increased the phosphorylation of Tie2, Akt, and eNOS. After the blockade of the Tie2 signalling pathway, the favourable effects of aliskiren on the in vitro function and in vivo reendothelialization capability of EPCs were suppressed. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that aliskiren can improve the in vitro function and in vivo reendothelialization capability of EPCs from patients with hypertension via the activation of the Tie2/PI3k/Akt/eNOS signalling pathway. These findings further indicate that aliskiren is an effective pharmacological treatment for cell-based repair in hypertension-related vascular injury.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 May 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • Influence of Artery Straightening on Local Hemodynamics in Left Anterior
           Descending (LAD) Artery after Stent Implantation

    • Abstract: Objectives. The study investigates local hemodynamic environment changes caused by straightening phenomenon and the relationship between straightening phenomenon and in-stent restenosis. Background. Intravascular intervention is an effective treatment in restoring the normal flow conditions and vascular lumen. Unfortunately, in-stent restenosis often occurs in a subset of patients after stent implantation and limits the success of stent implantation outcomes. The implanted stent usually causes artery straightening locally, rather than coinciding and adjusting to the physiological curve exactly. Artery straightening would apparently modify the artery geometry and therefore alter the local hemodynamic environment, which may result in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis after stenting implantation. Methods. In the current investigation, we verify the hypothesis that the artery straightening influences the local hemodynamic state using the different 3D CT models. Flow analysis for blood in the left anterior descending coronary artery and the straightening model is simulated numerically. Result. The current results reveal that the straightening phenomenon alters the distribution of wall shear stress and flow patterns, decreases the wall shear stress (WSS), and increases the oscillatory shear index (OSI) and the relative residence time (RRT), especially at the proximal and distal areas of stenting. Conclusions. The local straightened geometry established after stent implantation was likely to generate portions of the stenting area to a high risk of neointimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 May 2020 04:20:01 +000
  • Expiratory Flow Limitation at Different Exercise Intensities in Coronary
           Artery Disease

    • Abstract: Introduction. Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during moderate intensity exercise is present in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), whereas in healthy subjects it occurs only at a high intensity. However, it is unclear whether this limitation already manifests in those with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) (without MI). Materials and Methods. Forty-one men aged 40–65 years were allocated into (1) recent MI (RMI) group (n = 8), (2) late MI (LMI) group (n = 12), (3) stable CAD group (n = 9), and (4) healthy control group (CG) (n = 12). All participants underwent two cardiopulmonary exercise tests at a constant workload (moderate and high intensity), and EFL was evaluated at the end of each exercise workload. Results. During moderate intensity exercise, the RMI and LMI groups presented with a significantly higher number of participants with EFL compared to the CG (), while no significant difference was observed among groups at high intensity exercise (). Moreover, EFL was only present in MI groups during moderate intensity exercise, whereas at high intensity all groups presented EFL. Regarding the degree of EFL, the RMI and LMI groups showed significantly higher values at moderate intensity exercise in relation to the CG. At high intensity exercise, significantly higher values for the degree of EFL were observed only in the LMI group. Conclusion. The ventilatory limitation at moderate intensity exercise may be linked to the pulmonary consequences of the MI, even subjects with preserved cardiac and pulmonary function at rest, and not to CAD per se.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 May 2020 12:35:01 +000
  • Myocardial Fluid Balance and Pathophysiology of Myocardial Edema in
           Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    • Abstract: Myocardial edema is one of the most common complications of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that is linearly related to many coronary artery diseases. Myocardial edema can cause several consequences including systolic dysfunction, diastolic dysfunction, arrhythmia, and cardiac tissue fibrosis that can increase mortality in CABG. Understanding myocardial fluid balance and tissue and systemic fluid regulation is crucial in order to ultimately link how coronary artery bypass grafting can cause myocardial edema in such a setting. The identification of susceptible patients by using imaging modalities is still challenging. Future studies about the technique of imaging modalities, examination protocols, prevention, and treatment of myocardial edema should be carried out, in order to limit myocardial edema occurrence and prevent complications.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 May 2020 17:05:00 +000
  • The Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Polish Soldiers: The
           Results from the MIL-SCORE Program

    • Abstract: The MIL-SCORE (Equalization of Accessibility to Cardiology Prophylaxis and Care for Professional Soldiers) program was designed to assess the prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in a population of Polish soldiers. We aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the MIL-SCORE population with respect to age. This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 6440 soldiers (97% male) who underwent a medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess cardiovascular risk. Almost half of the recruited soldiers were past or current smokers (46%). A sedentary lifestyle was reported in almost one-third of those over 40 years of age. The prevalence of hypertension in a subgroup over 50 years of age was almost 45%. However, the percentage of unsatisfactory blood pressure control was higher among soldiers below 40 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obese soldiers increased with age and reached 58% and 27%, respectively, in those over 50 years of age. Total cholesterol was increased in over one-half of subjects, and the prevalence of abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was even higher (60%). Triglycerides were increased in 36% of soldiers, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hyperglycemia were reported in 13% and 16% of soldiers, respectively. In the >50 years of age subgroup, high and very high cardiovascular risk scores were observed in almost one-third of soldiers. The relative risk assessed in younger subgroups was moderate or high. The results from the MIL-SCORE program suggest that Polish soldiers have multiple cardiovascular risk factors and mirror trends seen in the general population. Preventive programs aimed at early cardiovascular risk assessment and modification are strongly needed in this population.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 09:50:01 +000
  • Decreased Mortality with Beta-Blocker Therapy in HFpEF Patients Associated
           with Atrial Fibrillation

    • Abstract: Background. There are no proven effective treatments that can reduce the mortality in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), probably due to its heterogeneous nature which will weaken the effect of therapy in clinical studies. We evaluated the effect of beta-blocker treatment in HFpEF patients associated with atrial fibrillation (AF), which is a homogeneous syndrome and has seldom been discussed. Methods. This retrospective cohort study screened 955 patients diagnosed with AF and HFpEF. Patients with a range of underlying heart diseases or severe comorbidities were excluded; 191 patients were included and classified as with or without beta-blocker treatment at baseline. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and rehospitalization due to heart failure. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate the differences in outcomes. Results. The mean follow-up was 49 months. After adjustment for multiple clinical risk factors and biomarkers for prognosis in heart failure, patients with beta-blocker treatment were associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.405, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.233–0.701, ) compared with those without beta-blocker treatment. However, the risk of rehospitalization due to heart failure was increased in the beta-blocker treatment group (HR = 1.740, 95% CI = 1.085–2.789, ). There was no significant difference in all-cause rehospitalization between the two groups (HR = 1.137, 95% CI = 0.803–1.610, ).Conclusions. In HFpEF patients associated with AF, beta-blocker treatment is associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality, but it increased the risk of rehospitalization due to heart failure.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 10:35:00 +000
  • Sex Differences in the Outcomes of Elderly Patients with Acute Coronary

    • Abstract: Background. The impact of sex on the outcome of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been suggested, but little is known about its impact on elderly patients with ACS. Methods. This study analyzed the impact of sex on in-hospital and 1-year outcomes of elderly (≥75 years of age) patients with ACS hospitalized in our department between January 2013 and December 2017. Results. A total of 711 patients were included: 273 (38.4%) women and 438 (61.6%) men. Their age ranged from 75 to 94 years, similar between women and men. Women had more comorbidities (hypertension (79.5% vs. 72.8%, ), diabetes mellitus (35.2% vs. 26.5%, ), and hyperuricemia (39.9% vs. 32.4%, )) and had a higher prevalence of non-ST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) (79.5% vs. 71.2%, ) than men. The prevalence of current smoking (56.5% vs. 5.4%, ), creatinine levels (124.4 ± 98.6 vs. 89.9 ± 54.1, ), and revascularization rate (39.7% vs. 30.0%, ) were higher, and troponin TnT and NT-proBNP tended to be higher in men than in women. The in-hospital mortality rate was similar (3.5% vs. 4.4%, ), but the 1-year mortality rate was lower in women than in men (14.7% vs. 21.7%, ). The multivariable analysis showed that female sex was a protective factor for 1-year mortality in all patients (OR = 0.565, 95% CI 0.351–0.908, ) and in patients with STEMI (OR = 0.416, 95% CI 0.184–0.940, ) after adjustment. Conclusions. Among the elderly patients with ACS, the 1-year mortality rate was lower in women than in men, which could be associated with comorbidities and ACS type.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • Smoking-Induced Inhibition of Number and Activity of Endothelial
           Progenitor Cells and Nitric Oxide in Males Were Reversed by Estradiol in
           Premenopausal Females

    • Abstract: Objectives. The number and activity of circulating EPCs were enhanced in premenopausal women contrast to postmenopausal females and age-matched males. Here, we investigated whether this favorable effect exists in premenopausal women and age-matched men with cigarette smoking. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, the number and activity of circulating EPCs and nitric oxide production (NO) as well as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in both premenopausal women and age-matched men with or without cigarette smoking were studied. Results. Compared with age-matched men with or without smoking, the number and function of circulating EPCs as well as NO level in premenopausal women were obviously higher than that in the former and not affected by smoking. The number and function of circulating EPCs as well as NO level in male smokers were shown to be the most strongly inhibited. Furthermore, there was significant correlation between EPC number and activity, plasma NO level, and NO secretion by EPCs and FMD. Conclusions. Estradiol was deemed to play an important role in enhancing the number and activity of EPCs and NO production in premenopausal women even when affected by smoking, which may be the important mechanisms underlying vascular protection of estradiol in premenopausal women, but not in age-matched men.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 04:50:01 +000
  • Factors Associated with Prehospital Delay among Men and Women Newly
           Experiencing Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Qualitative Inquiry

    • Abstract: Background. Delaying seeking health care for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) causes high mortality and morbidity with variations among men and women regarding reasons for this delay. Objectives. This study explored factors associated with prehospital delay among men and women experiencing acute coronary syndrome for the first time in Jordan. Methods. 35 men and 33 women with ACS admitted and treated at the coronary and postcoronary care units. Results. Themes emerging from the data are knowledge about ACS, the resources related to health care, and concerns around family wellbeing. Owing to the traditional roles of men and women within the family, women felt responsible for maintaining the family, assisting in the financial conditions, and supporting family coherence by delaying hospitalization. Men were worried about the structural safety and maintenance of the family. Conclusion and Implications. Prehospital delay is common among first-timer ACS patients from both sexes, and thus, increasing awareness about ACS among the public from all age groups is necessary. Availability of specialized health care centers and equity in health care services are vital to improve public confidence in these health care settings and health outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 May 2020 04:50:00 +000
  • Beta Blocker Therapy in Heart Failure Patients with Active Cocaine Use: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Background. Cocaine use is associated with multiple cardiovascular complications including heart failure. The use of different types of beta blockers in heart failure patients with active cocaine use is still a matter of debate. In this review, our objective is to systematically review the available literature regarding the use of beta blockers in the treatment of heart failure patients with concurrent cocaine use. Methods. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Clinical were searched from inception to March 2019 using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “cocaine”, “heart failure”, “beta blocker,” and “cardiomyopathy”. Only studies containing the outcomes of heart failure patients with active cocaine use who were treated with beta blockers were included. Results. The search resulted in 2072 articles out of which 12 were finally included in the review. A total number of participants were 1994 with a median sample size of 111. Most of the studies were retrospective in nature with Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) Levels of Evidence from 3 to 5. The main primary outcomes included readmission rates, mortality, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). In the studies analyzed, beta blockers were found to have either a beneficial or a neutral effect on primary outcomes in heart failure patients with active cocaine use. Conclusion. The use of beta blocker therapy appears to be safe and beneficial in heart failure patients with active cocaine use, although the evidence is not robust. Furthermore, large-scale studies are required to confirm this finding.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 May 2020 11:20:01 +000
  • Correlation between Galectin-3 and Adverse Outcomes in Myocardial
           Infarction Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a disease with high morbidity and mortality. Some new biomarkers can help us to improve the life quality and prognosis of AMI patients. Objective. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the use of galectin-3 (gal3) for assessing prognosis of AMI patients. Methods. We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang database up to June 2019. Trials included using galectin-3 to estimate prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. Results. We identified 10 trails with a total of 2809 participants. The negative correlation between galectin-3 and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significant in 505 AMI patients (Fisher's Z −0.22, 95% CI: −0.34, −0.09). The correlation between galectin-3 and infarct size was not significant in 119 patients (Fisher's Z 0.12, 95% CI: −0.36, 0.60). Higher galectin-3 was associated with increased all-cause mortality in 2343 AMI patients (Fisher's Z 1.58, 95% CI: 1.23, 2.03). Conclusion. The limited evidence suggests that galectin-3 is likely to predict the adverse outcomes in MI patients, but it is not significantly correlated with infarct size after MI. More high-quality trials with longer-term follow-up are still needed to confirm this finding.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 05:20:01 +000
  • Alzheimer’s Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: A Particular

    • Abstract: Background and aim. During ageing, the prevalence of dementia, and especially of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), increases. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between AD and CVD and its risk factors, with a view to explain the underlying mechanisms of this association. Methods. This review is based on the material obtained via MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and Clinical Trials databases, from January 1980 until May 2019. The search term used was “Alzheimer’s disease,” combined with “cardiovascular disease,” “hypertension,” “dyslipidaemia,” “diabetes mellitus,” “atrial fibrillation,” “coronary artery disease,” “heart valve disease,” and “heart failure.” Out of the 1,328 papers initially retrieved, 431 duplicates and 216 records in languages other than English were removed. Among the 681 remaining studies, 98 were included in our research material on the basis of the following inclusion criteria: (a) the community-based studies; (b) using standardized diagnostic criteria; (c) reporting raw prevalence data; (d) with separate reported data for sex and age classes. Results. While AD and CVD alone may be considered deleterious to health, the study of their combination constitutes a clinical challenge. Further research will help to clarify the real impact of vascular factors on these diseases. It may be hypothesized that there are various mechanisms underlying the association between AD and CVD, the main ones being hypoperfusion and emboli, atherosclerosis, and the fact that, in both the heart and brain of AD patients, amyloid deposits may be present, thus causing damage to these organs. Conclusions. AD and CVD are frequently associated. Further studies are needed in order to understand the effect of CVD and its risk factors on AD in order to better comprehend the effects of subclinical and clinical CVD on the brain. Finally, we need to clarify the impact of the underlying hypothesized mechanisms of this association and to investigate gender issues.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 11:50:00 +000
  • The Hemodynamic Effect of Enhanced External Counterpulsation Treatment on
           Atherosclerotic Plaque in the Carotid Artery: A Framework of
           Patient-Specific Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

    • Abstract: Long-term enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy has been recommended for antiatherogenesis in recent clinical observations and trials. However, the precise mechanism underlying the benefits has not been fully clarified. To quantify the effect of EECP intervention on arterial hemodynamic environment, a framework of numerical assessment was introduced using a parallel computing algorithm. A 3D endothelial surface of the carotid artery with mild atherosclerotic plaque was constructed from images of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Physiologic boundary conditions were derived from images of the ultrasound flow velocity spectrum measured at the common carotid artery and before and during EECP intervention. Hemodynamic factors relating to wall shear stress (WSS) and its spatial and temporal fluctuations were calculated and analyzed, which included AWSS, OSI, and AWSSG. Measuring and computational results showed that diastole blood pressure, perfusion, and WSS level in carotid bifurcation were significantly increased during EECP intervention. Mean AWSS level throughout the model increased by 16.9%, while OSI level did not show a significant change during EECP. We thus suggested that long-term EECP treatment might inhibit the initiation and development of atherosclerotic plaque via improving the hemodynamic environment in the carotid artery. Meanwhile, EECP performance induced a 19.6% increase in AWSSG level, and whether it would influence the endothelial functions may need a further study. Moreover, the numerical method proposed in this study was expected to be useful for the instant assessment of clinical application of EECP .
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Clinical Characteristics and Factors Associated with Heart Failure
           Readmission at a Tertiary Hospital in North-Eastern Tanzania

    • Abstract: Introduction. Heart failure (HF) is characterized by frequent episodes of decompensation, leading to a high hospitalization burden. More than 50% of index hospitalizations for HF patients return within 6 months of discharge. Once the patient is readmitted, the risk of further disease progression and the mortality rate are increased. A lot of patients are readmitted due to factors such as poor medication adherence, infections, or worsening comorbidities. The aim of our study was to identify the inpatient burden of HF readmission and to identify the factors associated with early readmission. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 within the medical wards at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), which is a teaching and referral hospital in north-eastern Tanzania. The study population included all patients with HF admitted within the medical ward. Data were collected using questionnaires and blood and radiological investigations, and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 25. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions of categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to determine the likelihood for readmission, and -value of
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Apr 2020 12:40:12 +000
  • Macrophage Activities in Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    • Abstract: Heart diseases remain the major cause of death worldwide. Advances in pharmacological and biomedical management have resulted in an increasing proportion of patients surviving acute heart failure (HF). However, many survivors of HF in the early stages end up increasing the disease to chronic HF (CHF). HF is an established frequent complication of myocardial infarction (MI), and numerous influences including persistent myocardial ischemia, shocked myocardium, ventricular remodeling, infarct size, and mechanical impairments, as well as hibernating myocardium trigger the development of left ventricular systolic dysfunction following MI. Macrophage population is active in inflammatory process, yet the clear understanding of the causative roles for these macrophage cells in HF development and progression is actually incomplete. Long ago, it was thought that macrophages are of importance in the heart after MI. Also, though inflammation is as a result of adverse HF in patients, but despite the fact that broad immunosuppression therapeutic target has been used in various clinical trials, no positive results have showed up, but rather, the focus on proinflammatory cytokines has proved more benefits in patients with HF. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the recent findings and new development about macrophage activations in HF, its role in the healthy heart, and some therapeutic targets for myocardial repair. We have a strong believe that there is a need to give maximum attention to cardiac resident macrophages due to the fact that they perform various tasks in wound healing, self-renewal of the heart, and tissue remodeling. Currently, it has been discovered that the study of macrophages goes far beyond its phagocytotic roles. If researchers in future confirm that macrophages play a vital role in the heart, they can be therapeutically targeted for cardiac healing.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Apr 2020 08:05:02 +000
  • Functional Genetic Variant in ATG5 Gene Promoter in Acute Myocardial

    • Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) including acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an inflammatory and metabolic disease mainly caused by atherosclerosis. Dysfunctional autophagy has been associated with abnormal lipid metabolism and inflammation. In previous studies, we have reported altered autophagic activity in AMI patients. As autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) is a core protein in autophagy, we speculated that altered ATG5 level may contribute to CAD and AMI development. In this study, the promoter of the ATG5 gene was genetically and functionally investigated in large groups of AMI patients (n = 378) and ethnic-matched healthy controls (n = 386). The results showed that a total of 15 genetic variants including 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ATG5 gene promoter were found in this study population. A novel deletion variant (g.106326168_70delTCT) and an SNP [g.106325757C > G (rs190825454)] were found in one 66-year-old male patient with non-ST-segment elevated AMI, but in none of controls. In cultured HEK-293 and H9c2 cells, the deletion variant significantly decreased the transcriptional activity of the ATG5 gene promoter (). In contrast, the genetic variants either identified only in controls or found in both AMI patients and controls did not affect the transcriptional activity of the ATG5 gene promoter (). Furthermore, an electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the deletion variant evidently affected the binding of a transcription factor. Therefore, the genetic variant identified in AMI may affect the activity of the ATG5 gene promoter and change the ATG5 level, contributing to AMI as a rare risk factor.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Apr 2020 09:20:01 +000
  • Change in Atrial Fibrillation Burden over Time in Patients with
           Nonpermanent Atrial Fibrillation

    • Abstract: Introduction. The natural course of atrial fibrillation (AF) is not well defined. We aimed to investigate the change in AF burden over time and its associated risk factors among AF patients. Methods. Fifty-four participants with recently documented paroxysmal or persistent AF were enrolled. Main exclusion criteria were permanent AF or previous catheter ablation for AF. AF burden was calculated as time in AF divided by total recording time using yearly continuous 7-day Holter-ECG recordings. A relative change ≥10% or an absolute change>0.5% in AF burden between two yearly Holter-ECG recordings was considered significant. Results. Mean age was 67 years, 72% were men. The proportion of patients with no recorded AF increased from 53.7% at baseline to 78.6% () after 4 years of follow-up. In 7-day Holter-ECG recordings performed after baseline, 23.7% of participants had a decrease and 23.7% an increase in AF burden. In separate mixed effect models, AF burden over time was associated with prior stroke (β 42.59, 95% CI (23.40; 61.77); ), BNP (β 0.05, CI (0.02; 0.09); ) end-diastolic (β 0.49, CI (0.23; 0.74); ) as well as end-systolic (β 0.25, CI (0.05; 0.46); ) left atrial volume, left atrial ejection fraction (β −0.43, CI (−0.76;−0.10); ),E-wave (β 36.67, CI (12.96; 60.38); ), and deceleration time (β −0.1, CI (−0.16; −0.05); ). In a multivariable model, a history of prior stroke (β 29.87, CI (2.61; 57.13); ) and BNP levels (β 0.05, CI (0.01; 0.08); ) remained significantly associated with AF burden. Conclusions. Few patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF have AF episodes on yearly 7-day Holter-ECG recordings, and AF progression is rare. AF burden was independently associated with a history of prior stroke and BNP levels.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Apr 2020 09:35:01 +000
  • Pathophysiological and Genetic Aspects of Vascular Calcification

    • Abstract: Recent evidence suggests that vascular calcification is an independent cardiovascular risk factor (CRF) of morbidity and mortality. New studies point out the existence of a complex physiopathological mechanism that involves inflammation, oxidation, the release of chemical mediators, and genetic factors that promote the osteochondrogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This review will evaluate the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology and genetics modulation of the process of vascular calcification. Objective. A systematic review of the pathophysiology factors involved in vascular calcification and its genetic influence was performed. Methods. A systematic review was conducted in the Medline and PubMed databases and were searched for studies concerning vascular calcification using the keywords and studies published until 2020/01 in English. Inclusion Criteria. Studies in vitro, animal models, and humans. These include cohort (both retrospective and prospective cohort studies), case-control, cross-sectional, and systematic reviews. Exclusion Criteria. Studies before 2003 of the existing literature.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 14:05:02 +000
  • Effect of Combined Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Therapies on
           Cognitive Function: A New Treatment Strategy'

    • Abstract: Risk factors for cardiovascular disease such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia are associated with cognitive decline. However, there is still no clear evidence that the use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering therapy can prevent or delay cognitive decline or development of dementia. To provide a reference for clinical treatment, we analyzed the potential mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction induced by hypertension and hyperlipidemia, the clinical research and controversy of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapies on cognitive function, and the clinical value of combined antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. It is currently believed that hypertension and elevated blood cholesterol levels in middle-aged people may be related to cognitive impairment or dementia in the elderly. Some studies suggest that intensive antihypertensive or lipid-lowering therapies are better than standard antihypertensive or lipid-lowering therapy, yet further tests are needed to confirm their effects on cognitive function. Actively controlling potential risk factors from middle age may be important for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) prevention.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 13:35:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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