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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 330 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 330 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 196)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Polymer Science
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.298
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9422 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9430
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [330 journals]
  • Experimental and Numerical Study on the Compression Behavior of Square
           Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns with Steel Fiber-Reinforced
           High-Strength Concrete

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) columns made from high-performance construction materials. KBC2016, South Korea’s current building code, limits the maximum compressive strength of concrete at 70 MPa and the maximum yield strength of steel at 650 MPa. Similar restrictions to material properties are imposed on major composite structural design parameters in other countries worldwide. With the recent acceleration of the pace of development in the field of material technology, the compressive strength of commercial concrete has been greatly improved and the problem of low tensile strength, known to be the major limitation of concrete, is being successfully addressed by adding fiber reinforcement to concrete. Therefore, the focus of this study was to experimentally determine the strength and ductility enhancement effects, which depend on material composition. To this end, we performed concentric axial loading tests on CFT stub columns made from steel with a yield strength of 800 MPa and steel fiber-reinforced high-strength concrete. By measuring the strain at the yield point of CFT steel during the test, we could determine whether steel yields earlier than ultimate failure load of the member, which is a key design concept of composite structures. The analysis results revealed that the yield point of steel preceded that of concrete on the stress-strain curve by the concurrent action of the strain increase at the maximum strength, attributable to the high compressive strength and steel fiber reinforcement, and the strain increase induced by the confining stress of the steel tube. Additionally, we performed parametric study using ABAQUS to establish the broad applications of CFT using high-performance materials, with the width-to-thickness ratio as the main parameter. Parametric study was undertaken as experimental investigation was not feasible, and we reviewed the criteria for limiting the width-to-thickness ratio as specified in the current building code.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jun 2018 06:24:44 +000
       
  • Flexural Assessment of Blast-Damaged RC Beams Retrofitted with CFRP Sheet
           and Steel Fiber

    • Abstract: This study presents the effects of blast-induced local damages on the flexural strength of blast-damaged and repaired specimens. In the experimental program, blast-damaged specimens were repaired with steel fiber reinforced cementitious composite (SFRCC) as well as carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and tested for flexural strength measurements. The test parameters included shear reinforcement (amount and spacing), steel fiber content (0, 1.0 vol%), and retrofitting with CFRP sheets. The test results indicated that the use of higher amounts of stirrups demonstrated insignificant benefits in preventing local damages. However, it was shown that the use of small-diameter steel bars for stirrups with small spacing could decrease the local damages more effectively compared to the large-diameter steel reinforcement. For the residual strength of the damaged specimens, the specimens using more stirrups could resist over 60% of their original flexural strength. CFRP retrofitting showed insignificant enhancement in ductility of intact, damaged, and repaired specimens. However, it distributed the blast load and protected debris scattering. The addition of steel fibers results in increased ductility and enhanced blast resistance against local damages. All specimens, excluding control specimen, that repaired with SFRCC showed higher flexural strength to their original strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that replacing damaged concrete cover with SFRCC is adequate for repairing the blast-damaged RC members.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Surface Modification Methods for Constructing Polymer-Coated Stents

    • Abstract: Implanting a metal stent plays a key role in treating cardiovascular diseases. However, the high corrosion rate of metal-based devices severely limits their practical applications. Therefore, how to control the corrosion rate is vital to take full advantages of metal-based materials in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review details various methods to design and construct polymer-coated stents. The techniques are described and discussed including plasma deposition, electrospinning, dip coating, layer-by-layer self-assembly, and direct-write inkjet. Key point is provided to highlight current methods and recent advances in hindering corrosion rate and improving biocompatibility of stents, which greatly drives the rising of some promising techniques involved in the ongoing challenges and potential new trends of polymer-coated stents.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 06:32:06 +000
       
  • Activity and Structural Characteristics of Peach Gum Exudates

    • Abstract: Polysaccharide fractions were prepared from peach gum exudates by treatments with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and liquid hot water (LHW). The structural characteristics and activities of the polysaccharide fractions were comparatively studied. The results suggested that arabinogalactans substituted with xylose and uronic acids were the main structure of all polysaccharide fractions. AHP and LHW treatments introduced the degradation of the polysaccharides, reducing the molecular weight of polysaccharides from 182500 g/mol to 78450 g/mol and 68420 g/mol, respectively. The decreasement of molecular weights responded to the decrease of thermal stability of polysaccharide fractions. However, AHP and LHW treatments removed most of the nonsugar composition, increasing the DPPH•- and ABTS•+-scavenging activity of polysaccharides. Polysaccharide fractions obtained from LHW treatment showed favorable DPPH•- and ABTS•+-scavenging activity at 22.9% and 34.3%, respectively, at concentration of 1000 μg/mL.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 06:17:14 +000
       
  • Engineered Multifunctional Fluorinated Film Based on Semicontinuous
           Emulsion Polymerization Using Polymerizable Quaternary Ammonium
           Emulsifiers

    • Abstract: Along with society’s progress, high-quality coatings are widely used. Although fluorinated polymers were successfully prepared by semicontinuous emulsion polymerization with surfactants, chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE), and acrylate monomers, the optimization collocation of surfactants still has room for improvement. The traditional emulsifiers are physically absorbed onto the surface of latex particles. The latex film generated by latex particles is unstable in water, which limits its application. Herein, a novel series of cationic quaternary ammonium polymerizable surfactant was selected because it can react with CTFE and acrylate monomers and can become a part of the polymers. We also studied the effects of emulsifier type on resultant emulsion properties. In addition, wonderful weatherability, water resistance, and antibacterial and antifouling of the multifunctional fluorinated films were observed, which would open up a bright future for coating industries.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 May 2018 09:09:39 +000
       
  • Theoretical Study on the Photoelectric Properties of a Class of Copolymers
           Based on Benzodithiophene for Solar Cells

    • Abstract: The structural, electronic, and optical properties of PBDTTBT are comprehensively studied by density functional theory to rationalize the experimentally observed properties. Periodic boundary conditions method is employed to simulate the polymer block and calculate effective charge mass from the band structure calculation to describe charge transport properties. Moreover, both time-dependent density functional theory and a set of multidimensional visualization techniques are used to characterize the exciton dissociation ability in the PCBM: PBDTTBT interface. These theoretical methods and calculation techniques not only promote deep understanding of the connection between chemical structures and optical and electronic properties of the donor-acceptor system but also can be used to rationally design a novel donor-acceptor system. Based on the same calculated methods as PBDTTBT, four copolymers PBDTTTP, PBDTTTO, PBDTTTPD, and PBDTTFPD are designed to study their potentials as donors in polymer BHJ. The results indicate that PBDTTBT’s well conjugation benefits its good stability, and its wide and strong absorption spectra in the range of visible light, appropriate FMO levels, well charge transport, and favorable exciton dissociation lead to its photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, through comparing the four designed polymers with PBDTTBT, we conclude that the four designed polymers have stronger exciton dissociation ability and larger open-circuit voltage and external quantum efficiencies. Consequently, the four designed copolymers are promising candidates for polymer BHJ solar cells.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 May 2018 07:13:31 +000
       
  • The Influence of Water and Solvent Uptake on Functional Properties of
           Shape-Memory Polymers

    • Abstract: In this contribution, diffusion of water, acetone, and ethanol into a polymer matrix has been studied experimentally and numerically by finite element approaches. Moreover, the present study reports an assessment of different thermomechanical conditions of the shape-memory (SM) performance, for example, stress- or strain-holding times in stress- or strain-controlled thermomechanical cycles and the effect of maximum strain. According to the results presented here, the uptake of acetone in Estane is much higher than ethanol and follows classical Fickian diffusion. Further, a series of thermomechanical measurements conducted on dry and physically (hydrolytically) aged polyether urethanes revealed that incorporation of water seems to have an appreciable impact on the shape recovery ratios which can be attributed to the additional physical crosslinks. However, no obvious difference in shape fixation of dry and physically (hydrolytically) aged samples could be recognized. Furthermore, by decreasing the strain-holding time, shape recovery improves significantly. Moreover, the shape fixity is found to be independent of holding time. The shape recovery ratio decreased dramatically with an increase in the stress-holding time.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 May 2018 07:12:01 +000
       
  • Optimal Design for an Extruder Head Runner Based on Response Surface
           Method and Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    • Abstract: The head runner of a rubber extruder is important for controlling rubber flow and improving extrudate quality. To clarify the effect of the structure parameters of the head runner of a doubleplex tread extruder on extrudate quality and obtain high-quality rubber extrusions, a finite element model of the down head runner was established. The extrusion process was analyzed through numerical simulations, wherein the Bird–Carreau constitutive equation and Navier slip law were used along with some computational methods, such as quadratic interpolation of velocity and linear interpolation of pressure and viscosity. The Newton iteration algorithm was used for numerical calculations. The mean-square deviation of velocity (SDV) of rubber flow in the outlet cross section was selected as the evaluation objective. A Placket–Burman design was used to select three key factors—angles and and outlet width —from among eight runner structure parameters affecting the velocity variance. By using central composite design (CCD), the quadratic response surface model using the three key factors was established, and the influence law of a combination of the three key factors on SDV was obtained. The response surface model was optimized using the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, and the optimal key factors of the head runner were obtained. The optimal runner design realizes a more uniform velocity distribution in the outlet cross section. Furthermore, a comparison of the simulated flow velocities of the original and optimal head runners at different inlet flow ratios and temperatures indicates that the optimal head runner flow velocity improves the extrusion quality. Thus, an optimal runner with optimal key factors was manufactured. Test results of the rubber flow state indicated that the flow is regular and that warping disappears. The proposed optimization strategy can be used practically for improving the head runner design, shortening the product development cycle, and reducing the production cost.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 May 2018 08:13:50 +000
       
  • Ibuprofen Release from Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles Prepared by
           Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization

    • Abstract: Ibuprofen-loaded poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were prepared by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate in the presence of ibuprofen; different surfactant concentration, pH, and temperature were used. Particle size was measured by quasi-light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, while the amount of drug released was determined by UV spectroscopy. Nanoparticles with diameters between 10 and 58 nm, loaded with ibuprofen, were obtained. The smallest particles and the higher drug loading were obtained at the highest pH tested. The analysis of the release data showed that the drug release profiles correspond to the Weibull model. Moreover, it was found that most of the ibuprofen is released within the first 80–120 min; initially the release rate is slow, but then it increases to finally decrease. This behavior contrasts with the reported burst of drug concentration in the plasma after oral administration of IB.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Tribological and Sealing Properties of PFA Composites

    • Abstract: The polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and perfluoroalkoxyperfluoropropyl vinyl ether (PFA) composites were prepared using carbon fiber (CF) and glass fiber (GF) as fillers. The effects of these fillers on the tribological and sealing properties were investigated. The tribological and sealing properties of the composites were evaluated by a wear tester and a seal test rig. Results showed that the incorporation of CF and GF both improved the wear resistance with composites, approaching wear rates as low as 10−6 mm3/N·m and lowered the seal’s leakage of the PTFE/PFA composites. As described here, CF was more effective than GF in improving the wear rate. Notably, the wear rate of the PFA/CF composite is much less than that of the PTFE composites as the transfer film on the couple ring is much more unique, thick, smooth, and compact. The leakage of carbon fiber-filled PFA composite seal was lowered to 66% less than the traditional PTFE composite seals, which indicates better sealing properties.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 May 2018 06:47:13 +000
       
  • Characterization and Rheological Behavior of Dextran from Weissella
           confusa R003

    • Abstract: Dextran from Weissella confusa R003 isolated from sugar cane juice was purified and characterized. Dextran synthesis was performed by fermenting W. confusa R003 in MRS medium containing 10% (w/v) sucrose with continuous shaking at 125 rpm and at 30°C. For 24 hours, the 50% efficiency yield was obtained. Dextran in the culture medium was purified by ethanol precipitation. Structural analysis of dextran using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 2D NMR techniques showed the existence of glucoses with 97.4%  α (1→6) linkage in the main chains and 2.6%  α (1→3) in branches. The estimation of molecular weight by dynamic light scattering exhibited average molecular weight of 1.0 × 104 kDa. At low concentration (2.5% w/v), dextran behaved like liquid structure, while, increasing the concentration (5.0 and 10.0% w/v), it was revealed as viscoelastic behavior. The highest gelling phenomenon was found in the concentration of 10% w/v and at 37°C. Due to its production and properties, it may be suitable for commercial production and application in the field of foods as well as hydrogel.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 08:30:54 +000
       
  • Preparation of Keratin-Glycine Metal Complexes and Their Scavenging
           Activity for Superoxide Anion Radicals

    • Abstract: To address the problem of limited application of natural SOD, the development of SOD mimic enzymes is of great importance for bioantioxidation. Herein, we report on a new type of biopolymer antioxidant with excellent scavenging activity for , keratin-glycine metal complexes (FK-GlyM, M = Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni). They are prepared by feather keratin firstly combined with glycine and then metal ions. Using FT-IR, TG, CD, and SEM, the performance of the obtained complexes (FK-GlyM) for scavenging is analysed and investigated. Importantly, the scavenging activity of FK-GlyCu is excellent in all FK-GlyM, and FK-GlyCu60 has the most excellent anti- activity in all FK-GlyC, of which EC50 and degree of simulation were, respectively, up to  μmol/L and 911.1% compared with nature Cu, Zn-SOD. Finally, its mechanism was also discussed. In summary, this method about the simulation strategies will provide a novel idea for exploiting new-type biocompatible and highly reactive antioxidants.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preparation and Characterization of High Purity Anhydrous β-Lactose from
           α-Lactose Monohydrate at Mild Temperature

    • Abstract: Lactose is a disaccharide of importance in humans dietary, food products, and the pharmaceutical industry. From the existing isomeric forms, β-lactose is rarely found in nature. Thus, in this work, a simple methodology to obtain anhydrous β-lactose (βL) from α-lactose monohydrate (αL·H2O) is presented. The αL·H2O powder was dispersed into a basic alcoholic solution (72 hours), at controlled conditions of temperature (27, 29, 31, and 32°C), without stirring. The slurry was dried at room temperature and characterized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the formation of βL for the samples prepared at 29 and 32°C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed this result and suggested the occurrence of crystalline βL. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns was employed to identify and quantify the composition of the isomers. The samples prepared at 29 and 31°C showed the formation of pure βL, while those at 27 and 32°C showed the presence of αL·H2O and a mixture of the two isomers, respectively. The morphology of the powders was studied by scanning electron microscopy, observing the formation of irregular shape αL·H2O particles and axe-like βL particles. Clearly, with this methodology, it was possible to obtain pure, crystalline, and anhydrous βL at mild temperature.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Laboratory Tests on Effectiveness of Environment-Friendly Organic Polymer
           on Physical Properties of Sand

    • Abstract: The poor water stability, high penetrability, and low antierosion of sand affect the stability of the sandy soil slope. To understand the effectiveness of environment-friendly organic polymer on these physical properties of sand, a series of laboratory tests including water stability test, penetration test, and runoff erosion test of polymer reinforced sand were performed. The results of tests indicated that the organic polymers have obvious effects on the reinforced sand. The water stability of polymer reinforced sand had been improved strongly. All the reinforced sands with polymer ≥0.3% remained a stable structure at immersing time of 24 hours. The penetrability of the reinforced sand decreased with the increase of the polymer. The reinforced sand with polymer ≥7% was impermeable. The erosion resistance of sand increased with the increase of polymer content. With the polymer ≥4%, the sand surface kept intact with the scouring time more than 2 hours. The results could be applied as the reference for organic polymer reinforced sand engineering, especially for surface protection of embankment, slope, and landfill.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Review of Recent Development on Preparation, Properties, and Applications
           of Cellulose-Based Functional Materials

    • Abstract: Cellulose is the most abundant biomass resource in the world. It can be transferred to various water soluble derivatives, biochemicals, and materials. In the second half of the 20th century, nanocellulose was extracted with unique properties such as optical transparency, high strength, and high surface area. These new forms of cellulose can be combined with other materials, mainly biopolymers, to form multifarious composites, which are used in all applications of human life. For convenience, to introduce the recent development of these cellulose-based functional composites, we divided them to seven categories, including biological applications, water treatment, sensor, reinforcing agent, energy storage materials, Pickering emulsion stabilizer, and other versatile applications. The preparation, properties, and applications of these functional composites were depicted.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Synthesis of Poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl
           methacrylate) Copolymers with Controllable Block Structures via Reversible
           Addition Fragmentation Polymerization from Aminolyzed Poly(lactic acid)

    • Abstract: Poly(lactic acid)-block-poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PLA-PDMAEMA) copolymers were synthesized from aminolyzed PLA via reversible addition fragmentation (RAFT) polymerization. PLA undergoes aminolytic degradation with ethylenediamine (EDA). The kinetics of the aminolysis reaction of PLA at different temperatures and EDA concentrations was investigated in detail. The molar masses of products rapidly decreased in the initial stage at low aminolytic degree. Meanwhile, reactive –NH2 and –OH groups were introduced to the end of shorter PLA chains and used as sites to further immobilize the RAFT agent. PLA-PDMAEMA block copolymers were synthesized. A pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics was observed for the RAFT polymerization of PDMAEMA at a low conversion. By controlling the aminolysis reaction of PLA and RAFT polymerization degree of DMAEMA, the length distributions of the PLA and PDMAEMA blocks can be controlled. This method can be extended to more systems to obtain block copolymers with controllable block structure.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 09:26:33 +000
       
  • Fractionation of DMSO-Extracted and NaOH-Extracted Hemicelluloses by
           Gradient Ethanol Precipitation from Neosinocalamus affinis

    • Abstract: Neosinocalamus affinis hemicelluloses were extracted with pure DMSO and 3% NaOH in sequence. The DMSO- and NaOH-extracted hemicelluloses were then successively fractionated by gradient ethanol precipitation. NaOH-extracted hemicellulosic fractions with different branch degree could be separated by gradient ethanol precipitation, while DMSO-extracted hemicellulosic fractions could not. FT-IR spectra showed that DMSO-extracted fractions have more complete structure, while NaOH-extracted fractions have no acetyl at all. The FT-IR and NMR revealed that the DMSO-extracted Neosinocalamus affinis hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans consisting of a linear (1→4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-2,3 of acetyl, O-2 of 4-O-methyl--D glucuronic acid, and O-3 of arabinose.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 09:34:04 +000
       
  • Evaluation of Alkali-Pretreated Soybean Straw for Lignocellulosic
           Bioethanol Production

    • Abstract: Soybean straw is a renewable resource in agricultural residues that can be used for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. To enhance enzymatic digestibility and fermentability, the biomass was prepared with an alkali-thermal pretreatment (sodium hydroxide, 121°C, 60 min). The delignification yield was 34.153%, in proportion to the amount of sodium hydroxide, from 0.5 to 3.0 M. The lignin and hemicellulose contents of the pretreated biomass were reduced by the pretreatment process, whereas the proportion of cellulose was increased. Under optimal condition, the pretreated biomass consisted of % cellulose, % hemicellulose, and % lignin. During enzymatic saccharification using Cellic® CTec2 cellulase, 10% (w/v) of pretreated soybean straw was hydrolyzed completely and converted to  g/L glucose and  g/L xylose with a 90.9% yield efficiency. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the pretreated biomass by Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A produced  g/L ethanol in 0.5 L fermented medium containing 10% (w/v) pretreated biomass after 72 h. The ethanol productivity was 0.305 g ethanol/g dry biomass and 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose after fermentation, with a low concentration of organic acid metabolites. Also, 82% of fermentable sugar was used by the yeast for ethanol fermentation. These results show that the combination of alkaline pretreatment and biomass hydrolysate is useful for enhancing bioethanol productivity using delignified soybean straw.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Thermal and Electrical Conductivity of Unsaturated Polyester Resin Filled
           with Copper Filler Composites

    • Abstract: Thermal and electrical conductivity of unsaturated polyester resin with copper filler composite material are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. In the experiments, polyester matrix is combined with dendrite-shape copper to determine the effects of both filler size and content on thermal and electrical conductivity, respectively. It is observed that the increase in the concentration causes the thermal and electrical conductivity of composite mixture to grow up. It has also been observed that the both thermal and electrical conductivity increase with increasing filler particle size.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Apr 2018 07:24:02 +000
       
  • Preparation of Oligosaccharides by Degradation of Polysaccharides from
           Chinese Jujube and Its Biological Activity

    • Abstract: This study examined the degradation of polysaccharides to oligosaccharides in Chinese jujube fruits. Using a response surface model, the degradation conditions of polysaccharides under acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized in laboratory conditions. A degradation rate of 66.9% was obtained under optimum acid hydrolysis conditions: 0.6 mol/L hydrochloric acid, 3% substrate concentration, and 1 h reaction time. A degradation rate of 41.4% was obtained under optimum enzyme hydrolysis conditions: 4.0 mL cellulose solution (10 mg/mL), 0.3 mL substrate solution (20 mg/mL), 0.7 mL citric acid buffer solution (pH 5), and 7.3 h reaction time. Using the stimulation effect for strain J-4 intestinal probiotic proliferation, the biological activity of oligosaccharides was determined. The results showed that the oligosaccharides from enzyme hydrolysis encouraged intestinal probiotic proliferation.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Temperature-Sensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/Konjac
           Glucomannan/Graphene Oxide Composite Membranes with Improved Mechanical
           Property, Swelling Capability, and Degradability

    • Abstract: Temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/konjac glucomannan/graphene oxide (PNIPAM/KGM/GO) composite membranes were prepared by solution blending using calcium ions as a cross-linker. The composite membranes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (Raman), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The swelling, mechanical property, phase transformation behaviors, and enzymatic degradation activities were also determined. Results revealed that the phase transition temperatures of all the composite membranes were approximately 35°C. The PNIPAM/KGM/GO composite membranes showed enhanced mechanical property. The swelling behavior and enzymatic degradation of the PNIPAM/KGM/GO composite membranes improved compared with those of conventional PNIPAM hydrogel and PNIPAM/KGM composite membranes. Thus, the PNIPAM/KGM/GO composite membranes have potential applications in the biomedical field as skin dressings.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Recent Strategies in Preparation of Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cellulose
           Nanofibrils Derived from Raw Cellulose Materials

    • Abstract: The recent strategies in preparation of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were described. CNCs and CNFs are two types of nanocelluloses (NCs), and they possess various superior properties, such as large specific surface area, high tensile strength and stiffness, low density, and low thermal expansion coefficient. Due to various applications in biomedical engineering, food, sensor, packaging, and so on, there are many studies conducted on CNCs and CNFs. In this review, various methods of preparation of CNCs and CNFs are summarized, including mechanical, chemical, and biological methods. The methods of pretreatment of cellulose are described in view of the benefits to fibrillation.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preparation and Characterization of Styrene Bearing Diethanolamine Side
           Group, Styrene Copolymer Systems, and Their Metal Complexes

    • Abstract: The two copolymer systems of styrene bearing diethanol amine side group and styrene were prepared by free radical polymerization method at 60°C in presence of 1,4-dioxane as solvent and AIBN as initiator. Their metal complexes were prepared by reaction of the copolymer used as ligand P(DEAMSt-co-St)L′′ and Ni(II) and Co(II) metal ions, which was carried out in presence of ethanol and NaOH at 65°C for 48 h in pH = 7.5. The structures of the copolymers used as ligand and metal complexes were identified by FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectra, and elemental analysis. The properties of the copolymers used as ligand and metal complexes were characterized by SEM-EDX, AAS, DSC, TGA, and DTA techniques. Then, the electrical properties of the copolymers and metal complexes were examined as a function of the temperature and frequency, and the activation energies were estimated with conductivity measurements.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Parameter Identification of Composite Materials Based on Spectral Model by
           Using Model Updating Method

    • Abstract: A model updating approach based on a spectral element model and solved with a particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is proposed to identify the vibration-damping properties of composite materials. In comparison with conventional finite element model updating, a composite beam is modeled in a unified way by using a spectral approach whose computational cost is significantly reduced due to its simplicity. In this way, the dynamic response can be captured accurately by using a very limited number of elements. To identify the material properties, experimental tests are carried out to get the initial parameters that are introduced to initialize the spectral model; then, a model updating process solved with a PSO algorithm is implemented to obtain the real material parameters. It has been demonstrated that the proposed spectral model is a potential tool for model updating and parameter identification.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of Clay/Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Fillers on the
           Properties of Elastomer Nanocomposites

    • Abstract: The hybrid fillers of 1D multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and 2D montmorillonite (MMT) have led to excellent physical and chemical properties in high performance elastomer nanocomposites. In this study, the hybridization of PDDA (polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized MWNT (P-MWNT) and hydroxyl-functionalized MMT (H-MMT) was prepared by the electrostatic interaction between the positive charge on the MWNT and the negative charge on the MMT using a simple solution mixing process. Also, a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposite containing the hybrid nanofillers was prepared to improve the dispersion of nanofillers with SBR latex. The SBR nanocomposites with the hybrid nanofillers exhibited outstanding mechanical properties including modulus, tensile strength, and elongation at break, due to the enhanced interfacial bonding with the elastomer matrix. Furthermore, the hybrid nanofillers in the SBR matrix showed superior thermal and electrical properties and gas barrier performance at low loadings. The synergistic effects of the SBR produced by the hybridized nanofillers will open up new opportunities for elastomer composites with high performance.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 07:33:17 +000
       
  • Specific Mechanical Energy and Thermal Degradation of Poly(lactic acid)
           and Poly(caprolactone)/Date Pits Composites

    • Abstract: The compatibility of date pits (DP) with polylactic acid (PLA) or polycaprolactone (PCL) is investigated. Composites were prepared by compounding PLA or PCL with date pits at 10, 20, 30, and 40% wt/wt and extruded. Wheat vital gluten (VG) was also used as a filler and in combination with DP. The specific mechanical energy (SME) was calculated and the composites thermal properties were tested using DSC (peak temperature, enthalpic relaxation, and glass transition) and TGA (degradation temperature and mechanism and degradation kinetics). Because DP is hard filler, the SME of PCL-DP composites increased as the amount of filler increased. At 40% fill, the SME decreased due to the lubricating effect of oil found naturally in DP. As illustrated by lower SME, PLA composites exhibited softer texture because PLA is harder than DP. The DSC melting peak temperature of both polymers has increased at higher DP; however, PLA exhibited enthalpic relation between 66 and 68°C. The TGA profile of the composites displayed two distinct peaks versus one peak for the pure polymer. The degradation kinetics showed multistep process for the composites and one-step process for the pure polymer. The utilization of date pits as a hard filler in developing biodegradable plastics is good for the environment and a value added for the date industry.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • LDPE Oxidation by CO2 Laser Radiation (10.6 µm)

    • Abstract: Thermooxidation of LDPE films by CO2 laser radiation, 10.6 μm, was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). The formation of carbonyl and hydroxyl functional groups onto LDPE films was dependent on the fluency of CO2 laser. IR absorption of vinyl groups and C-O bond present in alcohols showed a decrease and an increase, respectively, indicating that CO2 laser radiation causes simultaneous formation and accumulation of hydroperoxides in LDPE films; furthermore, crystallinity of LDPE films irradiated with CO2 tends to increase. So, CO2 laser radiation is able to oxidize the LDPE films, obtaining a PE with similar spectroscopic properties to that of PE-BIO by a physical process.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Characterization of Polypropylene Green Composites Reinforced by Cellulose
           Fibers Extracted from Rice Straw

    • Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) based green composites containing 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% of cellulose fibers (CFs) which were extracted from rice straw were successfully prepared by melt blend method. The CFs washed with H2O2 after alkaline extraction showed lower water absorption than that not washed with H2O2. The thermal, mechanical, and biodegradation properties of composites were also investigated. The 10% weight loss temperature of the composites was decreased with the increasing CFs content, but all the composites showed over 300°C. Young’s modulus and flexural properties of PP were improved by blending PP with CFs. The pure PP showed no degradability, but the PP/CFs composites degraded from about 3 to 23 wt%, depending on CFs content after being buried in soil for 50 days. These PP/CFs composites with high thermal, mechanical properties and biodegradability may be useful as green composite materials for various environmental fields.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Polyaniline/Polystyrene Blends: In-Depth Analysis of the Effect of
           Sulfonic Acid Dopant Concentration on AC Conductivity Using Broadband
           Dielectric Spectroscopy

    • Abstract: This work presents an in-depth analysis of the alternating current (AC) conductivity of polyaniline-polystyrene (PANI-PS) blends doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) and prepared using an in situ dispersion polymerization technique. We prepared the blends using fixed ratios of PS to PANI while varying the concentration of the CSA dopant. The AC conductivity of the blends was investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy. Increasing CSA resulted in a decrease in the AC conductivity of the blends. This behaviour was explained in terms of the availability of a lone pair of electrons of the NH groups in the polyaniline, which are typically attacked by the electron-withdrawing sulfonic acid groups of CSA. The conductivity is discussed in terms of changes in the dielectric permittivity storage (), loss (), and modulus () of the blends over a wide range of temperatures. This is linked to the glass transition temperature of the PANI. Dielectric spectra at low frequencies indicated the presence of pronounced Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars (MWS) interfacial polarization, especially in samples with a low concentration of CSA. Electrical conduction activation energies for the blends were also calculated using the temperature dependence of the direct current (DC) conductivity at a low frequency (), which exhibit an Arrhenius behaviour with respect to temperature. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a fibrous morphology for the pure PANI, while the blends showed agglomeration with increasing CSA concentrations.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Influence of Media Treatments on Color Changes, Dimensional Stability,
           and Cracking Behavior of Bamboo Scrimber

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of media treatments on color changes, dimensional stability, and cracking behavior of bamboo scrimber, which has many applications in construction. The bamboo scrimber specimens comprised bamboo bundles with a low molecular weight phenol formaldehyde resin which were manufactured via a cold-in and cold-out hot-pressing process. Small clear specimens were sampled and treated under ten different conditions: water immersion at 25°C, 63°C, and 100°C; oil immersion at 100°C and 150°C; air drying at 63°C, 100°C, and 150°C; and infrared drying at 100°C and 150°C. Then, tests were conducted to determine the color changes, dimensional stability, and cracking behavior of the bamboo scrimbers. The results showed that the bamboo scrimber specimens became darker after all treatment conditions, especially the oil treatments and infrared drying. The color of the oil-treated bamboo scrimbers was found to be more homogenous than the others. The dimensional stability of the bamboo scrimbers was more or less influenced by the water treatments, air drying, and infrared drying, and the oil-treated bamboo scrimbers were relatively stable. Moreover, during the 4-hour treatments, cracks were found in the bamboo scrimbers after air drying at 150°C or infrared drying at 100°C or 150°C.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Mar 2018 07:16:04 +000
       
 
 
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