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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 298 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Polymer Science
  [SJR: 0.265]   [H-I: 11]   [23 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9422 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9430
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • UV Dose Governs UV-Polymerized Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Modulus

    • Abstract: Polyacrylamide (PAA) hydrogels have become a widely used tool whose easily tunable mechanical properties, biocompatibility, thermostability, and chemical inertness make them invaluable in many biological applications, such as cell mechanosensitivity studies. Currently, preparation of PAA gels involves mixtures of acrylamide, bisacrylamide, a source of free radicals, and a chemical stabilizer. This method, while generally well accepted, has its drawbacks: long polymerization times, unstable and toxic reagents, and tedious preparation. Alternatively, PAA gels could be made by free radical polymerization (FRP) using ultraviolet (UV) photopolymerization, a method which is quicker, less tedious, and less toxic. Here, we describe a simple strategy based on total UV energy for determining the optimal UV crosslinking conditions that lead to optimal hydrogel modulus.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Structure and Properties of Hydrophobic Aggregation Hydrogel with Chemical
           Sensitive Switch

    • Abstract: Hydrogels with chemical sensitive switch have control release properties in special environments. A series of polyacrylamide-octadecyl methacrylate hydrogels crosslinked by N,N′-bis (acryloyl) cystamine were synthesized as potential chemical sensitive system. When this hydrogel encounters dithiothreitol it can change its quality. The properties of the hydrogels were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy. The water absorption of the hydrogel has the maximum value of 475%, when the content of octadecyl methacrylate is 5 wt%. The amount of weight loss was changed from 34.6% to 17.2%, as the content of octadecyl methacrylate increased from 3 wt% to 9.4 wt%. At the same time, the stress of the hydrogel decreased from 67.01% to 47.61%; the strength of the hydrogel reaches to the maximum 0.367 Mpa at 7 wt% octadecyl methacrylate. The increasing content of octadecyl methacrylate from 3 wt% to 9.4 wt% can enhance the hydrophobicity of the hydrogel; the contact angle of water to hydrogel changed from 14.10° to 19.62°. This hydrogel has the porous structure which permits loading of oils into the gel matrix. The functionalities of the hydrogel make it have more widely potential applications in chemical sensitive response materials.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Heat Drawing Process on Mechanical Properties of Dry-Jet Wet
           Spun Fiber of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    • Abstract: Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used polymer materials. Even though linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) has better mechanical properties than other kinds of polyethylene, it is not used as a textile material because of its plastic behavior that is easy to break at the die during melt spinning. In this study, LLDPE fibers were successfully produced with a new approach using a dry-jet wet spinning and a heat drawing process. The fibers were filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to improve the strength and reduce plastic deformation. The crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties (strength to yield, strength to break, elongation at break, and initial modulus), electrical conductivity, and thermal properties of LLDPE fibers were studied. The results show that the addition of CNTs improved the tensile strength and the degree of crystallinity. The heat drawing process resulted in a significant increase in the tensile strength and the orientation of the CNTs and polymer chains. In addition, this study demonstrates that the heat drawing process effectively decreases the plastic deformation of LLDPE.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Purification and Structural Characterization of a Novel Water-Soluble
           Neutral Polysaccharide from Cantharellus cibarius and Its
           Immunostimulating Activity in RAW264.7 Cells

    • Abstract: Polysaccharide is one of the important active ingredients of Cantharellus cibarius. The aims of this work were to analyze preliminary characterization and to investigate immunostimulating activity of a novel water-soluble neutral polysaccharide named JP1, which was purified from the fruiting body of Cantharellus cibarius using DEAE-FF chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The characteristics of JP1 were determined by HPGPC, FT-IR spectra, gas chromatography, and Congo Red Method. Immunostimulating activity of JP1 was investigated in RAW264.7 cells. Results indicated that JP1 consisted of L-Arabinose, D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in a molar ratio of 1 : 1.06 : 1.95 : 1.17 with a molecular weight of 336 kDa. JP1 is nontoxic to RAW264.7 cells at this concentration range (62.5–1000 μg/mL). Furthermore, JP1 can promote mouse peritoneal macrophages to secrete NO and enhance the secretion of macrophages’ cytokines IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggested that JP1 could have potential immunostimulating activity applications as medicine or functional food.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Optimizing Delivery Characteristics of Curcumin as a Model Drug via
           Tailoring Mean Diameter Ranges of Cellulose Beads

    • Abstract: Spherical cellulose beads with tailored mean diameter between micrometer (20–80 μm) and nanometer (40–200 nm) ranges were fabricated from regenerated cellulose of paper wastes via water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion and nanoprecipitation processes, respectively. The mean diameter ranges of cellulose beads were precisely controlled via modulating fabrication parameters such as stirring speed, surfactant concentration, cellulose concentration, and reaction temperature. By tailoring their mean diameter ranges and using curcumin as a model drug, cellulose beads with enhanced loading capacities and optimized release kinetic profiles of curcumin were fabricated.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 10:04:55 +000
  • Modeling and Optimizing of Producing Recycled PET from Fabrics Waste via
           Falling Film-Rotating Disk Combined Reactor

    • Abstract: Recycling and reusing of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics waste are essential for reducing serious waste of resources and environmental pollution caused by low utilization rate. The liquid-phase polymerization method has advantages of short process flow, low energy consumption, and low production cost. However, unlike prepolymer, the material characteristics of PET fabrics waste (complex composition, high intrinsic viscosity, and large quality fluctuations) make its recycling a technique challenge. In this study, the falling film-rotating disk combined reactor is proposed, and the continuous liquid-phase polymerization is modeled by optimizing and correcting existing models for the final stage of PET polymerization to improve the product quality in plant production. Through modeling and simulation, the weight analysis of indexes closely related to the product quality (intrinsic viscosity, carboxyl end group concentration, and diethylene glycol content) was investigated to optimize the production process in order to obtain the desired polymer properties and meet specific product material characteristics. The model could be applied to other PET wastes (e.g., bottles and films) and extended to investigate different aspects of the recycling process.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • (Bio)degradable Ionomeric Polyurethanes Based on Xanthan: Synthesis,
           Properties, and Structure

    • Abstract: New (bio)degradable environmentally friendly film-forming ionomeric polyurethanes (IPU) based on renewable biotechnological polysaccharide xanthan (Xa) have been obtained. The influence of the component composition on the colloidal-chemical and physic-mechanical properties of IPU/Xa and based films, as well as the change of their properties under the influence of environmental factors, have been studied. The results of IR-, PMS-, DMA-, and X-ray scattering study indicate that incorporation of Xa into the polyurethane chain initiates the formation of a new polymer structure different from the structure of the pure IPU (matrix): an amorphous polymer-polymer microdomain has occurred as a result of the chemical interaction of Xa and IPU. It predetermines the degradation of the IPU/Xa films as a whole, unlike the mixed polymer systems, and plays a key role in the improvement of material performance. The results of acid, alkaline hydrolysis, and incubation into the soil indicate the increase of the intensity of degradation processes occurring in the IPU/Xa in comparison with the pure IPU. It has been shown that the introduction of Xa not only imparts the biodegradability property to polyurethane, but also improves the mechanical properties.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Sep 2017 07:08:42 +000
  • Structural Foams of Biobased Isosorbide-Containing Copolycarbonate

    • Abstract: Isosorbide-containing copolycarbonate (Bio-PC) is a partly biobased alternative to conventional bisphenol A (BPA) based polycarbonate (PC). Conventional PC is widely used in polymer processing technologies including thermoplastic foaming such as foam injection molding. At present, no detailed data is available concerning the foam injection molding behavior and foam properties of Bio-PC. This contribution provides first results on injection-molded foams based on isosorbide-containing PC. The structural foams were produced by using an endothermic chemical blowing agent (CBA) masterbatch and the low pressure foam injection molding method. The influence of weight reduction and blowing agent concentration on general foam properties such as density, morphology, and mechanical properties was studied. The test specimens consist of a foam core in the center and compact symmetrical shell layers on the sides. The thickness of the foam core increases with increasing weight reduction irrespective of the CBA concentration. The specific (mechanical) bending properties are significantly improved and the specific tensile properties can almost be maintained while reducing the density of the injection-molded parts.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 08:08:55 +000
  • Thermoplastic Cassava Starch-PVA Composite Films with Cellulose Nanofibers
           from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches as Reinforcement Agent

    • Abstract: Thermoplastic starch-polyvinyl alcohol composite films were prepared by casting method with cellulose nanofibers as reinforcement agent and glycerol as plasticizer. The obtained cellulose nanofibers with a diameter of  nm were isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFBs) by mechanical treatment. The addition of cellulose nanofibers until 3 wt% increased tensile strength and crystallinity of the composite films. In contrast, it decreased their elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate. Meanwhile, the addition of glycerol increased elongation at break and water vapor transmission rate of film matrix but lowers tensile strength of composite films.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler)
           in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Porous 3D Scaffold

    • Abstract: Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL) method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v) were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00–9.20 and 0.047–1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w) which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment). The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate () of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between (mg/day) and (mg/day). The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (). The 3D infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) carrageenan concentration (S2) produced a moderate degradation rate of (mg/day) with a sustained structural integrity up to 28 days. The carrageenan infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) was demonstrated to be the best 3D structure for a long-term cell culture (>2 weeks). In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be used in tissue engineering application and 3D cell culture model.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Photoresist Removal Using H Radicals Generated by Iridium Hot-Wire

    • Abstract: We examined an environmentally friendly photoresist removal method using H radicals produced by decomposing hydrogen on a hot iridium catalyst. We examined the relationship between photoresist removal rate and its surface temperature using thin film interference and the removal properties using H radicals produced by the Ir catalyst. Decomposition behavior at polymer surface by radicals may be analyzed in further detail from the aspect of kinetics. Additionally, we investigated the oxygen addition effects on the removal rate. The photoresist removal rate increased with the oxygen additive amount and then decreased more gradually than in the case of using W filament. The increasing behavior was similar but there was a large difference between W and Ir catalyst in the decreasing behavior.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2017 07:22:14 +000
  • Bioactive 3D-Shaped Wound Dressings Synthesized from Bacterial Cellulose:
           Effect on Cell Adhesion of Polyvinyl Alcohol Integrated In Situ

    • Abstract: We investigated wound dressing composites comprising fibrils of bacterial cellulose (BC) grown by fermentation in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) followed by physical crosslinking. The reference biointerface, neat BC, favoured adhesion of fibroblasts owing to size exclusion effects. Furthermore, it resisted migration across the biomaterial. Such effects were minimized in the case of PVA/BC membranes. Therefore, the latter are suggested in cases where cell adhesion is to be avoided, for instance, in the design of interactive wound dressings with facile exudate control. The bioactivity and other properties of the membranes were related to their morphology and structure and considered those of collagen fibres. Bioactive materials were produced by simple 3D templating of BC during growth and proposed for burn and skin ulcer treatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 10:19:58 +000
  • Enhancement of Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(L-lactide)
           Nanocomposites Filled with Synthetic Layered Compounds

    • Abstract: The effects of a layered double hydroxide (LDH) (Zn/Al palmitate) and two layered hydroxide salts (LHS), intercalated with the anion salicylate or palmitate, on the properties of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) nanocomposites were investigated. PLLA and the nanocomposites were synthesized by ring opening polymerization of the cyclic dimer of lactic acid (lactide), using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate (stannous octanoate) as catalyst. PLLA nanocomposites containing two different fillers concentrations (1 wt% and 2 wt%) were produced. Compared to PLLA, almost all the nanocomposites exhibited an enhancement on thermal resistance. The sample containing 1 wt% of Zn/Al palmitate exhibited a decomposition temperature 51°C higher than neat polymer. Results of flexural properties demonstrated that the nanocomposites containing Zn/Al palmitate displayed the highest values of maximum flexural stress and elongation at break. The sample with 2 wt% of this filler revealed values of maximum flexural stress and strain at break, 15% and 157%, respectively, higher than PLLA. Contrary to PLLA, which only exhibited break point, this nanocomposite showed a less fragile behavior, as a yield point was observed. In this case, it was possible to promote a higher flexibility without reducing the flexural stress, revealing an advantage of the Zn/Al palmitate under the plasticizers that have been used so far for PLLA.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Genome Structure of Bacillus cereus tsu1 and Genes Involved in Cellulose
           Degradation and Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate Synthesis

    • Abstract: In previous work, we reported on the isolation and genome sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus strain tsu1 NCBI accession number JPYN00000000. The 36 scaffolds in the assembled tsu1 genome were all aligned with B. cereus B4264 genome with variations. Genes encoding for xylanase and cellulase and the cluster of genes in the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis pathway were identified in tsu1 genome. The PHB accumulation in B. cereus tsu1 was initially identified using Sudan Black staining and then confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Physical properties of these PHB extracts, when analyzed with Raman spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were found to be comparable to the standard compound. The five PHB genes in tsu1 (phaA, phaB, phaR, phaC, and phaP) were cloned and expressed with TOPO cloning, and the recombinant proteins were validated using peptide mapping of in-gel trypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. The recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) (over)expressing phaC was found to accumulate PHB particles. The cellulolytic activity of tsu1 was detected using carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) plate Congo red assay and the shift towards low-molecular size forms of CMC revealed by gel permeation chromatography in CMC liquid culture and the identification of a cellulase in the secreted proteome.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Discoloration Effects of High-Dose γ-Irradiation and Long-Term
           Thermal Aging of (U)HMW-PE

    • Abstract: Two polyethylene types with ultra-high (UHMW-PE) and high molecular weight (HMW-PE) used as neutron radiation shielding materials in casks for radioactive waste were irradiated with doses up to 600 kGy using a 60Co gamma source. Subsequently, thermal aging at 125°C was applied for up to one year. Degradation effects in the materials were characterized using colorimetry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and DSC. Both materials exhibited a yellowing upon irradiation. The discoloration of UHMW-PE disappeared again after thermal aging. Therefore, the yellowing is assumed to originate from annealable color centers in the form of free radicals that are trapped in the crystalline regions of the polymer and recombine at elevated temperatures. For the antioxidant-containing HMW-PE, yellowing was observed after both irradiation and thermal aging. The color change was correlated mainly to decomposition products of the antioxidant in addition to trapped radicals as in UHMW-PE. Additionally, black spots appeared after thermal aging of HMW-PE.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Joining of Incompatible Polymer Combinations by Form Fit Using the
           Vibration Welding Process

    • Abstract: The production of components consisting of various polymer types by welding is severely restricted and only possible for bonding compatible materials with melting points in a close range. Several modifications, such as the cross-linking of one joining partner, allow for circumventing the restrictions regarding the melting points but do not help in joining bonding incompatible materials. Investigations of dissimilar material combinations, especially from polymer-metal hybrid structures, show a high potential of connections based on form fits. Within the scope of this paper, the possibility of joining incompatible polymer combinations, such as polyamide 66 and high-density polyethylene, by micro form fit using the vibration welding process is analyzed. For this purpose, the generated bonding strength of the test specimen was determined by shear tests. Furthermore, the undercuts of the generated prestructures and the resulting bond of the test specimen were examined microscopically by computer-tomography. These investigations depict the high potential of joining incompatible polymer combinations by form fit in the vibration welding using prestructuring to generate undercuts.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Mechanical Property Analysis of Circular Polymer Membrane under Uniform

    • Abstract: Mechanical property analysis of circular hyperelastic polymer membrane under uniform pressure has been researched in this work. The polymer membrane material is assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic and incompressibility of materials has been considered. Based on the modified stain energy function from Gao and nonmomental theory of axial symmetry thin shell, finite deformation analysis of polymer membrane under uniform pressure has been proposed in current configuration and governing equations of polymer membrane have been achieved. By utilizing the boundary condition, theoretical results of governing equations have been obtained and vertical displacement distribution and stress distribution have been achieved. The results show that the constitutive parameter has a strengthening effect on the polymer material and the constitutive parameter plays a controlling role for the second strain invariant , which also has a strengthening effect on the polymer material. This research has revealed the deformational mechanism of polymer membrane and provided reference for the design of polymer membrane.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Characterization of Alkaline Treatment and Fiber Content on the Physical,
           Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Ground Coffee Waste/Oxobiodegradable
           HDPE Biocomposites

    • Abstract: Effect of alkali treatment on ground coffee waste/oxobiodegradable HDPE (GCW/oxo-HDPE) composites was evaluated using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% volume fraction of GCW. The composites were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), thermal (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), mechanical (tensile and impact test) properties, and water absorption. FTIR spectrum indicated the eradication of lipids, hemicellulose, lignin, and impurities after the treatments lead to an improvement of the filler/matrix interface adhesion. This is confirmed by SEM results. Degree of crystallinity index was increased by 5% after the treatment. Thermal stability for both untreated and treated GCW composites was alike. Optimum tensile result was achieved when using 10% volume fraction with enhancement of 25% for tensile strength and 24% for tensile modulus compared to untreated composite. Specific tensile strength and modulus had improved as the composite has lower density. The highest impact properties were achieved when using 15% volume fraction that lead to an improvement of 6%. Treated GCW composites show better water resistance with 57% improvement compared to the untreated ones. This lightweight and ecofriendly biocomposite has the potential in packaging, internal automotive parts, lightweight furniture, and other composite engineering applications.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Characterization of Biobased Polyurethane Foams Employing Lignin
           Fractionated from Microwave Liquefied Switchgrass

    • Abstract: Lignin samples fractionated from microwave liquefied switchgrass were applied in the preparation of semirigid polyurethane (PU) foams without purification. The objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of lignin in the PU matrix on the morphological, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the PU foams. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed that lignin with 5 and 10% content in the PU foams did not influence the cell shape and size. The foam cell size became larger by increasing the lignin content to 15%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that chemical interactions occurred between the lignin hydroxyl and isocyanate revealing that lignin was well dispersed in the matrix materials. The apparent density of the foam with 10% lignin increased by 14.2% compared to the control, while the foam with 15% lignin had a decreased apparent density. The effect of lignin content on the mechanical properties was similar to that on apparent density. The lignin containing foams were much more thermally stable than the control foam as evidenced by having higher initial decomposition temperature and maximum decomposition rate temperature from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) profiles.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Synthesis of Poly-(R-hydroxyalkanoates) by Cupriavidus necator ATCC 17699
           Using Mexican Avocado (Persea americana) Oil as a Carbon Source

    • Abstract: Poly-R-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polymers produced by a vast number of bacterial species under stress conditions. PHAs exhibit different thermal and mechanical properties that depend on their molecular structure. In this work, PHAs were produced using avocado oil as the carbon source. Cupriavidus necator H16 was cultured in three-stage fermentation using fructose during the cell growth stages and avocado oil during the PHA synthesis stage. Different concentrations of avocado oil were used during the third stage to test the incorporation of various monomeric units into the PHAs. Biomass and PHA production were measured during the fermentation. DSC, FTIR, and gas chromatography analysis aided the PHA characterization. Different proportions of 3-hydroxyvalerate were present in the 3-hydroxybutyrate main chain depending on the concentration of avocado oil. The results suggest that avocado oil is a viable new substrate for PHA production.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Structural Analysis of Alkaline Pretreated Rice Straw for Ethanol

    • Abstract: Rice straw (RS) is an abundant, readily available agricultural waste, which shows promise as a potential feedstock for Asian ethanol production. To enhance release of glucose by enzymatic hydrolysis, RS was pretreated with aqueous ammonia (27% w/w) at two pretreatment temperatures: room temperature and 60°C. Statistical analysis indicated similarity of enzymatic glucose production at both pretreatment temperatures after 3-day incubation. Chemical composition, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of glucan and xylan in the pretreated solid, but significant reduction of lignin (60.7% removal) and silica. SEM analysis showed the disorganized surfaces and porosity of the pretreated RS fibers, thus improving cellulose accessibility for cellulase. The crystallinity index increased from 40.5 to 52.3%, indicating the higher exposure of cellulose. With 10% (w/v) solid loadings of pretreated RS, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation yielded a final ethanol concentration of 24.6 g/L, corresponding to 98% of maximum theoretical yield. Taken together, aqueous ammonia pretreatment is an effective method to generate highly digestible pretreated RS for bioethanol production and demonstrates potential application in biorefinery industry.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Polyvinyl Acetate Stabilization on the Swelling-Shrinkage
           Properties of Expansive Soil

    • Abstract: Polyvinyl acetate constitutes a class of polymers that can entirely dissolve in water to form a solution. In this study, polyvinyl acetate as a nontraditional chemical stabilizer was used in soil improvement. Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of polyvinyl acetate on swelling-shrinkage properties of expansive soil. A series of shrink/swell tests were performed with adding polyvinyl acetate as amendment at a concentration 3 g/cm3 to four aggregate sizes in the range of 0–0.5 mm, 0.5–1 mm, 1-2 mm, and 2–5 mm and five concentrations 1.5 g/cm3, 3 g/cm3, 4.5 g/cm3, 6 g/cm3, and 9 g/cm3 to soils with aggregate size in the range of 0.5–1 mm for comparison of results with those of untreated soils. The results show that all the linear swelling ratio (LSWR) and linear shrinkage ratio (LSHR) values of the treated specimens decrease. SEM images and the test results indicate the achieved reduction in volume change of the soil tested using soil pore filling and particle encapsulation.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Bolt-Hole Clearance on Bolted Connection Behavior for Pultruded
           Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Structural Plastic Members

    • Abstract: Bolt-hole clearance affects the failure mode on the bolted connection system of pultruded fiber-reinforced polymer plastic (PFRP) members. The various geometric parameters, such as the shape and cross-sectional area of the structural members, commonly reported in many references were used to validate the bolt-hole clearance. This study investigates the effects of the bolt-hole clearance in single-bolt connections of PFRP structural members. Single-bolt connection tests were planned using different bolt-hole clearances (e.g., tight-fit and clearances of 0.5 mm to 3.0 mm with 0.5 mm intervals) and uniaxial tension is applied on the test specimens. Most of the specimens failed in two sequential failure modes: bearing failure occurred and the shear-out failure followed. Test results on the bolt-hole clearances are compared with results in the previous research.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 Aug 2017 06:24:35 +000
  • Fabrication of Core-Shell PLGA-Chitosan Microparticles Using
           Electrospinning: Effects of Polymer Concentration

    • Abstract: This investigation aims to fabricate the core-shell microparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and chitosan (PLGA-CS MPs) using electrospinning. The challenge of using electrospinning is that it has many parameters which change product outcome if any single parameter is changed. However, the advantage of this system is that we can fabricate either micro/nanofibers or micro/nanoparticles. To learn about the effect of liquid concentration, the electrospinning parameters (voltage, needle sizes, distance from needle to collector, and ejection speed) were fixed while the concentration of PLGA or chitosan was varied. The results showed that PLGA microparticles can be fabricated successfully when the concentration of PLGA is smaller than 10 wt%. Presence of the chitosan shell was confirmed by zeta potential measurements, FT-IR, optical observation, and fluorescence observation. Thickness of the chitosan shell can be controlled by changing the concentration of chitosan and measured by fluorescamine labeling method. Moreover, SEM observation showed that concentration of chitosan affected the size of PLGA-CS microparticles. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay test showed that PLGA-CS microparticles possess excellent biocompatibility.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 10:10:54 +000
  • Method Validation for Progesterone Determination in Poly(methyl
           methacrylate) Nanoparticles Synthesized via Miniemulsion Polymerization

    • Abstract: Exogenous progesterone has several applications in human health and in veterinary medicine, especially in fixed-time artificial insemination protocol. Progesterone nanoencapsulation in biocompatible polymers, such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), is an alternative to substitute silicone-based release device traditionally used for estrus control. Progesterone concentration inside the nanoparticles must be precisely known; for that reason, a validation methodology must be applied to ensure reliable results, suitable for nanoparticles application. In this work, an UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was validated for the determination of progesterone in PMMA nanoparticles synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization. Chloroform was used as solvent, showing selectivity to the encapsulated drug and the components of the polymeric matrix did not influence progesterone recovery. Detection and quantitation limits (DL and QL) obtained were 0.32 and 0.96 mg·L−1, respectively, and precision tests (between different analysts and equipment) indicated acceptable Relative Standard Deviations (RSD < 5%). Miniemulsion polymerization reactions were carried out producing two different morphologies: nanospheres (NS) and nanocapsules (NC), with average intensity diameters (Dz) of 150–200 nm and 240–300 nm, respectively. Polymerization gravimetric conversions obtained for both cases were higher than 95% and encapsulation efficiencies greater than 69% and 90% for the nanospheres and nanocapsules, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Aug 2017 09:16:50 +000
  • Use of TBzTD as Noncarcinogenic Accelerator for ENR/SiO2 Nanocomposites:
           Cured Characteristics, Mechanical Properties, Thermal Behaviors, and Oil

    • Abstract: This study reported the use of tetrabenzylthiuram disulphide (TBzTD) as a noncarcinogenic accelerator in a traditional sulfur curing system of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR)/nanosilica (nSiO2) composites. ENR used in this work was synthesized via in situ epoxidation of natural rubber (NR) in the presence of performic acid generated from the reaction of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide at 50°C for 8 h to acquire the epoxide content of about 40 mol%. Accordingly, the resulting ENR was referred to as ENR 40. The curing characteristics, mechanical properties, thermal behaviors, dynamic mechanical properties, and oil resistance of ENR 40/nSiO2 nanocomposites filled with three loadings of nSiO2 (1, 2, and 3 parts per hundred parts of rubber) were investigated and compared with NR and neat ENR 40. The results revealed that the scorch and cure times of ENR 40/nSiO2 nanocomposites were slightly longer than those of NR but slightly shorter than those of ENR 40. The tensile properties and tear strength for both before and after aging of all ENR 40/nSiO2 nanocomposites were higher than those of ENR 40, while the glass transition temperature, storage modulus at −65°C, thermal stability, and oil resistance of ENR 40/nSiO2 nanocomposites were higher than those of NR and ENR 40.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 09:43:55 +000
  • Thermal Synthesis of Polypeptides from N-Butyloxycarbonyl Oligopeptides
           Containing Aspartyl Residue at C-Terminus

    • Abstract: The thermal reactions of amino acids have been investigated for pure organic synthesis, materials preparation in industry, and prebiotic chemistry. N-t-Butyloxycarbonyl aspartic acid (Boc-Asp) releases 2-butene and carbon dioxide upon heating without solvents. The resulting mixture of the free molten aspartic acid was dehydrated to give peptide bonds. This study describes the thermal reactions of N-t-butyloxycarbonyl peptides (Boc-Gly-L-Asp, Boc-L-Ala-L-Asp, Boc-L-Val-L-Asp, and Boc-Gly-Gly-L-Asp) having an aspartic residue at the carboxyl terminus. The peptides were deprotected upon heating at a constant temperature between 110 and 170°C for 1 to 24 h to afford polypeptides in which the average molecular weight reached 7800.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 06:42:56 +000
  • Effect of Surface Modification of Palygorskite on the Properties of
           Polypropylene/Polypropylene-g-Maleic Anhydride/Palygorskite Nanocomposites

    • Abstract: The effect of surface modification of palygorskite (Pal) on filler dispersion and on the mechanical and thermal properties of polypropylene (PP)/polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH)/palygorskite (Pal) nanocomposites was evaluated. A natural Pal mineral was purified and individually surface modified with hexadecyl tributyl phosphonium bromide and (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane; the pristine and modified Pals were melt-compounded with PP to produce nanocomposites using PP-g-MAH as compatibilizer. The grafting of Pal surface was verified by FT-IR and the change in surface hydrophilicity was estimated by the contact angle of sessile drops of ethylene glycol on Pal tablets. The extent of Pal dispersion and the degree of improvement in both the mechanical and thermal properties were related to the surface treatment of Pal. Modified Pals were better dispersed during melt processing and improved Young’s modulus and strength; however, maximum deformation tended to decrease. The thermal stability of PP/PP-g-MAH/Pal nanocomposites was considerably improved with the content of modified Pals. The degree of crystallinity increased with Pal content, regardless of the surface modification. Surfactant modified Pal exhibited better results in comparison with silane Pal; it is possible that longer alkyl chains from surfactant molecules promoted interactions with polymer chains, thereby improving nanofiller dispersion and enhancing the properties.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Facile Preparation of Biocomposite from Prawn Shell Derived Chitosan and
           Kaolinite-Rich Locally Available Clay

    • Abstract: A novel composite material was prepared from prawn shell derived chitosan (CHT) and locally available kaolinite-rich modified Bijoypur clay (MC) using a facile technique in which dilute acetic acid was used as a solvent for dissolving chitosan and composite fabrication whereas distilled water was used for preparing the clay dispersion. Bijoypur clay mainly consists of kaolinite clay mineral and it was modified with the dodecyl amine to make it organophilic. Morphology and properties of the composites (different weight ratio of MC and CHT) have been studied and compared with those of pure CHT and MC. Purification and modification of Bijoypur clay were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The fabrication of CHT-MC composites was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) were used to investigate the thermal stability of the composites. It was observed that dispersed clay improves the thermal stability and enhances the hardness of the matrix systematically with the increase of clay loading. In this study, a better insolubility in both acidic and alkaline media of the composites is also observed compared to pure chitosan.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Flexural Behaviour of RC Beams Strengthened with Prestressed CFRP NSM
           Tendon Using New Prestressing System

    • Abstract: CFRP has been used mainly for strengthening of existing structures in civil engineering area. Prestressed strengthening is being studied to solve the bond failure model featuring EBR and NSMR methods. The largest disadvantage of the prestressing system is that the system cannot be removed until the filler is cured. This problem lowers the turning rate of the equipment and makes it limited to experiment, which stresses the necessity of a new prestressing system. Therefore, the present study applies a new prestressing system which reliefs the need to wait until the curing of the filler after jacking to the prestressing of NSMR and examines the effect of the prestressing size and location of the anchorage on the strengthened behaviour. The experimental results show that the crack and yield loads increase with higher level of prestress, while the ductility tends to reduce, and the anchor plate should be installed within the effective depth to minimize the occurrence of shear-induced diagonal cracks. The comparison of the experimental results and results by section analysis shows that the section analysis could predict the maximum load of the specimens strengthened by prestressed NSMR within an error between 4% and 6%.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 10:46:55 +000
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