International Journal of Polymer Science
[SJR: 0.265] [H-I: 11] [23 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9422 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9430
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Effect of Quinacridone Pigments on Properties and Morphology of Injection
Molded Isotactic Polypropylene
Abstract: Two quinacridone pigments were added (0.01; 0.05; 0.1; 0.5; 1; 2 wt%) to isotactic polypropylene (iPP), and their influence on mechanical and thermomechanical properties were investigated. Complex mechanical and thermomechanical iPP properties analyses, including static tensile test, Dynstat impact resistance measurement, and hardness test, as well as dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA), were realized in reference to morphological changes of polymeric materials. In order to understand the differences in modification efficiency and changes in polymorphism of polypropylene matrix caused by incorporation of pigments, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments were done. Both pigments acted as highly effective nucleating agents that influence morphology and mechanical properties of isotactic polypropylene injection molded samples. Differences between polypropylene samples nucleated by two pigments may be attributed to different heterogeneous nucleation behavior dependent on pigment type. As it was proved by WAXS investigations, the addition of γ-quinacridone (E5B) led to crystallization of polypropylene in hexagonal phase (β-iPP), while for β-quinacridone (ER 02) modified polypropylene no evidence of iPP β-phase was observed.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Establishment of Passive Energy Conservation Measure and Economic
Evaluation of Fenestration System in Nonresidential Building of Korea
Abstract: ECO2 (building energy efficiency rating program) and passive energy conservation measures (ECMs) were established as a basic study for targeted methodologies and decision support systems development in Korea to meet national regulations. The primary energy consumption and economic evaluation of nonresidential buildings was performed. Passive ECMs were classified as planning and performance elements. The planning elements are the window-to-wall ratio (WWR) and horizontal shading angle. The performance elements are the thermal transmittance (U-value) of the walls, roof, and floor and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of windows. This study focused on the window-to-wall ratio and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient of windows. An economic efficiency database for the constructed alternatives was built; the target building was set and the Passive ECM List for the target building was derived. The energy consumption evaluation and economic evaluation were performed for each of the constructed alternatives, and a methodology for guiding energy efficiency decisions was proposed based on the performance evaluation results, and the optimal Passive ECM List for the target building was derived.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Effect of Oxygen and Initiator Solubility on Admicellar Polymerization of
Styrene on Silica Surfaces
Abstract: Although admicellar polymerization has been termed the surface analog of emulsion polymerization, previous reports utilizing free radical-initiated admicellar polymerization relied on high levels of the free radical initiator when compared to emulsion polymerization, likely due to the presence of oxygen in the reported admicellar polymerization systems. Admicellar polymerizations of styrene on the surface of precipitated silica initiated by either a water-soluble or a water-insoluble initiator were studied to determine the effect of dissolved oxygen and free radical initiator solubility on the kinetics, yield, and molecular weight of the polymer formed. Results show that the presence of oxygen reduces the polymer yield and limits molecular weight. The solubility of the initiator also affected the polymer formed in the admicellar polymerization of styrene. While monomer conversions and polymer yield were similar, the molecular weights of polymerizations initiated by a water-soluble initiator were higher than comparable polymerizations initiated by a water-insoluble initiator.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 07:34:27 +000
- A Novel Terpolymer as Fluid Loss Additive for Oil Well Cement
Abstract: A terpolymer comprised of sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS), fumaric acid (FA), and acrylamide (AM) was synthesized by aqueous free radical copolymerization and evaluated as fluid loss additive for oil well cement. The chemical structure and performance of the terpolymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA); the molecular weight and its distribution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The optimum reaction conditions of polymerization were obtained: a reaction temperature of 50°C, a mass ratio of SSS/FA/AM 4 : 2 : 14, initiator 0.1%, and reaction time of 4 h; characterization indicated that the SSS/FA/AM had a certain molecular weight and excellent temperature-resistant and salt-resistant properties. The results show that SSS/FA/AM has a good fluid loss performance, in which the API fluid loss of the oil cement slurry could be controlled within 100 mL at 160°C. In addition, it had little effect on the cement compressive strength. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the filter cake showed that SSS/FA/AM could be adsorbed on the surface of the cement particles and produce a hydrated layer to prevent fluid loss from the oil well cement.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 09:48:03 +000
- The Compatibilization Effects of Alkylated-grafted-Graphene Oxide on
Abstract: Modified graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by covalently grafted alkylated chains on GO sheets and their compatibilization effects on the morphologies and mechanical properties of immiscible polypropylene/polystyrene (PP/PS) blends were investigated. Alkylated-grafted-GO/PP/PS batches were fabricated by melt-mixing approach and displayed different morphologies with various modified GO loadings. When the content of alkylated-grafted-GO is 0.2 wt%, the tensile strength of obtained composite could reach 17.97 MPa, showing a 36.3% enhancement compared to that of pristine PP/PS, indicating the positive compatibilization of modified GO in polymer blends. Moreover, the mixing order also plays an important role in achieving the desired improvement in properties. Due to the preferential location of modified GO in PP phase, a favorable “transition zone” could be formed at the interfacial region of two polymers when alkylated-grafted-GO was premixed with PS and subsequently mixed with PP, leading to an improvement of compatibilization between two polymers and an enhancement of mechanical properties. However, serious phase separation and declined tensile strength were obtained with a reversed mixing sequence.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 07:51:37 +000
- Preparation of a Microporous Polyurethane Film with Negative Surface
Charge for siRNA Delivery via Stent
Abstract: Polyurethane (PU) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used to prepare a porous stent-covering material for the controlled delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Microporous polymer films were prepared using a blend of polyurethane and water-soluble polyethylene glycol by the solution casting method; the PEG component was extracted in water to make the film microporous. This film was dipped in 2% poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) solution to coat the polymer film with the anionic polyelectrolyte. The chemical components of the film surface were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and its structural morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of the negatively charged surface after attachment of a fluorescein isothiocyanate- (FITC-) labeled siRNA-polyethyleneimine complex onto the microporous polyurethane film and the controlled release of the complex from the film was investigated by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy showed the PU surface with intense fluorescence by the aggregates of the FITC-labeled-siRNA-PEI complex (measuring up to few microns in size); additionally, the negatively charged PU surface revealed broad and diffuse fluorescence. These results suggest that the construction of negatively charged microporous polyurethane films is feasible and could be applied for enhancing the efficiency of siRNA delivery via a stent-covering polyurethane film.
PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 08:52:02 +000
- Functional Polymers for Biointerface Engineering
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 13:36:16 +000
- Proposal of a PCM Underfloor Heating System Using a Web Construction
Abstract: Apartment buildings in Korea have adopted underfloor heating systems using web construction methods based on concrete and hot water systems. However, since such systems consume significant amounts of energy for heating owing to their low thermal storage performance, it is necessary to develop a new system that can minimize energy consumption by improving concrete thermal storage performance. This study proposes a phase-change material (PCM) underfloor heating system to reduce energy consumption in apartment buildings. An optimal design for a PCM underfloor heating system is proposed, and thermal storage performance of the proposed system is evaluated experimentally. The temperature range of the PCM for underfloor heating is also calculated considering the proposed design and comfortable heating conditions for domestic apartment buildings. Results indicate that a PCM underfloor heating system can be constructed in the following order: () a 210 mm concrete slab, () a 20 mm cushioning material, () 40 mm of mortar including a 10 mm PCM thermal storage container, and () 40 mm of finishing mortar including wire mesh and hot water pipes. The temperature range of the PCM used for underfloor heating in domestic apartment buildings is 32–45°C. Experimental tests reveal that thermal storage performance of underfloor heating systems that apply 35, 37, 41, and 44°C as representative PCM temperatures is superior to existing systems.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Polymeric Gas-Separation Membranes for Petroleum Refining
Abstract: Polymeric gas-separation membranes were commercialized 30 years ago. The interest on these systems is increasing because of the simplicity of concept and low-energy consumption. In the refinery, gas separation is needed in many processes such as natural gas treatment, carbon dioxide capture, hydrogen purification, and hydrocarbons separations. In these processes, the membranes have proven to be a potential candidate to replace the current conventional methods of amine scrubbing, pressure swing adsorption, and cryogenic distillation. In this paper, applications of polymeric membranes in the refinery are discussed by reviewing current materials and commercialized units. Economical evaluation of these membranes in comparison to traditional processes is also indicated.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Effect of Film-Forming Polymers on Release of Naftifine Hydrochloride from
Abstract: The successful topical therapy of onychomycosis depends on effective drug release and penetration into nail, which can be achieved by using an adequately developed delivery system. This study evaluated and compared effect of film-forming polymers Eudragit RL100, Eudragit RS100, and ethyl cellulose on naftifine hydrochloride release from experimental nail lacquer formulations. Quality of formulations was evaluated by determining drying time and water resistance. Interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredient and excipients were investigated using microcalorimetry and FT-IR. Optimization of nail lacquer formulations was performed by naftifine hydrochloride release testing. Release of naftifine hydrochloride increased with increasing concentration of Eudragit RL100. Plasticizer triacetin affected the release of naftifine hydrochloride, when Eudragit RS100 polymer was used. Ethyl cellulose polymer was determined to be not applicable for naftifine hydrochloride nail lacquer formulations. Two compositions of nail lacquers were optimized and could be used in further development of transungual delivery systems.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 09:52:54 +000
- (1→3)-α-d-Glucan from Fruiting Body and Mycelium of Cerrena unicolor
(Bull.) Murrill: Structural Characterization and Use as a Novel Inducer of
Abstract: Water-insoluble, alkali-soluble polysaccharide (marked as ASP) was extracted from the vegetative mycelium and fruiting body of Cerrena unicolor strain. Monosaccharide examination of ASP demonstrated that the isolated biopolymer was composed mainly of glucose, xylose, and mannose monomers. The methylation investigation of studied polymers indicated that (1→3)-linked -D-Glcp is the major chain constituent (92.2% for glucans isolated from fruiting body and 90.1% from mycelium). 1H NMR, FT-IR, and immunofluorescent labelling determinations confirmed that the polysaccharides isolated from both fruiting body and mycelium of . unicolor are (1→3)--D-glucans. The obtained (1→3)--D-glucans showed differences in viscosity and similar characteristics in optical rotations. (1→3)--D-Glucans extracted from mycelium and fruiting body of C. unicolor were also used as potential and specific inducers of mutanase synthesis by Trichoderma harzianum. The highest mutanase activity (0.38 U/mL) was obtained after induction of enzyme by (1→3)--D-glucan isolated from the mycelium of C. unicolor, and this biopolymer has been suggested as a new alternative to streptococcal mutan for the mutanase induction in T. harzianum. (1→3)--D-Glucan-induced mutanase showed high hydrolysis potential in reaction with dextranase-pretreated mutan, where maximal degree of saccharification and solubilization of this bacterial homoglucan (83.1% and 78.4%, resp.) was reached in 3 h at 45°C.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Study on Axial Compressive Capacity of FRP-Confined Concrete-Filled Steel
Tubes and Its Comparisons with Other Composite Structural Systems
Abstract: Concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns have been widely used for constructions in recent decades because of their high axial strength. In CFSTs, however, steel tubes are susceptible to degradation due to corrosion, which results in the decrease of axial strength of CFSTs. To further improve the axial strength of CFST columns, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets and basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sheets are applied to warp the CFSTs. This paper presents an experimental study on the axial compressive capacity of CFRP-confined CFSTs and BFRP-confined CFSTs, which verified the analytical model with considering the effect of concrete self-stressing. CFSTs wrapped with FRP exhibited a higher ductile behavior. Wrapping with CFRP and BFRP improves the axial compressive capacity of CFSTs by 61.4% and 17.7%, respectively. Compared with the previous composite structural systems of concrete-filled FRP tubes (CFFTs) and double-skin tubular columns (DSTCs), FRP-confined CFSTs were convenient in reinforcing existing structures because of softness of the FRP sheets. Moreover, axial compressive capacity of CFSTs wrapped with CFRP sheets was higher than CFFTs and DSTCs, while the compressive strength of DSTCs was higher than the retrofitted CFSTs.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Bioinspired Polyethersulfone Membrane Design via Blending with Functional
Abstract: Polyurethanes (PUs) are currently considered to be biocompatible materials but limited by a low resistance to thrombus. We therefore design a heparin-like PU (HLPU) to modify polyethersulfone (PES) membranes approaching integrated antifouling and antithrombotic properties by bioinspiration of heparin structure. Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-HLPU (PVP-HLPU) was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of VP using PU as a macroinitiator and then sulfonated by concentrated H2SO4. FTIR and NMR results demonstrated the successful synthesis of PVP-HLPU. By incorporation of PVP-HLPU, the cross-sectional structure of PES composite membranes altered from finger-like structure to sponge-like structure resulting in tunable permeability. The increased hydrophilicity verified by water contact angles benefited both the permeability and antifouling property. As a consequence, the composite membranes showed good blood compatibility, including decreased protein adsorption, suppressed platelet adhesion, lowered thrombin-antithrombin III generation, reduced complement activation, and prolonged clotting times. Interestingly, the PVP-capped HLPU showed better blood compatibility compared to polyethyleneglycol-capped and citric acid-capped HLPUs. The results demonstrated the enhanced antifouling and antithrombotic properties of PES hemodialysis membranes by the introduction of functional HLPUs. Also, the proposed method may forward the fabrication of hemocompatible membranes via bioinspired surface design.
PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Preparation and Properties of Composite PAN/PANI Membranes
Abstract: The methods of modifying PAN membranes have been known and used for many years. An interesting solution seems to be to give the sensory properties to this type of membranes. This paper presents the results of research on the method of obtaining PAN/PANI membranes using phase inversion method from a solution in DMF, following two methods: () dissolving both polymers (PAN and PANI) and then coagulating in water or in an aqueous solution of CSA and () forming the membranes from polyacrylonitrile solution and coagulation in water, followed by coating of CSA with a solution of TFE. The membranes obtained as a result of the experiment were tested for physical and chemical properties, transport properties, surface morphology, degree of dispersion of composite components, and sensitivity to the presence of dilute acids and bases. FTIR microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the surface morphology. The sensory properties of membranes that are inherently colored were determined visually and by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Furthermore, when choosing the method of membrane forming, we can obtain membranes with good physical and chemical and transport properties or ones characterized by high sensitivity to the pH of the solution.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Influence of Hydrophilic Polymers on the Factor in Weibull Equation
Applied to the Release Kinetics of a Biologically Active Complex of
Abstract: Triterpenoid saponins complex of biological origin, escin, exhibits significant clinical activity in chronic venous insufficiency, skin inflammation, epidermal abrasions, allergic dermatitis, and acute impact injuries, especially in topical application. The aim of the study is the comparison of various hydrogel formulations, as carriers for a horse chestnut seed extract (EH). Methylcellulose (MC), two polyacrylic acid derivatives (PA1 and PA2), and polyacrylate crosspolymer 11 (PC-11) were employed. The release rates of EH were examined and a comparison with the Weibull model equation was performed. Application of MC as the carrier in the hydrogel preparation resulted in fast release rate of EH, whereas in the case of the hydrogel composed with PC-11 the release was rather prolonged. Applied Weibull function adhered best to the experimental data. Due to the evaluated shape parameter β, in the Weibull equation, the systems under study released the active compound according to the Fickian diffusion.
PubDate: Sun, 29 Jan 2017 12:44:45 +000
- Preparation of High Modulus Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate): Influence of
Molecular Weight, Extrusion, and Drawing Parameters
Abstract: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) which is one of the most commercially important polymers, has for many years been an interesting candidate for the production of high performance fibres and tapes. In current study, we focus on investigating the effects of the various processing variables on the mechanical properties of PET produced by a distinctive process of melt spinning and uniaxial two-stage solid-state drawing (SSD). These processing variables include screw rotation speed during extrusion, fibre take-up speed, molecular weight, draw-ratio, and drawing temperature. As-spun PET production using a single-screw extrusion process was first optimized to induce an optimal polymer microstructure for subsequent drawing processes. It was found that less crystallization which occurred during this process would lead to better drawability, higher draw-ratio, and mechanical properties in the subsequent SSD process. Then the effect of drawing temperature (DT) in uniaxial two-stage SSD process was studied to understand how DT (< or close to or close to ) would affect the crystallization, draw-ratio, and final mechanical properties of PET. The designed process in current work is simulated to an industrial production process for PET fibres; therefore, results and analysis in this paper have significant importance for industrial production.
PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Fabrication and Assessment of ZnO Modified Polyethersulfone Membranes for
Fouling Reduction of Bovine Serum Albumin
Abstract: ZnO/PES composite membranes were fabricated by phase inversion method using DMAc as a solvent. The structure of ZnO was investigated using TEM, SEM, XRD, and TGA. TEM images of ZnO nanoparticles were well-defined, small, and spherically shaped with agglomerated nanoparticles particles of 50 nm. The SEM and XRD results were an indication that ZnO nanoparticles were present in the prepared ZnO/PES composites membranes. Contact angle measurements were used to investigate surface structures of the composite membranes. The amount of ZnO nanoparticles on PES membranes was varied to obtain the optimal performance of the composite membranes in terms of pure water flux, flux recovery, and fouling resistance using the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model organic foulant. The results showed that addition of ZnO to PES membranes improved the hydrophilicity, permeation, and fouling resistance properties of the membranes. Pure water flux increased from a low of 250 L/m2h for the neat membrane to a high of 410 L/m2h for the composite membranes. A high flux recovery of 80–94% was obtained for the composite membranes. The optimal performance of the composite membranes was obtained at 1.5 wt% of ZnO.
PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Combined Effects of Curing Temperatures and Alkaline Concrete on Tensile
Properties of GFRP Bars
Abstract: A significant number of studies have been conducted on the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under different environments. However, most of these studies have been experimentally based on the environmental immersion test after standard-curing and the lack of influence on the tensile properties of GFRP bars embedded in concrete during the curing process of concrete. This paper presents the results of the microscopic structures through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile properties of GFRP bars, which were employed to investigate the combined effects of curing temperatures and alkaline concrete on tensile properties of GFRP bars. The results showed that the higher curing temperature aggravated the influence of the alkaline concrete environment on GFRP bars but did not change the mechanisms of mechanical degradation of the GFRP bars. The influence of different curing temperatures on the tensile strength of GFRP bars was different between the bare bar and bars in concrete. Finally, the exponential correlation equation of two different test methods was established, and the attenuation ratio of the tensile strength of GFRP bars embedded in concrete under different curing temperatures was predicted by the bare test.
PubDate: Thu, 19 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Empirical Validation of Heat Transfer Performance Simulation of
Graphite/PCM Concrete Materials for Thermally Activated Building System
Abstract: To increase the heat capacity in lightweight construction materials, a phase change material (PCM) can be introduced to building elements. A thermally activated building system (TABS) with graphite/PCM concrete hollow core slab is suggested as an energy-efficient technology to shift and reduce the peak thermal load in buildings. An evaluation of heat storage and dissipation characteristics of TABS in graphite/PCM concrete has been conducted using dynamic simulations, but empirical validation is necessary to acceptably predict the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete. This study aimed to validate the thermal behavior of graphite/PCM concrete through a three-dimensional transient heat transfer simulation. The simulation results were compared to experimental results from previous studies of concrete and graphite/PCM concrete. The overall thermal behavior for both materials was found to be similar to experiment results. Limitations in the simulation modeling, which included determination of the indoor heat transfer coefficient, assumption of constant thermal conductivity with temperature, and assumption of specimen homogeneity, led to slight differences between the measured and simulated results.
PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 08:10:59 +000
- The Use of Biodiesel Residues for Heat Insulating Biobased Polyurethane
Abstract: The commercial and biobased polyurethane foams (PUF) were produced and characterized in this study. Commercial polyether polyol, crude glycerol, methanol-free crude glycerol, and pure glycerol were used as polyols. Crude glycerol is byproduct of the biodiesel production, and it is a kind of biofuel residue. Polyol blends were prepared by mixing the glycerol types and the commercial polyol with different amounts, 10 wt%, 30 wt%, 50 wt%, and 80 wt%. All types of polyol blends were reacted with polymeric diphenyl methane diisocyanates (PMDI) for the production of rigid foams. Thermal properties of polyurethane foams are examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity tests. The structures of polyurethane foams were examined by Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Changes in morphology of foams were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of polyurethane foams were determined by compression tests. This study identifies the critical aspects of polyurethane foam formation by the use of various polyols and furthermore offers new uses of crude glycerol and methanol-free crude glycerol which are byproducts of biodiesel industry.
PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 07:08:11 +000
- Bond-Slip Models for FPR-Concrete Interfaces Subjected to Moisture
Abstract: Environmental related durability issues have been of great concerns in the structures strengthened with the fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs). In marine environment, moisture is one of the dominant factors that adversely affect the material properties and the bond interfaces. Several short-term and long-term laboratory experimental investigations have been conducted to study such behaviors but, still, there are insufficient constitutive bond models which could incorporate moisture exposure conditions. This paper proposed a very simple approach in determining the nonlinear bond-slip models for the FRP-concrete interface considering the effect of moisture conditions. The proposed models are based on the strain results of the experimental investigation conducted by the authors using 6 different commercial FRP systems exposed to the moisture conditions for the maximum period of 18 months. The exposure effect in the moisture conditions seems to have great dependency on the FRP system. Based on the contrasting differences in the results under moisture conditions, separate bond-slip models have been proposed for the wet-layup FRP and prefabricated FRP systems. As for the verification of the proposed model under moisture conditions, predicted pull-out load was compared with the experimental pull-out load. The results showed good agreement for all the FRP systems under investigation.
PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- MG-63 Cell Proliferation with Static or Dynamic Compressive Stimulation on
an Auxetic PLGA Scaffold
Abstract: The effect of dynamic compressive stimulation on MG-63 cell proliferation on an auxetic PLGA scaffold was investigated. The estimated Poisson ratio of the prepared auxetic scaffold specimens was approximately (−)0.07, while the Poisson ratio estimated for conventional scaffold specimens was (+)0.12 under 10% strain compression on average. Three stimulus groups were examined: control (no stimulation), static compression, and dynamic compression. In preparation for proliferation testing, cells were seeded at 2.2 × 105 cells/80 μL on each scaffold specimen. The average proliferation rates of the static and dynamic groups were higher than those of the control group: 13.4% and 25.5% higher at culture day 1, 34.7% and 56.2% at culture day 3, and 17.5% and 43.0% at culture day 5, respectively. The static and dynamic group results at culture day 5 were significantly different (). Moreover, proliferation rate of the dynamic stimulation group was 1.22 times higher than that of the static group (). Conclusively, proliferation of osteoblast-like cells was enhanced through compressive stimulation, but the enhancement was maximal with dynamic compressive stimulation of auxetic scaffolds.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Jan 2017 11:04:48 +000
- Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of RC Beams Strengthened with CFRP
under High Temperature and High Humidity Environment
Abstract: Numerical and experimental methods were applied to investigate fatigue crack propagation behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with a new type carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) named as carbon fiber laminate (CFL) subjected to hot-wet environment. -integral of a central crack in the strengthened beam under three-point bending load was calculated by ABAQUS. In finite element model, simulation of CFL-concrete interface was based on the bilinear cohesive zone model under hot-wet environment and indoor atmosphere. And, then, fatigue crack propagation tests were carried out under high temperature and high humidity (50°C, 95% R · H) environment pretreatment and indoor atmosphere (23°C, 78% R · H) to obtain curves and crack propagation rate, , of the strengthened beams. Paris-Erdogan formula was developed based on the numerical analysis and environmental fatigue tests.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Antibacterial Activity and Physical Properties of Fish Gelatin-Chitosan
Edible Films Supplemented with D-Limonene
Abstract: Fish gelatin-chitosan edible films with D-limonene were successfully prepared, which exhibited exceptional mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity. It has been demonstrated that water-soluble chitosan, fish gelatin, and D-limonene could be a candidate precursor to prepare low cost and high-performance edible food packaging material. The results showed that D-limonene in the films could effectively resist the penetration of light and water because of its hydrophobicity. Moreover, the elongation at break (EAB) increased with the addition of D-limonene, which indicated that D-limonene served as a strong plasticizer for the film. Microscopic characterization showed that D-limonene was uniformly distributed in the as-prepared film. And we found that the film exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli). All the results indicate that the as-prepared film could be a promising food packaging.
PubDate: Thu, 12 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Effects of pH on the Shape of Alginate Particles and Its Release Behavior
Abstract: A vast majority of alginate particles exist as spheres in most practical uses, and both the particle shape and size are the key factors dominating the applications and performance of alginate gels. Therefore, it becomes an issue of great interest to investigate the aspheric alginate particles. As the first step, various shaped alginate particles were formed due to various pH values in gelation solutions. It was experimentally demonstrated that a low pH brought about an oblate shape, and particularly lower concentrations of both alginate and divalent cations resulted in a flattened oblate shape. Ba2+ acting as a cross-linker had a less impact on the particle shape than Ca2+ due to a higher affinity in alginate intermolecular cross-linking. With a larger surface area, an oblate particle offered a higher release rate than a spheric one.
PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2017 13:42:15 +000
- A Study on the Effectiveness of the Horizontal Shading Device Installation
for Passive Control of Buildings in South Korea
Abstract: In South Korea, the evaluation criteria for installing shading devices are defined by regulations, but the standards of design methods are not clearly established. The installation of shading devices has become mandatory for some public buildings due to revised regulations. Therefore, a design of horizontal shading device is required, and indoor environmental problems which may occur due to their installation should also be taken into consideration. This research aimed to propose a design which takes into account the energy consumption which may occur if the horizontal shading device is installed and suggests an improved design method of horizontal shading devices when they are installed. Consequently, it was confirmed that as the protrusion of the horizontal shading device becomes longer, the incoming daylight is reduced and the indoor intensity of illumination becomes lower, and thus more lighting energy may be consumed in a room where the shading device is installed than in the one where it is not. Therefore, annual energy consumption was calculated by applying the lighting control and it was found that the total energy consumption decreased by the reduction of air-conditioning and fans and lighting energy consumption.
PubDate: Mon, 09 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Mechanical Properties of Steel-FRP Composite Bars under Tensile and
Abstract: The factory-produced steel-fiber reinforced polymer composite bar (SFCB) is a new kind of reinforcement for concrete structures. The manufacturing technology of SFCB is presented based on a large number of handmade specimens. The calculated stress-strain curves of ordinary steel bar and SFCB under repeated tensile loading agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The energy-dissipation capacity and residual strain of both steel bar and SFCB were analyzed. Based on the good simulation results of ordinary steel bar and FRP bar under compressive loading, the compressive behavior of SFCB under monotonic loading was studied using the principle of equivalent flexural rigidity. There are three failure modes of SFCB under compressive loading: elastic buckling, postyield buckling, and no buckling (ultimate compressive strength is reached). The increase in the postyield stiffness of SFCB can delay the postyield buckling of SFCB with a large length-to-diameter ratio, and an empirical equation for the relationship between the postbuckling stress and is suggested, which can be used for the design of concrete structures reinforced by SFCB to consider the effect of reinforcement buckling.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 11:38:28 +000
- Absorbed Pb2+ and Cd2+ Ions in Water by Cross-Linked Starch Xanthate
Abstract: A cross-linked starch xanthate was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and sodium acrylate onto starch xanthate using potassium persulfate and sodium hydrogen sulfite initiating system and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. As this kind of cross-linked potato starch xanthate can effectively absorb heavy metal ions, it was dispersed in aqueous solutions of divalent heavy metal ions (Pb2+ and Cd2+) to investigate their absorbency by the polymer. Factors that can influence absorbency were investigated, such as the ratio of matrix to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, pH, and the concentration of metal ions. Results were reached and conclusion was drawn that the best synthetic conditions for the polymer adsorbing Pb2+ and Cd2+ were as follows: the quality ratio of matrix to monomers was 1 : 12 and 1 : 11, the amount of initiator was 2.4% and 3.2% of matrix, and the amount of cross-linker was 12 mg and 13 mg. When the initial concentration of ions was 10 mg/L, the highest quantities of adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 47.11 mg/g and 36.55 mg/g. Adsorption mechanism was discussed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) test, and adsorption kinetic simulation.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 07:53:53 +000
- Effects of α-ZrP on Crystallinity and Flame-Retardant Behaviors of
Abstract: Novel flame-retardant Polyamide6/Melamine cyanurate-alpha-zirconium phosphate (PA6/MCA-α-ZrP) composites were prepared via the incorporation of the modified MCA (MCA-α-ZrP) into PA6. MCA-α-ZrP were synthesized through the self-assembly of α-ZrP, Melamine (ME), and cyanuric acid (CA) molecules. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the incorporation of enough α-ZrP (30 wt% MCA) caused the increased crystallinity of PA6 and tended to form phase. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and heat distortion temperature (HDT) test illustrated that the α-ZrP could increase the residue and HDT values of PA6/MCA and showed a synergistic effect with MCA. The combination of MCA and α-ZrP caused the enhancement of vertical burning test (UL-94) rating. Cone calorimeter test (CCT) gave clear evidences that PA6/MCA-10α-ZrP composites with low heat release rate (HRR), low total heat release (THR), and high amounts of char residues after combustion compared with PA6/MCA and PA6/MCA-30α-ZrP. What is more, excellent mechanical properties were kept even though MCA and α-ZrP were dispersed not as good as expected.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Microwave Irradiation Assisted Preparation of Chitosan Composite
Microsphere for Dye Adsorption
Abstract: Chitosan-activated carbon composite microspheres were prepared by emulsion cross-linking method and its adsorption properties for methyl orange were studied. Chitosan solution was mixed with activated carbon powder and then chitosan was cross-linked by epichlorohydrin under microwave irradiation. SEM photos show that the composite microspheres have diameters of 200–400 μm and activated carbon powder dispersed on the surface of composite microsphere. FTIR spectrum indicates chitosan is successfully cross-linked. Microwave irradiation can effectively shorten the cross-linking time. Composite microspheres have enhanced dye adsorption capacity for methyl orange compared to chitosan microspheres. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model. Isotherm studies show that the isotherm adsorption equilibrium is better described by Freundlich isotherm. Regeneration results show that adsorption capacity of composite microsphere decreased about 5.51% after being reused for three times. These results indicated that chitosan-activated carbon composite microsphere has potential application in the removal of dye from wastewaters.
PubDate: Mon, 02 Jan 2017 12:28:22 +000