International Journal of Peptides
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9767 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9775
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- A Synthetic Strategy for Conjugation of Paromomycin to Cell-Penetrating
Tat(48-60) for Delivery and Visualization into Leishmania Parasites
Abstract: A successful approach to deliver paromomycin, a poorly absorbed aminoglycoside antibiotic, to parasite cells is reported, based on selective protection of amino and hydroxyl groups followed by conjugation to a fluorolabeled, PEG-functionalized cell-penetrating Tat(48-60) peptide. The resulting construct is efficiently internalized into Leishmania cells, evidencing the fitness of cell-penetrating peptides as vectors for efficiently transporting low-bioavailability drugs into cells.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Feb 2017 12:13:36 +000
- Amyloid β Peptide-Induced Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Activity and Its
Response to Hippocampal Input
Abstract: Alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function and abnormalities in its interactions with other brain areas (i.e., the hippocampus) have been related to Alzheimer Disease (AD). Considering that these malfunctions correlate with the increase in the brain’s amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide production, here we looked for a causal relationship between these pathognomonic signs of AD. Thus, we tested whether or not Aβ affects the activity of the PFC network and the activation of this cortex by hippocampal input stimulation in vitro. We found that Aβ application to brain slices inhibits PFC spontaneous network activity as well as PFC activation, both at the population and at the single-cell level, when the hippocampal input is stimulated. Our data suggest that Aβ can contribute to AD by disrupting PFC activity and its long-range interactions throughout the brain.
PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 07:28:49 +000
- Mystixin-7 Peptide Protects Ionotropic Glutamatergic Mechanisms against
Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity In Vitro
Abstract: Hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes glutamate excitotoxicity, a process potentially important for many neurological diseases. This study aims to investigate protective effects of the synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide, mystixin-7 (MTX), on model glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. The technique online monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPAR) and NMDAR-dependent postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices was used. Application of L-glutamate in toxic concentration (20 mM) on slices evoked hyperactivation of NMDARs and weaker activation of the AMPARs. Upon further action agonist, the excessive activation of glutamate receptors was replaced by their irreversible blockade. Pretreatment of the slices using MTX in different concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) protected both NMDARs and AMPARs from glutamate-induced damage. An enzymatic treatment of MTX reduced hyperactivation of both NMDARs and AMPARs. The present study demonstrated that MTX minipeptide protected the functioning of both NMDARs and AMPARs against glutamate-induced damage. The MTX peptide is a prospective candidate for elaborated medication in treatment of neurological diseases.
PubDate: Mon, 18 Jul 2016 08:17:02 +000
- Netrin-1 Peptide Is a Chemorepellent in Tetrahymena thermophila
Abstract: Netrin-1 is a highly conserved, pleiotropic signaling molecule that can serve as a neuronal chemorepellent during vertebrate development. In vertebrates, chemorepellent signaling is mediated through the tyrosine kinase, src-1, and the tyrosine phosphatase, shp-2. Tetrahymena thermophila has been used as a model system for chemorepellent signaling because its avoidance response is easily characterized under a light microscope. Our experiments showed that netrin-1 peptide is a chemorepellent in T. thermophila at micromolar concentrations. T. thermophila adapts to netrin-1 over a time course of about 10 minutes. Netrin-adapted cells still avoid GTP, PACAP-38, and nociceptin, suggesting that netrin does not use the same signaling machinery as any of these other repellents. Avoidance of netrin-1 peptide was effectively eliminated by the addition of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, to the assay buffer; however, immunostaining using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody showed similar fluorescence levels in control and netrin-1 exposed cells, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation is not required for signaling to occur. In addition, ELISA indicates that a netrin-like peptide is present in both whole cell extract and secreted protein obtained from Tetrahymena thermophila. Further study will be required in order to fully elucidate the signaling mechanism of netrin-1 peptide in this organism.
PubDate: Thu, 31 Mar 2016 12:57:01 +000
- The Dipeptides Ile-Tyr and Ser-Tyr Exert Distinct Effects on Catecholamine
Metabolism in the Mouse Brainstem
Abstract: Catecholamine synthesis and transmission in the brain are influenced by the availability of Tyr in the body. In this study, we compared the effects of oral administration of Tyr-containing dipeptides Ile-Tyr, Ser-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro with Tyr alone on catecholamine metabolism in the mouse brainstem. Among these dipeptides, Ile-Tyr administration led to increases in dopamine, the dopamine metabolites homovanillic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, compared to administration of Ser-Tyr, Tyr-Pro, or Tyr alone. In comparison, administration of Ser-Tyr induced significantly increasing noradrenaline turnover, while Tyr-Pro administration suppressed dopamine turnover. Therefore, oral administration of Ile-Tyr, Ser-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro differentially affected metabolism of dopamine and noradrenaline. These observations strongly suggest that Tyr-containing dipeptides exert distinct effects on catecholamine metabolism in the brainstem when ingested orally.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Feb 2016 12:12:32 +000
- High Proteolytic Resistance of Spider-Derived Inhibitor Cystine Knots
Abstract: Proteolytic stability in gastrointestinal tract and blood plasma is the major obstacle for oral peptide drug development. Inhibitor cystine knots (ICKs) are linear cystine knot peptides which have multifunctional properties and could become promising drug scaffolds. ProTx-I, ProTx-II, GTx1-15, and GsMTx-4 were spider-derived ICKs and incubated with pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase in physiological conditions to find that all tested peptides were resistant to pepsin, and ProTx-II, GsMTx-4, and GTx1-15 showed resistance to all tested proteases. Also, no ProTx-II degradation was observed in rat blood plasma for 24 hours in vitro and ProTx-II concentration in circulation decreased to half in 40 min, indicating absolute stability in plasma and fast clearance from the system. So far, linear peptides are generally thought to be unsuitable in vivo, but all tested ICKs were not degraded by pepsin and stomach could be selected for the alternative site of drug absorption for fast onset of the drug action. Since spider ICKs are selective inhibitors of various ion channels which are related to the pathology of many diseases, engineered ICKs will make a novel class of peptide medicines which can treat variety of bothering symptoms.
PubDate: Wed, 30 Dec 2015 11:22:18 +000
- Peptide-Induced Amyloid-Like Conformational Transitions in Proteins
Abstract: Changes in protein conformation can occur both as part of normal protein functioning and during disease pathogenesis. The most common conformational diseases are amyloidoses. Sometimes the development of a number of diseases which are not traditionally related to amyloidoses is associated with amyloid-like conformational transitions of proteins. Also, amyloid-like aggregates take part in normal physiological processes such as memorization and cell signaling. Several primary structural features of a protein are involved in conformational transitions. Also the protein proteolytic fragments can cause the conformational transitions in the protein. Short peptides which could be produced during the protein life cycle or which are encoded by short open reading frames can affect the protein conformation and function.
PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2015 07:56:39 +000
- Proteins of Bartonella bacilliformis: Candidates for Vaccine Development
Abstract: Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrión’s disease or Oroya fever. B. bacilliformis infection represents an interesting model of human host specificity. The notable differences in clinical presentations of Carrión’s disease suggest complex adaptations by the bacterium to the human host, with the overall objectives of persistence, maintenance of a reservoir state for vectorial transmission, and immune evasion. These events include a multitude of biochemical and genetic mechanisms involving both bacterial and host proteins. This review focuses on proteins involved in interactions between B. bacilliformis and the human host. Some of them (e.g., flagellin, Brps, IalB, FtsZ, Hbp/Pap31, and other outer membrane proteins) are potential protein antigen candidates for a synthetic vaccine.
PubDate: Sun, 30 Aug 2015 13:24:29 +000
- Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1,
ET-2, and ET-3
Abstract: Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples ( males; age 18–63) by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; , ), endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; , ), endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; , ), and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; , ). Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma () and saliva (), whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles); individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Apr 2015 06:54:53 +000
- In Silico Conformational Analysis of the Short-Sequence Hypomurocin A
Abstract: In this theoretical study, a conformational analysis was performed on short-sequence hypomurocin A peptides, in order to identify their characteristic structural properties. For each hypomurocin A molecule, not only the backbone conformations, but also the side-chain conformations were examined. The results indicated that certain tetrapeptide units could be characterized by types I and III β-turn structures, and considering the helical conformations, it could be concluded that the hypomurocin A peptides showed a preference for the 310-helical structure over the α-helical structure. Beside the backbone conformations, the side-chain conformations were investigated, and the preferred rotamer states of the side-chains of amino acids were determined. Furthermore, the occurrence of and intramolecular H-bonds was studied, which could play a role in the structural stabilization of β-turns and helical conformations. On the whole, our theoretical study supplied a comprehensive characterization of the three-dimensional structure of short-sequence hypomurocin A peptides.
PubDate: Wed, 28 Jan 2015 09:43:17 +000
- Epithelial Antimicrobial Peptides: Guardian of the Oral Cavity
Abstract: Gingival epithelium provides first line of defence from the microorganisms present in dental plaque. It not only provides a mechanical barrier but also has an active immune function too. Gingival epithelial cells participate in innate immunity by producing a range of antimicrobial peptides to protect the host against oral pathogens. These epithelial antimicrobial peptides (EAPs) include the β-defensin family, cathelicidin (LL-37), calprotectin, and adrenomedullin. While some are constitutively expressed in gingival epithelial cells, others are induced upon exposure to microbial insults. It is likely that these EAPs have a role in determining the initiation and progression of oral diseases. EAPs are broad spectrum antimicrobials with a different but overlapping range of activity. Apart from antimicrobial activity, they participate in several other crucial roles in host tissues. Some of these, for instance, β-defensins, are chemotactic to immune cells. Others, such as calprotectin are important for wound healing and cell proliferation. Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional peptide, has its biological action in a wide range of tissues. Not only is it a potent vasodilator but also it has several endocrine effects. Knowing in detail the various bioactions of these EAPs may provide us with useful information regarding their utility as therapeutic agents.
PubDate: Tue, 11 Nov 2014 07:46:40 +000
- Cationic Bioactive Peptide from the Seeds of Benincasa hispida
Abstract: A designated bioactive peptide “Hispidalin” purified from the seeds of Benincasa hispida, which is a medicinal plant, belongs to Cucurbitaceae family. Purification was achieved by using a procedure consisting of extraction from potassium phosphate buffer followed by FPLC and HPLC steps. Based on amino acid residue, this peptide is amphipathic and basic with one net positive charge having isoelectric pH 8.1. This peptide is without sulphur containing amino acid suggesting its extended conformation lacking double bond secondary structure. The results obtained from MALDI-TOF suggested that Hispidalin is of molecular mass 5.7 KDa with 49 amino acid residues and confirmed SDS-PAGE resolved ∼6.0 KDa protein band. This novel and unknown peptide “Hispidalin” showed broad and potent inhibitory effects against various human bacterial and fungal pathogens; its growth inhibition was significantly comparable with commercial antibacterial and antifungal drugs. The Hispidalin at 40 μg/mL concentration exhibited 70.8% DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and 69.5% lipid peroxide inhibition. Thus, in the present study, Hispidalin demonstrated remarkable antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials from the seeds of B. hispida.
PubDate: Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:07:35 +000
- Recombinant Human Trefoil Factor 3 Ameliorates Bowel Injury: Its
Anti-Inflammatory Effect on Experimental Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Abstract: Aim. Recombinant human trefoil factor 3 (intestinal trefoil factor) has been suggested to be partially protective against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but the mechanisms of this protection have not been defined. We investigated whether the protective effects of rhTFF3 are the result of an anti-inflammatory response. Methods. The rats were killed on day 4, the distal ileum was harvested for morphological studies and immunohistochemistry for NF-κB (p65), and the amounts of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in the intestinal tissue were measured using commercial ELISA assay kits. Results. In the neonatal NEC, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher than in normal group. In normal group, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased, and the amount of IL-10 was markedly increased compared with NEC group. In the NEC model, immunohistochemical staining for NF-κB (p65) was demonstrated to be of a strong brown color and was distributed in the intestinal epithelium. Treatment with rhTFF3 significantly decreased the immunoreactivity of NF-κB (p65) in the NEC model. Conclusions. Intestinal inflammation was ameliorated after rhTFF3 was injected. rhTFF3 may protect against the intestinal injury of the neonatal rat NEC model by suppression of the inflammatory response.
PubDate: Wed, 12 Feb 2014 07:54:49 +000