Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 50, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 80, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 235)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Pediatrics
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9740 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9759
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Admissions for COVID-19: Insights Using
           State-Level Data

    • Abstract: Introduction. Intensive care has played a pivotal role during the COVID-19 pandemic as many patients developed severe pulmonary complications. The availability of information in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) remains limited. The purpose of this study is to characterize COVID-19 positive admissions (CPAs) in the United States and to determine factors that may impact those admissions. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the COVID-19 Virtual Pediatric System (VPS) dashboard containing information regarding respiratory support and comorbidities for all CPAs between March and April 2020. The state-level data contained 13 different factors from population density, comorbid conditions, and social distancing score. The absolute CPA count was converted to frequency using the state’s population. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between CPA frequency and admission endpoints. Results. A total of 205 CPAs were reported by 167 PICUs across 48 states. The estimated CPA frequency was 2.8 per million children in a one-month period. A total of 3,235 tests were conducted of which 6.3% were positive. Children above 11 years of age comprised 69.7% of the total cohort and 35.1% had moderated or severe comorbidities. The median duration of a CPA was 4.9 days (1.25–12.00 days). Out of the 1,132 total CPA days, 592 (52.2%) involved mechanical ventilation. The inpatient mortalities were 3 (1.4%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated an association between CPAs with greater population density (beta coefficient 0.01, ). Multivariate analyses also demonstrated an association between pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus with increased CPA duration requiring advanced respiratory support (beta coefficient 5.1, ) and intubation (beta coefficient 4.6, ).Conclusions. Inpatient mortality during PICU CPAs is relatively low at 1.4%. CPA frequency seems to be impacted by population density. Type 1 DM appears to be associated with increased duration of HFNC and intubation. These factors should be included in future studies using patient-level data.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 13:20:01 +000
  • Time to Relapse and Its Predictors among Children with Nephrotic Syndrome
           in Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019

    • Abstract: Background. Relapse in children with nephrotic syndrome leads to a variety of complications due to prolonged treatment and potential dependency on steroids. However, there is no study conducted to determine the incidence and predictive factors of relapse for nephrotic syndrome in Ethiopia, especially in children. Thus, this study aimed to assess the incidence of relapse and its predictors among children with nephrotic syndrome in Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing all charts of children with an initial diagnosis of the nephrotic syndrome in tertiary hospitals from 2011 to 2018. Charts of children with a diagnosis of steroid-resistant cases were excluded. The extraction tool was used for data collection, Epi-data manager V-4.4.2 for data entry, and Stata V-14 for cleaning and analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve, log-rank test, life table, and crude hazard ratios were used to describe the data and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% CI and value for analysis. Median relapse time, incidence rate of relapse, and cumulative relapse probabilities at a certain time interval were computed. Bivariable and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression to identify the factors associated with relapse. Any variable at in the bivariable analysis was transferred to multivariate analysis. Then, the adjusted hazard ratio with 95% CI and was used to report the association and to test the statistical significance, respectively. Finally, texts, tables, and graphs were used to present the results. Results and Conclusion. Majority, 64.5% (40/66), of relapses were recorded in the first 12 months of follow-up. The incidence rate of relapse was 42.6 per 1000 child-month-observations with an overall 1454 child-month-observations and the median relapse time of 16 months. Having undernutrition [; 95% CI 1.78-6.65], elevated triglyceride [; 95% CI 1.04-10.90], decreased serum albumin level [; 95% CI 1.81-6.80], and rural residence [; 95% CI 1.49-10.76] increased the hazard of relapse. Conclusion and Recommendation. Relapse was higher in the first year of the follow-up period. Undernutrition, hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and being from rural areas were independent predictors of relapse. A focused evaluation of those predictors during the initial diagnosis of the disease is compulsory.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 07:20:01 +000
  • Propionic and Methylmalonic Acidemias: Initial Clinical and Biochemical

    • Abstract: PA and MAA have numerous nonspecific presentations, potentially leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. In this paper, we present the clinical and biochemical characteristics of MMA and PA patients at initial presentation. Results. This is a retrospective review of 20 patients with PA () and MMA (). The most observed symptoms were vomiting (85%) and refusing feeding (70%). Ammonia was  μmol/l, showing a negative correlation with pH and bicarbonate and positive correlation with lactate and anion gap. Peak ammonia did not correlate with age of onset ( and ) or age at diagnosis ( and ), nor did pH (,;,) or bicarbonate (,;,). There was no correlation between ammonia and C3 : C2 ( and ) or C3 ( and ). The glycine was  μmol/l, and it was higher in PA (). There was a positive correlation between glycine and both pH ( and ) and HCO3 ( and ). There was no correlation between glycine and ammonia ( and ) or lactate ( and ).Conclusion. Clinical presentation of PA and MMA is nonspecific, though vomiting and refusing feeding are potential markers of decompensation. Blood gas, lactate, and ammonia levels are also good predictors of decompensation, though increasing levels of glycine may not indicate metabolic instability.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 13:05:01 +000
  • Clinical and Epidemiological Determinants of Lower Respiratory Tract
           Infections in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the main cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries. Purpose. This study was carried out to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with LRTI. Method. A retrospective study was conducted on all pediatric patients who were hospitalized due to LRTI in Abuzar Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran) during one year. Incomplete medical records and children who were treated on an outpatient basis, as well as infants younger than 1 month of age, were excluded. The patients were evaluated in terms of epidemiological, clinical, and paraclinical characteristics. Results. A total of 303 hospitalized children and infants were identified. Their mean age was months (range 1 month-15 years), and 59.4% of them were males. The highest frequency of patients was at the age below one year (50.8%, ). Pneumonia and bronchitis were the most common LRTIs. Respiratory (54.6%) and neurological (21.6%) diseases were the most prevalent underlying medical conditions. Admission was more common in winter (, 39.6%) and spring (, 26.1%). The mean length of stay (LOS) in the hospital was days, and the overall mortality rate was 11.6%. In addition, 65 patients were severely underweight and 271 patients were malnourished. Moreover, there was a significant association between mortality and disease diagnosis (). Furthermore, there was a significant association between having an underlying disease and consanguineous parents (), as well as the frequency of hospitalization ().Conclusion. Additional studies are required to determine factors contributing to disease severity among children with LRTI to develop appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 14:35:02 +000
  • Child Night Blindness and Bitot’s Spots Are Public Health Problems in
           Lay Armachiho District, Central Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019: A
           Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Night blindness (XN) is a condition in which a person cannot see in dim light and is the earliest clinical manifestation of vitamin A deficiency. Globally, vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in 122 countries, of which 45 countries have moderate to severe child night blindness. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of night blindness and Bitot’s spot among children aged 24-59 months. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed from February to March 2019 among children aged 24-59 months in the Lay Armachiho District, Amhara region. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive summary statistics were used to describe the study population. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify associated factors. Results. Out of 1007 children, 1.9% and 2.2% had night blindness and Bitot’s spot, respectively. Illiterate mothers (;), age of 48 to 59 months (;), ≥4 family sizes (;), had diarrhea (;), and had a respiratory tract infection (;) were significantly associated with night blindness. Age of 48-59 months (;) and mothers who did not wash their hands after using the toilet (;) were predictor variables for Bitot’s spots. Conclusion. The prevalence of night blindness and Bitot’s spots was high. Child’s age, mother’s educational status, family size, diarrhea in the last 2 weeks, and respiratory tract infection in the last 2 weeks were predictive variables for night blindness. Besides, handwashing practice after using the toilet and child’s age were significantly associated with Bitot’s spot among children. Therefore, both night blindness and Bitot’s spots are a public health problem and call for the attention of health professionals in primary health care facilities.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 02:50:00 +000
  • Determinants of Neural Tube Defects among Newborns in Amhara Region,
           Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Worldwide, an estimated 300,000 neonates are born with neural tube defects (NTDs) each year. However, NTDs are underreported in Ethiopia though it causes substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic cost in the country. Moreover, the factors attributed to NTDs were not addressed. Hence, this study intended to identify the determinants of neural tube defects in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. A case-control study design was conducted among 400 newborns (133 cases and 267 controls) who were born at randomly selected public hospitals. Cases were identified using the physician diagnosis of confirmed NTDs, and the two consecutive controls were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The data analysis was done using Stata 14.0. Variables with value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were entered into the multivariable logistic regression model, and a corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to identify the predictors of NTDs. Results. In this study, fifty percent (48%) of the cases were contributed by anencephaly. After controlling the covariates, living in rural areas (: 95% CI 1.02, 3.11), being illiterate (: 95% CI 1.07, 4.61), being female newborn (: 95% CI 1.09, 3.50), having no ANC follow-up (: 95% CI 1.17, 5.04), and having a previous history of NTDs (: 95% CI 2.42, 7.96) were the risk factors for NTDs. However, being supplemented with folic acid or multivitamins before or during pregnancy (: 95% CI 0.21, 0.65), never having taken any substance during pregnancy (: 95% CI 0.21, 0.88), and being free from medical illnesses during pregnancy (: 95% CI 0.11, 0.69) were the protective factors of NTDs. Conclusion. The study revealed different factors associated with NTDs among newborns in the region. Therefore, comprehensive preventive strategies focused on identified risk factors are needed at regional and national levels.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Oct 2020 06:35:01 +000
  • Predictors of Neonatal Sepsis in Hospitals at Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern
           Ethiopia: Institution-Based Unmatched Case-Control Study, 2019

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal sepsis plays a significant role in neonates’ mortality in developing countries accounting for 30-50% of total deaths each year. Gaining insight into neonatal sepsis predictors will provide an opportunity for the stakeholders to reduce the causes of neonatal sepsis. This research is aimed at determining the predictors of neonatal sepsis at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital and Sodo Christian General Hospital, Ethiopia, April-July 2019. Method. This study employed an institution-based unmatched case-control study by selecting neonates in selected hospitals through consecutive sampling technique. The cases of this study are neonates diagnosed with sepsis. The study used a pretested structured questionnaire for a face-to-face interview to collect data from index mothers. Besides, the review of the record was done using checklists. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 for analysis. The study used descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to measure the association’s strength. was the cut-off point for declaration of statistical significance for the multivariate analysis. Results. Factors significantly associated with neonatal sepsis among neonates were maternal age of 15-20 years and 21-30 years, mothers with low income/wealth, history of urinary tract infections/sexually transmitted infections, presence of intrapartum infections, antenatal care visits, Apgar (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration) , low birth weight, and the time in which breastfeeding started after minutes. Conclusion. Maternal age, wealth/income, maternal urinary tract infections/sexually transmitted infections, intrapartum fever, antenatal care times, Apgar , low birth weight, and starting time of breastfeeding were independent predictors of neonatal sepsis. Therefore, maternal health education during antenatal care visits, perinatal and newborn care, and early initiation of breastfeeding might decrease neonatal mortality and morbidity due to sepsis.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Oct 2020 08:20:00 +000
  • Bacteriology and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns among Neonates
           Diagnosed of Omphalitis at a Tertiary Special Care Baby Unit in Western

    • Abstract: Background. Newborn infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in low-income countries. Clinical diagnosis for omphalitis in such settings is possible but this does not depict the microbiological characteristics of the involved organisms, and clinicians have often prescribed empirical antibiotics in neonates with omphalitis, despite an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates diagnosed with omphalitis at the special care baby unit (SCBU) of Kampala International University-Teaching Hospital (KIU-TH), western Uganda from March to June 2019. Sixty-five (65) neonates with a clinical diagnosis of omphalitis were consecutively recruited in the study. Cord swabs were taken under sterile (aseptic) precautions from all neonates, and antibiotic susceptibility tests performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique with commercially available antibiotics disks of ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and imipenem on Mueller Hinton agar plates. The data was analyzed using STATA version 13.0, frequencies and proportions used to describe the variables. Results. Fifty-five, 55 (84.6%), neonates with suspected omphalitis had positive cord swab culture. Staphylococcal aureus (58.2%) was the commonest cause of omphalitis followed by Neisseria spp (16.4%), E. coli 6 (10.9%), Proteus spp (5.5%), Klebsiella spp (3.6%), Citrobacter spp (3.6%), and Haemophilus spp (1.8%) in decreasing frequency. Isolates were resistant to ampicillin (87.7%), gentamicin (54.4%), and cloxacillin (34.4%), the drugs recommended for use in neonates with suspected omphalitis. Conclusions. Staphylococcal aureus is still the predominant cause of omphalitis among neonates. There was high resistance to the commonly used antibiotics in the treatment of omphalitis among newborns. This study reemphasizes that clinicians should do cord swabbing for both culture and susceptibility tests among newborns with suspected omphalitis before initiation of antibiotics.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Injury Patterns and Demographics in Child and Adolescent Assault Victims
           Presenting to US Emergency Departments

    • Abstract: Objective. To correlate injury patterns with patient demographics in child and adolescent assault victims. Methods. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program data for the years 2005 through 2015 was used. Injuries due to assault were identified and analyzed with SUDAAN 11.0.01™ software to account for the weighted, stratified nature of the data. Results. There were an estimated 4,407,009 ED visits for assault in of age. With increasing age, the percentage of females decreased. Sexual assaults were more common in females (87.4%), and robbery/burglary was more common in males (79.8%). When the perpetrator was a spouse/partner, the assault victim was most commonly female (88.8%), and when a stranger, the assault victim was most commonly male (71.5%). With increasing age, the percentage of sexual assaults decreased while the reason for the assault being unknown increased. The assault occurred in the home in 59.6% of of age, decreasing to 18.7% in those 15 to 19 years of age. The anatomic location was the head/neck in 32.8% of of age, increasing to 60.6% in those 15-19 years old. old had the highest hospital admission rate (8.3%). The main diagnoses were concussion (3.0%), contusion/abrasion (33.3%), fracture (11.5%), laceration (11.5%), internal organ injury (11.5%), puncture (2.8%), and strain/sprain (20.7%). The number of assaults from 2005 to 2015 decreased for all age groups except for old. Conclusions. These data provide a comprehensive overview of child and adolescent assault victims presenting to the ED in the USA and can be used as background data for further study. The decreasing numbers of assaults over the 11 years of the study are encouraging, and challenges still exist in decreasing the number for old.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Reaching the Unreached: Providing Quality Care to HIV-Infected Children
           through Telemedicine—An Innovative Pilot Initiative from Maharashtra,

    • Abstract: Background. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India created the Regional Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Center; this was subsequently upgraded to seven Pediatric Centers of Excellence (PCoEs) to strengthen the quality of treatment and care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHAs). In October 2013, the pediatric HIV telemedicine initiative, an e-decentralized (care provided by local healthcare providers and support provided by a central agency through telemedicine facilities) model of expert pediatric HIV care and referral services, was established as a pilot project at the Pediatric Center of Excellence for HIV Care in Maharashtra. We designed the present study to compare management, compliance to ART, and mortality in children in the ART centers linked to the PCoE through telemedicine versus those that are not linked to the PCoE. Methods. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study of secondary data from CLHAs from October 2013 through August 2015 in the ART centers to document the intermediate outcomes and to determine if the initiative has improved the quality of care for the CLHAs enrolled in the linked ART centers with nonlinked ART centers. The centers in which the telemedicine sessions were conducted regularly were called linked-regular centers and in whom it was conducted irregularly (less than the median of 12 videoconference cases), it was called a linked-irregular center. Data from 2803 children in 31 linked (1365 in irregular and 1438 in regular centers) and 2608 children in 28 nonlinked centers were analyzed. The outcomes in children in the pre-ART group (ART naïve) were (1) alive on pre-ART, (2) lost to follow-up on pre-ART, (3) death during the pre-ART period, (4) eligible but not initiated on ART, and (5) missing baseline and latest CD4 counts. The outcomes of children on ART were (1) alive on ART, (2) lost to follow-up on ART, (3) death on ART, and (4) missing baseline and latest CD4 counts. Results. We found that a higher proportion of children in the linked-regular centers (79% vs. 70%, ) and linked-irregular centers (76% vs. 70%, ) was alive compared with that in the nonlinked centers in the pre-ART group. In this group, the proportion of children with missing baseline CD4 counts and latest CD4 counts was significantly low in linked (regular centers) centers. In the ART group, we found that a higher proportion of children in the linked-regular centers was alive compared with that in the linked-irregular centers (77% vs. 69%, ); the proportion was not significantly different in nonlinked centers (77% vs. 78%, ). In this group, the proportion of missing baseline CD4 counts was significantly lower in the linked-regular centers (3% vs 13%, p
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 05:50:01 +000
  • Parental Knowledge of Children’s Developmental Milestones in
           Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Objective. Parental recognition of children’s developmental milestones has been correlated with more effective childcare strategies and overall better outcomes for children. However, the knowledge that parents have about children’s development remains uncertain which reflects serious concerns about children’s health in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify parents’ knowledge levels about children’s developmental milestones and the information sources they rely on for this knowledge. Study Design. We recruited 1471 parents aged ≥18 with at least one child under 14 and living in Riyadh to participate in an online survey between July of 2019 and January of 2020. Results. Most respondents showed a poor level of knowledge (80.0%) in all of four domains. However, mothers had more acceptable levels of knowledge (21.0%) than fathers (10.0%) (). There was a significant association between knowledge and age at first child’s birth; respondents who had their first child between 39 and 50 had the highest levels of knowledge (37.5%; ). In the four domains of development, parents were found to have the most knowledge about physical development (52.3%), followed by cognitive development (21.6%), social development (21.5%), and emotional development (21.2%). Only a few parents (5%) claimed to always rely on their healthcare professionals for information. Conclusion. There is a lack of appropriate knowledge about developmental milestones among parents, which reflects serious concerns about children’s health in Saudi Arabia. Healthcare institutions and pediatricians currently play a minimal role in health education. Effective health education programs and strategies should be implemented to improve child development outcomes in the community.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 03:50:00 +000
  • Newborn Care Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers of
           One-Month-Old Infants in Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Newborn care refers to the care that is provided to the baby from birth to one-month-old by a caregiver or by the mothers including thermal care, hygienic care, cord care, eye care, breastfeeding, immunization, and identification of newborn danger signs. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016, the neonatal mortality rate was 29 deaths per 1000 live births, and the postneonatal mortality rate was 19 deaths per 1000 live births with neonates contributing 48 deaths per 1000 of the infant mortality. Neonatal mortality accounts for approximately two-thirds of all infant mortality worldwide. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess newborn care practice and associated factors among mothers with babies of one-month-old in Hossana town, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 422 mothers with babies of one-month-old in Hossana town, southwest Ethiopia. The data were entered to EpiData 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied, and frequencies and odds ratios were calculated to determine the prevalence and associated factors, respectively. Results. In this study, 31% of participants had good newborn care practice based on three composite variables such as 84% who have done early breastfeeding initiation, 32.9% who have done safe cord care, and 30.6% who have done thermal care. Educational status of the mother’s, primary (, 95% CI: 1.027-7.637), secondary (, 95% CI: 0.921-7.316), and college and above (, 95% CI: 1.056-12.492); mothers who practiced handwashing (hygiene) before touching a newborn (, 95% CI: 1.092-5.963); and mothers who had good knowledge on newborn care practice (, 95% CI: 3.599-67.943) were significantly associated with newborn care practice. Conclusion and Recommendation. The present study indicated that the level of comprehensive newborn care practice was unsatisfactory; all responsible bodies were giving attention and intervene on the predictors to improve newborn care practice and provide health education regarding newborn care practice. Education level, health education (counseling) on hygiene, and knowledge of mother on newborn care practice were independent predictors of newborn care practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 16:50:00 +000
  • Improving the Assessment and Classification of Sick Children according to
           the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Protocol at Sanja
           Primary Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Pre-Post Interventional Study

    • Abstract: Background. A complete and consistent use of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) protocol is a strategic implementation that has been used to promote the accurate assessment and classifications of childhood illnesses, ensures appropriate combined treatment, strengthens the counseling of caregiver, and speeds up the referrals to decrease child mortality and morbidity. However, there is limited evidence about the complete and consistent use of IMCI protocol during the assessment and classifications of childhood illness in Ethiopia. Therefore, this intervention was implemented to improve the assessment and classifications of childhood illness according to the IMCI protocol in Sanja primary hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A pre-post interventional study was used in Sanja primary hospital from January 01 to May 30, 2019. A total of 762 (381 for pre and 381 for postintervention) children from 2 months up to 5 years of age were involved in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire prepared from the IMCI guideline, and a facility checklist was used. A five-month in-service training, weekly supportive supervision, daily morning session, and availing essential drugs and materials were done. Both the descriptive statistics and independent -test were done. In the independent -test, a value of
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 14:50:05 +000
  • Congenital Malaria and Its Associated Factors at Issaka Gazobi Maternity
           of Niamey in Niger

    • Abstract: Background. Congenital malaria is a serious and common infection in tropical Africa. It has multiple consequences on the newborn and the mother. Objective. The objective of this study is to calculate the prevalence of congenital malaria, describe its clinical signs, and analyze its associated factors. Methodology. It is a cross-sectional and prospective study, conducted at Issaka Gazobi Maternity of Niamey, from June 1 to November 30, 2017. The diagnosis was made by microscopy of a thick and thin blood smear of mother, newborn, and umbilical cord. Results. Two hundred and forty-nine (249) consecutive newborn/mother pairs were included. The prevalence of congenital malaria infection was 26.51% (66/249) with a parasite density of 101 P/μl (SD: 47.3; [80; 320]). The prevalence of congenital malaria disease was 14.06% (35/249) with a parasite density of 108 P/μl (SD: 32.6; [40; 200]. All patients were infected with Plasmodium falciparum. 43% (18/35) of neonates had hyperthermia and did not have a sucking reflex, 8.5% (3/35) were anaemic, 11.42% (4/35) had convulsed, 20% (7/35) had a coma, and 45.71% (16/35) had a low birth weight. No deaths were recorded, and only the nonuse of bed nets was significantly associated with congenital malaria ().Conclusion. In Niger, one out of four newborns is infected with Plasmodium. Infection can progress to congenital malaria disease. The use of mosquito nets and intermittent preventive treatment would reduce the incidence of congenital malaria.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 11:50:02 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Nutritional Status and Educational Performance of
           School-Aged Children in Lalibela Town Primary Schools, Northern

    • PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 03:35:00 +000
  • Incidence Density Rate of Neonatal Mortality and Predictors in Sub-Saharan
           Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal mortality in Sub-Saharan countries is remarkably high. Though there are inconsistent studies about the incidence density rate of neonatal mortalities (IDR) and predictors in Sub-Saharan Africa, they are inconclusive to policymakers and program planners. In this study, the IDR of neonatal mortalities and predictors was determined. Methods. Electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE (Elsevier), Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), World Cat, Google Scholar, and Google) were explored. 20 out of 818 studies were included in this study. The IDRs and predictors of neonatal mortality were computed from studies conducted in survival analysis. Fixed and random effect models were used to compute pooled estimates. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. Neonates were followed for a total of 1,095,611 neonate-days; 67142 neonate-days for neonates treated in neonatal intensive care units and 1,028,469 neonate-days for community-based studies. The IDRs of neonatal mortalities in neonatal intensive care units and in the community were 24.53 and 1.21 per 1000 person-days, respectively. The IDRs of early and late neonatal mortalities neonatal intensive care units were 22.51 and 5.09 per 1000 neonate-days, respectively. Likewise, the IDRs of early and late neonatal mortalities in the community were 0.85 and 0.31, respectively. Not initiating breastfeeding within one hour, multiple births, rural residence, maternal illness, low Apgar score, being preterm, sepsis, asphyxia, and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors of time to neonatal mortality in neonatal intensive care units and male gender, perceived small size, multiple births, and ANC were predictors of neonatal mortality in the community. Conclusion. The incidence density rate of neonatal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa is significantly high. Multiple factors (neonatal and maternal) were found to be independent predictors. Strategies must be designed to address these predictors, and prospective studies could reveal other possible factors of neonatal mortalities.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Button Gastrostomy Tubes for Pediatric Patients: A Tertiary Care Center

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Gastrostomy tube insertion is one of the most common procedures performed as a radical choice to overcome feeding difficulty in children. This study is aimed at describing the replacement of a button tube instead of the long tube for feeding infants and children requiring gastrostomies in a tertiary care hospital. Design and Setting. This retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between January 2009 and August 2019 at Salmaniya Medical Complex which is a tertiary health care institute in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods. Both charts and electronic health records of pediatric patients between the ages of 0 and 14 years were reviewed. Data were collected including age, sex, nationality, diagnosis, surgical information (procedure center and procedure performed), complications, and follow-up. Results. Out of 34 patients who underwent gastrostomy tube insertion, 30 patients had their long tube replaced by a button gastrostomy. Majority were males (, 60%). Prolonged nasogastric tube feeding was the main indication of referral (, 56%) followed by feed intolerance (, 17%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (, 16%). The main underlying diseases at referral were neurological impairment (, 63%) and metabolic disorders (, 13%). There was no significant difference between patients with neurological disorders and other diseases in terms of gender, nationality, or age. Laparotomy with gastrostomy is the main approach used (, 60%). No reported complications of button tubes in 50% of the patients ().Conclusions. Prolonged nasogastric tube feeding is the main indication of referral for gastrostomy tube insertion. Neurological disorders are the main diagnosis for the cases operated upon. Laparotomy with gastrostomy is the procedure of choice at our center. Majority of patients had no reported complications of button tube replacement. These children are likely to benefit from the button tube with fewer complications.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Oct 2020 03:35:01 +000
  • Parental Reported Bullying among Saudi Schoolchildren: Its Forms, Effect
           on Academic Abilities, and Associated Sociodemographic, Physical, and
           Dentofacial Features

    • Abstract: Context. Bullying among schoolchildren is a serious phenomenon and a leading health concern. Aim. To determine the prevalence of bullying, its forms, and its effect on academic abilities and school attendance, as well as associated sociodemographic, physical, and dentofacial features among Saudi schoolchildren. Methods. This cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 1131 parents of schoolchildren 8-18 years old and requested them to complete internationally accepted questionnaires for their children. Chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data ().Results. A majority (89.2%) of schoolchildren were bully victims. Physical bullying (48.9%) was the most common form of bullying. The youngest schoolchildren (8-11 years) and those who disliked school classes or neither liked nor hated them, as well as those who were truant from school, were more likely to be victims. In addition, those who had worse grades because of bullying and those who were very often bullied because of good grades or because they showed an interest in school were more likely to be victims. With regard to targeted physical features, teeth were the number one target, followed by the shape of the lips and strength, while tooth shape and color were the most common dentofacial targets, followed by anterior open bite and protruded anterior teeth. Boys and the youngest schoolchildren were more often subjected to bullying because of these features ().Conclusions. The prevalence of bullying, mainly in a physical form, was high among Saudi schoolchildren, with a negative influence on students’ academic abilities. Problems related to teeth, in particular, which can be treated, were targets, mainly for boys and the youngest schoolchildren. More studies are required in Saudi Arabia to explore the issue further among schoolchildren themselves.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Oct 2020 11:05:00 +000
  • Contraceptive Use among Basic School Pupils in Ghana: A Case Study of a

    • Abstract: Background. Ghana over the years strived to improve contraceptive services for young people through various policies and programs. Despite these efforts, contraceptive use among young people remains a challenge. In this study, contraceptive use among basic school pupils in a Ghanaian municipality was explored to inform policy and program decisions. Methods. The research design was a cross-sectional and mixed-method survey involving four hundred and twenty-seven (427) respondents randomly selected from four hundred and eleven (411) basic schools (102 from private and 309 from public basic schools) within Effutu Municipality of Ghana. Results. Basic school pupils in Ghana are generally sexually active but have high unmet needs for modern contraception due to sociocultural barriers, stigma, and misconceptions. Awareness and use are however more prevalent among junior high school pupils compared to those at the primary levels. Pupils who received contraceptive education from parents/guardians were, however, more likely to use modern contraceptives consistently than their counterparts who do not. Conclusions. Because young people in basic schools are becoming sexually active, there is a need for formalized contraceptive education in basic schools for correct information and education.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Sep 2020 13:50:03 +000
  • The Use of Social Network in Daily Pediatric Practice and Education:
           Turkish Pediatric Atelier

    • Abstract: Using social media applications in pediatric education is not outdated, and its effectiveness has not been tested yet. For this reason, we shared the first results of the Pediatric Atelier experience that we realized through telegram application. We make an online survey to investigate the needs, requirements, pleasure, and suggestions of members through a web-based questionnaire. This cross-sectional survey study was delivered only to participants who were members of the workshop via their email addresses. Online questionnaires organized using Google Forms were sent to pediatric workshop members between March and June 2019. The questionnaire consisted of questions that measured the participants’ basic demographic data, the use of the workshop, and the overall impact of the workshop on their professional behavior. While the institutions and positions of the participants were recorded, no other personal data (such as address and telephone) were collected. Among the 997 members, 417 (42%) of them answered the questionnaire. Respondents included 300 (72%) pediatrician, 21 (5%) pediatric subspeciality fellows, and 75 (18%) pediatric subspecialists. Of the 417 respondents, 217 (52%) were working in Istanbul, and 200 (48%) were working in other cities of Turkey. Among the responders, 233 (56%) were working in private hospitals or doctor offices. A total of 520 cases were consulted in 241 days of study period. Most consultations (, %59) were made from the Istanbul metropolitan area, and 203 (40%) consultations were from other cities of Turkey. The most frequently consulted departments were Pediatric infectious diseases: 166 (32%), Pediatric hematology and oncology: 56 (11%), and Neonatology: 43 (8%). Of the 520 consulted cases, 44 (8%) were related to life-threatening events, and 25 of them were hospitalized in the intensive care units, and 6 of them were required surgical operations. Of the 94% of responders thought this platform was useful and 82% of them stated that the case counseling part of the atelier was the most useful part. We think that the development of technology and artificial intelligence may lead to the usage of on-line platforms or systems in clinical medical practice. Clinical Trial Registration (if any). Registry name, registration number, web link to study on registry, and data sharing statement.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 15:05:06 +000
  • Survival Status and Predictors of Mortality among Newborns Admitted with
           Neonatal Sepsis at Public Hospitals in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. One-fourth of neonatal death is due to neonatal sepsis and nearly 98% of these deaths are occurring at low- and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, forty percent of under-five mortality occurs during the neonatal period, of which neonatal sepsis accounts for 30-35% of neonatal deaths next to prematurity and its complications. On the other side, among the survived neonates with neonatal sepsis, there exist as vulnerable to short and long-term neurological and developmental morbidity impacting the overall productivity of the child as adult. Methods. A longitudinal prospective cohort study was conducted among selected 289 neonates with neonatal sepsis who were admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit at public hospitals in Ethiopia from 1st March 2018 to 31st December 2019. Data were entered into Epi data version 3.02 and exported to SPSS V 25 for analysis. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve together with log-rank test was used to estimate the survival time of the neonates. Variables which had value < 0.05 in multivariable analysis using the cox proportional hazard model were declared as statistically significant predictors of mortality. Results. The study was conducted with a total of 289 neonates admitted with neonatal sepsis. The cumulative proportion of surviving at the end of the fourth day was 99.5%, and it was 98.2% at the end of the fifth day. In addition, it was 96.6%, 93.5%, and 91.1% at the end of the sixth, seventh, and eighth day, respectively. The incidence of mortality was 8.65 per 100 neonates admitted with neonatal sepsis. Having a history of intrapartum fever (AHR: 14.5; 95% CI: 4.25, 49.5), history of chorioamnionitis (AHR: 5.7; 95% CI: 2.29, 13.98), induced labor (AHR: 7; 95% CI: 2.32, 21.08), and not initiating exclusive breastfeeding within one hour (AHR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.34, 12.63) were the independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion. The survival status of neonates among neonates admitted with neonatal sepsis was high at the early admission days and high cumulative proportion of death as the admission period increased. The risk of mortality was high among the neonates with early onset of neonatal sepsis as compared with late onset of neonatal sepsis and history of intrapartum fever, history of diagnosed chorioamnionitis, onset of labor, and EBF initiation within one hour were the independent predictors of mortality among neonates admitted with neonatal sepsis.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 14:50:07 +000
  • Determinants of Under-Five Child Mortality in Ethiopia: Analysis Using
           Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey, 2016

    • Abstract: Background. Under-five mortality rate is a leading indicator of the level of child health and the overall development in countries which indicate the quality of life of a given population, as measured by life expectancy. Objectives. To identify and analyze factors that may have a significant influence on under-five mortality in Ethiopia. Methods. A national representative cross-sectional study and a quantitative study were conducted among 18,008 households selected based on 2016 EDHS data. The analysis was done using SPSS version 20 statistical software. Both bivariate and multivariable analyses were employed. In multivariable analysis, value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant and odds ratio with 95% CI (confidence interval) was used to assess the determinants of under-five child mortality. Results. A total of 10,641 children were included in the study with a 99.0% response rate. The U5CM for being a rural resident (, 95% CI: 1.251, 2.595), not breastfeeding (, 95% CI: 2.490, 3.511), having multiple birth (, 95% CI: 3.440, 6.572), male gender (, 95% CI: 1.153, 1.612), having first birth order (, 95% CI: 1.275, 1.992), and having family size six and above (, 95% CI: 1.769, 2.707). The increment of family size increases the risk of U5CM.Conclusion. Multivariate logistic analysis reflected that place of residence, mothers’ educational level, religion, current breastfeeding status, type of birth, sex of child, birth order, and family size were found to be significant predictors of under-five child mortality. So, government policy, nongovernmental organizations, and all concerned bodies should be focused on the major determinants of under-five child mortality and put in a lot more effort to reduce under-five child mortality, and health intervention policies should be revised.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 14:35:06 +000
  • Neonatal Hypothermia and Associated Factors among Newborns Admitted in the
           Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Dessie Referral Hospital, Amhara Region,
           Northeast Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Neonatal hypothermia is the reduction in the body temperature of the newborn (less than 36.5°C). It is a global problem in neonates born both at hospitals and homes, but it showed a higher prevalence in developing countries (>90%). Although hypothermia is rarely a direct cause of death, it contributes to a substantial proportion of neonatal mortality globally. Objective. To assess neonatal hypothermia and associated factors among newborns admitted in the NICU of Dessie Referral Hospital. Methods and Materials. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 15 to May 30, 2018. The data was collected from the mother and the chart of the newborn using a semistructured questionnaire. Data were cleaned, coded, and entered in EPI-info version then exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression and crude and adjusted odds ratio with their 95% confidence interval were computed. Finally, value < 0.05 was used to identify variables that had a significant association with neonatal hypothermia. Result. The proportion of neonatal hypothermia in the study area was 66.8%. Preterm delivery (, 95% CI: 1.1, 6.2), no skin-to-skin contact within 1 hour of delivery (, 95% CI: 1.3, 7.8), delivered at night time (, 95% CI: 1.02, 4.0), and neonates who had resuscitation (, 95% CI: 1.1, 7.2) showed significant association with neonatal hypothermia. Conclusion. In this study, the proportion of hypothermia was high. Preterm delivery, no skin-to-skin contact within 1 hour, night-time delivery, and having resuscitation were significantly associated with neonatal hypothermia. Therefore, special attention is needed for the thermal care of preterm neonates and neonates delivered at night time. Furthermore, there should be strict adherence to cost-effective thermal care recommendations like warm resuscitation and skin-to-skin contact.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 13:20:03 +000
  • Adenovirus Infection Is Predicted by Prolonged Duration of Diarrhea among

    • Abstract: Diarrhea is the commonest cause of morbidity and mortality in many resource-limited countries including Tanzania among children below five years of age. A significant number of diarrhea cases associated with severe dehydration are still being reported among children despite five years of rotavirus vaccine implementation in Tanzania necessitating the need to investigate other causes of diarrhea in this population. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of human adenovirus infection and associated factors among rotavirus-vaccinated children with acute diarrhea in Mwanza, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2017 involving 137 children less than two years of age admitted with acute diarrhea in the health facilities located in Mwanza, Tanzania. Sociodemographic and other relevant information were collected using standardized rotavirus surveillance tool adopted from WHO. Stool specimens were collected and tested for human adenovirus antigen using immunochromatographic tests. Data were analyzed by using STATA version 13. The median age of enrolled children was 12 (IQR 8-17) months. The prevalence of human adenovirus was found to be 46 (33.6%, 95% CI: 25-41). By multivariable logistic regression analysis, only prolonged duration of diarrhea (OR: 1.619, 95% CI: 1.142-2.295, ) was found to predict human adenovirus infection among rotavirus-vaccinated children with acute diarrhea. A significant proportion of rotavirus-vaccinated children with prolonged acute diarrhea have adenovirus infection. There is a need to consider other viral pathogens as potential cause of diarrhea especially in this postrotavirus vaccination period.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 13:20:02 +000
  • Bubble Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (bNCPAP): An Effective
           Low-Cost Intervention for Resource-Constrained Settings

    • Abstract: Preterm birth complications are responsible for almost one-third of the global neonatal mortality burden, and respiratory distress syndrome remains the single most common cause of these preventable deaths. Since its inception, almost half a century ago, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) has evolved to become the primary modality for neonatal respiratory care in both the developed and developing world. Although evidence has demonstrated the effectiveness of low-cost bubble NCPAP in reducing newborn mortality, its widespread use is yet to be seen in resource-constrained settings. Moreover, many tertiary hospitals in developing countries still utilise an inexpensive locally assembled bNCPAP system of unknown efficacy and safety. This review provides a brief overview of the history, physiological benefits, indications, contraindications, and complications of bNCPAP. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of low-cost bNCPAP in the neonatal intensive care unit is also summarised. The article further details a locally assembled bNCPAP system used in resource-constrained settings and highlights the care package for neonates receiving bNCPAP, failure criteria, and strategies for weaning.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 13:20:02 +000
  • Neonatal near Miss and Its Predictors among Neonates Delivered at
           Debretabor General Hospital, Northern Ethiopia; A Retrospective Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. In many low-resource countries, the progress of neonatal mortality reduction is very slow. The scenario is notably true in sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. For every neonatal death, there are lots of near missed neonates. Generating evidences on the extent and predictors of neonatal near miss is a key step in neonatal mortality reduction efforts. However, there is limited evidence in this aspect in Ethiopia. Objective. This study is aimed at assessing the proportion of neonatal near miss and associated factors among neonates delivered at Debretabor General Hospital, Northern Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 422 neonates delivered at Debretabor General Hospital from July 1st, 2018, to June 30th, 2019. Both pragmatic and management criteria of definition of neonatal near miss were utilized. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the cards of the study participants. Data were extracted with structured and pretested checklist, entered in the EpiData, and then exported to SPSS version 20. Both descriptive and analytical procedures have been done. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and cross tabulations were carried out. The binary logistic regression model was fitted and variables with value < 0.20 were entered in the multivariable logistic regression model. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios with the corresponding 95% CI were computed. The level of significance has been claimed based on the adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI and its value of ≤0.05. Results. The proportion of neonates experiencing near miss was obtained to be 32.2% with 95% CI (28, 36). Rural residence (; 95% CI: 2.57,7.55), incomplete ANC visit (; 95% CI: 1.90,5.25), primiparous (; 95% CI: 1.59,4.12), pregnancy-induced hypertension (; 95% CI: 1.19,8.78), premature rupture of membrane (; 95% CI: 1.70,12,73), cephalic-pelvic disproportion (; 95% CI: 1.32,7.01), and antepartum hemorrhage (; 95% CI: 1.89,12.96) were the independent predictors of neonatal near-miss. Conclusion and Recommendations. The proportion of neonatal near miss was found to be high in the study setting. Most of the determinants of near miss are modifiable obstetric-related factors. Hence, stakeholders need to consider the aforesaid factors while they design interventions.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 13:20:02 +000
  • Predictors of Toxoplasma gondii IgG Seropositivity and Cranial Ultrasound
           Patterns among Children with Hydrocephalus

    • Abstract: Background. Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy is associated with serious neonatal complications, including hydrocephalus. In many high-income countries, T. gondii screening and treatment during the antenatal period are routinely carried out to prevent associated complications, whereas in most low-income countries, there is no routine screening of T. gondii during pregnancy. Despite the parasite being common in Tanzania, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence of T. gondii and cranial ultrasound patterns among children with hydrocephalus. Methods. An analytical cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 125 infants with hydrocephalus attending the Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) was conducted between May 2017 and February 2018. Sociodemographic and other relevant information was collected using a pretested data collection tool. Venous blood samples were collected, and sera were used for the detection of specific T. gondii antibodies by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as per manufacturer’s instructions. Data were analysed using STATA version 13 software. Results. The mean age of enrolled children was months. Out of 125 infants with hydrocephalus, 29 (23.2%, 95% CI: 21-36) were seropositive for T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. By multiple generalized linear model analysis, being male (, 95% CI: 0.9–1.5, ), higher birth order (, 95% CI: 1.0–1.5, ), consumption of fish meat (, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ), and using other methods of cooking meat than boiling (, 95% CI: 1.1–2.5, ) were independent risk factors for T. gondii IgG seropositivity. Obstructive hydrocephalus was significantly more common among T. gondii-seronegative infants compared to IgG-seropositive infants (31.3% [30/96] vs. 13.8% [4/29]; ).Conclusions. A significant proportion of infants with nonobstructive hydrocephalus are T. gondii IgG seropositive, and this is predicted by male gender, increase of birth order, consuming fish, and using other methods of cooking meat than boiling. These facts highlight the importance of continuing health education for pregnant women regarding T. gondii transmission and the need to follow-up their infants so that appropriate counselling and management can be provided.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2020 12:05:03 +000
  • Magnitude of Child Food Insecurity, Its Association with Child
           Immunization and Huosehold wealth Status, and Coping Strategies In Dabat
           Demographic and Surveillance System North West Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. The magnitude of food insecurity in Ethiopia ranges from 38.7% to 82.3% among the general population. Children under the age of five years were more prone to food insecurity and its serious consequences like anemia, low bone density, frequent episodes of common cold, stomachache, poor educational performance, and dental carries in developing countries like Ethiopia. However, there is no any research finding that documented the magnitude of child food insecurity, coping strategies, and associated factors in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was estimating the magnitude of child food insecurity, major coping strategies, and factors associated with child food insecurity in the study area. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Dabat demographic and health surveillance site among 7152 mothers/caretakers of children under the age of five years. Data were collected by experienced data collectors working for the demographic and health surveillance site, and the collected data were entered into EpiData template and then transported to Stata 14 software for data cleaning and analysis. The ordinal logistic regression model was fitted to identify predictors for child food insecurity. Results. About 21.42% of children under the age of five years were food insecure in Dabat district of whom 57.8%, 38.6%, and 3.6% had experienced mild, moderate, and severe levels of child food insecurity, respectively. All most all 1391 (92%) of the mothers/caretakers of food insecure children had practiced food insecurity coping strategies. More than half (57%) of mothers/caretakers reduces the size of child meal as insecurity coping strategy. Child food insecurity was associated with household wealth status, parent’s education status, and maternal and child health service utilization and child feeding practices. Conclusion. A large segment of under-five children had experienced food insecurity in Dabat district, and the major coping strategy for child food insecurity was reducing meal size. Therefore, working on household wealth improvement and expansion of basic health services would improve child food security.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Sep 2020 06:35:01 +000
  • Prevalence and Determinants of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections
           among School Children at Goro Primary School, South West Shewa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Soil-transmitted helminths (STH)/geohelminths are human parasitic nematodes which need soil contact for their egg development and become infectious. It is widely prevalent in developing countries. In Ethiopia, too, the same problem exists although the prevalence varies from place to place depending on the presence of risk factors and hygienic status of the community. Therefore, the current study is designed to assess the prevalence and determinants of STH among school children at Goro Primary School of Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was employed from April to June 2019. The stool samples were collected in prelabeled, clean, and leak-proof stool cups and examined immediately. Direct wet mount and formalin ether concentration techniques were utilized to detect the STHs in a stool sample collected from all study subjects. A total of 387 stool samples were analyzed. Moreover, community- and individual-level risk factors associated with STH infection were assessed using semistructured questionnaire. Results. The overall prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections observed at the study area was 15.8% (). Among these, the most abundant STH parasite was hookworms (, 63.93%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (, 36.06%). Factors independently associated with soil-transmitted helminth infections were children from illiterate mother (, 95% CI: 1.1-4.8, ), lack of habit of wearing shoes (, 95% CI: 2.0-8.5, ), lack of frequent handwashing practice before meal (, 95% CI: 1.2-4.5, ), use of unprotected drinking water (, CI:3.9-393, ), and presence of dirt in their fingernails (, 95% CI: 1.8-6.9, ).Conclusions. STH infection observed in the study area could be classified into the low-risk area group (according to the World Health Organization classification) calling for none or case-by-case treatment. Thus, enhancing awareness of the community in the study area on how to keep personal hygiene and environmental sanitation is quite important to keep the burden to a controllable level, besides implementation of regular deworming program in the locality.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 02:50:04 +000
  • Clinical and Bacteriological Profile of Neonatal Sepsis: A Prospective
           Hospital-Based Study

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in developing countries. With a dearth of data on neonatal sepsis in our country, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of clinical neonatal sepsis and evaluate the clinical, bacteriological, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of organisms. Material and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Neonatal Unit of the National Hospital from 1st January to 31st December 2016. All neonates admitted with suspected clinical sepsis were included. Sepsis screens and cultures were sent under aseptic conditions. Data was analyzed using STATA™ version 12. Clinical features and neonatal and maternal risk factors were analyzed using chi-squared test. Bacteriological profile was analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. During the study period, incidence of culture positive neonatal sepsis was 19 per 1000 admissions with a blood culture positivity rate of 14%. 54.5% had culture-positive early-onset sepsis (EOS). Prematurity (), (), low birth weight (), and maternal intrapartum antibiotics () significantly increased risk for culture-positive EOS. Prematurity (), low birth weight (), and parental nutrition () were significantly associated with increased risk of culture-positive late-onset sepsis. A positive screen had sensitivity of 81.8% and negative predictive value of 87.7%. Gram-negative organisms were most commonly isolated (64.6%). Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (31%) were the commonest isolate followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (27%) and Acinetobacter (18.8%). Ninety percent of Acinetobacter were carbapenem resistant. Gram-negative sepsis had mortality of 88.9%. Conclusion. Preterm, low birth weight, low APGAR scores, intrapartum antibiotics, and parental nutrition were significantly associated with neonatal sepsis. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter were the principal causative organisms. Gram-negative organisms had high resistance to commonly used antibiotics.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 02:50:03 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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