Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Pediatrics
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9740 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9759
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Clinical Significance of Screening Electrocardiograms for the
           Administration of Propranolol for Problematic Infantile Hemangiomas

    • Abstract: Objective. Low-dose nonselective β blockade is an effective treatment for problematic infantile hemangioma (PIH). Screening electrocardiograms (ECG) are performed prior to the initiation of propranolol to minimize the risk of exacerbating undiagnosed heart block. How ECG results affect subsequent propranolol usage and patient management remains unclear. We examined the value of ECG prior to propranolol therapy in a quaternary pediatric hospital. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on all infants who received propranolol (2 mg/kg/day divided three times daily) to treat PIH at Arkansas Children’s Hospital from Sept. 2008 to Sept. 2015. All available demographic, historical, and clinical data were obtained. ECGs and echocardiographic data were reviewed and summarized. A pediatric cardiologist read all ECGs. Results. A total of 333 patients (75% female) received propranolol therapy. ECG information was available for 317 (95%). Abnormal findings were present on 44/317 (13.9%) of study ECGs. The most common abnormal finding was “voltage criteria for ventricular hypertrophy” (, 76.1%). Two patients had abnormal rhythms; one had first-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, and one had occasional premature atrial contractions. Of the 31 patients who underwent echocardiograms, 20 (35%) were abnormal. 2.9% of infants with PIH treated with propranolol required a follow-up with a cardiologist. No patient was precluded from taking propranolol due to the findings on screening ECG. Conclusions. Screening ECGs prior to propranolol therapy are abnormal in nearly 14% of patients with PIH but are unlikely to preclude therapy. In the absence of prior cardiac history, this cohort offers further evidence suggesting that screening ECGs may be of limited value in determining the safety of propranolol in otherwise healthy infants with PIH.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Feb 2021 15:20:01 +000
       
  • Individual- and Community-Level Risk Factors Associated with Childhood
           Diarrhea in Ethiopia: A Multilevel Analysis of 2016 Ethiopia Demographic
           and Health Survey

    • Abstract: Background. Diarrhea is the second cause of child deaths globally. According to World Health Organization reports, in each year, it kills more than 525,000 children under 5 years. More than half of these deaths occur in five countries including Ethiopia. This study is aimed at identifying both individual- and community-level risk factors of childhood diarrhea in Ethiopia. Methods. Ethiopian demography and health survey of 2016 data were used for the analysis. A total of 10,641 children aged 0–59 months were included in the analysis. A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model was used to identify both individual- and community-level risk factors associated with childhood diarrhea. Result. The incidence of childhood diarrhea was 12% (95% CI: 11.39, 12.63). The random-effects model revealed that 67% of the variability of childhood diarrhea was explained by individual- and community-level factors. From the individual-level factors, children aged 36–59 months (; 95% CI: 2.569, 3.900), twin child (; 95% CI: 1.390, 2.527), birth order 5 and above (, 95% CI: 1.721, 2.839), not received any vaccination (; 95% CI: 1.190, 1.527), smaller size of child at birth (; 95% CI: 1.130, 1.504), and never breastfed children (; 95% CI: 2.380, 3.567) associated with the higher incidence of childhood diarrhea. From the community-level factors, living in a rural area (; 95% CI: 1.233, 1.836)), unprotected source of drinking water (; 95% CI: 1.060, 1.567), and availability of unimproved latrine facilities (OR: 1.289; 95% CI: 1.239, 1.759) associated with the higher incidence of childhood diarrhea. Besides, children who live in Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella, SNNPR, and Dire Dawa regions had higher incidence of childhood diarrhea. Conclusion. The incidence of childhood diarrhea was different from cluster to cluster in Ethiopia. Therefore, integrated child health intervention programs including provisions of toilet facility, access to a clean source of drinking water, educate parents about the importance of breastfeeding, and vaccination have to be strongly implemented in order to reduce the high incidence of childhood diarrhea among children in Ethiopia.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Feb 2021 15:20:01 +000
       
  • Cerebral Ischemia after Stenting of Coarctation of the Aorta

    • Abstract: Percutaneous stenting angioplasty of native coarctation of the aorta is considered a low-risk procedure with high success rate. The incidence of cerebral complications, especially ischemic complications, is very low. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who underwent a percutaneous stenting angioplasty for a coarctation of the aorta and developed a cerebral infraction 4 hours after the procedure.
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Feb 2021 15:05:00 +000
       
  • The Magnitude of Neonatal Mortality and Its Predictors in Ethiopia: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Although neonatal death is a global burden, it is the highest in sub-Saharan African countries such as Ethiopia. Moreover, there is disparity in the prevalence and associated factors of studies. Therefore, this study was aimed at providing pooled national prevalence and predictors of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods. The following databases were systematically explored to search for articles: Boolean operator, Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Hinari, and Google Scholar. Selection, screening, reviewing, and data extraction were done by two reviewers independently using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the Joanna Briggs Institute Prevalence Critical Appraisal tools were used to assess the quality of evidence. All studies conducted in Ethiopia and reporting the prevalence and predictors of neonatal mortality were included. Data were extracted using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software and imported into Stata version 14s for further analysis. Publication bias was checked using funnel plots and Egger’s and Begg’s tests. Heterogeneity was also checked by Higgins’s method. A random effects meta-analysis model with 95% confidence interval was computed to estimate the pooled effect size (i.e., prevalence and odds ratio). Moreover, subgroup analysis based on region, sample size, and study design was done. Results. After reviewing 88 studies, 12 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled national prevalence of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia was 16.3% (95% CI: 12.1, 20.6, ). The subgroup analysis indicated that the highest prevalence was observed in the Amhara region, 20.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 31.1), followed by Oromia, 18.8% (95% CI: 11.9, 49.4). Gestational age [AOR: 1.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.58)], neonatal sepsis [AOR: 1.23 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.4)], respiratory distress syndromes (RDS) [AOR: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.49)], and place of residency [AOR: 1.93 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.73)] were the most important predictors. Conclusions. Neonatal mortality in Ethiopia was significantly decreased. There was evidence that neonatal sepsis, gestational age, and place of residency were the significant predictors. RDS were also a main predictor of mortality even if not statistically significant. We strongly recommended that health care workers should give a priority for preterm neonates with diagnosis with sepsis and RDS.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Feb 2021 13:50:01 +000
       
  • Chronic Effects of Pediatric Ear Infections on Postural Stability

    • Abstract: Background. Ear infections in children often cause abnormal postural stability. However, the long-term effects of recurrent ear infections on postural stability have not been investigated. Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of multiple ear infections on pediatric postural stability. Methods. Forty children aged 10-12 years were divided into two groups (18 participants with a history of tympanostomy tubes and/or 3 or more ear infections prior to age five and 22 participants without a history of tympanostomy tubes and/or 0-2 ear infections prior to age five). Computerized Stability Evaluation Test (SET) and noncomputerized postural stability were measured for all participants. Results. A significant difference was found in median postural stability scores in the SET during a tandem stance on an unstable surface between the two groups (median (minimum, maximum) of 9.1 (1.4, 11.4) versus 5.8 (1.7, 12.8), ). In addition, there was a significant difference in median Pediatric Balance Scale scores between participants with versus without ear infection (54 (47, 56) versus 56 (55, 56), ).Conclusions. Results suggest that children ages 10-12 with a history of tympanostomy tubes and/or 3 or more ear infections prior to age five have decreased postural stability.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2021 12:50:01 +000
       
  • Concordance between Body Composition Indices Measured with Dual-Energy
           X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Obese
           Children in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the reference standard in the measurement of body composition indices. But, its utility is limited due to the high cost, expertise required, lack of portability, and restricted availability. Therefore, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) has gained recognition in resource-limited settings for the measurement of body composition indices in the screening of children for childhood obesity. To determine whether BIA represents a viable alternative to DXA in the assessment of body composition in obese children in the community setting in Sri Lanka, the concordance between BIA and DXA was determined. Fat mass (FM), percentage fat mass (%FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured in 97 obese children using DXA and BIA, and the concordance between the methods was analyzed using independent sample -test, regression analysis, and Bland-Altman plots. Significant mean differences were observed between DXA and BIA in measuring FM and FFM. However, high correlations were seen in DXA- and BMI-derived FM and FFM measurements (FM and FFM 0.83, for both). Compared to DXA, BIA overestimated FM and %FM and underestimated FFM. When compared with DXA-derived measurements, the accuracy errors (SEE) of BIA for FM, FFM, and %FM were relatively higher in boys (3.56 kg, 4.49 kg, and 5.46%, respectively) than in girls (2.44 kg, 3.72 kg, and 3.5%), respectively. BA plots showed a systematic error in the measurements of FM, FFM, and %FM in both sexes. Despite the limitations inherited, BIA is a viable alternative to DXA for the measurement of body composition in obese children of 5-15 yrs. The accuracy errors observed, however, need to be taken into consideration when interpreting results at the individual level.
      PubDate: Sat, 13 Feb 2021 12:20:01 +000
       
  • The Revolution of Breast Milk: The Multiple Role of Human Milk Banking
           between Evidence and Experience—A Narrative Review

    • Abstract: The review recalls the importance of breast milk and deepens the theme of human milk banking, a virtuous reality that is expanding all over the world but is still little known. In the last 15 years, modern biological technologies have crystallized the concept of uniqueness and irreproducibility of human milk, by establishing three new principles: first: human milk: a “life-saving” drug; second: human milk: the best food for preterm infants; and third: human milk: the main component of premature infant care. Our experience teaches us that human milk banking plays many roles that need to be known and shared.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Feb 2021 13:35:02 +000
       
  • Comparison of Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Premature
           Neonates with or without Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

    • Abstract: Background. Deficiency or reduced transmission of long-chain fatty acids and essential fatty acids may inhibit lung growth and development. We aimed to evaluate and compare serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in premature neonates with RDS. Methods. This study is a cross-sectional study performed on premature neonates born in Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan in 2018. Immediately after birth and after umbilical cord clumping, blood samples were taken from the umbilical artery and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were measured. Those patients with the diagnosis of RDS were transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Data regarding the laboratory results of the lipid profile in patients were compared to that in the other group. Results. A total number of 100 neonates entered the study and were divided into 2 groups. Analysis of gender and mean gestational ages among the two groups showed no significant differences between the groups ( and , respectively). Further analysis showed a significant decreased serum cholesterol in the group 1 of patients (), but there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding triglyceride levels (). There was a significant direct relationship between gestational age and serum triglyceride levels in patients with RDS (,).Conclusion. Here, we indicated significantly lower cholesterol levels in the cord serum of premature neonates with RDS compared to non-RDS premature neonates. Our data also showed a significant direct relationship between gestational age and serum triglyceride levels in patients with RDS. These data were in line with the previous studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Feb 2021 07:05:00 +000
       
  • The Safety and Efficacy of Lansoprazole plus Metoclopramide among Neonates
           with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Resistant to Conservative Therapy and
           Monotherapy: A Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common problems in neonates. The main clinical manifestations of neonatal GERD are frequent regurgitation or vomiting associated with irritability, crying, anorexia or feeding refusal, failure to thrive, arching of the back, and sleep disturbance. Aims. The efficacy and safety of ranitidine plus metoclopramide and lansoprazole plus metoclopramide in reducing clinical GERD symptoms based on I-GERQ-R scores in neonatal GERD resistant to conservative and monotherapy. Study Design. This study was a randomized clinical trial of term neonates with GERD diagnosis (according to the final version of the I-GERQ-R), resistant to conservative and monotherapy admitted to Bahrami Children Hospital during 2017-2019. Totally, 120 term neonates (mean age days; girls 54.63%) were randomly assigned to a double-blind trial with either oral ranitidine plus metoclopramide (group A) or oral lansoprazole plus metoclopramide (group B). The changes of the symptoms and signs were recorded after one week and one month. At the end, fifty-four neonates in each group completed the study and their data were analyzed. Results. There was no significant difference in demographic and baseline characteristics between the two groups. The response rate of “lansoprazole plus metoclopramide” was significantly higher than “ranitidine plus metoclopramide” ( score vs. score, ) after one week and ( score vs. score, ) after one month (primary outcome). There were no drug adverse effects in either group during intervention (secondary outcome). Conclusions. The response rate was significant in each group after one week and one month of treatment, but it was significantly higher in the “lansoprazole plus metoclopramide” group compared with the “ranitidine plus metoclopramide” group. The combination of each acid suppressant with metoclopramide led to a higher response rate in comparison with monotherapy used before intervention. This study has been registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trails (RCT20160827029535N3).
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jan 2021 14:35:01 +000
       
  • Skin-to-Skin Care by Mother vs. Father for Preterm Neonatal Pain: A
           Randomized Control Trial (ENVIRON Trial)

    • Abstract: Objective. To compare skin-to-skin care (SSC) given by mother and father for preterm neonatal pain control by premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score. Methods. 64 stable preterm (28-36 weeks gestational age) neonates born at a level-3 neonatal intensive care unit were included in the trial. Random allocation with the help of a computer-generated sequence was done. In group A, SSC was given by the mother 15 minutes before the first heel-stick, and subsequently, SSC was given by the father before the second heel-stick. In group B, the sequence of SSC provider was reversed. Blinded PIPP score assessment at 0, 1, and 5 minutes of heel-stick were done by two independent assessors using video recording. Results. The mean (SD) birth weight was 1665.18 (339.35) grams, and mean (SD) gestational age was 34.28 (2.24) weeks. The PIPP score at 0, 1, and 5 minutes had no statistical or clinically significant differences between both groups (PIPP score mean (SD) at (1.11) vs. 3.01 (1.29), value = 0.38; (4.27) vs. 8.26 (4.08), value = 0.66; (1.40) vs. 3.93 (1.99), value = 0.65 in SSC by mother and father group, respectively). Furthermore, there was no statistical difference between the groups for any components of the PIPP score (all values> 0.05). The PIPP score at 5 minutes almost attained the 0-minute level in both the groups. Conclusion. Father is as effective as the mother for providing skin-to-skin care for preterm neonatal pain control. This trial is registered with CTRI/2018/01/016783.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jan 2021 11:35:01 +000
       
  • Pediatric Nonaccidental Trauma: Experience at a Level 1 Trauma Center

    • Abstract: Introduction. Pediatric nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is difficult to diagnose. Several isolated injuries in NAT could happen in the setting of accidental trauma (AT), and having a high index of suspicion is important to correctly identify abuse. NAT has a significant mortality rate if the sentinel event is not adequately diagnosed, and the infant is not separated from the perpetrator. Level 1 pediatric trauma centers (PTC) see a significant number of NAT. We evaluated the injury patterns of NAT admissions at our level 1 PTC. Methods. Retrospective analysis of all cases of NAT for children under the age of two admitted at an ACS level 1 pediatric trauma center between the years of 2016 and 2018. Charts were queried for demographic data, injury patterns, mortality, and disposition. Correlation between disposition status and injury patterns was performed. The Fisher Exact test and student -test were used to study the significance of differences in categorical and continuous data, respectively. Results. 32/91 (35%) trauma patients under the age of two years were diagnosed as NAT in the three-year study period. 21/32 (39%) male and 11/26 (42%) female admissions were confirmed NAT (). 20 were under 1 year of age, and 12 were aged between 1 and 2 years (). 13 (41%) were Caucasian, 6 (19%) were Hispanic/Latino, 11 (34%) were Black, and 2(6%) were of unknown ethnicity (). Facial, torso, lower extremity, retinal, and internal organ injury were significantly more common with NAT. Medicaid coverage was noted in 31/32 (97%) NAT patients. 20/32 (62.5%) patients were legally displaced as a result of the NAT. Conclusion. 1/3rd of all admissions at a pediatric level 1 trauma center were identified as NAT. A high index of suspicion is necessary to not miss NAT, as injury patterns are variable. Nearly 1/3rd of all victims go back to the same environment where they sustained NAT increasing their susceptibility to future NAT.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 14:50:00 +000
       
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of HIV-Positive Adolescents Related to
           HIV/AIDS Prevention in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)

    • Abstract: Introduction. In sub-Saharan Africa, many adolescents living with HIV adopt behaviors and practices at risk of transmitting this infection. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive adolescents regarding the transmission of HIV for the prevention of this disease. Methods. Knowledge Attitude Practical Survey (KAP) conducted from June 20 to August 22, 2018 in pediatrics at the University Hospital of Treichville. It included consenting HIV-positive adolescents followed up in the voluntary testing counseling unit. The variables studied related to sociodemographic aspects, knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to the transmission of HIV. The analysis was descriptive. Results. The active queue was 349 children, including 210 adolescents. Fifty adolescents (22 boys and 28 girls) participated in the study, a participation rate of 24%. The average age of the participants was 16 years (extreme 10 and 19 years). The respondent was an orphan (38%), a secondary school (58%), and separated living parents in 42%. He stated that he did not know he was infected in 62%, and that he had sex with at least one partner in 54%. He knew the modes of transmission and the means of prevention in 72% of the cases. He knew that an HIV-positive adolescent could transmit the disease in 68%, and that HIV/AIDS was incurable in 40%. 42% of respondents said that an infected person on ARVs was contagious. Twenty-nine respondents who had a partner said they had unprotected sex in 58%. All of the adolescents surveyed said that they did not talk to friends and family about HIV. Conclusion. The level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of HIV-positive adolescents regarding HIV/AIDS transmission is insufficient. We suggest setting up a therapeutic HIV/AIDS education program for these adolescents.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Dec 2020 14:35:01 +000
       
  • Comorbidities and Factors Associated with Mortality among Children under
           Five Years Admitted with Severe Acute Malnutrition in the Nutritional Unit
           of Jinja Regional Referral Hospital, Eastern Uganda

    • Abstract: Background. Mortality among children with severe acute malnutrition remains an immense health concern in the hospitals in developing countries, but its attributes are not completely assessed in various hospital settings. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of mortality, the comorbidities, and factors associated with in-hospital mortality among children under five years of age admitted with severe acute malnutrition at Jinja Regional Referral Hospital, Eastern Uganda. Methods. This was a hospital-based analytical and descriptive prospective cohort study conducted in the nutritional unit of Jinja Regional Referral Hospital. A total of 338 children and their caretakers who met the criteria were consecutively enrolled into the study. Descriptive statistics were used to each of the independent factors, and comorbidities were subjected to chi-squared test followed by logistic regression analysis to assess its association incidence of mortality among children. All independent variables with values ≤ 0.05 were entered into a multivariate model for factors and comorbidities independently. Factors and comorbidities with values ≤ 0.05 were considered as associates of mortality among children. Results. Of the 338 children under 5 years of age enrolled, 49 (14.5%) died, although the majority of children were diagnosed with dehydration, 128 (37.9%); pneumonia, 127(37.6%); and malaria, 87(25.7%). Anemia (, 95% CI: 1.23-6.62, ), bacteremia (, 95% CI: 3.62-29.01, ), HIV (, 95% CI: 1.42-16.30, ), TB (, 95% CI: 1.28-14.49, ), and shock (, 95% CI: 9.05-410.28, ) were the comorbidities significantly associated with a likelihood of mortality. Conclusions. The mortality among children under 5 years of age admitted with severe acute malnutrition is still high (14.5% versus 5%). The comorbidities are significantly associated with mortality. The clinicians are recommended to follow-up closely patients with severe acute malnutrition and to focus on the critical comorbidities identified.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 16:05:01 +000
       
  • Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Admissions for COVID-19: Insights Using
           State-Level Data

    • Abstract: Introduction. Intensive care has played a pivotal role during the COVID-19 pandemic as many patients developed severe pulmonary complications. The availability of information in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) remains limited. The purpose of this study is to characterize COVID-19 positive admissions (CPAs) in the United States and to determine factors that may impact those admissions. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study using data from the COVID-19 Virtual Pediatric System (VPS) dashboard containing information regarding respiratory support and comorbidities for all CPAs between March and April 2020. The state-level data contained 13 different factors from population density, comorbid conditions, and social distancing score. The absolute CPA count was converted to frequency using the state’s population. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between CPA frequency and admission endpoints. Results. A total of 205 CPAs were reported by 167 PICUs across 48 states. The estimated CPA frequency was 2.8 per million children in a one-month period. A total of 3,235 tests were conducted of which 6.3% were positive. Children above 11 years of age comprised 69.7% of the total cohort and 35.1% had moderated or severe comorbidities. The median duration of a CPA was 4.9 days (1.25–12.00 days). Out of the 1,132 total CPA days, 592 (52.2%) involved mechanical ventilation. The inpatient mortalities were 3 (1.4%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated an association between CPAs with greater population density (beta coefficient 0.01, ). Multivariate analyses also demonstrated an association between pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus with increased CPA duration requiring advanced respiratory support (beta coefficient 5.1, ) and intubation (beta coefficient 4.6, ).Conclusions. Inpatient mortality during PICU CPAs is relatively low at 1.4%. CPA frequency seems to be impacted by population density. Type 1 DM appears to be associated with increased duration of HFNC and intubation. These factors should be included in future studies using patient-level data.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 13:20:01 +000
       
  • Time to Relapse and Its Predictors among Children with Nephrotic Syndrome
           in Comprehensive Specialized Hospitals, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019

    • Abstract: Background. Relapse in children with nephrotic syndrome leads to a variety of complications due to prolonged treatment and potential dependency on steroids. However, there is no study conducted to determine the incidence and predictive factors of relapse for nephrotic syndrome in Ethiopia, especially in children. Thus, this study aimed to assess the incidence of relapse and its predictors among children with nephrotic syndrome in Ethiopia. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted by reviewing all charts of children with an initial diagnosis of the nephrotic syndrome in tertiary hospitals from 2011 to 2018. Charts of children with a diagnosis of steroid-resistant cases were excluded. The extraction tool was used for data collection, Epi-data manager V-4.4.2 for data entry, and Stata V-14 for cleaning and analysis. Kaplan-Meier curve, log-rank test, life table, and crude hazard ratios were used to describe the data and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% CI and value for analysis. Median relapse time, incidence rate of relapse, and cumulative relapse probabilities at a certain time interval were computed. Bivariable and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression to identify the factors associated with relapse. Any variable at in the bivariable analysis was transferred to multivariate analysis. Then, the adjusted hazard ratio with 95% CI and was used to report the association and to test the statistical significance, respectively. Finally, texts, tables, and graphs were used to present the results. Results and Conclusion. Majority, 64.5% (40/66), of relapses were recorded in the first 12 months of follow-up. The incidence rate of relapse was 42.6 per 1000 child-month-observations with an overall 1454 child-month-observations and the median relapse time of 16 months. Having undernutrition [; 95% CI 1.78-6.65], elevated triglyceride [; 95% CI 1.04-10.90], decreased serum albumin level [; 95% CI 1.81-6.80], and rural residence [; 95% CI 1.49-10.76] increased the hazard of relapse. Conclusion and Recommendation. Relapse was higher in the first year of the follow-up period. Undernutrition, hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and being from rural areas were independent predictors of relapse. A focused evaluation of those predictors during the initial diagnosis of the disease is compulsory.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 07:20:01 +000
       
  • Propionic and Methylmalonic Acidemias: Initial Clinical and Biochemical
           Presentation

    • Abstract: PA and MAA have numerous nonspecific presentations, potentially leading to delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. In this paper, we present the clinical and biochemical characteristics of MMA and PA patients at initial presentation. Results. This is a retrospective review of 20 patients with PA () and MMA (). The most observed symptoms were vomiting (85%) and refusing feeding (70%). Ammonia was  μmol/l, showing a negative correlation with pH and bicarbonate and positive correlation with lactate and anion gap. Peak ammonia did not correlate with age of onset ( and ) or age at diagnosis ( and ), nor did pH (,;,) or bicarbonate (,;,). There was no correlation between ammonia and C3 : C2 ( and ) or C3 ( and ). The glycine was  μmol/l, and it was higher in PA (). There was a positive correlation between glycine and both pH ( and ) and HCO3 ( and ). There was no correlation between glycine and ammonia ( and ) or lactate ( and ).Conclusion. Clinical presentation of PA and MMA is nonspecific, though vomiting and refusing feeding are potential markers of decompensation. Blood gas, lactate, and ammonia levels are also good predictors of decompensation, though increasing levels of glycine may not indicate metabolic instability.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 13:05:01 +000
       
  • Clinical and Epidemiological Determinants of Lower Respiratory Tract
           Infections in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is the main cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries. Purpose. This study was carried out to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children with LRTI. Method. A retrospective study was conducted on all pediatric patients who were hospitalized due to LRTI in Abuzar Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran) during one year. Incomplete medical records and children who were treated on an outpatient basis, as well as infants younger than 1 month of age, were excluded. The patients were evaluated in terms of epidemiological, clinical, and paraclinical characteristics. Results. A total of 303 hospitalized children and infants were identified. Their mean age was months (range 1 month-15 years), and 59.4% of them were males. The highest frequency of patients was at the age below one year (50.8%, ). Pneumonia and bronchitis were the most common LRTIs. Respiratory (54.6%) and neurological (21.6%) diseases were the most prevalent underlying medical conditions. Admission was more common in winter (, 39.6%) and spring (, 26.1%). The mean length of stay (LOS) in the hospital was days, and the overall mortality rate was 11.6%. In addition, 65 patients were severely underweight and 271 patients were malnourished. Moreover, there was a significant association between mortality and disease diagnosis (). Furthermore, there was a significant association between having an underlying disease and consanguineous parents (), as well as the frequency of hospitalization ().Conclusion. Additional studies are required to determine factors contributing to disease severity among children with LRTI to develop appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 14:35:02 +000
       
  • Child Night Blindness and Bitot’s Spots Are Public Health Problems in
           Lay Armachiho District, Central Gondar Zone, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019: A
           Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Night blindness (XN) is a condition in which a person cannot see in dim light and is the earliest clinical manifestation of vitamin A deficiency. Globally, vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in 122 countries, of which 45 countries have moderate to severe child night blindness. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of night blindness and Bitot’s spot among children aged 24-59 months. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed from February to March 2019 among children aged 24-59 months in the Lay Armachiho District, Amhara region. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive summary statistics were used to describe the study population. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify associated factors. Results. Out of 1007 children, 1.9% and 2.2% had night blindness and Bitot’s spot, respectively. Illiterate mothers (;), age of 48 to 59 months (;), ≥4 family sizes (;), had diarrhea (;), and had a respiratory tract infection (;) were significantly associated with night blindness. Age of 48-59 months (;) and mothers who did not wash their hands after using the toilet (;) were predictor variables for Bitot’s spots. Conclusion. The prevalence of night blindness and Bitot’s spots was high. Child’s age, mother’s educational status, family size, diarrhea in the last 2 weeks, and respiratory tract infection in the last 2 weeks were predictive variables for night blindness. Besides, handwashing practice after using the toilet and child’s age were significantly associated with Bitot’s spot among children. Therefore, both night blindness and Bitot’s spots are a public health problem and call for the attention of health professionals in primary health care facilities.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 02:50:00 +000
       
  • Determinants of Neural Tube Defects among Newborns in Amhara Region,
           Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Worldwide, an estimated 300,000 neonates are born with neural tube defects (NTDs) each year. However, NTDs are underreported in Ethiopia though it causes substantial mortality, morbidity, disability, and psychological and economic cost in the country. Moreover, the factors attributed to NTDs were not addressed. Hence, this study intended to identify the determinants of neural tube defects in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. A case-control study design was conducted among 400 newborns (133 cases and 267 controls) who were born at randomly selected public hospitals. Cases were identified using the physician diagnosis of confirmed NTDs, and the two consecutive controls were selected using a simple random sampling technique. The data analysis was done using Stata 14.0. Variables with value < 0.25 in the bivariate analysis were entered into the multivariable logistic regression model, and a corresponding 95% confidence interval was used to identify the predictors of NTDs. Results. In this study, fifty percent (48%) of the cases were contributed by anencephaly. After controlling the covariates, living in rural areas (: 95% CI 1.02, 3.11), being illiterate (: 95% CI 1.07, 4.61), being female newborn (: 95% CI 1.09, 3.50), having no ANC follow-up (: 95% CI 1.17, 5.04), and having a previous history of NTDs (: 95% CI 2.42, 7.96) were the risk factors for NTDs. However, being supplemented with folic acid or multivitamins before or during pregnancy (: 95% CI 0.21, 0.65), never having taken any substance during pregnancy (: 95% CI 0.21, 0.88), and being free from medical illnesses during pregnancy (: 95% CI 0.11, 0.69) were the protective factors of NTDs. Conclusion. The study revealed different factors associated with NTDs among newborns in the region. Therefore, comprehensive preventive strategies focused on identified risk factors are needed at regional and national levels.
      PubDate: Sat, 31 Oct 2020 06:35:01 +000
       
  • Predictors of Neonatal Sepsis in Hospitals at Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern
           Ethiopia: Institution-Based Unmatched Case-Control Study, 2019

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal sepsis plays a significant role in neonates’ mortality in developing countries accounting for 30-50% of total deaths each year. Gaining insight into neonatal sepsis predictors will provide an opportunity for the stakeholders to reduce the causes of neonatal sepsis. This research is aimed at determining the predictors of neonatal sepsis at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital and Sodo Christian General Hospital, Ethiopia, April-July 2019. Method. This study employed an institution-based unmatched case-control study by selecting neonates in selected hospitals through consecutive sampling technique. The cases of this study are neonates diagnosed with sepsis. The study used a pretested structured questionnaire for a face-to-face interview to collect data from index mothers. Besides, the review of the record was done using checklists. The data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 24.0 for analysis. The study used descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. The odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to measure the association’s strength. was the cut-off point for declaration of statistical significance for the multivariate analysis. Results. Factors significantly associated with neonatal sepsis among neonates were maternal age of 15-20 years and 21-30 years, mothers with low income/wealth, history of urinary tract infections/sexually transmitted infections, presence of intrapartum infections, antenatal care visits, Apgar (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration) , low birth weight, and the time in which breastfeeding started after minutes. Conclusion. Maternal age, wealth/income, maternal urinary tract infections/sexually transmitted infections, intrapartum fever, antenatal care times, Apgar , low birth weight, and starting time of breastfeeding were independent predictors of neonatal sepsis. Therefore, maternal health education during antenatal care visits, perinatal and newborn care, and early initiation of breastfeeding might decrease neonatal mortality and morbidity due to sepsis.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Oct 2020 08:20:00 +000
       
  • Bacteriology and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns among Neonates
           Diagnosed of Omphalitis at a Tertiary Special Care Baby Unit in Western
           Uganda

    • Abstract: Background. Newborn infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality among neonates in low-income countries. Clinical diagnosis for omphalitis in such settings is possible but this does not depict the microbiological characteristics of the involved organisms, and clinicians have often prescribed empirical antibiotics in neonates with omphalitis, despite an increasing burden of antibiotic resistance. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates diagnosed with omphalitis at the special care baby unit (SCBU) of Kampala International University-Teaching Hospital (KIU-TH), western Uganda from March to June 2019. Sixty-five (65) neonates with a clinical diagnosis of omphalitis were consecutively recruited in the study. Cord swabs were taken under sterile (aseptic) precautions from all neonates, and antibiotic susceptibility tests performed using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion technique with commercially available antibiotics disks of ampicillin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, amikacin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, and imipenem on Mueller Hinton agar plates. The data was analyzed using STATA version 13.0, frequencies and proportions used to describe the variables. Results. Fifty-five, 55 (84.6%), neonates with suspected omphalitis had positive cord swab culture. Staphylococcal aureus (58.2%) was the commonest cause of omphalitis followed by Neisseria spp (16.4%), E. coli 6 (10.9%), Proteus spp (5.5%), Klebsiella spp (3.6%), Citrobacter spp (3.6%), and Haemophilus spp (1.8%) in decreasing frequency. Isolates were resistant to ampicillin (87.7%), gentamicin (54.4%), and cloxacillin (34.4%), the drugs recommended for use in neonates with suspected omphalitis. Conclusions. Staphylococcal aureus is still the predominant cause of omphalitis among neonates. There was high resistance to the commonly used antibiotics in the treatment of omphalitis among newborns. This study reemphasizes that clinicians should do cord swabbing for both culture and susceptibility tests among newborns with suspected omphalitis before initiation of antibiotics.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2020 14:20:00 +000
       
  • Injury Patterns and Demographics in Child and Adolescent Assault Victims
           Presenting to US Emergency Departments

    • Abstract: Objective. To correlate injury patterns with patient demographics in child and adolescent assault victims. Methods. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program data for the years 2005 through 2015 was used. Injuries due to assault were identified and analyzed with SUDAAN 11.0.01™ software to account for the weighted, stratified nature of the data. Results. There were an estimated 4,407,009 ED visits for assault in of age. With increasing age, the percentage of females decreased. Sexual assaults were more common in females (87.4%), and robbery/burglary was more common in males (79.8%). When the perpetrator was a spouse/partner, the assault victim was most commonly female (88.8%), and when a stranger, the assault victim was most commonly male (71.5%). With increasing age, the percentage of sexual assaults decreased while the reason for the assault being unknown increased. The assault occurred in the home in 59.6% of of age, decreasing to 18.7% in those 15 to 19 years of age. The anatomic location was the head/neck in 32.8% of of age, increasing to 60.6% in those 15-19 years old. old had the highest hospital admission rate (8.3%). The main diagnoses were concussion (3.0%), contusion/abrasion (33.3%), fracture (11.5%), laceration (11.5%), internal organ injury (11.5%), puncture (2.8%), and strain/sprain (20.7%). The number of assaults from 2005 to 2015 decreased for all age groups except for old. Conclusions. These data provide a comprehensive overview of child and adolescent assault victims presenting to the ED in the USA and can be used as background data for further study. The decreasing numbers of assaults over the 11 years of the study are encouraging, and challenges still exist in decreasing the number for old.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
       
  • Reaching the Unreached: Providing Quality Care to HIV-Infected Children
           through Telemedicine—An Innovative Pilot Initiative from Maharashtra,
           India

    • Abstract: Background. The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India created the Regional Pediatric Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Center; this was subsequently upgraded to seven Pediatric Centers of Excellence (PCoEs) to strengthen the quality of treatment and care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHAs). In October 2013, the pediatric HIV telemedicine initiative, an e-decentralized (care provided by local healthcare providers and support provided by a central agency through telemedicine facilities) model of expert pediatric HIV care and referral services, was established as a pilot project at the Pediatric Center of Excellence for HIV Care in Maharashtra. We designed the present study to compare management, compliance to ART, and mortality in children in the ART centers linked to the PCoE through telemedicine versus those that are not linked to the PCoE. Methods. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study of secondary data from CLHAs from October 2013 through August 2015 in the ART centers to document the intermediate outcomes and to determine if the initiative has improved the quality of care for the CLHAs enrolled in the linked ART centers with nonlinked ART centers. The centers in which the telemedicine sessions were conducted regularly were called linked-regular centers and in whom it was conducted irregularly (less than the median of 12 videoconference cases), it was called a linked-irregular center. Data from 2803 children in 31 linked (1365 in irregular and 1438 in regular centers) and 2608 children in 28 nonlinked centers were analyzed. The outcomes in children in the pre-ART group (ART naïve) were (1) alive on pre-ART, (2) lost to follow-up on pre-ART, (3) death during the pre-ART period, (4) eligible but not initiated on ART, and (5) missing baseline and latest CD4 counts. The outcomes of children on ART were (1) alive on ART, (2) lost to follow-up on ART, (3) death on ART, and (4) missing baseline and latest CD4 counts. Results. We found that a higher proportion of children in the linked-regular centers (79% vs. 70%, ) and linked-irregular centers (76% vs. 70%, ) was alive compared with that in the nonlinked centers in the pre-ART group. In this group, the proportion of children with missing baseline CD4 counts and latest CD4 counts was significantly low in linked (regular centers) centers. In the ART group, we found that a higher proportion of children in the linked-regular centers was alive compared with that in the linked-irregular centers (77% vs. 69%, ); the proportion was not significantly different in nonlinked centers (77% vs. 78%, ). In this group, the proportion of missing baseline CD4 counts was significantly lower in the linked-regular centers (3% vs 13%, p
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 05:50:01 +000
       
  • Parental Knowledge of Children’s Developmental Milestones in
           Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Objective. Parental recognition of children’s developmental milestones has been correlated with more effective childcare strategies and overall better outcomes for children. However, the knowledge that parents have about children’s development remains uncertain which reflects serious concerns about children’s health in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was undertaken to identify parents’ knowledge levels about children’s developmental milestones and the information sources they rely on for this knowledge. Study Design. We recruited 1471 parents aged ≥18 with at least one child under 14 and living in Riyadh to participate in an online survey between July of 2019 and January of 2020. Results. Most respondents showed a poor level of knowledge (80.0%) in all of four domains. However, mothers had more acceptable levels of knowledge (21.0%) than fathers (10.0%) (). There was a significant association between knowledge and age at first child’s birth; respondents who had their first child between 39 and 50 had the highest levels of knowledge (37.5%; ). In the four domains of development, parents were found to have the most knowledge about physical development (52.3%), followed by cognitive development (21.6%), social development (21.5%), and emotional development (21.2%). Only a few parents (5%) claimed to always rely on their healthcare professionals for information. Conclusion. There is a lack of appropriate knowledge about developmental milestones among parents, which reflects serious concerns about children’s health in Saudi Arabia. Healthcare institutions and pediatricians currently play a minimal role in health education. Effective health education programs and strategies should be implemented to improve child development outcomes in the community.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 03:50:00 +000
       
  • Newborn Care Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers of
           One-Month-Old Infants in Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Newborn care refers to the care that is provided to the baby from birth to one-month-old by a caregiver or by the mothers including thermal care, hygienic care, cord care, eye care, breastfeeding, immunization, and identification of newborn danger signs. According to Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016, the neonatal mortality rate was 29 deaths per 1000 live births, and the postneonatal mortality rate was 19 deaths per 1000 live births with neonates contributing 48 deaths per 1000 of the infant mortality. Neonatal mortality accounts for approximately two-thirds of all infant mortality worldwide. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess newborn care practice and associated factors among mothers with babies of one-month-old in Hossana town, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, Ethiopia, 2018. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected 422 mothers with babies of one-month-old in Hossana town, southwest Ethiopia. The data were entered to EpiData 3.1 and exported to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied, and frequencies and odds ratios were calculated to determine the prevalence and associated factors, respectively. Results. In this study, 31% of participants had good newborn care practice based on three composite variables such as 84% who have done early breastfeeding initiation, 32.9% who have done safe cord care, and 30.6% who have done thermal care. Educational status of the mother’s, primary (, 95% CI: 1.027-7.637), secondary (, 95% CI: 0.921-7.316), and college and above (, 95% CI: 1.056-12.492); mothers who practiced handwashing (hygiene) before touching a newborn (, 95% CI: 1.092-5.963); and mothers who had good knowledge on newborn care practice (, 95% CI: 3.599-67.943) were significantly associated with newborn care practice. Conclusion and Recommendation. The present study indicated that the level of comprehensive newborn care practice was unsatisfactory; all responsible bodies were giving attention and intervene on the predictors to improve newborn care practice and provide health education regarding newborn care practice. Education level, health education (counseling) on hygiene, and knowledge of mother on newborn care practice were independent predictors of newborn care practice.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 16:50:00 +000
       
  • Improving the Assessment and Classification of Sick Children according to
           the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) Protocol at Sanja
           Primary Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Pre-Post Interventional Study

    • Abstract: Background. A complete and consistent use of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) protocol is a strategic implementation that has been used to promote the accurate assessment and classifications of childhood illnesses, ensures appropriate combined treatment, strengthens the counseling of caregiver, and speeds up the referrals to decrease child mortality and morbidity. However, there is limited evidence about the complete and consistent use of IMCI protocol during the assessment and classifications of childhood illness in Ethiopia. Therefore, this intervention was implemented to improve the assessment and classifications of childhood illness according to the IMCI protocol in Sanja primary hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A pre-post interventional study was used in Sanja primary hospital from January 01 to May 30, 2019. A total of 762 (381 for pre and 381 for postintervention) children from 2 months up to 5 years of age were involved in the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire prepared from the IMCI guideline, and a facility checklist was used. A five-month in-service training, weekly supportive supervision, daily morning session, and availing essential drugs and materials were done. Both the descriptive statistics and independent -test were done. In the independent -test, a value of
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 14:50:05 +000
       
  • Congenital Malaria and Its Associated Factors at Issaka Gazobi Maternity
           of Niamey in Niger

    • Abstract: Background. Congenital malaria is a serious and common infection in tropical Africa. It has multiple consequences on the newborn and the mother. Objective. The objective of this study is to calculate the prevalence of congenital malaria, describe its clinical signs, and analyze its associated factors. Methodology. It is a cross-sectional and prospective study, conducted at Issaka Gazobi Maternity of Niamey, from June 1 to November 30, 2017. The diagnosis was made by microscopy of a thick and thin blood smear of mother, newborn, and umbilical cord. Results. Two hundred and forty-nine (249) consecutive newborn/mother pairs were included. The prevalence of congenital malaria infection was 26.51% (66/249) with a parasite density of 101 P/μl (SD: 47.3; [80; 320]). The prevalence of congenital malaria disease was 14.06% (35/249) with a parasite density of 108 P/μl (SD: 32.6; [40; 200]. All patients were infected with Plasmodium falciparum. 43% (18/35) of neonates had hyperthermia and did not have a sucking reflex, 8.5% (3/35) were anaemic, 11.42% (4/35) had convulsed, 20% (7/35) had a coma, and 45.71% (16/35) had a low birth weight. No deaths were recorded, and only the nonuse of bed nets was significantly associated with congenital malaria ().Conclusion. In Niger, one out of four newborns is infected with Plasmodium. Infection can progress to congenital malaria disease. The use of mosquito nets and intermittent preventive treatment would reduce the incidence of congenital malaria.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 11:50:02 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Nutritional Status and Educational Performance of
           School-Aged Children in Lalibela Town Primary Schools, Northern
           Ethiopia”

    • PubDate: Mon, 19 Oct 2020 03:35:00 +000
       
  • Incidence Density Rate of Neonatal Mortality and Predictors in Sub-Saharan
           Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal mortality in Sub-Saharan countries is remarkably high. Though there are inconsistent studies about the incidence density rate of neonatal mortalities (IDR) and predictors in Sub-Saharan Africa, they are inconclusive to policymakers and program planners. In this study, the IDR of neonatal mortalities and predictors was determined. Methods. Electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE (Elsevier), Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), World Cat, Google Scholar, and Google) were explored. 20 out of 818 studies were included in this study. The IDRs and predictors of neonatal mortality were computed from studies conducted in survival analysis. Fixed and random effect models were used to compute pooled estimates. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results. Neonates were followed for a total of 1,095,611 neonate-days; 67142 neonate-days for neonates treated in neonatal intensive care units and 1,028,469 neonate-days for community-based studies. The IDRs of neonatal mortalities in neonatal intensive care units and in the community were 24.53 and 1.21 per 1000 person-days, respectively. The IDRs of early and late neonatal mortalities neonatal intensive care units were 22.51 and 5.09 per 1000 neonate-days, respectively. Likewise, the IDRs of early and late neonatal mortalities in the community were 0.85 and 0.31, respectively. Not initiating breastfeeding within one hour, multiple births, rural residence, maternal illness, low Apgar score, being preterm, sepsis, asphyxia, and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors of time to neonatal mortality in neonatal intensive care units and male gender, perceived small size, multiple births, and ANC were predictors of neonatal mortality in the community. Conclusion. The incidence density rate of neonatal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa is significantly high. Multiple factors (neonatal and maternal) were found to be independent predictors. Strategies must be designed to address these predictors, and prospective studies could reveal other possible factors of neonatal mortalities.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
       
  • Button Gastrostomy Tubes for Pediatric Patients: A Tertiary Care Center
           Experience

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Gastrostomy tube insertion is one of the most common procedures performed as a radical choice to overcome feeding difficulty in children. This study is aimed at describing the replacement of a button tube instead of the long tube for feeding infants and children requiring gastrostomies in a tertiary care hospital. Design and Setting. This retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between January 2009 and August 2019 at Salmaniya Medical Complex which is a tertiary health care institute in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Subjects and Methods. Both charts and electronic health records of pediatric patients between the ages of 0 and 14 years were reviewed. Data were collected including age, sex, nationality, diagnosis, surgical information (procedure center and procedure performed), complications, and follow-up. Results. Out of 34 patients who underwent gastrostomy tube insertion, 30 patients had their long tube replaced by a button gastrostomy. Majority were males (, 60%). Prolonged nasogastric tube feeding was the main indication of referral (, 56%) followed by feed intolerance (, 17%) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (, 16%). The main underlying diseases at referral were neurological impairment (, 63%) and metabolic disorders (, 13%). There was no significant difference between patients with neurological disorders and other diseases in terms of gender, nationality, or age. Laparotomy with gastrostomy is the main approach used (, 60%). No reported complications of button tubes in 50% of the patients ().Conclusions. Prolonged nasogastric tube feeding is the main indication of referral for gastrostomy tube insertion. Neurological disorders are the main diagnosis for the cases operated upon. Laparotomy with gastrostomy is the procedure of choice at our center. Majority of patients had no reported complications of button tube replacement. These children are likely to benefit from the button tube with fewer complications.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Oct 2020 03:35:01 +000
       
 
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