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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 281 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Pediatrics
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9740 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9759
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Transcutaneous Bilirubin Measurements Can Be Used to Measure Bilirubin
           Levels during Phototherapy

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine whether transcutaneous bilirubin measurements (TcB) before and during phototherapy taken from covered skin during phototherapy correlate with total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Study Design. In this prospective observational study, healthy term newborns who required TSB measurements were included. TcB measurements were taken from the forehead before starting and during phototherapy using the BiliChek device. Before starting phototherapy, part of the forehead was covered. Blood for TSB measurement was collected within 5 minutes of TcB measurements. Correlations and mean differences between TcB and TSB before and during phototherapy were calculated. Result. Paired TSB and TcB measurements before and during phototherapy in 151 newborns were performed. The mean gestational age was 38.8 weeks and birth weight was 3.1 kg; 53% were male. Before starting phototherapy, TSB and TcB were and 190.5 ± 43 μmol/l, respectively. During phototherapy, TSB and TcB were and  μmol/l, respectively. Linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation between TcB and TSB before starting phototherapy and during phototherapy (: 0.85; and : 80.0; ), respectively. Before starting phototherapy, the mean difference between TSB and TcB was  mol/l, with a 95% CI of −39.3 to 51.7 mol. During phototherapy, the mean difference was − μmol/l, with a 95% CI of −48.9 to 43.3 mol/l. Conclusion. TcB measurements from covered skin in jaundiced term infants during phototherapy correlate with TSB and can be used to monitor bilirubin levels during phototherapy.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Knowledge Level and Determinants of Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional
           Study in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods. One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum bilirubin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), status and blood group (ABO and Rhesus). Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect maternal and neonate sociodemographic and clinical history. Results. Majority (54%) of neonates developed jaundice within 1–3 days after birth with 10% having it at birth. Duration of labour and neonatal birth weight were associated with neonatal jaundice (). G6PD abnormality was found in 11 (12%) of the neonates with jaundice and ABO incompatibility was present in 18%. Neonates delivered by mothers with formal occupation and those who had prolonged duration of labour were significantly more likely to have neonatal jaundice (OR = 4.174, ; OR = 2.389, , resp.). Neonates with low birth weight were also more likely to develop neonatal jaundice (OR = 2.347, ). Only 17.3% of mothers had heard of neonatal jaundice. School was the major source of information on neonatal jaundice (34.6%). Majority of participants (mothers) did not know that NNJ can cause damage to other organs in the body (90%). Conclusion. Low neonatal birth weight and prolonged duration of labour are associated with neonatal jaundice. Mothers had inadequate knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Improves Heart Rate Variability in
           Obese Children

    • Abstract: Obese children and adolescents are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. We hypothesized that cardiovascular prophylaxis with omega-3 fatty acids could benefit them. In our study, 20 children and adolescents (mean body mass index percentile: 99.1; mean age: 11.0 years) underwent two ambulatory 24 h Holter electrocardiography (ECG) recordings (before and after at least 3 months of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation). Time domain heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) were examined for these patients. As a control, we used 24 h Holter ECG recordings of 94 nonobese children and adolescents. Time domain HRV parameters, which are indicators of vagal stimulation, were significantly lower in obese patients than in healthy controls, but HR was higher (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal [SDNN] interbeat intervals: −34.02%; root mean square of successive differences [RMSSD] between normal heartbeats: −40.66%; percentage of consecutive RR intervals [pNN50]: −60.24%; HR: +13.37%). After omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, time domain HRV parameters and HR of obese patients were similar to the values of healthy controls (SDNN interbeat intervals: −21.73%; RMSSD: −19.56%; pNN50: −25.59%; HR: +3.94%). Therefore, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be used for cardiovascular prophylaxis in obese children and adolescents.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Preterm LBW Infants with Sepsis
           in India: A Prospective Cohort

    • Abstract: Objective. Neonatal sepsis is associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes but not with poor growth at 9 to 15 months of corrected age in LBW infants. Design, Setting, and Participants. This is a prospective cohort study involving 128 eligible preterm low-birth-weight (LBW) infants admitted during the period of 2013-2014 to the Durgabai Deshmukh Hospital and Research Center. All patients were followed up in the outpatient Department of Pediatrics. They were divided into the sepsis and nonsepsis group. Results. A total of 94 infants were evaluated (40 in sepsis and 54 in nonsepsis group). At the age of 9–15 months, low-birth-weight infants with neonatal sepsis had an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (67.5 versus 20.3%; RR: 3.31 (1.87–5.85)). There is no statistically significant difference in the growth outcomes. Conclusion. Neonatal infections are associated with the abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in LBW infants but there was no significant difference at growth outcome at 9 to 15 months of corrected age between both groups.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Infants Born Large for Gestational Age and Developmental Attainment in
           Early Childhood

    • Abstract: Objectives. To investigate if an association exists between being born large for gestational age (LGA) and verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems at ages 4-5 years. Method. A secondary analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, including singleton births in 2004-2005 followed till 4-5 years . LGA was defined as a birth weight > 90th percentile. Outcomes included poor verbal ability (scoring < 15th percentile on the Revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and externalizing behaviour problems (scoring > 90th percentile on externalizing behaviour scales). Multivariable logistic regression with longitudinal standardized funnel weights and bootstrapping estimation were used. Results. Infants born LGA were not found to be at increased risk for poor verbal ability (aOR: 1.16 and aOR: 0.83 for girls and boys, resp.) or externalizing behaviour problems (aOR: 1.24 and aOR: 1.24 for girls and boys, resp.). Social factors were found to impact developmental attainment. Maternal smoking led to an increased risk for externalizing behaviour problems (aOR: 3.33 and aOR: 2.12 for girls and boys, resp.). Conclusion. There is no evidence to suggest that infants born LGA are at increased risk for poor verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2018 10:43:39 +000
       
  • Skinfold Thickness Measurement in Term Nigerian Neonates: Establishing
           Reference Values

    • Abstract: Skin fold thickness (SFT) measurement is a reliable, cheap, simple, noninvasive method of body fat estimation at all ages including the neonatal period. Objective. To determine reference values of biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thickness measurements in term Nigerian newborns. Method. A prospective cross-sectional study over a six-month period (Dec 2010–May 2011) was carried out on term and healthy neonates delivered between 37 and 41 weeks. The anthropometric measurements were taken within the first 48 hours of life including the skinfold thickness. The skinfold thickness measurements were taken at four sites, namely, triceps, biceps, subscapular, and suprailiac, using Harpenden skinfold calipers. The mean of two readings was recorded. Result. A total of one thousand one hundred and sixty-eight neonates were studied. The birth weight ranged between 2000 g and 5000 g with a mean birth weight of the neonates at  g. The mean birth weight of the males () was significantly higher than that of females () (). Female neonates had higher mean values of triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac skinfold thickness (, resp.) while male neonates had higher mean value of biceps skinfold thickness (). Females also had higher mean values of the sum of skinfold thicknesses at all four sites and the sum at the two truncal sites at every stratified gestational age. Conclusions. The sex specific percentile chart developed for skinfold thickness measurements can be used to detect deviation from the reference population such that infants who are at risk of nutritional or health problems are identified early, and intervention is instituted promptly.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2018 09:10:42 +000
       
  • Assessment of Child Immunization Coverage and Associated Factors with Full
           Vaccination among Children Aged 12–23 Months at Mizan Aman Town, Bench
           Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Immunization remains one of the most important and cost-effective public health interventions to reduce child mortality and morbidity. Globally, it is estimated to avert between 2 and 3 million deaths each year. In Ethiopia, immunization coverage rates stagnated and remained very low for many years. Thus, this study was aimed to assess child immunization coverage and factors associated with full vaccination among children aged 12–23 months in Mizan Aman town. The study design was community-based cross-sectional survey. Data was collected by using pretested structured questionnaire. A total of 322 mothers/caretakers were interviewed. Based on vaccination card and mothers/caretakers’ recall, 295 (91.6%) of the children took at least a single dose of vaccine. From total children, 27 (8.4%) were not immunized at all, 159 (49.4%) were partially immunized, and 136 (42.2%) were fully immunized. Mothers/caretakers educational level, fathers’ educational level, place of delivery, maternal health care utilization, and mothers/caretakers knowledge about vaccine and vaccine-preventable disease showed significant association with full child immunization. The finding from this study revealed that child immunization coverage in the studied area was low. Thus the town health office and concerned stakeholders need to work more to improve performance of the expanded program on immunization in this area.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Prevalence of Undernutrition among Children in Gondar Town, Northwest
           Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Objective. To assess undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6–59 months in Gondar Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014. Multistage sampling method was used to select study participants. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were used. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify associated factors. Results. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were 6.8% and 45.7%, respectively. Higher odds of wasting were observed among children whose fathers were daily laborers (AOR = 2.63), children who had eating problem (AOR = 2.96), and those who were not exclusively breast-fed for the first six months (AOR = 5.63). Similarly, higher odds of stunting were found among female children (AOR = 1.65), children who lived in households having four to six families (AOR = 2.14), and children who did not start breast-feeding within one hour of birth (AOR = 0.67). Conclusion. Childhood undernutrition was a significant problem. Child eating problem, paternal occupation, and exclusive breast-feeding were associated with wasting, whereas family size, child sex, and breast-feeding initiation time were associated with stunting. Therefore, strengthening of early initiation and exclusive breast-feeding, promoting healthcare seeking behavior, and designing social support programme for poor family are recommended to reduce undernutrition.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Middle Ear Infections and Associated Risk Factors in
           Children under 5 Years in Gasabo District of Kigali City, Rwanda

    • Abstract: Middle ear infections are common in children, and delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in complications such as delays in speech and language development and deafness. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and care seeking behaviour for middle ear infections in children under five years in Kigali city. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 810 children aged 6–59 months in Gasabo district of Kigali city, Rwanda. The prevalence of middle ear infections was 5.8%, of whom 4% had chronic suppurative otitis media. A child was less likely to develop middle ear infections if they lived in an urban setting (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.285–0.958) but more likely to develop middle ear infections if exposed to household smoke (OR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.18–5.46). Parents were unlikely to know that their child had an ear infection (OR: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.06–0.34). Middle ear infection remains a public health problem in Rwanda but many parents were not aware of its presence in the affected children. There is a need to raise awareness of parents about ear infection and to promote early care seeking from qualified health workers.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers
           Attending Private Pediatric and Child Clinics, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is globally low (35%) in sub-Saharan Africa, whereas it is 58% in Ethiopia. Exclusive breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 11.6% of under-five deaths in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the exclusive breastfeeding practice and associated factors on mothers attending private pediatric and child clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 380 samples were obtained. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were used. Results. From 380 mothers, only 44.2% of the mothers practiced EBF. Two hundred (52.6%) mothers started breastfeeding within 1 hour of delivery; 161 (42.4%) of the mothers gave extra food before six months, and 244 (64.2%) believed that exclusive breastfeeding was sufficient. Moreover, 288 (75.8%) mothers breastfed their children eight or more times per day. Spontaneous vaginal delivery was a significant factor to practice EBF (AOR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.19–2.89). Conclusion. EBF practice in this study was low. Spontaneous vaginal delivery was a significant factor for EBF; hence, it is very crucial to promote EBF.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Kerosene Oil Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Introduction. Kerosene oil poisoning is one of common presentations to emergency departments among children in rural territories of developing countries. This study aimed to describe clinical manifestations, reasons for delayed presentations, harmful first aid practices, complications, and risk factors related to kerosene oil poisoning among children in rural Sri Lanka. Methods. This multicenter study was conducted in North-Central province of Sri Lanka involving all in-patient children with acute kerosene oil poisoning. Data were collected over seven years from thirty-six hospitals in the province. Data collection was done by pretested, multistructured questionnaires and a qualitative study. Results. Male children accounted for 189 (60.4%) while 283 (93%) children were below five years. The majority of parents belonged to farming community. Most children ingested kerosene oil in home kitchen. Mortality rate was 0.3%. Lack of transport facilities and financial resources were common reasons for delayed management. Hospital transfer rate was 65.5%. Thirty percent of caregivers practiced harmful first aid measures. Commonest complication was chemical pneumonitis. Strongest risk factors for kerosene oil poisoning were unsafe storage, inadequate supervision, and inadequate house space. Conclusions. Effect of safe storage and community education in reducing the burden of kerosene oil poisoning should be evaluated. Since many risk factors interact to bring about the event of poisoning in a child, holistic approaches to community education in rural settings are recommended.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Are All Countries Treating
           Children in the Same Way' A Literature Review

    • Abstract: Background. Pneumonia represents an important threat to children’s health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text. We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP. We also conducted a review of the current literature on antibiotic regimens used for pediatric CAP to identify the current state of guidelines implementation in different settings. We selected 37 studies published from 2010 to 2016, including both retrospective and prospective studies, mainly cross-sectional and hospital based. The results show a global heterogeneity in the antibiotics prescription for pediatric CAP, with application of guidelines varying from 0% to more than 91% and with important differences even within the same country. Conclusions. Our review has demonstrated that the implementation of the guidelines is still limited but also that achieving the optimal prescription is possible and can be done in both developed and developing countries.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Implementing an Oxygen Supplementation and Monitoring Protocol on
           Inpatient Pediatric Bronchiolitis: An Exercise in Deimplementation

    • Abstract: Aim. Our goal in this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of our oxygen () protocol to reduce length of stay (LOS) for children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study, the outcomes of children ≤ 24 months old that were admitted with bronchiolitis and placed on the protocol were compared to historical controls. The primary outcome was hospital length of stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of supplementation, rates of pediatric intensive care unit transfer, and readmission. Results. Groups were not significantly different in age, gender, and rates of respiratory distress score assessment. Significantly more severely ill patients were in the protocol group. There were no significant differences between control and protocol groups with regard to mean LOS, rates of pediatric intensive care unit transfer, or seven-day readmission rates. By multiple regression analysis, the use of the protocol was associated with a nearly 20% significant decrease in the length of hospitalization (). Conclusion. Use of supplementation protocol increased LOS in the more ill patients with bronchiolitis but decreased overall LOS by having a profound effect on patients with mild bronchiolitis.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Guideline in
           Treating South Sudanese Children with Cough or Difficulty in Breathing

    • Abstract: Background. Pneumonia substantially kills children aged 2–59 months in South Sudan. However, information on health workers adherence to Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) guideline in treating children with cough/difficulty in breathing remains scarce. This study assessed factors associated with adherence to IMCI guideline in Aweil East County, South Sudan. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 232 health workers from 36 health facilities. Data collected using structured questionnaire and checklist was double-entered in EpiData and analyzed with STATA at 5% significance level using logistic regression. Results. Respondents mean age was years, 154 (66.4%) were males, 104 (44.8%) reached secondary education, and 190 (81.9%) had certificate. 23 (9.9%, 95% CI: 6.4–14.5) adhered to IMCI guideline. Holding diploma (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.97; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.82–26.67; ), shorter time to follow guideline steps (AOR = 12.0; 95% CI: 2.73–61.66; ), and nondifficult use (AOR = 27.7; 95% CI: 5.40–142.25; ) were associated with adherence. Conclusion. Adherence was low. Academic qualifications, guideline complexity, and availability of IMCI drugs were associated factors.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 06:57:30 +000
       
  • The Fatty Acid Profile in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Diabetes: Why It
           Could Be Unsuspected

    • Abstract: Context. Several studies have shown a link between proinflammatory activity and the presence or deficit of some fatty acids. Inflammation is associated with several diseases including diabetes. Objective. To characterize and compare the fatty acids profiles in children with inaugural type 1 diabetes, diabetic children (at least 1 year after diagnosis), and healthy children. Design. Plasma fatty acids profiles in children with inaugural diabetes, children with noninaugural diabetes, and controls, all of whom were prepubescent with a BMI < 85th percentile, were evaluated. Results. Omega-3 fatty acid levels were higher in recently diagnosed subjects with diabetes than in controls. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids was higher in the control population. Omega-6 fatty acid levels were higher in the nonrecent diabetic subjects than in the children with recently diagnosed diabetes, and the levels were higher in the nonrecent diabetes group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Our findings showed higher levels of alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA, as well as mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in diabetic children. These findings reinforce the importance of precocious nutritional attention and intervention in the treatment of diabetic children.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Sep 2017 08:34:46 +000
       
  • Case-Control Pilot Study on Acute Diarrheal Disease in a Geographically
           Defined Pediatric Population in a Middle Income Country

    • Abstract: Introduction. Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Understanding of the etiology of ADD is lacking in most low and middle income countries because reference laboratories detect limited number of pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility to conduct a comprehensive case-control study to survey diarrheal pathogens among children with and without moderate-to-severe ADD. Materials and Methods. Microbiology and molecular-based techniques were used to detect viral, bacterial, and parasitic enteropathogens. The study was conducted in Bucaramanga, Colombia, after Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. Results. Ninety children less than 5 years of age were recruited after a written informed consent was obtained from parents or guardians. Forty-five subjects served as cases with ADD and 45 as controls. Thirty-six subjects out of 90 (40.0%) were positive for at least one enteropathogen, that is, 20 (44.4%) cases and 16 (35.5%) controls. Conclusions. The three most common enteric pathogens were enteroaggregative E. coli (10.0%), Norovirus (6.7%), and Salmonella spp. (5.6%). The E. coli pathogens were 18.8% of all infections making them the most frequent pathogens. Half of ADD cases were negative for any pathogens.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Aug 2017 06:55:09 +000
       
  • Risk Factors for Acute Unintentional Poisoning among Children Aged 1–5
           Years in the Rural Community of Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Background. Acute poisoning in children is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, there is a wide variation in patterns of poisoning and related risk factors across different geographic regions globally. This hospital based case-control study identifies the risk factors of acute unintentional poisoning among children aged 1−5 years of the rural community in a developing Asian country. Methods. This hospital based case-control study included 600 children. Each group comprised three hundred children and all children were recruited at Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka, over two years (from February 2012 to January 2014). The two groups were compared to identify the effect of 23 proposed risk factors for unintentional poisoning using multivariate analysis in a binary logistic regression model. Results. Multivariate analysis identified eight risk factors which were significantly associated with unintentional poisoning. The strongest risk factors were inadequate supervision (95% CI: 15.4–52.6), employed mother (95% CI: 2.9–17.5), parental concern of lack of family support (95% CI: 3.65–83.3), and unsafe storage of household poisons (95% CI: 1.5–4.9). Conclusions. Since inadequate supervision, unsafe storage, and unsafe environment are the strongest risk factors for childhood unintentional poisoning, the effect of community education to enhance vigilance, safe storage, and assurance of safe environment should be evaluated.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 08:23:01 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary
           Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents”
           

    • PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Implementation and Evaluation of an Intervention for Children in
           Afghanistan at Risk for Substance Use or Actively Using Psychoactive
           Substances

    • Abstract: The present study examined the impact of a novel intervention for children at risk for substance use or actively using substances that was provided to 783 children between 4 and 18 years of age in Afghanistan. They received the Child Intervention for Living Drug-free (CHILD) protocol while in outpatient or residential treatment. CHILD included age-appropriate literacy and numeracy, drug education, basic living safety, and communication and trauma coping skills. A battery of measures examined multiple child health domains at treatment’s start and end and 12 weeks later. For younger children, there were no significant Gender or Gender X Time effects (all p’s > .16 and .35, resp.). The time main effect was significant for all outcomes (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate). Post hoc testing showed significant improvements from residential treatment entry to completion for all scales. For older children, a time main effect was significant for (all p’s < .00192, the prespecified per-comparison error rate) all but one outcome. Community follow-up means were significantly lower than residential treatment entry means. CHILD had a positive impact on children, and treatment impact endured from posttreatment to follow-up assessment.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Common Clinical Characteristics and Rare Medical Problems of Fragile X
           Syndrome in Thai Patients and Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Background. Clinical characteristics of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have been well documented in Caucasians, whereas in Asians they have rarely been described. Those that have been conducted used small cohorts that utilized DNA for diagnosis and larger cohorts that utilized cytogenetics for diagnosis. This study is to describe clinical characteristics of FXS in a large cohort of Thai patients diagnosed by standard molecular methods. Methods. Seventy-seven index cases and 46 affected relatives diagnosed with FXS were recruited into the study. To determine frequencies of common characteristics of FXS in prepubertal boys, we reviewed 56 unrelated cases aged between 18 and 146 months. To list rare medical problems, we reviewed 75 cases aged between 8 months to 71 years old, including 53 index cases and 22 affected relatives. In addition, we selected 16 clinical studies from various ethnicities for comparison with our findings. Results. In prepubertal boys with FXS, attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, prominent ears, macroorchidism, and elongated face were observed in 96%, 80%, 53%, and 48% of patients, respectively, whereas recognizable X-linked inheritance presented in 11% of patients. IQ scores ranged between 30 and 64 (mean ± SD = , ). We observed clinical findings that rarely or have never been reported, for example, medulloblastoma and tetralogy of Fallot. Conclusion. Attention deficit and/or hyperactivity and prominent ear are the most common behavioral and physical features in prepubertal boys with FXS, respectively. There are differences in frequencies of clinical characteristics observed between ethnicities; however, it is difficult to draw a solid conclusion due to different recruitment criteria and sample sizes within each study.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Choking Hazards: Are Current Product Testing Methods for Small Parts
           Adequate?

    • Abstract: Choking on small parts remains one of the leading causes of death and injury in infants and toddlers. The current method of testing for small parts, created by the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has become outdated and has yet to be changed despite the many deaths and injuries of children. The method uses a device called the small parts test fixture (SPTF) that is supposed to mimic the size of a fully expanded throat of a toddler. If a product does not fit inside the cavity of the SPTF, then it is deemed safe to play with because it “will not fit” in the esophagus of a child. The present study obtains a dataset of products recalled by the CPSC within the last twelve years due to choking hazards/incidents and discovers that a noteworthy amount of the children’s products have parts that are larger than the fixture size and are still capable of causing choking. This study indicates that a larger SPTF size must be implemented by the CPSC in order to prevent future choking incidents on small parts.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Therapeutic Hypothermia in Asphyxiated Neonates: Experience from Neonatal
           Intensive Care Unit of University Hospital of Marrakech

    • Abstract: Introduction. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now recommended for the treatment neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This treatment protocol is applied in our department since June 2012. The aim of this study is to report the first experience with head cooling in asphyxiated neonates in Morocco. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of newborns admitted for HIE from July 18, 2012, to May 15, 2014, in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Mohamed VI University Hospital. The results were studied by comparing a newborn group who received hypothermia to a control group. Results. Seventy-two cases of neonates with perinatal asphyxia were admitted in the unit. According to inclusion criteria thirty-eight cases were eligible for the study. Only 19 cases have received the hypothermia protocol for different reason; the arrival beyond six hours of life was the main cause accounting for 41%. Complications of asphyxia were comparable in both groups with greater pulmonary hypertension recorded in the control group. The long-term follow-up of protocol group was normal in almost half of cases. Conclusion. Our first experience with the controlled TH supports its beneficial effect in newborns with HIE. This treatment must be available in all the centers involved in the neonatal care in Morocco.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2017 07:02:28 +000
       
  • Chronic Pain in Children: A Look at the Referral Process to a Pediatric
           Pain Clinic

    • Abstract: We reviewed the referral pattern of children with chronic pain to a specialized pediatric pain clinic. Data were obtained from referring physicians and medical records and during an interview with patients and their parents by physicians and a psychologist. We analyzed the following: referral diagnosis, demographics, duration of symptoms, number of physicians previously consulted, school attendance, sports activities, presence of psychological disorders, final team diagnosis, and outcomes. Children had been experiencing pain for months. Patients had consulted on average 3 physicians in addition to their pediatrician. 32% of the patients had missed at least 10 days of school in a calendar year, and 47% had stopped playing sports. 15% had an operation because of pain that had been unsuccessful. The most common missed diagnosis was anxiety (25%) and depression (13%). 69% of the patients were back to school and/or playing sports within 4 months from our initial consultation. 32% of the patients did not make any progress during the follow-up period. The most common reasons for failure to improve were no compliance with the recommended treatments and poorly controlled major mood disorder. The time to refer children with chronic pain for specialized care could be extremely long causing significant social and psychological consequence.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 07:31:48 +000
       
  • Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Mar 2017 08:10:55 +000
       
  • Role of Parental Smoking in Severe Bronchiolitis: A Hospital Based
           Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Objective. Bronchiolitis is one of the commonest causes of hospitalization of infants and young children in Bangladesh. About 21% of under 5 children attending different hospitals of Bangladesh have bronchiolitis. Fifty percent (50%) men and three percent (3%) women of Bangladesh are smokers. Parental smoking is an important risk factor for both susceptibility and severity of bronchiolitis. The aim of this study was to find out the role of parental smoking in severe bronchiolitis. Design. Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study. The study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Sylhet MAG Osmani Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh, from July 2013 to December 2015. Patients and Methods. Sixty-four patients admitted into the ward with severe bronchiolitis were enrolled as cases and sixty-four suitably matched apparently healthy children attending EPI centre and outpatient department presenting with nonrespiratory illness were enrolled as controls. Sample size was calculated using Guilford and Frucher formula. The technique was systematic random sampling. Every second case satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria was enrolled in the study. Results. The mean age of the patients was 7.53 (SD ± 4.75) months. Forty (62.5%) patients were male and twenty four (37.5%) patients were female. Male-to-female ratio was 1.7 : 1. Most of the cases (60.95%) came from low socioeconomic background. More than half of the cases (53.13%) were not exclusively breastfed babies. Mean length of hospital stay was 6.41 (SD ± 2.82) days. Thirty eight (59%) cases and twenty six (34%) controls were exposed to parental smoking. Result was highly significant (). Odds ratio was 2.8 (95% CI from 1.36 to 5.72). Conclusion. Exposure to parental smoking causes a statistically significant (, odds ratio = 2.8) increase in the risk of developing severe bronchiolitis in the first year of life.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Urinary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity and Its Isozyme Patterns in
           Kawasaki Disease

    • Abstract: Abnormal urinary findings, such as sterile pyuria, proteinuria, and microscopic hematuria, are often seen in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). We investigated the potential significance of urinary lactate dehydrogenase (U-LDH) activity and its isozyme patterns in KD. Total U-LDH activity and its isozymes (U-LDH1-5) levels were compared among 120 patients with KD, 18 patients with viral infection (VI), and 43 patients with upper urinary tract infection (UTI) and additionally compared between intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) responders () and nonresponders () with KD. Total U-LDH activity was higher in KD ( IU/L, ) and UTI patients ( IU/L, ) than in VI patients ( IU/L). In the isozyme pattern analysis, KD patients had high levels of U-LDH1 and U-LDH2, while UTI patients had high levels of U-LDH3, U-LDH4, and U-LDH5. Furthermore, IVIG nonresponders of KD had significantly higher levels of total U-LDH activity ( IU/L, ), especially U-LDH1 and U-LDH2 (), than IVIG responders ( IU/L). KD patients have increased levels of total U-LDH activity, especially U-LDH-1 and U-LDH2, indicating a unique pattern of U-LDH isozymes different from that in UTI patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 09:19:22 +000
       
  • Associations between Parental and Friend Social Support and Children’s
           Physical Activity and Time Spent outside Playing

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the structural validity of a parent and a child questionnaire that assessed parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity and investigate the associations between the derived factors, physical activity, and time spent outside. Children (, mean age = 11.7) and 144 of their parents completed questionnaires assessing parental and friends’ influences on children’s physical activity. Children wore a pedometer for six days. Exploratory factor analyses revealed four factors for the parental and five for the child’s questionnaire that explained 66.71% and 63.85% of the variance, respectively. Five factors were significantly associated with physical activity and five significantly associated with time spent outside. Higher correlations were revealed between “general friend support,” “friends’ activity norms,” and physical activity ( and 0.333 resp., ) and between “general friend support” and time spent outside (, ). Obtaining information relating to parental and friends’ influences on physical activity from both parents and children may provide a more complete picture of influences. Parents and friends seem to influence children’s physical activity behavior and time spent outside, but friends’ influences may have a stronger impact on children’s behaviors.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 07:25:38 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization (Bullying) among
           Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait

    • Abstract: Background. Peer victimization (bullying) is a universal phenomenon with detrimental effects. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors of bullying among grades 7 and 8 middle school students in Kuwait. Methods. The study is a cross-sectional study that includes a sample of 989 7th and 8th grade middle school students randomly selected from schools. The Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure different forms of bullying. After adjusting for confounding, logistic regression identified the significant associated factors related to bullying. Results. Prevalence of bullying was 30.2 with 95% CI 27.4 to 33.2% (3.5% bullies, 18.9% victims, 7.8% bully victims). Children with physical disabilities and one or both non-Kuwaiti parents or children with divorced/widowed parents were more prone to be victims. Most victims and bullies were found to be current smokers. Bullies were mostly in the fail/fair final school grade category, whereas victims performed better. The logistic regression showed that male gender (adjusted odds ration = 1.671, ), grade 8 student (adjusted odds ratio = 1.650, ), and student with physical disabilities (adjusted odds ratio = 1.675, ), were independently associated with bullying behavior. Conclusions. There is a need for a school-wide professional intervention program and improvement in the students’ adjustment to school environment to control bullying behavior.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluation of a Pilot Project to Introduce Simulation-Based Team Training
           to Pediatric Surgery Trauma Room Care

    • Abstract: Introduction. Several studies in pediatric trauma care have demonstrated substantial deficits in both prehospital and emergency department management. Methods. In February 2015 the PAEDSIM collaborative conducted a one and a half day interdisciplinary, simulation based team-training course in a simulated pediatric emergency department. 14 physicians from the medical fields of pediatric surgery, pediatric intensive care and emergency medicine, and anesthesia participated, as well as four pediatric nurses. After a theoretical introduction and familiarization with the simulator, course attendees alternately participated in six simulation scenarios and debriefings. Each scenario incorporated elements of pediatric trauma management as well as Crew Resource Management (CRM) educational objectives. Participants completed anonymous pre- and postcourse questionnaires and rated the course itself as well as their own medical qualification and knowledge of CRM. Results. Participants found the course very realistic and selected scenarios highly relevant to their daily work. They reported a feeling of improved medical and nontechnical skills as well as no uncomfortable feeling during scenarios or debriefings. Conclusion. To our knowledge this pilot-project represents the first successful implementation of a simulation-based team-training course focused on pediatric trauma care in German-speaking countries with good acceptance.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Interactive Palliative and End-of-Life Care Modules for Pediatric
           Residents

    • Abstract: Background. There is a need for increased palliative care training during pediatric residency. Objective. In this pilot study, we created a comprehensive experiential model to teach palliative care skills to pediatric residents. Our Comfort Care Modules (CCMs) address pediatric palliative care (PPC) topics of breaking bad news, dyspnea, anxiety, pain management, and the dying child. We also evaluated a scoring system and gathered qualitative data. Methods. The CCMs are part of the University of California San Diego pediatric residency’s second-year curriculum. Comparisons were made for statistical trends between residents exposed to the modules and those not exposed . Results. Nineteen of 36 residents (52%) completed surveys to self-rate their preparedness, knowledge, and confidence about PPC before and after the intervention. Resident scores increased in all areas. All improvements reached statistical significance except confidence when breaking bad news. Overall, the resident feedback about the CCMs was positive. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that the CCMs can be performed effectively in an academic setting and can benefit residents’ self-perception of preparedness, confidence, and knowledge about pediatric palliative care. In the future, we plan to implement the modules on a larger scale. We encourage their use in interprofessional settings and across institutions.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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