Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 226)

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Similar Journals
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International Journal of Pediatrics
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9740 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9759
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Mother’s Knowledge on HIV, Syphilis, Rubella, and Associated Factors in
           Northern Tanzania: Implications for MTCT Elimination Strategies

    • Abstract: Background. Infections transmitted from mother to child (MTCT) during pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding contribute significantly to the high infant and childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries. The most significant and preventable of these include HIV, syphilis, and rubella. To achieve elimination, mothers need to be aware of and to understand effective preventive measures against these infections. Lack of comprehensive knowledge on transmission and prevention of MTCT infections is one of the factors hindering achievement of the elimination goals for these infections. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV, syphilis, rubella, and associated factors among mothers in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Methods. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in three districts of the Kilimanjaro region from September to October 2016. The study involved mothers with children up to five years of age. Data collection involved the use of a questionnaire, administered by face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of mothers’ knowledge on MTCT infections. Results. A total of 618 mothers were recruited, with a mean age of 29.6 (SD 7.6) years. The overall knowledge on MTCT infections was low. The highest level of knowledge on MTCT infections was regarding HIV (89.2%). Fewer mothers had knowledge of syphilis (27.8%). Rubella was the least known; only 12% of mothers were aware of rubella infection. District of residence and having knowledge of syphilis were predictors for rubella knowledge, while for syphilis knowledge, significant predictors were age group, occupation, and those having knowledge on HIV and rubella. Predictors for HIV knowledge were residential district, having a mobile phone, and those having knowledge of syphilis and rubella. Conclusions. This study confirmed that mothers have low overall knowledge on MTCT infections. To achieve the MTCT elimination goals, targeted interventions to improve knowledge among women of childbearing age are recommended.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jul 2020 03:35:01 +000
       
  • Nutritional Status of Children and Its Associated Factors in Selected
           Earthquake-Affected VDCs of Gorkha District, Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Malnutrition is a major public health problem and most enveloping cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents throughout the world. This study was aimed at assessing the nutritional status and associated factors among 6-10-year-old children in selected earthquake-affected areas of Gorkha district, Nepal. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 420 mothers having children of age groups 6-10 years (with anthropometric measurement among children) was conducted using a mixed method in selected earthquake-affected areas of Gorkha district, Nepal, from October 2015 to April 2016. Gorkha was selected purposively from 14 earthquake-affected districts. Two village development committees were selected randomly among 6 having severe impact. Randomly, 5 wards were selected from each of the 2 village development committees. As the sample was 420, 42 children were selected randomly from every ward. Result. Among the 420 children, 31.9% were underweight, 51.9% were stunted, and 2.9% were wasted after the earthquake. Children who were more prone to being underweight were the following: male children ( 95% CI: 1.01-1.78) and children from illiterate mothers (, 95% CI: 1.85-3.36), illiterate fathers (, 95% CI: 1.32-2.27), and homemaker mothers (, 95% CI: 0.20-0.38); children whose families were using nonimproved sources of water (, 95% CI: 1.07-6.60); and households having food insecurity (, 95% CI: 3.29-51.18). Similarly, children of illiterate fathers (, 95% CI: 1.41-1.97), children of illiterate mothers (, 95% CI: 1.91-2.83), children of homemaker mothers (, 95% CI: 0.49-0.70), children whose family were using treated water (, 95% CI: 0.15-0.67), and children from food insecure households (, CI: 4.05-27.33) were found to be stunted. After adjustment, children from households consuming nonimproved water were 6 times more likely (; 95% CI: 1.59-28.62) to be wasted. Conclusion. Illiterate mothers, illiterate fathers, mothers engaged in occupation other than household work, and food insecure households were found to be independent predictors of underweight and stunting. Nonimproved source of drinking water was found to be independent predictors of wasting.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jul 2020 03:05:04 +000
       
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pediculus Capitis Prevention and
           Control and Their Predictors among Schoolchildren in Woreta Town,
           Northwest Ethiopia, 2018: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Pediculus capitis is a human head lice infestation, a major public health issue that is most prevalent in resource-limited countries globally. The current study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of pediculus capitis prevention and control and their predictors among schoolchildren in North West Ethiopia. Methods. About 402 randomly selected schoolchildren from three schools in Woreta town participated in the study from April to June 2018. The outcomes of this study were knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practice of schoolchildren about pediculus capitis prevention and control. We used EPI Info 7.1 and SPSS 21 software for data entry and analysis, respectively. Binary logistic regression was employed to test the association of covariates with the outcome/response variables. Variables with a value
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:20:10 +000
       
  • Mixed Infant Feeding Practice and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive
           Women under Care in Gondar City’s Public Health Facilities within Two
           Years Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Mixed infant feeding practice remains a major setback for effective prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV program and updated evidences on this issue is essential for better interventions. Therefore, this study was aimed at assessing the proportion and associated factors of mixed infant feeding practice among HIV-positive women under care in public health institutions in Gondar city within two years postpartum, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 HIV-positive women under care in Gondar City’s health facilities from May 1 to June 30/2017. Data were collected via interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with chart review, entered into Epinfo version 7.0 and then exported to SPSS version 20.0. Both bivariable and multivariable analyses were done, and the statistical significance of each variable was claimed based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and its value ≤0.05. Result. The proportion of HIV-positive women practicing mixed infant feeding was 21.6%. Whereas, about 73.8% and 4.5% of the mothers demonstrated exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive replacement feeding, respectively. Mixed infant feeding practice was independently predicted by lack of antenatal care (; 95% CI: 3.4, 14.1) and home delivery (; 95% CI: 1.4, 5.4). Conclusion. The magnitude of mixed infant feeding practice was higher than the reports of many other studies, and its predictors were connected to poor adherence to maternal health care service utilization. Hence, stakeholders need to work more on ANC and facility delivery service coverage.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:20:09 +000
       
  • Trends and Determinants of Underweight among Under-Five Children in
           Ethiopia: Data from EDHS

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Malnutrition among under-five children is one of the major causes of death in low-income countries. Accordingly, health sectors in developing countries are providing renewed attention to the status of children’s nutrition. This study sought to explore the trends and identify the determinants of underweight Ethiopian under-five children across time. Methods. The data in the study was obtained from the 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS). The study involved 27564 under-five children across Ethiopian regions. The status of underweight is determined using weight for age. This anthropometric index has been categorized as “underweight” (-score less than -2) and “not underweight” (-score greater or equal to -2). Logistic regression was used for each survey to detect significant determinants of underweight, while multivariate decomposition was used to determine the trends and identified the child, maternal, and household characteristics that are associated with underweight. Result. The survey in 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 showed that 41, 33, 29, and 24% of sampled under-five children were underweight, respectively, and after adjusting for confounders, children were more likely to be underweight if they were male (,, 1.33) in 2016 EDHS. Children whose mother’s age is below 20 (,, 23.1)) were more likely to be underweight compared with children whose mother’s age is above 45. Children whose mothers had no education and primary education only (, 95% CI 1.05, 2.59 and , 95% CI 1.15, 1.78, respectively) were more likely underweight compared to children whose mothers had higher education. Conclusion. Children’s age, birth weight, mother’s education status, and children’s gender were the most common significant factors of underweight. The prevalence of underweight among under-five children declined over time which leads to an achievement in terms of meeting millennium development goals and nutritional targets. Government and concerned stakeholders should work to maintain this achievement for further reduction of underweight among under-five children.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 12:35:07 +000
       
  • Magnitude of Preterm Birth and Its Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional
           Study at Butajira Hospital, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and
           People’s Region, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Preterm birth infants are at a greater risk of mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems; reliable data support that this rate is increasing in almost all countries. The purpose is to find the magnitude of preterm birth and its associated factors among newborns delivered at Butajira Hospital, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People’s Region, Ethiopia. Methods. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 304 maternity cards using the systematic sampling method during May 1_21 in 2019. The data collection was performed using a structured case record form. The data were entered into EpiData software (version 3.1) and analyzed using SPSS software (version 21). Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to identify the associated factors at 95% CI. Results. Overall magnitude of preterm birth was observed to be 15.5%. The factors significantly associated with the preterm birth were preeclampsia (; 95% CI: 1.6-10.0), and premature rupture of fetal membranes (; 95% CI: 1.4-12.9). Conclusion. Preterm birth is still public concern in the study area. The concerned administrative body should implement health education programs and improve the quality of health care delivered to pregnant mothers to control these associated factors and, consequently, promote public health in the study area.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2020 15:50:02 +000
       
  • Cross-Country Comparisons of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior
           among 5-Year-Old Children

    • Abstract: Purpose. Previous studies have observed that physical activity (PA) levels tend to be lower in the U.S. population than in many other countries. Within the U.S., PA levels in children are lower in the South than in other regions. Cross-country and interregional differences in PA have not been studied in young children. Methods. In an ongoing study of children at genetic risk for Type 1 diabetes, PA was measured by accelerometry in samples of 5-year-old children () from Finland (), Germany (), Sweden (), and the U.S. (). The U.S. sample was drawn from centers in Washington State, Colorado, and Georgia/Florida. Children wore accelerometers for 7 days, and the data were reduced to daily minutes of light-, moderate- (MPA), vigorous- (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous- (MVPA) intensity PA and sedentary behavior. Multiple regression was used to compare children across countries and across regions in the U.S, adjusting for wear time, body mass index, and demographic characteristics. Results. After adjusting for previously mentioned factors, MVPA and MPA were lower in U.S. children than those in Finland and Sweden. Estimates of physical activity were higher in Finland than in other countries, although not all comparisons were significantly different. U.S children spent significantly more time in sedentary behavior than children in Finland (). Within the U.S., children’s PA was consistently lowest in Georgia/Florida and highest in Washington. Conclusions. Cross-country differences in PA, previously reported for adults and adolescents, are evident in 5-year-old children. In general, PA levels are lower in U.S. children than their European counterparts, and within the U.S., are lower in Georgia/Florida and Colorado than in Washington. Future studies should be designed to identify the factors that explain these differences.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Jun 2020 03:05:00 +000
       
  • Availability and Utilization of WHO Lifesaving Medicines for Children
           under Five in Public Health Facilities of the Jimma Zone, South West
           Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    • Abstract: Background. The increased morbidity and mortality rates in children under five in developing countries are mostly attributed to poor availability and failure of prescribing lifesaving medicines. This study was aimed at evaluating the availability and utilization of the WHO-recommended priority lifesaving medicines for children under five in public health facilities. Method. A cross-sectional survey complemented with a qualitative method was conducted in 14 health centers and four hospitals in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. In the facilities, we assessed the availability within the last half year and on the day of the visit. Utilization of the medicines was assessed through a review of patient records of the last one year. Twelve in-depth interviews were carried out to collect the qualitative data, and the analysis was executed using thematic analysis. Results. For treatment of pneumonia, amoxicillin dispersible tablets and gentamycin injection were available in 94.4% of the facilities. For treatment of malaria, artemether/lumefantrine was available in 61.1% of the facilities. For pain management, paracetamol tablets were available in 94.4% of the facilities. AZT+3TC+NEV for HIV/AIDS management was available in all facilities. At least one essential medicine was out of stock in the past six months with the average duration of 33.6 days in health centers and 28.25 days in hospitals. Oral rehydration salt and zinc (84.7%) and AZT+3TC+NEV (100%) had better utilization. However, for almost all cases, other nonpriority medicines were highly prescribed. Lack of administrative commitment, supply of near expiry products, complexity of diseases, and lack of customized child formulations were among the challenges of availability and utilization of those medicines. Conclusions. The overall availability of lifesaving medicines on the day of the visit was fairly good but with poor utilization in almost all facilities. Some products were not available for considerable length of time in the past six months.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 08:05:16 +000
       
  • Determinants of Complete Immunization Coverage among Children Aged 11-24
           Months in Somalia

    • Abstract: Background. The general coverage of vaccination means the percentage of children in world who received the recommended vaccines and has existed over the past few years continued the same. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with complete immunization coverage among children aged 11-24 months in Somalia. Method. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Galkayo hospital in Mudug region Somalia. Systematic random sampling was carried out in to recruit 357 children between 24 and 11 ages. Well-structured questionnaires were filled by participants who gave their consent. Data were analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences version 21. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviation, proportions, and range were used to summarize the data. Inferential statistics were used to test for association between the dependent variable and independent variables using the chi-square with the level of significance set at 5%. Result. The age of the respondents was between 11 and 24 with a mean age of the 7.71 with standard deviation ±5.87, the level of education of the mother (), the place of delivery of the baby (), and the distance of the participants to health facility () were statistically significantly associated with immunization coverage. Final the full immunization coverage in Somalia is 20%. Conclusion. The study is recommended to the government to increase the level of education of the mother; also, the study is recommended to increase the hospital delivery that may increase the immunization coverage in Somalia.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 00:05:05 +000
       
  • Knowledge of Neonatal Danger Signs and Its Associated Factors among
           Mothers Attending Child Vaccination Centers at Sheko District in Southwest
           Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Even though a great improvement in the last twenty years, the problem of newborn deaths is still remaining. In 2017 alone, an estimated 2.5 million neonatal deaths occurred worldwide, around 39 percent of all deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Early detection of neonatal illness is an important step towards improving newborn survival. If mothers know the appropriate manifestations of the causes of death in newborns (neonatal danger signs), it is possible to avert related mortality, because of the health-seeking behavior of mothers highly relies on their knowledge of neonatal danger signs. Objective. To assess knowledge of neonatal danger signs and its associated factors among mothers attending child vaccination centers at Sheko District in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 351 mothers who attended health centers for child vaccination in Sheko District from March 17 to April 30, 2018. A consecutive sampling method was used to select study participants. Data were collected by using structured questionnaires through face-to-face interviews. Data were entered using EPI-DATA version 3.1 and analysed using SPSS version 21. Results. Of the 351 mothers interviewed, 39% (137) had good knowledge of neonatal danger signs. The study also found that mothers aged 29-40 years (, 95% CI [1.35-4.17], ), educational status of primary and above (, 95% CI [1.48-4.88], ), attending ≥ 4 antenatal care visits during pregnancy (, 95% CI [2.10-6.06], ), and history of postnatal attendance after birth (, 95% CI [1.16-4.65], ) were significantly associated with good knowledge of neonatal danger signs. Conclusion. The proportion of mothers with good knowledge of neonatal danger signs was remarkably low. Since the problem is a public health importance in developing countries, particularly in Ethiopia, which determines future generations. Great efforts are needed to create awareness for mothers on the importance of the early identifying neonatal danger signs plus to avert the high magnitude of neonatal mortality.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 May 2020 13:20:08 +000
       
  • Helicobacter pylori Infection: Clinical, Endoscopic, and Histological
           Findings in Lebanese Pediatric Patients

    • Abstract: Background. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common and universally distributed bacterial infection. However, in children, active gastritis and ulcer are rarely seen. Objectives. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of H. pylori infection and to compare the clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological findings between infected and noninfected pediatric patients at Makassed General Hospital. Methods. Patients aged between 1 month and 17 years who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from January 2011 to January 2017 were included. The diagnosis of H. pylori was confirmed by a CLO test and/or its presence on biopsy specimens. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, endoscopic and histopathological findings, and gastritis score were recorded retrospectively. Results. During the study period, 651 children underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The main indication was abdominal pain (61%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 16.5%. The infection was most commonly seen among children aged between 6 and 10 years (43%). A large number of family members were associated with increased risk of infection ( versus ;). Epigastric pain was more associated with H. pylori (61.3% versus 14.6% in noninfected patients; ). Nodular gastritis was commonly seen in infected patients (41.5% vs. 7.9%; ). Mild and moderate gastritis was seen more in infected versus noninfected patients (mild: 53.8% vs. 14%; moderate: 27.4% vs. 2.4%, respectively). Conclusion. Although epigastric pain was associated with H. pylori, other diagnoses should be considered since the infection are rarely symptomatic in children. Antral nodularity was associated with H. pylori infection; however, its absence does not preclude the diagnosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 May 2020 14:35:03 +000
       
  • Development and Functions of the Infant Gut Microflora: Western vs. Indian
           Infants

    • Abstract: The human gut is colonized by trillions of bacteria as well as other microorganisms, collectively referred to as the “gut microflora.” This microflora plays an important role in metabolism as well as immunity, and alterations in its normal composition and pattern of colonization can disturb the development and functioning of the immune system, predisposing the individual to several diseases. Neonates acquire their gut microflora from the mother as well as the surroundings, and as the infant grows, the gut microflora undergoes several changes, ultimately acquiring an adult-like composition. Characterization of the gut microflora of healthy infants is important to protect infants from infectious diseases. Furthermore, formulation of prebiotics and probiotics for boosting infant immunity in a specific population also requires prior knowledge of the normal gut microflora in a healthy infant in that population. To this end, several studies have been performed on Western infants; however, the gut microflora of Indian infants is as yet insufficiently studied. Moreover, there has been no comparative analysis of the development and characteristics of the infant gut microflora between the two populations. In this review, we discuss the development and maturation of the infant gut microflora and its effect on immunity, as well as the factors affecting the patterns of colonization. In addition, we compare the patterns of colonization of gut microflora between Western and Indian infants based on the available literature in an attempt to identify the extent of similarity or difference between the two populations.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 May 2020 15:05:02 +000
       
  • Under-Five Mortality in Buea Health District, Southwest Cameroon: Evidence
           from a Community-Based Birth Cohort Study of Rate, Causes, and
           Age-Specific Patterns

    • Abstract: Background. Updating the knowledge base on the causes and patterns of under-five mortality (U5M) is crucial for the design of suitable interventions to improve survival of children under five. Objectives. To assess the rate, causes, and age-specific patterns of U5M in Buea Health District, Cameroon. Methods. A retrospective cohort study involving 2000 randomly selected households was conducted. Live births registered between September 2004 and September 2009 were recorded. The under-five mortality rate (U5MR) was defined by the number of deaths that occurred on or before 5 years of age per 1000 live births. Causes of death were assigned using the InterVA-4 software. Results. A total of 2210 live births were recorded. There were 92 deaths, and the U5MR was 42 per 1000 live births. The mean age at death was months. The most frequent causes of death were neonatal causes (37%), malaria (28%), and pneumonia (15%). Deaths during infancy accounted for 64.1% of U5M, with 43.5% neonatal (86% occurring within the first 24 hours of life) and 20.7% postneonatal. The main causes of death in infancy were birth asphyxia (37.5%), pneumonia (17.5%), complications of prematurity (10%), and malaria (10%). Child deaths accounted for 35.8% of U5M. Malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoeal illnesses accounted for the majority of child deaths. Conclusions. Almost half of U5M occurred during the neonatal period. Improvements in intrapartum care and the prevention and effective treatment of neonatal conditions, malaria, and pneumonia could considerably reduce U5M in Buea.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 May 2020 03:20:13 +000
       
  • Pneumonia among Under-Five Children in Northwest Ethiopia: Prevalence and
           Predictors—A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Acute respiratory infections in particular pneumonia constitutes the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age throughout the world. In Ethiopia, pneumonia continues to be the major childhood problem and killer, particularly in the study area. However, evidence dealing with the problem is still unavailable. The current study is aimed at determining the magnitude and risk factors of childhood pneumonia in Gondar City. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed in five randomly selected clusters/subcities of Gondar City. A total of 792 child-mother/caregiver pairs in the selected subcities/clusters were included. A pretested and validated questionnaire was used by trained supervisors through house-to-house visits to collect the data. Binary logistic regression (bivariable and multivariable) was employed. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to declare statistically significant variables on the basis of in the multivariable logistic regression model. Results. The prevalence of pneumonia among under-five children in the current study was found to be 12% with 95% CI: 10% to 14.4%. The presence of unpaved road within 100 m of the house (, 95% CI: 1.41-3.66), living within 100 m of heavy traffic (, 95% CI: 1.19-3.16), the habit of not opening doors while cooking (, 95% CI: 1.01-2.62), the presence of cockroach infestation (, 95% CI: 1.25-3.14), and new carpet in the house (, 95% CI: 1.01-3.03) were statistically significant variables associated with childhood pneumonia. Conclusions. This study indicated that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia is still high. As such, enhancing strategies that would address unpaved roads within 100 m of the house, living within 100 m of heavy traffic, the habit of not opening doors while cooking, cockroach infestation, and new carpet in the house to reduce the burden of childhood pneumonia needs to be advocated.
      PubDate: Fri, 01 May 2020 01:05:08 +000
       
  • Factors Influencing Birth Preparedness in Rapti Municipality of Chitwan,
           Nepal

    • Abstract: Introduction. Birth preparedness is crucial for health quality of mother and newborn and acts as a strong contributor in mitigating maternal and newborn mortalities. Different factors are predicted to have an influence upon birth preparedness practice. This paper aims at exploring relationship between various factors and birth preparedness practice. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was used to find out the relationship between various factors and birth preparedness practice. One hundred sixty-five women residing at ward number 1 of Rapti Municipality, Chitwan who delivered in the last twelve months were selected consecutively and interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate techniques. Results. Three quarters (75.2%) of the respondents had better birth preparedness, institutional delivery was 63.0%, antenatal care (ANC) visit as per protocol was about 62.0%, and about 90% of the respondents had received counseling during ANC. Age, religion, family types, education, age at marriage, parity, number of children, knowledge on birth preparedness, knowledge on danger sign, place for ANC and delivery, and decision-makers were found to be statistically significant ( value < 0.05) with birth preparedness practice. Conclusion. Better knowledge on birth preparedness led to a better preparedness status. Age, religion, family type, education of women and partners, parity, and number of children were the factors that influence birth preparedness. Counseling during ANC played a significant role in birth preparedness.
      PubDate: Fri, 24 Apr 2020 02:50:05 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Neonatal Sepsis in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Neonatal sepsis is a systemic infection occurring in infants during the first 4 weeks of life and is a major cause of mortality and morbidities of newborns due to their age-related weak and immature immune systems. In Ethiopia, despite many studies being conducted on neonatal sepsis, the reported findings are inconsistent. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of neonatal sepsis to enhance the utility and interpretation of the evidence. Methods. An extensive systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to extract studies on the prevalence of neonatal sepsis in Ethiopia. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. Two independent authors selected and extracted the data from each included article. The heterogeneity of included studies was assessed using the Higgins test, and a random-effects model was performed in Stata/se Version 14. Results. Eighteen studies with a sample size of 10,495 study subjects were included with a reported range of neonatal sepsis from 17% to 78%. The pooled prevalence of neonatal sepsis was 45% (95% CI: 35, 55; ,). Early onset neonatal sepsis was found to have a prevalence of 75.4% (95% CI: 68.3, 82.6). Subgroup analysis in the study area (i.e., by region) was calculated revealing the highest neonatal sepsis in Amhara region at 64.4% (95% CI: 44.9, 84.0) and the lowest in Southern Nations, Nationality, and People at 28% (95% CI: 16, 40). Conclusion. In this review, the prevalence of neonatal sepsis in Ethiopia was found to be high, especially in terms of early onset neonatal sepsis. As a result of the findings, it is important to consider the early and optimal points for interventions to better manage the prevalence and outcomes of neonatal sepsis. Further research is needed to investigate the neonatal sepsis status at different regions and associated factors for neonatal sepsis not yet studied.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Apr 2020 16:20:03 +000
       
  • Nutritional Status and Educational Performance of School-Aged Children in
           Lalibela Town Primary Schools, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Every student has the potential to do well in school. Failing to provide good nutrition puts them at risk for missing out on meeting that potential and leads to long-term irreversible damage to cognitive development. However, taking action today to provide healthier choices in schools can help set students up for a successful future full of possibilities. So, this study is aimed at assessing the effect of nutritional status on academic performance of school-aged children. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted from Feb 05- March 30, 2017 in Lalibela town. A total of 505 primary school students were included in the study. The child anthropometric measures were calculated using AnthroPlus software version 1.0.4 WHO 2007 standards. Bivariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regression were fitted. The proportional odds ratio (POR) with a 95% CI and value < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of stunting, underweight, and thinness was 29.5%, 35.7%, and 29.5%, respectively. In this study, 14.7% of the study participants had low academic achievement in the semester. The multivariable analysis showed that rural residence (; 95% CI: (0.21, 0.75)), not studying regularly (; 95% CI: (0.29, 0.82)), severe underweight (; 95% CI: (0.09, 0.71)), and severe stunting (; 95% CI: (0.01, 0.37)) were associated with decreased odds of high average semester score achievement of school-aged children. Additionally, higher maternal educational status (; 95% CI: (1.10, 4.07)) and family income from 550 to 2999 ETB (; 95% CI: (1.04, 2.81)) were associated with increased odds of high semester average score achievement. Conclusion. Nearly one-third of school-aged children in Lalibela town were stunted, thin, and underweight. Rural place of residence, not studying regularly study, underweight, and stunting were associated with decreased academic achievement. While, family monthly income from 550 to 2999 ETB and higher maternal education status were associated with increased academic achievement.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 04:50:02 +000
       
  • Knowledge of Essential Newborn Care and Associated Factors among Nurses
           and Midwives: A Cross-Sectional Study at Public Health Facilities in
           Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2019

    • Abstract: Background. Knowledge of essential newborn care and proper practice is important for the survival, growth, and development of a newborn. In spite of its essentiality, most health-care professionals do not know and follow the World Health Organization recommendation. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing knowledge of essential newborn care and associated factors among nurses and midwives working in maternal health case team at public health facilities of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted from March to April 2019. Data were collected by using pretested questionnaire, and 36 public health facilities were selected after stratifying them based on their level of service and number of nurses and midwives working in maternal health-care team. All 218 nurses and midwives who were working in the delivery unit from selected facilities were included in the study. The collected data were entered into Epi data 3.02 and exported to statistical software for social sciences version 22 for analysis. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were done. Statistical significance of variables was declared as a , and strength of association was adjusted odds ratio at 95% confidence interval in the final model. Result. A total of 218 nurses and midwives were participated in the study. Among them, 57.9% of participants had good knowledge of essential newborn care. The type of profession (, [2.47, 13.58]), educational level (, [1.42, 7.52]), interest to work in delivery room (, [1.89, 12.42]), and presence of guidelines (, [1.18, 4.45]) were the factors significantly associated with having knowledge of essential newborn care. Conclusion and Recommendation. The nurses and midwives had poor knowledge of some components of essential newborn care in the study area. Bachelor level of study, interest to work in delivery room, and being a midwife were the factors independently associated with knowledge of essential newborn care among nurses and midwives. Therefore, the head of labor ward and institution, zonal and woreda health units, and nongovernmental organizations who are working on maternal and child health should work on providing continuous education, providing incentives and motivators to improve interest to work in delivery unit, and providing guidelines in the unit.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Apr 2020 00:50:12 +000
       
  • A Prospective Observational Study of Drug Therapy Problems in Pediatric
           Ward of a Referral Hospital, Northeastern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. A drug therapy problem is any undesirable event experienced by a patient during drug therapy that interferes with achieving the desired goals of therapy. It has been pointed out that hospitalized pediatric patients are particularly prone to drug-related problems. Identifying drug therapy problems enables risk quantification and determination of the potential impact of prevention strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the drug therapy problems in a pediatric ward of Dessie Referral Hospital, northeast of Ethiopia, and to identify associated factors for drug therapy problems. Methods. A prospective observational study design was carried out to assess drug therapy problems in a pediatric ward of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 1, 2018, to May 30, 2018. Ethical approval was obtained, and informed consent was signed by each study participant’s parent before the commencement of the study. All patients admitted to the ward during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected by trained pharmacy staffs through medical record reviews of patients using a prepared standard checklist and semistructured questionnaire. The collected data were cleared and checked every day for completeness and consistency before processing. Data were entered, and descriptive statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20 Software. A value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. The participants’ mean age was 2.32 years with the standard deviation (SD) of 0.76 years. Among 81 patients, 71 (87.7%) of them had at least one drug therapy problem per patient which indicates that the prevalence of the drug therapy problem was substantially high. Needs additional drug was the most predominantly encountered drug therapy problem accounted (30 (25.2%)). On the other hand, ineffective drug was the least (3 (2.5%)) drug therapy problem. Antibiotics (47 (39.5%)) followed by fluid and electrolyte (25 (21%)) were classes of drugs mostly involved in the drug therapy problem. The main risk factors reported to the occurrence of the drug therapy problems were prescribing and dose calculation errors. Conclusion. The present study revealed that majority of the patients had at least one DTP per patient; this indicates that prevalence of DTP was very high in the study area. Needs additional drug therapy followed by noncompliance was the major cause of the occurrence of DTP. Antibiotics were the main class of drugs involved in the drug therapy problem, and among the risk factors assessed, prescribing and dose calculation errors showed statistical significance.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 04:35:02 +000
       
  • Cessation of Exclusive Breastfeeding and Determining Factors at the
           University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest
           Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the gold standard of infant feeding practice which lasts up to 6 months postpartum. Not all infants are exclusively breastfed in developing countries, including Ethiopia. This study, therefore, assessed the magnitude and determining factors of EBF cessation practice among mothers at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. Institutional-based cross-sectional study design using a systematic random sampling technique was applied to select 344 mothers of infants aged 9 months came for measles vaccination. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Independent variables with a value of
      PubDate: Fri, 20 Mar 2020 12:35:06 +000
       
  • Time to Recovery from Severe Acute Malnutrition and Its Predictors among
           Admitted Children Aged 6-59 Months at the Therapeutic Feeding Center of
           Pawi General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Follow-Up Study
           

    • Abstract: Background. Ethiopia is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa with the highest rates of severe acute malnutrition. Early recovery is a performance indicator for severe acute malnourished children for the therapeutic feeding. Despite the available interventions to tackle nutritional problems, there is scarce information on time to recovery and its determinants among children with SAM in Ethiopia. Objective. The study is aimed at assessing time to recovery from severe acute malnutrition and its predictors among admitted children aged 6-59 months at the therapeutic feeding center of Pawi General Hospital, northwest Ethiopia, from January 2013 to December 2017. Methods. An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted among 398 children aged 6-59 months. The data were collected by using data extraction sheet. The data were cleaned and entered using EpiData version 4.2.0.0 and exported to Stata version 14 statistical software for further analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used to estimate median nutritional recovery time after initiation of inpatient treatment, and log-rank test was used to compare time to recovery between groups. The Cox proportional regression model was used to identify the predictors of recovery time. Adjusted hazard rate with its 95% CI was reported to show strength of relationship. Results. The recovery rate was 5.3 per 100 person-day observations, and the median recovery time was 14 days (95% CI: 13–15). The lower chance of early recovery was found among children who were not fully vaccinated (AHR: 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.96)), while high chance of recovery was found among children who had no anemia (AHR: 1.66 (95% CI: 1.23, 2.23)), TB (AHR: 2.03 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.71)), and malaria infection (AHR: 1.54 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.17)) at admission. Conclusion and Recommendation. The overall nutritional recovery rate was below the accepted minimum standard. Children not fully vaccinated and children without malaria, anemia, and TB comorbidities at admission had a higher chance of recovering early from severe acute malnutrition. Hence, treating comorbidities is vital for prompt nutritional recovery.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Mar 2020 13:05:05 +000
       
  • Determinants of Low Fifth Minute Apgar Score among Newborn Delivered in
           Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Apgar score is currently an accepted method for newborn infant assessment immediately after delivery. Low fifth minute Apgar score was strongly associated with the risk of neonatal and infant death. Even though much has been done, still, the levels of neonatal mortality in sub-Saharan African countries including Ethiopia were significant. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying the risk factors so as providing strategies for decreasing the morbidity and mortality of newborns and identifying determinants of low fifth minute Apgar score among newborns delivered in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia, 2018. Method. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 366 neonates delivered at Jimma University Medical Center. Data was collected by using interview questionnaire. Apgar score was assessed by standard tool at the 1st, 5th, and 10th minutes after birth and only 5th minute Apgar score was used as outcome variable. Consecutive sampling technique was used to select the participants. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square test was done at bivariate level and value was used to select candidate variables for multivariate analysis. Finally, a 95% confidence interval was used to assess significance. Results. A response rate of this study was 95%. The proportion of low 5th minute Apgar score in this study was 11.5%. Prolonged duration of labor (, 95% CI: 5.51-40.27), maternal history of khat use (, 95% CI: 1.26-8.85), and low birth weight (, 95% CI: 1.02-3.11) were predictors of low fifth minute Apgar score. Conclusion. About one tenth of newborns were having low 5th minute Apgar score. The likelihood of low 5th minute Apgar score was found to increase with prolonged duration of labor, history of mother’s khat use, and low birth weight.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Mar 2020 04:35:01 +000
       
  • Knowledge of General Dental Practitioners and Specialists about Emergency
           Management of Traumatic Dental Injuries in Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Context. Studies about knowledge of emergency management of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) which affect children by general dental practitioners (GDPs) and specialists in Saudi Arabia are lacking. Aim. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge level of GDPs and specialists about TDI emergency management and its relation with demographic variables in Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A random sample of 239 GDPs and specialists was given a two-part questionnaire; the first part included demographic questions and the second part included questions related to knowledge of emergency management of luxation (intrusion and extrusion), complicated crown fracture, and avulsion injuries. Data was statistically analyzed using chi-square and ordinal logistic regression tests. The significance was set at .Results. The mean knowledge score was 5.57 for GDPs and 6.69 for specialists (out of 12). A significant difference was observed between both groups in the management of avulsion injury. Three factors significantly improved the dentists’ knowledge: gender (female), practice type (specialist), and previous experience of encountered TDIs ().Conclusions. GDPs and specialists in Qassim region had moderate knowledge of emergency management of TDIs. Specialists were significantly more knowledgeable than GDPs in the management of avulsion injury when compared to the rest of the injuries.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Feb 2020 12:05:10 +000
       
  • Management Outcome of Burn Injury and Associated Factors among
           Hospitalized Children at Ayder Referral Hospital, Tigray, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Burn injuries are a global public health problem, accounting for an estimated 265,000 deaths. Globally, over half of the disability-adjusted life years lost from fire-related burns which occurred between the ages of 0 and 14 years. The rate of child deaths from burns is currently over 7 times higher in low- and middle-income countries than in high-income countries. In Ethiopia, burn was the second leading cause of death among children from the unintentional injuries. So far, no research had been conducted in terms of assessing the outcome of burn injury in children in Ethiopia and particularly in Tigray region. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of burn injury and associated factors among hospitalized children of under 18 years at Ayder Referral Hospital in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Method. A retrospective document review was used to assess the outcome of burn injury and associated factors in Ayder Referral Hospital. A total of 382 hospitalized children’s chart from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed using a structured check list. To select the patients’ chart, a simple random sampling technique was used and a sampling frame was prepared based on a registration book. Data was entered, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Result. Almost 70% of the burns were caused by scald, and 45.3% of the burns were confined to the upper extremities. Eighty-two percent of the patients were discharged without complication. Lack of fluid resuscitation within 24 hours (; 95% CI (1.276-5.999)) and a burn patient with malnutrition (; 95% CI (0.069-0.923)) were statically significant with the outcome of burn injury. Conclusion. Majority of the pediatric burn patients were discharged without complication. The most causative agent of these accidents was scald; upper extremities also were the most affected area. The factors associated with the outcome of burn injury according to this study were lack of fluid resuscitation and malnourishment of burn patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 01:35:01 +000
       
  • When Do Newborns Die' Timing and Cause-Specific Neonatal Death in
           Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Referral Hospital in Gedeo Zone: A
           Prospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Maternal, newborn, and child health have a high stake in the global health agenda, however, neonates’ risk of dying is unacceptable in the world. Ethiopia is one of the countries with high burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Yet, timing and cause-specific neonatal death are under-investigated. The present study aimed to determine the timing and cause-specific neonatal death. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study at Dilla University Referral Hospital Neonatal Care Unit from November 2016 to January 2018. All admitted neonates to the neonatal care unit were followed from cohort entry up to the occurrence of an event (death) or end of follow-up. We generated descriptive statistics to determine the timing of neonatal death and the cause of deaths. Results. Overall, 11.6% of neonates died during the follow-up. We found that 34.0% and 64.3% of deaths occurred during the first and second weeks of neonatal life, respectively. Neonatal sepsis and low birth weight were the main causes of death and hospital admission. Jaundices and low birth weight were the most common causes of death during the early neonatal period, whereas birth asphyxia, low birth weight, and sepsis were during late neonatal life. However, for other causes of death, the slight difference was seen between the death patterns in early and late neonatal periods. Conclusions. The timing and cause-specific neonatal deaths were varying among different time of the neonatal periods that needs to design context-based policy and interventions.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2020 14:50:05 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Perinatal Asphyxia in Neonates
           Admitted to Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Northern Ethiopia: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Perinatal asphyxia is defined as the inability of the newborn to initiate and sustain enough respiration after delivery and is characterized by a marked impairment of gas exchange. It is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There are very few studies on perinatal asphyxia in Tigray, and so this study is aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of perinatal asphyxia in Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital NICU, Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among neonates admitted to Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from January 1, 2016, to December 30, 2017. Medical records of 267 neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were selected by a systematic sampling method, and relevant information was collected using a checklist. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were computed to determine the prevalence of birth asphyxia and sociodemographic and obstetrics data. Binary logistic regression was used to test associations between the associated factors and perinatal asphyxia. First bivariate analysis was performed to assess the association without controlling the effect of other independent variables. Variables with value < 0.25 were fitted to the multivariable binary logistic regression model. Finally, variables with value < 0.05 were expressed as associated factors of perinatal asphyxia. Results. Of the 267 neonates, 48 neonates had perinatal asphyxia, giving a prevalence of 18%. Prolonged labor (, 95% CI: 1.73-15.63, ), presence of meconium (, 95% CI: 1.34-12.98, ), and preeclampsia (, 95% CI: 2.22-28.37, ) were important determinant factors for birth asphyxia. The case fatality rate of perinatal asphyxia was 37.5%. Conclusion and Recommendations. Prevalence and mortality of asphyxia were high. Prolonged labor, presence of meconium, and preeclampsia were determinant factors for birth asphyxia. Early detection and intervention of high-risk mothers should be carried out by health care providers, and mothers should be monitored with partograph during labor.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Feb 2020 13:50:04 +000
       
  • Development of Swallowing Function in Infants with Oral Feeding
           Difficulties

    • Abstract: Background. Discharge of preterm infants is often delayed because of their oral feeding difficulties. Independent oral feeding is the last obstacle to pass after managing acute and chronic morbidities. We conducted this study to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of swallowing dysfunction and suggest proper interventions to reduce aspiration and chronic lung injury. Methods. Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (January 2016 to December 2018) who were performed modified barium swallow study due to oral feeding difficulties were enrolled. Modified barium swallow study was age 37 weeks to limit radiation exposure. Clinical data were collected retrospectively. Swallowing dysfunction was defined as inadequate epiglottic closure, laryngeal penetration, or tracheal aspiration according to result of the modified barium swallow study. Results. Among a total of 54 infants enrolled, nine (16.7%) were term infants, 13 (24.1%) were late preterm infants (gestational age, 34-36 weeks), and 32 (59.3%) were early preterm infants (gestational weeks). Gestational age and birth weight were smaller in infants with swallowing dysfunction. Total duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of invasive ventilation were longer in infants with swallowing dysfunction. The risk of swallowing dysfunction increased by 11.2 times for infants with gestational weeks compared to infants with gestational weeks. Swallowing dysfunction was improved in most infants after they became matured. They showed different time and rate of maturation with the help of rehabilitation through swallow therapy and dietary modification with thickened formula. Conclusion. Preterm infants with gestational weeks or with longer ventilation duration are at a higher risk of aspiration. Rehabilitation of swallow therapy and dietary modification with thickened formula can be helpful interventions to prevent aspiration and chronic lung injury and reassure parents until independent oral feeding is possible.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Feb 2020 07:35:00 +000
       
  • Exclusive Breastfeeding and Associated Factors among Mothers with Twins in
           the Tamale Metropolis

    • Abstract: Background. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months after birth has been recommended by the WHO as the best infant feeding strategy. Data on EBF rates among twin infants in Ghana remain limited and for that matter hypothesized to be low. Aim. The study sought to measure the prevalence of EBF and identify associated factors among twins in the Tamale metropolis. Methods. A cross-sectional survey involving 185 mother-twin pairs was conducted in four health facilities in the Tamale metropolis providing Child welfare Clinic (CWC) services. Socio-demographics data on both mother and twin were taken. Biomedical (e.g. perceived onset of lactation, confidence of producing enough milk, parity, delivery place, delivery type, time of breastfeeding initiation) and bio cultural factors (e.g. family cooperation for current infant feeding, breastfeeding counselling) were also obtained. In-depth interviews were also conducted with a sub sample of mothers (30) who were purposively selected to generate qualitative data on breastfeeding and associated cultural factors in twins as this data was necessary to aid in the explanation of the quantitative results. Results. Only 17% of twin infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Women who were not confident that they could produce enough breast milk were about 83% less likely to practice exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) compared to those who were confident that they could produce enough breast milk (AOR = 0.17; CI = 0.04, 0.73; p-value = 0.017). Moreover, mothers who had no access to radio were about 87% less likely to practice EBF (AOR = 0.13; CI = 0.02, 0.79; p-value = 0.027). The qualitative analysis also revealed that babies are frequently breastfed because according to the mothers, breastmilk was the only food for the baby. It was also found that begging when you have twins had spiritual underpinnings in the study area. Conclusions. The study shows that, ownership of radio, confidence of producing enough breast milk and admission of the children into NICU were identified as the most important factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding of twins. Beyond Educating, encouraging and assuring twin mothers of their abilities to produce enough breast milk to satisfy their children, healthcare professionals should pay more attention on providing appropriate information on breastfeeding to mothers and caregivers.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 11:05:07 +000
       
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Associated Factors towards Colostrum Feeding
           among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Gununo Health Centre, Wolaita
           Zone, Ethiopia 2019: Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. The role of colostrum in promoting the growth and development of the newborn as well as fighting infections is widely acknowledged. In Ethiopia, there are differences in cultures in the acceptability of colostrum and the prevalence of colostrum feeding. Although breastfeeding is a common practice in Ethiopia, there is a difference in the awareness and attitude of pregnant mothers regarding colostrum feeding. Objectives. To assess knowledge, attitude, and associated factors towards colostrum feeding among antenatal care attendant mothers in Gununo Health Center, South Ethiopia, 2019. Methods. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 342 ANC (antenatal care) attendant mothers in Gununo Health Center from April to May 2019. Data was collected by using structured interviewer questionnaires and the subjects were selected through systematic random sampling. Data template was prepared by Epi data-manger version 4.2 and SPSS version 23 was used for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analysis with 95% CI was employed. Variables found to have a p-value 
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 07:20:08 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Bacterial Contamination of Casting Material in a Pediatric
           Population

    • Abstract: Surgical site infection is a relatively common and devastating complication following pediatric orthopedic surgery. Many infections have been determined to be the result of settled airborne particles on surgical equipment and the sterile field. Fiberglass casts are commonly used orthopedic fixation devices before and after surgery; however, fiberglass casting material is expelled during the removal process and represents an uninvestigated area for the possibility of cast saw dust as a source of airborne bacterial contamination in an operating room setting. This study evaluates the prevalence and distribution of microbiota on 90 pediatric casts by collecting and culturing fiberglass cast material from 90 pediatric casts. Bacterial identification was performed using a Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry device. 81 out of 90 casts (90%) showed evidence of microbial contamination. Isolated species were very diverse and ranged from normal skin flora to opportunistic pathogens. The 5 most commonly isolated organisms were Acinetobacter pittii, Enterobacter cloacae, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus hominis. Further investigation is required to determine if casting material is truly a cause of surgical site infection.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Jan 2020 05:20:06 +000
       
 
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