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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 94)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 218)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 15)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Pediatrics
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9740 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9759
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Parental Perception of Childhood Anaemia and Efficiency of Instrument
           Assisted Pallor Detection among Mothers in Southeast Nigeria: A Field
           Validation Study

    • Abstract: Background. Control of anemia can be achieved with early detection of pallor by parents at home. However, most parents lack the capacity to recognize pallor; thus most cases of anaemia are detected during hospital visit due to other symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate parental ability to detect pallor when aided with the anaemia screening tool. Methods. In the study information on the symptoms of illness and parental knowledge on anaemia. Their ability to detect anaemia aided with the Home-Base anaemia-screen tool (HB-Anae) was compared to the healthcare providers’ assessment of pallor. The haemoglobin estimation with the Hb-301 haemoglobinometer was used as the gold standard. Results. None of the children in their previous illnesses had paleness as a complaint. Few (20.8%) parents knew what anaemia meant. Only 18.3% knew sites on the body where pallor can be detected. Many (55.1%; 304/552) surveyed children were anaemic (Hb
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Aug 2019 07:05:16 +000
  • Human Milk Oligosaccharides: The Journey Ahead

    • Abstract: Breast milk is a complex biological fluid that is rich in nutrients and bioactive agents that support the healthy growth and development of the newborns. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are unconjugated glycans that constitute an important component of the protection conferred by breast milk on the neonate. HMOs may act locally on the neonatal intestine by acting as signalling molecules and directly interacting with the host cells. Although fucosylated and sialylated HMOs have little nutritional value, they exert important prebiotic as well as immunomodulatory effects on the infant gut. However, there is heterogeneity in the quantity and quality of HMOs in breast milk produced by mothers under influence of the genetic and environmental factors. This review encompasses the salient aspects of HMOs such as composition, function, structural diversity, and functional impact on the growth and survival of newborns. In this review, the current knowledge on HMOs is contextualised to discuss the gaps in scientific understanding and the avenues for future research.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Aug 2019 09:05:17 +000
  • Low Birth Weight and Its Associated Factors among Newborns Delivered at
           Wolaita Sodo University Teaching and Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia,

    • Abstract: Background. Birth weight has a vital role in determining newborns survival in vulnerable conditions. Low birth weight is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impairment of growth and development and also chronic disease later in life. This study was aimed to assess the magnitude of low birth weight and its determinants in Wolaita Sodo University teaching and referral hospital, southern Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2018. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data was collected by interviewing mothers through structured questionnaire and reviewing neonates' medical records using a checklist. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with neonatal jaundice. Results. The proportion of low birth weight in the study area was found to be 15.8% (95% CI 11.7-19.9). Being primiparity [AOR=5.798; 95% (1.572-21.377)], anemia during pregnancy [AOR=3.808; 95% (1.513-9.586)], pregnancy induced hypertension [AOR= 6.955; 95% (2.386- 20.275)], intake herbal medication during pregnancy [AOR=35.762; 95% (4.571-279.764)], drinking alcohol during pregnancy [AOR=8.111; 95% (2.359-27. 895)] were predictors of low birth weight. Conclusion. The proportion of low birth weight among newborns delivered at Wolaita Sodo University teaching and referral hospital was comparable with the global prevalence of low birth weight. Parity, anemia, alcohol, herbal medication, and pregnancy-induced hypertension were significantly associated with low birth weight.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jul 2019 09:05:22 +000
  • Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge of Neonatal Resuscitation in
           Ethiopia: Analysis from 2016 National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care

    • Abstract: Background. Birth asphyxia, which accounts for 31.6% of all neonatal deaths, is one of the principal causes of neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Adequate knowledge of newborn resuscitative procedures plays an important role in early diagnoses and suitable management. However, there are limited data on healthcare professionals’ knowledge about neonatal resuscitation. Thus, this study aimed to determine the knowledge of healthcare professionals about neonatal resuscitation and factors affecting it. Methods. Data from the Ethiopian 2016 national Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care survey of 3,804 health facilities that provided maternal and newborn health services were analyzed. We have included 3804 healthcare providers, who attended the largest number of deliveries in the last month prior to the survey, and assessed their knowledge of neonatal resuscitation. It was also determined whether certain factors were associated with healthcare providers’ knowledge through linear regression method. Result. The overall knowledge score of the healthcare providers about neonatal resuscitation ranged from 12 to 24 out of 37 items (with mean score of 18.4 (±5.47) and mean score percentage of 49%). The findings showed that providers trained on neonatal resuscitation (β=2.65, 95% CI: 0.65, 4.62; p
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jul 2019 12:05:19 +000
  • Evaluation of the Performance of Haemoglobin Colour Scale and Comparison
           with HemoCue Haemoglobin Assay in Diagnosing Childhood Anaemia: A Field
           Validation Study

    • Abstract: Background. Anaemia in children has high mortality. We present the results of assessment of the accuracy of Haemoglobin Colour Scale in identifying anaemia compared with HemoCue assay. Methods. The presence of anaemia in 524 children from four communities was screened using the Haemoglobin Colour Scale (HCS) and HemoCue assay. Independent healthcare providers that estimated the haemoglobin level using Hb-301 haemoglobinometer were different from those that read the colour scale. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were estimated. Results. Of the 524 children surveyed, 44.5% (233/524), 50% (262/524), and 32.2% (168/524) were found to be anaemic using the HemoCue, HCS (p= 0.25), and clinical pallor (p=0.03) respectively. Using the HemoCue as standard, the sensitivity of the HCS and clinical pallor was 89.1% and 72.1%, respectively, and specificity 90.2% and 84.6%, respectively. 74.7 % of the colour scale result was within the 1.0g/dl of the HemoCue reading and 23 % was within 2.0g/dl. Conclusion. The HCS can improve the ability to detect anaemia especially where the use of the HemoCue is not feasible as in the resource poor countries. However, every case of anaemia requires further investigation to determine the underlying causes.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 09:05:27 +000
  • Clinical Approach to Hypocalcemia in Newborn Period and Infancy: Who
           Should Be Treated'

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hypocalcemia is a common metabolic problem in newborn period and infancy. There is consensus on the treatment of the symptomatic cases while the calcium level at which the treatment will be initiated and the treatment options are still controversial in asymptomatic hypocalcemia. Methods. This review article will cover hypocalcemia with specific reference to calcium homeostasis and definition, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypocalcemia in newborn and infancy period. Results. Hypocalcemia is defined as total serum calcium
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Jun 2019 14:05:14 +000
  • Neurodisability with Severe Restriction of Mobility Is Associated with
           Reduced Serum Creatinine Values

    • Abstract: Introduction. We investigated whether reduced mobility is associated with a reduction in serum creatinine in otherwise well children with neurodisability. Materials and Methods. This was a record based retrospective study and creatinine levels of children in groups with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) category 1, 2, or 3 (group I); GMFCS 4 or 5 (group II); and age matched controls (group III) were compared. Results. Creatinine values were significantly different (p=0.002) between patients with neurodisability (mean 32.0 (SD 9.3), n=88) compared to patients without (mean 36.5 SD (9.8), n=88). There was no significant difference in creatinine levels (p=0.684) between group I (mean 35.6 (9.1), n=23) and group III (mean 36.5 (9.8), n=88). A significantly lower creatinine level (p
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jun 2019 12:05:17 +000
  • Longer Breastfeeding Associated with Childhood Anemia in Rural
           South-Eastern Nigeria

    • Abstract: Introduction. Child mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa is 29 times higher than that in industrialized countries. Anemia is one of the preventable causes of child morbidity. During a humanitarian medical mission in rural South-Eastern Nigeria, the prevalence and risk factors of anemia were determined in the region in order to identify strategies for reduction. Methods. A cross-sectional study was done on 96 children aged 1-7 years from 50 randomly selected families. A study questionnaire was used to collect information regarding socioeconomic status, family health practices, and nutrition. Anemia was diagnosed clinically or by point of care testing of hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Results. 96 children were selected for the study; 90 completed surveys were analyzed (43% male and 57% females). Anemia was the most prevalent clinical morbidity (69%), followed by intestinal worm infection (53%) and malnutrition (29%). Mean age (months) at which breastfeeding was stopped was 11.8 (±2.2) in children with Hb 12mg/dl (no anemia) (P=0.0445). Conclusions. The longer the infant was breastfed, the worse the severity of childhood anemia was. Childhood anemia was likely influenced by the low iron content of breast milk in addition to maternal anemia and poor nutrition. A family-centered preventive intervention for both maternal and infant nutrition may be more effective in reducing childhood anemia and child mortality rate in the community.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2019 10:05:25 +000
  • Assessment of Poor Home Management Practice of Diarrhea and Associated
           Factors among Caregivers of Under-Five Years Children in Urban and Rural
           Residents of Doba Woreda, Ethiopia: Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Diarrhea is the first cause of illness and the second cause of death in under-five children. Home interventions can prevent 57% of mortality related to diarrhea. However, malpractices were common and the reason for this underutilization was unclear. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing poor home management practice of Diarrhea and associated factors among caregivers of under-five years children in urban and rural residents. Methods. The community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Doba woreda, Ethiopia, from February 25 to March 15, 2017. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to study 559 caregivers. An interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Collected data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 for analysis. The binary logistic regression model was used. In bivariate analysis p-value
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 00:07:21 +000
  • Full Immunization Coverage and Associated Factors among Children Aged
           12-23 Months in a Hard-to-Reach Areas of Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Childhood immunization averts 2.5 million annual child deaths globally. However, poor monitoring, possibly due to a lack of locally available data on immunization, might affect full protection of vaccines from Vaccine Preventable Diseases. This study was aimed at bringing data about immunization service coverage and its associated factors from Sekota Zuria district, which is one of the hard-to-reach areas in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from September 20 to October 28, 2017, among 620 children aged 12-23 months in seven randomly selected rural kebeles of Sekota Zuria district. Socio-demographic child conditions and vaccine-related data were collected using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors associated with immunization coverage at a p-value ≤ 0.05. Crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with their confidence interval were reported. Results. 77.4% (95%CI: 74.0%-80.6%) of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunized. Having antenatal care visit (AOR=2.75, 95%CI: 1.52-5.0), higher level of maternal education (AOR=2.39, 95%CI: 1.06-5.36), mothers’ good knowledge on immunization (AOR=3.70, 95%CI: 2.37-5.79), short distance to health facility (AOR=2.65, 95%CI: 1.61-4.36), and being born in health institutions (AOR=2.58, 95%CI: 1.66-3.99) had increased the odds of full immunization coverage while having five and more family size reduced the odds of children’s vaccine uptake (AOR=0.62, 95%CI: 0.38-0.99). Conclusion. Full immunization coverage of the district was lower than the target set by the World Health Organization. Improving mother’s health seeking behavior toward pregnancy follow-up and enhancing mothers’ knowledge on child immunization, strengthening outreach services, community engagement, and actively working with local community-based health agents are recommended to increase number of children to be vaccinated.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 May 2019 12:05:27 +000
  • Unique Characteristics of Prepubertal Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of age at disease onset on disease expression and outcomes of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus SLE (pSLE). Methods. A total of 103 patients with pSLE from Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, were retrospectively studied. Epidemiological, clinical phenotype, disease severity, serology, treatment, and outcome were compared among the three groups using univariate statistical tests. Results. The mean disease duration of the cohort was 9.8 ± 4.7 years. The patients were divided into three groups: prepubertal onset (n=39) with mean age at diagnosis of 5.1 ± 2.0 years and pubertal disease onset (n=29) with mean age at diagnosis of 10.8 ± 1.0 years as well as postpubertal disease onset (n=35) group with mean age at diagnosis of 15.3 ± 1.6 years. The prepubertal pSLE cohort demonstrates unique characteristics with increased frequency of familial SLE (61%) of which 49% were from first-degree relatives. Similarly, this group had distinctive clinical features, which included increased renal disease in pubertal and postpubertal groups, respectively (51% vs 23% vs 20%; p=0.039). Prepubertal, similar to pubertal group, had a higher incidence of cutaneous manifestations than in the postpubertal group (74% vs 69% vs 46%; p=0.029). Laboratory features in prepubertal group were distinct with increased frequency of positive anti-cardiolipin antibodies (47%), anti-glycoprotein antibodies (42%), ANCA (62%), and low complement levels (97%) compared to pubertal and postpubertal group. The prepubertal group also has the lowest frequency of positive SSA antibodies (18%) and SSB antibodies (5.1%). The overall mean SLEDAI score in pSLE cohort was 15.6 ± 18.5. The mean SLEDAI scores among the groups showed no significance difference (p=0.110). The overall SLICC DI ≥1 was 36% with a mean damage score of 0.76 ± 1.38. No significant differences in damage index (SLICC DI ≥1) were noted among the groups. Conclusions. Distinct clinical features were identified in prepubertal onset pSLE population of Arab ethnicity. Given the high rate of consanguineous marriage and high frequency of familial SLE in this cohort, these manifestations could be explained by higher frequency of genetic factors that influence the disease pathogenesis.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 May 2019 11:05:33 +000
  • Magnitude and Risk of Dying among Low Birth Weight Neonates in Rural
           Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Even if remarkable progress has been made in reducing preventable child deaths worldwide, neonatal mortality reduction has remained unsatisfactory. Low birth weight (LBW) is the major risk factor for child deaths during the neonatal period, yet only 5% of babies are weighed at birth in Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to determine the magnitude and risk of dying among low birth weight neonates in rural Gedeo, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. Community-based mixed-method approach design was employed between September and October 2016 to identify and enroll study participants in rural Gedeo, Southern Ethiopia. Records of 17,503 live birth babies, of whom 2,065 (11.8%) had LBW, born in the last 12 months were screened to identify 885 (42.8%) biological mother–LBW neonate pairs from eight health centers. The study subjects were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to predict maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with the risk of neonatal death. Results. The overall neonatal mortality rate (NMR) among LBW infants was 110 per 1000 live births (95% confidence interval: 75 –228). Close to half, 374 (42.3%), of the LBW neonates died during the first week of life. The estimated hazard ratios of mortality were higher among neonates whose mothers did not attend antenatal care (ANC) (HR=1.58, 95 % CI: 1.02-2.43), gave birth by assisted or cesarean delivery (HR=1.81 and 3.72; 95% CI: 1.10 - 3.02 and 2.11-6.55), and experienced some form of illness during pregnancy (HH=3.34, 95 % CI: 2.11-5.29), respectively. Similarly, neonates born with very low (
      PubDate: Thu, 16 May 2019 10:05:20 +000
  • Current Cigarette Smoking and Its Predictors among School-Going
           Adolescents in East Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. In developing countries, tobacco smoking has its own contribution to the burden of noncommunicable causes of morbidity and mortality. Studies estimated the burden of cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in different geographical areas of East Africa. However, due to discrepancies found among those different findings, there is no representative data about the burden of smoking in the continent. Objectives. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the pooled prevalence of current cigarette smoking and its associated factors among school-going adolescents in East Africa. Methods. PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science Library were searched to access included articles. A weighted inverse-variance random-effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Variations in the pooled estimates of the prevalence were adjusted through subgroup analysis according to the specific country, where the study was conducted. Funnel plot and Egger’s regression test were used to check publication bias. STATA version 14 statistical software was used for meta-analysis. Results. A total of 26,875 school-going adolescents were included. The pooled prevalence of current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in East Africa was found to be 9.02% (95%CI: 6.34-11.70). Based on the subgroup analysis, current cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents was estimated at 9.8% in Kenya, 7.72% in Ethiopia, 10.83% in Uganda, 13.6% in Sudan, and 4% in Tanzania. Conclusions. This meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of current cigarette smoking is increasing among school-going adolescents in East Africa. Therefore, countries have to realize sale prevention policies, establishing and/or strengthening antismoking campaigners designed for school-going adolescents, and providing training for teachers to be antismoking campaigners.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 09:05:16 +000
  • Audit of Antibiotic Prescribing Practices for Neonatal Sepsis and
           Measurement of Outcome in New Born Unit at Kenyatta National Hospital

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. A high index of suspicion is required since features of sepsis are nonspecific. Auditing of antibiotic use is necessary to reduce misuse and minimise development of antibiotic resistance. Objectives. To assess the antibiotic prescribing practices in NBU at KNH against recommended Kenyan guidelines for neonatal sepsis. In addition, outcome within 7 days was described. Methods. This was a prospective audit of 320 neonates over a 2-month period at NBU of KNH. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, stored in MS-EXCEL, and analysed using STATA. Results. Documentation of perinatal risk factors and clinical features at admission and at the time of change of antibiotics was very poor. The rate of investigations to confirm infection was very low. Blood cultures were done only in 13 (4%) neonates on admission, while complete blood count and C reactive protein were done in 224 (70%) and 198 (62%), respectively. Appropriate antibiotics as per the Kenyan guidelines were prescribed in 313 (97.8%) of neonates on admission. However, these were not stopped at 48-72 hours for the 148 (53.62%) who had improved. Overall mortality was high in neonates at 80 (25%). Majority (55%) died within 48 hours. Mortality was high among preterm neonates; 70 (43.8%) died out of 160. Conclusion. Overall documentation and investigations to confirm infection was poor. The continuation of antibiotics was inappropriate. Overall mortality was high especially in the first 48 hours of admission. To improve documentation, availability of a checklist on admission is recommended.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 14:05:28 +000
  • Magnitude of Neonatal Jaundice and Its Associated Factor in Neonatal
           Intensive Care Units of Mekelle City Public Hospitals, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Jaundice in the neonate is one of the most common clinical problems. Globally, every year about 1.1 million babies develop it and the vast majority reside in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Study on magnitude and local factors associated with neonatal jaundice is limited in Ethiopia. So this study was aimed at assessing magnitude and predictors of neonatal jaundice among neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit of public hospitals in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April 2016 in neonatal intensive care unit of Mekelle city public hospitals. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data was collected by interviewing mothers through structured questionnaire and reviewing neonates’ medical records using checklist. Multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with neonatal jaundice. Results. A total of 209 neonates with their mothers were included. The proportion of neonatal jaundice was found to be 37.3%. Prolonged labor [AOR = 4.39; 95% CI (1.8-10.69)], being male [AOR = 3.7; 95% CI (1.54-8.87)], maternal “O” blood group [AOR = 5.05; 95% CI (1.53-16.72)], sepsis [AOR = 2.64; 95% CI (1.15-6.05)], and blood type incompatibility [AOR = 18.21; 95% CI (6.36-52.13)] were positively associated with neonatal jaundice while night time delivery [AOR 0.42; 95% CI (0.18-0.96)] showed negative association. Conclusion. The magnitude of neonatal jaundice among neonates was found to be high. Duration of labor, time of delivery, sexes of neonate, sepsis, maternal blood group, and blood type incompatibility were significantly associated with neonatal jaundice. Therefore, improving newborn care and timely intervention for neonates with ABO/Rh incompatibility are recommended.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 12:05:13 +000
  • Breast Feeding Practice: Positioning and Attachment during Breast Feeding
           among Lactating Mothers Visiting Health Facility in Areka Town, Southern

    • Abstract: Background. Breastfeeding is the act of milk conveyance from the mother to the infant. Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood are mandatory to ensure growth, health, and development of children to their maximum potential. The positioning of the baby’s body is important for maintaining good attachment and successful breastfeeding. Most difficulties of breastfeeding can be avoided altogether if good attachment and positioning can be achieved at the first and early feeds. Plenty of studies have been conducted to explore factors affecting breastfeeding practice in general; however, there is a meagerness of evidence that assesses factors affecting attachment and positioning during breastfeeding specifically. Therefore, the current study was aimed to assess positioning and attachment during breastfeeding among lactating mothers visiting health facilities of Areka town. Methods. an institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted by using observational checklist adopted from the World Health Organization breastfeeding observation form. Maternal-related characteristics were collected by using a structured and pretested questionnaire. The study was conducted from April to June 2017. Respondents were selected by using a systematic random sampling technique. Descriptive summaries were done to present pertinent findings and a chi-square test was used to check association between variables. Result. There was poorer positioning among primipara mothers (47.1%) than multipara mothers (28.7%). A poor attachment was also more apparent among primipara mothers which were more (31.1%) than the multipara (27.1%) mothers. Conclusion. Younger mothers (
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Apr 2019 08:05:23 +000
  • Maternal Common Mental Disorder as Predictors of Stunting among Children
           Aged 6-59 Months in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    • Abstract: Background. Child malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries still continues to be an alarming. Africa and Asia bear the greatest share of all forms of malnutrition. The association between maternal common mental disorder and stunting has not been studied well even in developed countries; much less in developing countries and even the findings are conflicting. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship of maternal common mental disorder and child stunting. Methods. Institution based unmatched case-control study design was employed from March to April 2017. Two hundred thirty-four sampled children (78 cases and 156 controls) were randomly selected. Anthropometric measurements (height/length and weight) were taken by calibrated instruments. Maternal common mental disorder (CMD) was measured by using the locally validated Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Data entry was done by Epi data version 3.1 and analysis was done by SPSS 21.0 statistical software. Result. Finding of this study found out about three-fourths of cases (71.8%) and three-fourths of controls (69.9%) were residing in rural and urban areas, respectively. Regarding maternal common mental disorder, more than half of cases mother (53.8%) and more than one-tenth of controls mother (13.5%) were found to have common mental disorder. The study showed that children of mothers who had common mental disorder were found to be three times more likelihood of developing stunting than children whose mothers had not common mental disorder. Conclusion and Recommendation. The study indicated that maternal common mental disorder was significantly associated with stunting. Therefore, emphasis should be given in preventing, managing, and maintaining maternal mental health in order to prevent stunting.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Mar 2019 07:05:18 +000
  • The Lipodystrophy Syndrome in HIV-Infected Children under Antiretroviral
           Therapy: A First Report from the Central Africa

    • Abstract: Background. Despite the high prevalence of the HIV/AIDS, few studies focused on the prevalence of lipodystrophy in pediatric HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in sub-Saharan African countries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of metabolic disorders related to ARV therapy in this population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was completed in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. HIV-infected children aged between six and 18 years on ARV were consecutively recruited. For each case, two control children (one non-HIV infected child and one HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve child) were also recruited. Results. 80 HIV-infected on ARV therapy children (group 1), 80 noninfected children (group 2) and 65 HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve children (group 3) were recruited. The frequency of lipoatrophy was not statistically different between group 1 (16.3%) and group 3 (21.5%). A significantly higher proportion of lipohypertrophy, hypercholesterolemia, and lactic acidosis was noted in children of group 1, compared to the controls (p0.05). Conclusion. Lipohypertrophy, hypercholesterolemia, and lactic acidosis emerge as a frequent metabolic disorders due to ARV therapy.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 13:05:25 +000
  • Changing Trend of Neonatal Septicemia and Antibiotic Susceptibility
           Pattern of Isolates in Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal septicemia is one of the most common leading reasons for neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Frequent monitoring on pathogens with recent updates and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern is mandatory for the better treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the bacteriological profile of neonatal septicemia and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Outpatient Department (OPD), Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and Pediatrics Ward of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Bharatpur, Nepal. Blood cultures were performed on all suspected neonates attending to the hospital with a clinical analysis of neonatal septicemia. Isolated organism was identified by the standard microbiological protocol and antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Out of 516 specimens, bacterial growth was obtained in 56 specimens (10.8%). Prevalence of early onset sepsis was higher 35 (62.5%) in neonates compared to late onset sepsis 21 (37.5%). Majority of neonatal septicemia were caused by gram-negative isolates 39 (69.6%). Acinetobacter species 18 (32.1%) was most commonly isolated organism followed by Staphylococcus aureus 11 (19.6%). The predominant isolate in early onset septicemia was Acinetobacter species 18 (32.1%) and Staphylococcus aureus 9 (16%) and in late onset septicemia was Staphylococcus aureus 11 (19.6%) and Acinetobacter species 5 (8.9%). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci displayed highest susceptibility towards vancomycin, amikacin, teicoplanin, and meropenem. Gram-negative isolates showed susceptibility towards amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, ofloxacin, and gentamicin. Conclusions. Acinetobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus remain the most predominant organisms responsible for neonatal septicemia in a tertiary care setting and demonstrate a high resistance to the commonly used antibiotics. Above all, since the rate of Acinetobacter species causing sepsis is distressing, inspiring interest to control the excess burden of Acinetobacter species infection is mandatory.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Feb 2019 09:05:29 +000
  • Retracted: Prevalence and Associated Factors of Peer Victimization
           (Bullying) among Grades 7 and 8 Middle School Students in Kuwait

    • PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:13:05 +000
  • Facilitators and Barriers to Breastfeeding and Exclusive Breastfeeding in
           Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    • Abstract: Background. Breastfeeding is the best way to feed infants. It is a simple intervention to improve child health and development. Despite its advantages, there is a low global rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and, in Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, EBF is rarely practiced. The aim of this paper is to explore social and cultural factors that might influence the practice of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding in Kilimanjaro region. Methods. A qualitative design was used. Three districts in Kilimanjaro region, namely, Same, Moshi Municipal Council, and Rombo, were selected. In each district three focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with mothers with infants aged 0-12 months. Results. A total of 78 mothers participated in the focus group discussions. A majority of the mothers were positive towards breastfeeding. They believed that it prevents child sickness, creates happiness, and is good for family economy. Despite the positive attitudes, the mothers revealed many perceptions that interfered with breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. These included the following: breast milk is very light and has bad odor, breastfeeding may affect mothers appearance, chango (abdominal pain) has to be treated, there is fear of the evil eye when breastfeeding in public places, breast milk may become unclean, and there is a need of pauses in breastfeeding after the child has burped on the breast. Conclusion. There are beliefs that promote the practice of breastfeeding in this setting; these local beliefs could be used to develop breastfeeding messages to improve breastfeeding practices. However, there is also a need to address beliefs that interfere with the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in this setting.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Retracted: The Association between the Parents’ Knowledge of
           Carbohydrate Counting and the Glycaemic Control of the Children with Type
           1 Diabetes

    • PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 08:05:07 +000
  • Do Maternal Vitamin D Levels Influence Vitamin D Levels in Preterm

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine the prevalence of Vitamin D (VitD) deficiency/insufficiency in mothers of preterm neonates less than or equal to 32 weeks of gestation and determine if the current level of VitD supplementation used for preterm neonates is appropriate. Design. Prospective study from May 2015 to November 2016. Setting. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the Canberra Hospital. Patients. Mothers and their preterm neonates born less than or equal to 32 weeks gestation. Interventions. Maternal VitD levels were obtained within 3-4 days following delivery. Neonatal VitD levels were obtained in the first 3-4 days of life, at 3-4 weeks of age, and at 6-8 weeks of age. Demographic data and data on VitD intake from parenteral nutrition, enteral feeds, and vitamin supplementation agents were collected. Results. 70 neonates were enrolled into the study. Median gestation was 29 (27-30) weeks and median birth weight 1197 (971.2-1512.5) grams. Median maternal VitD level was 54.5 (36-70.7) nmol/L, median neonatal Vit D level at birth was 57 (42-70) nmol/L. Median Vit D level at 3 weeks and 6 weeks were 63.5 nmol/L (53-80.2) nmol/L and 103 (71.5-144) nmol/L respectively. 22/55 (40%) mothers were VitD deficient/insufficient. 25/70 (36%) neonates were VitD deficient/insufficient at birth. Of those neonates who were VitD deficient/insufficient at birth 5/25(10%) were deficient/insufficient at 6 weeks. The median intake of VitD at 6 weeks was 826.5 (577.5-939.5) IU/day. Conclusions. VitD deficiency/insufficiency in mothers of preterm neonates and in preterm neonates at birth is common. Routine screening of maternal VitD and their preterm neonates along with individualized supplementation regimens in mothers and preterm infants may optimize VitD status and reduce risk of ongoing VitD deficiency/insufficiency.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 09:24:58 +000
  • Effects of a Psychological Preparation Intervention on Anxiety Associated
           with Pediatric Anorectal Manometry

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. High-resolution anorectal manometry (HRM) is associated with significant patient and parent anxiety, which can impact the success and efficiency of the procedure. The nature of HRM necessitates cooperation of an alert child. This study examined effects of psychoeducation intervention on decreasing procedural distress in both pediatric patients and their parents. Methods. A prospective randomized study of children aged 3–12 years, undergoing HRM, was performed utilizing child-centric educational video. Patients received either psychological preparation intervention or treatment-as-usual. Distress was assessed through self-reported and parent-reported anxiety measures (STAIC-S; STAI-S), physiological arousal measurements, and an observational scale of procedural distress (PBCL). Results. A total of 63 children, aged 3–12 yrs (6.7 ± 2.5), completed the study. Measures of observed and reported distress and anxiety (PBCL; STAIC-S) were significantly less in children receiving intervention. Parents of children in the intervention group also reported significantly less preprocedural anxiety (STAI-S). Effects on physiological arousal were mixed, with significant preprocedural decrease in systolic blood pressure but no difference in heart rate from baseline. Conclusions. Preprocedural psychological preparation was effective in decreasing pediatric patient and parental self-reported anxiety associated with HRM. Intervention decreased physician time necessary to successfully complete the study and significantly decreased the number of times patients had to endure balloon inflation.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 09:02:07 +000
  • Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of HIV Positive Mothers on
           Antiretroviral Treatment towards Infant Feeding in Gondar Town Health
           Institutions, North West Ethiopia, 2017

    • Abstract: Introduction. The world health organization recommends feeding practices for infants born from Human Immunodeficiency Virus infected mothers to be safe to both the infant and the mother. This includes prevention of mother to child transmission of the virus and at the same time meeting nutritional requirements of the child. This requires prioritizing prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding against non-HIV morbidity and mortality especially from malnutrition and serious illnesses such as diarrhea, among nonbreastfed infants. Objective. This study was aimed at assessing knowledge, attitude, and practice of HIV positive mothers on antiretroviral therapy towards infant feeding. Method. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 402 HIV positive mothers at ART clinics of Gondar town from March 1 to April 18, 2017. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data was collected using a structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire. The collected data was entered into Epi Info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. Result. A total of 402 participants were interviewed with a 100% response rate. The mean age of participants was 29.24 (SD±10.06) years. The overall level of participant good knowledge and favorable attitude was 68.91% and 75.87%, respectively. Only 23.7% of mothers were practicing infant feeding according to WHO recommendation.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 08:49:03 +000
  • Exclusive Breastfeeding Practice and Associated Factors among Mothers in
           Boditi Town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2018: A Community-Based
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Exclusive breastfeeding tops the table of life-saving interventions for newborns. A child who is exclusively breastfed is 14 times less likely to die in the first six months compared to its counterpart. Approximately 18,000 children globally still die every day and if current trend continues, some 60 million children under age 5 will die between 2017 and 2030, and half of them will be newborns. Five countries, including Ethiopia, accounted for half of all newborn deaths in the world. Objective. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of exclusive breastfeeding practice among mothers who have infants 6-12 months of age in Boditi Town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2018. Methods. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 412 randomly selected mothers having 6 to 12 month infants from April 1 to 14, 2018. A pretested interviewer administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were entered using Epi Data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics was made. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was also carried out to see the effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable. Results. Of 412 mother-infant pairs sampled, 403 were participated, which made a response rate of 97.8%. Prevalence of EBF computed using since birth dietary recall method was 64.8% (95% C.I= 60.0, 69.0). From multivariable analysis, child birth attended by health care provider (AOR = 5.303, 95% C.I = 1.613, 17.436), postnatal care utilization (AOR = 1.91, C.I = 1.083, 3.370), and mothers who did not report any breast related problem for the first six months after child birth (AOR = 1.864, C.I = 1.090, 3.189) were factors positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice. Conclusion. Although the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding practice in this study was relatively high, more effort to meet World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations is still necessary to benefit from its intervention. There is a need to promote child births to be attended by health care providers and postnatal care utilization. Further, women should be educated on what to do and where to seek care if breast problem occurs after child birth.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Reproducibility of BiliCare™ Transcutaneus Bilirrubin Meter in
           Mexican Newborns

    • Abstract: Background. Newborn hyperbilirubinemia is considered a worldwide health problem that demands medical evaluation. Noninvasive transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) has been used as a screening method with different devices but there has not been any evaluation of reproducibility of the same brand devices. The BiliCare™ system is evaluated to demonstrate consistency between measurements with four different devices. Methods. 336 TcB measurements were obtained with four BiliCare™ devices in 21 Mexican icteric newborns with a mean postnatal age of 44.1 hours of life and 38 weeks of gestation (33–41). Two measurements were taken in the same ear alternatively at the scaphoid fossa with each device. TcB values were compared between devices. Validity was compared with total serum bilirubin (TB). Results. intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrates a minimum limit in the study of 0.945 and maximum of 0.988 with the same device. Correlations with serum and between devices gave results above 0.932. Conclusions. BiliCare™ transcutaneous bilirubin measurement instrument has very good intra- and interdevice reproducibility; also correlation of TcS with serum bilirubin gave statistically the same results.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Attitudes towards Donor Breast Milk in an Inner City Population

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of our study was to identify attitudes towards donor breast milk in our population and identify barriers to its acceptance. Methods. The study sample was comprised of a convenience sample of 174 postpartum women. A questionnaire consisting of demographic information and 12 questions relating to attitudes and understanding of donor breast milk was administered. Results. Among the mothers surveyed, 34% were aware of the use of donor breast milk and donor milk banks. 62% of mothers preferred the use of formula compared to donor breast milk if they were unable to provide their own breast milk. Educational level did play a role with 64% of mothers with education beyond high school believing that donor breast milk was beneficial for newborns as opposed to 46% with a high school education or less (p=0.02). US born mothers were more likely to have heard about donor breast milk (47% versus 29%, p=0.025) than foreign born mothers although they were less likely to believe it was a better option for feeding than formula (22.7% versus 43%, p=.016). Mothers with infants in the NICU were more likely than mothers of well babies to accept milk from a milk bank rather than a relative or friend (81% versus 39%, p≤0.001). Conclusion. Although the beneficial effects of donor breast milk are well established in the scientific community, there remains a lack of awareness and a major discrepancy in the understanding and acceptance of it within our community. Education on the benefits of mother’s own milk as well as donor breast milk and milk banks is an important public health initiative needed to increase acceptance of human milk as the optimal form of nutrition in infants.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +000
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