Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 233)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Hypertension
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.578
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-0384 - ISSN (Online) 2090-0392
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Aliskiren Reduces the Adrenal Zona Glomerulosa Apoptosis and Autophagy in
           Wistar Rats with 2K1C Hypertension

    • Abstract: Hypertension is a disease classified as primary or secondary, manifested not only by elevation of blood pressure but also involved in structural and functional changes of target organs. Renal artery stenosis is a leading factor of secondary hypertension, and its progress is associated with overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Aliskiren is a renin inhibiting drug that suppresses RAAS and culminates in decreased renin release, plasma angiotensin II concentration, and inhibition of aldosterone secretion. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to analyze the structural and ultrastructural morphophysiology of the adrenal glomerular zone, after treatment with aliskiren in Wistar rats with 2K1C hypertension. Parameters as structure and ultrastructure of the adrenal glomerular zone, cellular apoptosis, nuclear cell proliferation, and AT1 receptor expression were analyzed by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Our results showed that the hypertensive animals treated with aliskiren presented a reestablishment of AT1 receptor expression and decrease in apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, treatment with aliskiren improves the cell aspects in the adrenal glomerular zone, evidenced by ultrastructural analysis through preserved nuclei and well-developed mitochondria. Therefore, our evidence suggests that aliskiren has a beneficial effect on the adrenal glomerular zone remodeling in animals with renovascular hypertension.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • An Assessment of Usual Salt Intake among Older Normotensive Adults in
           Atonsu, a Suburb of Kumasi in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. Globally, sodium intake has been found to be far above the normal level required by the body. Within countries, variations in salt intake exist between rural communities and urban communities. Experimental and epidemiological studies as well as studies involving clinical trials show the existence of adverse effect of salt consumption on the blood pressure of adults. The study evaluated salt intake among older normotensive adults in Atonsu, a suburb of Kumasi in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods. Participants were randomly selected from five churches which constituted cluster samples. A questionnaire was administered to participants for demographic information and dietary and lifestyle assessments. The study targeted 100 participants, twenty from each of the five churches. Eighty-two individuals gave their informed consent. Out of the 82 who gave their informed consent, 15 withdrew and 67 completed the course. The 67 participants comprised 36 (53.7%) men and 31 (46.3%) women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, serum creatinine, serum sodium, and serum potassium concentrations were also measured. Results. Participants’ mean age was 52.3 ± 8.7 years. Participants had 24 hr urinary sodium excretion of 153.0 ± 26.9 mmol/day. All participants indicated that they consume foods high in salt even though none of them added salt to their diet at table. Mean 24 hr urinary potassium was 52.5 ± 12.9 mmol/day. Mean systolic blood pressure was 119.9 ± 10.8 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 72.5 ± 7.3 mmHg. Their mean BMI was 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2. Conclusion. The participants who can be described as quite old and normotensive were high salt consumers, indicated by their dietary assessment and urinary sodium excretion, even though they had normal blood pressure.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Hypertension Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Adult Hypertensive
           Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Objective. Hypertension (HTN) remains a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases globally. Despite considerable improvement in increasing awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, undiagnosed and uncontrolled HTN remains a major public health challenge. Our focus was on studying the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding HTN in adult hypertensive patients at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Methodology. A descriptive study on knowledge, attitude, and practice of hypertensive patients on antihypertensive medications attending the hypertensive clinic was carried out from January 2016 to June 2016 at THP. Results. The study was on a total of 371 hypertensive patients comprising 253 (68.2%) females and 118 (31.8%) males. Among the total participants, 12 (3.2%), all females, had never been to school. About half of them (47.7%) had not even reached GCE (ordinary level). More than two-thirds (77%) of the study population were aware of the complications of HTN as they were informed by a health care team member. About 74% of them were taking all their prescribed medications. Almost all (95%) patients had checked their blood pressure (BP) during the previous 12 months, and almost the same percentage had visited their doctor for BP checkups every 1–3 months. Conclusion. Our patients were well aware of the importance of regular follow-ups and also knowledgeable about the complications related to HTN. Almost 75% of the patients had optimum drug compliance. It was revealed that forgetfulness was the frequent cause for poor drug compliance.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Effect of Different Blood-Pressure-Lowering Regimens on the Blood Pressure
           Control among Hypertensive Patients Treated in Hospital Conditions

    • Abstract: Background. Scientific references lack sufficient amount of data on analyses of the reasons for hospital admissions or assessment of efficacy of arterial hypertension treatment at hospitals. Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of antihypertensive drug therapy on the blood pressure control among hospitalized hypertensive patients. Methodology. A cross-sectional retrospective study consisted of 204 patients aged 18–65 years admitted to the hospital due to hypertension between January 2018 and December 2018. The study was based on analysis of electronic records, obtained from the medical database of the selected healthcare facility. Results. As a result of the treatment applied at the hospital, 65.19% of the patients achieved the desired degree of blood pressure normalization (≤130/80 mmHg). Vast majority of the patients during their stay at the ward would receive three or more hypertensive drugs (63.73%). The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drug combinations included bitherapies such as diuretics + ACEI and ACEI + β-blockers and tritherapy such as diuretics + β-blockers and calcium channel antagonists and diuretics + ACEI and ARBs. The highest blood-pressure lowering effects were observed among patients receiving combination therapy of a ACEI, a diuretic, and a ARBs. Tritherapy induced a significant mean reduction of inpatients`s SBP compared with bitherapy ().Conclusion. During their hospital stay, vast majority of patients (65.19%) achieved normal values of blood pressure, mostly owing to combined treatment with several hypertensive drugs. Efficacy of the most frequently used combinations of hypertensive drugs in normalizing arterial pressure varies.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Combination of Exercise Training and SOD Mimetic Tempol Enhances
           Upregulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Kidney of Spontaneously
           Hypertensive Rats

    • Abstract: Both exercise training (Ex) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic tempol have antihypertensive and renal protective effects in rodent models of several hypertensions. We recently reported that Ex increases nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression levels of endothelial and neuronal NO synthase (eNOS and nNOS) in the kidney and aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKY). We also found that endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upregulates the expression levels of eNOS and nNOS in SHR. To elucidate the mechanism of the Ex-upregulated NO system in the kidney, we examined the additive effect of Ex and tempol on the renal NO system in SHR and WKY. Our data showed that, in SHR, both Ex and tempol increase the levels of H2O2 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) in plasma and urine. We also observed an increased renal NOS activity and upregulated expression levels of eNOS and nNOS with decreased NADPH oxidase activity. The effects of the combination of Ex and tempol on these variables were cumulate in SHR. On the other hand, we found that Ex increases these variables with increased renal NADPH oxidase activity, but tempol did not change these variables or affect the Ex-induced upregulation in the activity and expression of NOS in WKY. The SOD activity in the kidney and aorta was activated by tempol only in SHR, but not in WKY; whereas Ex increased SOD activity only in the aorta in both SHR and WKY. These results indicate that Ex-induced endogenous H2O2 produced in the blood vessel and other organs outside of the kidney may be carried to the kidney by blood flow and stimulates the NO system in the kidney.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Polymorphism of MTHFR C677T Gene and the Associations with the Severity of
           Essential Hypertension in Northern Chinese Population

    • Abstract: Objective. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of homocysteine metabolism and is closely related to the occurrence of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the (MTHFR) C677T and the factors influencing the severity of hypertension. Material and Methods. A total of 985 subjects were enrolled to analyze the polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 306 people with essential hypertension were selected from 985 subjects to estimate the severity of hypertension by the ordinal multivariate logistical regression model. Results. The frequencies of CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 19.5%, 49.95%, and 30.46%, respectively. The allelic frequency of mutant T was 55.43%. The plasma homocysteine level of the homozygous TT in individuals was significantly higher than in those with CC or CT . MTHFR677CT genotype, MTHFR677TT genotype, smoking, family history of hypertension, Hcy, and triglycerides (TG) were independent risk factors for the severity of hypertension (OR = 2.29, 2.24, 2.04, 1.81, 1.04, 1.26). Conclusion. MTHFR gene, smoking, family history of hypertension, Hcy, and triglycerides could be important genetic and high-risk factors of the development of severe hypertension in northern Chinese. These factors will contribute to the identification of high-risk populations of hypertension and facilitate the development of hypertension control strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in COVID-19: Current Concepts

    • Abstract: The functional receptor to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), the same enzyme that physiologically counters the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Some researchers have questioned RAS inhibitors’ safety in COVID-19 patients since these drugs have demonstrated an increase in ACE-2 expression in preclinical studies; therefore, they may facilitate viral invasion. On the contrary, others have hypothesized a protective role of RAS inhibitors against COVID-19-associated lung injury. Overall, the data are grossly inadequate to reach any conclusion since no human trials have yet evaluated the effects of RAS inhibitors in COVID-19. We review the current data and pathophysiological mechanisms behind this intriguing interplay between the RAS inhibitors and the COVID-19.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Assessing Barriers to and Level of Adherence to Hypertension Therapy among
           Palestinians Living in the Gaza Strip: A Chance for Policy Innovation

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hypertension is a major health concern, especially in low-income countries. Nonadherence and poor or no persistence in adhering to hypertension treatment regimens result in uncontrolled high blood pressure, increasing rates of mortality and morbidity, and preventable healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence and barriers to treatment regimens among hypertensive patients living in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Methods. A convenience sample of 648 participants completed the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. The great majority of participants (n = 521, 80.4%) was highly adherent to their treatment regimen, 123 participants (18.98%) were classified as moderately nonadherent, and 4 (0.62%) participants were classified as highly nonadherent to their hypertension treatment regimen. Participants of this study showed the highest adherence rate to the domain of medication adherence (mean of 1.42 out of 4) followed by appointment keeping (mean 1.8), while they were least adherent to diet (mean of 2.18). The greatest three barriers to adherence to the recommended treatment regimen reported by participants were inability to exercise, inability to resist fast and fried food, and inability to keep themselves away from salty foods. Conclusion. Overall adherence to medication in Gaza was surprisingly good in patients with a diagnosis of hypertension for at least one year. However, adherence to lifestyle advice or dietary regimes remains poor. A combination of interventions using low-cost mobile technology, combined with face-to-face interventions by healthcare professionals, can be applied to improve adherence to hypertension treatment regimens in order to reduce the consequences of uncontrolled blood pressure.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Sep 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Magnesium Lithospermate B Downregulates the Levels of Blood Pressure,
           Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Rats with Hypertension

    • Abstract: Background. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) was shown to suppress oxidative stress and reduce hypertension, but the role of MLB in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) remains unknown. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of MLB on rats with PIH. Methods. A total of 40 pregnant SD rats were selected, and 30 rats were orally given NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg/day) to establish PIH rat models. Rats were equally divided into four groups: control, PIH, 5 mg/kg MLB, and 10 mg/kg MLB. MLB was consecutively administered into PIH rats for one week. The effects of MLB on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), urine protein level, inflammation, and oxidative stress together with angiogenesis were analyzed. Results. MLB prevented the elevation in MAP and urine protein levels induced by L-NAME. The activities of inflammatory cytokines were highly increased in serum and placental tissues of PIH rats, while cotreatment with MLB partially reversed the activities of these cytokines. MLB also recovered the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plasma of PIH rats together with levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in the placenta of PIH rats. The decreased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and NO observed in PIH rats were increased by MLB. In addition, 10 mg/kg MLB exhibited higher protective effects as compared to lower doses of 5 mg/kg. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that pretreatment with MLB decreased MAP, inflammation, and oxidative stress in rats with gestational hypertension.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 01:50:01 +000
  • Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Factors among Indonesian

    • Abstract: Background. Given that hypertension in adulthood has its onset in childhood, it is not surprising that the prevalence of hypertension among adolescents has also increased in recent years. However, there are limited data on the prevalence of hypertension and also the new AAP guideline has not yet been applied to the Indonesian adolescent population. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension using the new AAP guideline and to assess the occurrence of its associated factors among Indonesian adolescents. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at twelve senior high schools in Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia, from June to December 2019. The study included adolescents aged 13 to 18 years old. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors most associated with hypertension among adolescents, and then an equation model was created. The prevalence of hypertension was evaluated, together with several factors such as age group, sex, ethnicity, family history of hypertension, nutritional status, physical activity, perceived stress, sleep duration, nutritional intake, and smoking. Results. In total, 1200 adolescents aged 15.9 ± 0.99 years were evaluated. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure among adolescents was 8% and 12.2%, respectively. There were significant associations between sex, family history of hypertension, hypertensive father, nutritional status, physical activity, perceived stress, and hypertension among Indonesian adolescents (). Stress was the most powerful risk factor of hypertension with an odds ratio of 5.83 (95% confidence interval 2.91–11.6). Conclusions. Nowadays, the prevalence of hypertension among Indonesian adolescents is quite high. This may be caused by lifestyle or behavior changes among adolescents. Sex, family history of hypertension, nutritional status, physical activity, and perceived stress influenced the 27% hypertension prevalence rate among Indonesian adolescents, particularly in Palembang, South Sumatera. In order to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in adults, concern about lifestyle or behavior changes and hypertension among adolescents should be given.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:35:01 +000
  • The Effect of Exercise on the Older Adult’s Blood Pressure Suffering
           Hypertension: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. Senescence refers to spontaneous and progressive irreversible degenerative changes in which both the physical and psychological power diminish significantly. Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Several studies have been conducted regarding the effect of exercise on reducing the blood pressure of the elderly, which have found contradictory results. One of the uses of meta-analysis study is responding to these assumptions and resolving the discrepancies. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to determine the impact of exercise on the blood pressure of older adults. Method. In this research, in order to find electronic published papers from 1992 to 2019, the papers published in both domestic and foreign databases including SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDox, Gogole Scholar, Cohrane, Embase, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) were used. Heterogeneity index between the studies was determined based on Cochran test Q(c) and I2. Considering existence of heterogeneity, random effects model was employed to estimate the standardized subtraction of the mean exercise test score for reduction of blood pressure in the older adults across the intervention group before and after the test. Results. In this meta-analysis and systematic review, eventually 69 papers met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 2272 in the pre- and postintervention groups when examining the systolic changes and 2252 subjects in the pre- and postintervention groups when inspecting the diastolic changes. The standardized mean difference in examining the systolic changes before the intervention was 137.1 ± 8.09 and 132.98 ± 0.96 after the intervention; when exploring the diastolic changes, the pre- and postintervention values were 80.3 ± 0.85 and 76.0 ± 6.56, respectively, where these differences were statistically significant ().Conclusion. The results of this study indicated that exercise leads to significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Accordingly, regular exercise can be part of the treatment plan for hypertensive elderly.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 16:50:00 +000
  • Addition of the Electronic Educational Material to Doctor’s Face-to-Face
           Education Has No Additive Effects on Hypertension Control: A Randomized
           Single Blind Study

    • Abstract: Background. Patient education is effective for HTN treatment. There are many methods of patient education improving HTN control. Are there additive effects of combination of different educational methods for HTN treatment' Objective. To assess the effects of addition of the electronic educational material to doctor’s face-to-face education for HTN control. Method. We designed a randomized single blind study to compare the doctor’s face-to-face education alone and its combination with the electronic educational material over the cell phone. Participants were patients with a confirmed diagnosis of primary HTN. Electronic educational material over the cell phone was the intervention. Main measures were standard blood pressure measurements before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result. The baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups including the age, sex, SBP, DBP, and HTN control rate were not significantly different. After 12 weeks of follow-up, the blood pressure and the HTN control rate seemed worse in the combination group; however, the differences between the intervention group and the control group were not statistically significant. Conclusion. There were no additive effects in the combination of the doctor’s face-to-face education and the electronic educational material over the cell phone.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 03:20:00 +000
  • Characterizing Patients with Uncontrolled Blood Pressure at an Urban
           Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam

    • Abstract: Great efforts to advance the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension for controlling hypertension have been made; however, the rates of uncontrolled blood pressure are still high. This study explored the rate of uncontrolled hypertension in patients with hypertension managed in an urban hospital of Vietnam and identified associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was performed from August to October 2019 among hypertensive patients at an urban hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Blood pressure was evaluated at the time of medical examination. Demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics were also collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors related to uncontrolled hypertension. Among 220 patients, the rate of uncontrolled hypertension was 40.5%. Females had a lower likelihood of having uncontrolled hypertension compared to males (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.11–0.98). Higher duration of diseases (adjusted OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01–1.14) and higher body mass index (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.05–1.45) were positively associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Patients who carried supplies needed for self-care, cut down on stress, exercised regularly, and stopped/cut down on smoking were also less likely to develop uncontrolled hypertension. This study reveals that uncontrolled hypertension was common among hypertensive patients in Vietnam. Improving self-care capacity and encouraging healthy behaviors are critically important to control blood pressure, particularly among patients who were males and had high disease duration and body mass index.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • The Role of Lifestyle Factors in Controlling Blood Pressure among
           Hypertensive Patients in Two Health Facilities in Urban Ghana: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Despite efforts to combat hypertension by pharmacotherapy, hypertension control rates remain low. Lifestyle modifications of individuals diagnosed with hypertension have prospects for the prevention and control of hypertension. This study assessed the effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on blood pressure control among adults in urban Accra. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 360 diagnosed hypertensive patients who were ≥18 years old, selected from two secondary-level referral hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, were interviewed. Demographic information, diet components, and exercise assessments as well as blood pressure measurements were taken. Chi-squared tests and binomial logistic regression were used to determine the association between demographic and lifestyle factors with blood pressure control. Area under the receiver-operator curves (AUROC) was used to identify lifestyle factors predicting optimal blood pressure control among patients diagnosed with hypertension. Results. Approximately 54.2% of participants had no knowledge of either causes or complications of hypertension. Similarly, 52.5% of patients that had not achieved blood pressure control lacked knowledge of causes or complications of hypertension. Longer time since diagnosis of 2–5 years (AOR = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01–0.47)) and 6–10 years (AOR = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01–0.50)) and diets, mainly composed of meat (AOR = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.02–0.70)) and starch (AOR = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.03–0.79)), predicted poor blood pressure control compared to patients diagnosed within a year and diets without meat and starch as main components, respectively. Additionally, engaging in some physical activity of 30 minutes to one hour (AOR = 5.64 (95% CI: 2.08–15.32)) and more than an hour (AOR = 11.38, 95% CI: 2.01–64.47)) predicted blood pressure control. Conclusion. The study concludes that increased physical activity, abstaining from alcohol and smoking, increased intake of fruits and vegetables, and reduced intake of carbohydrates, meat, and fat have a positive influence on blood pressure control. Lifestyle modifying factors have a key role in complementing pharmacotherapy in hypertension control.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Young
           and Middle-Aged Adults: Results from a Community-Based Survey in Rural

    • Abstract: Background. Hypertension, which is the single most important risk factor for CVDs, is increasing at an alarming rate in most developing countries. This study estimated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among young and middle-aged adults in rural Morogoro, Tanzania. Furthermore, it explored factors associated with both prevalence and awareness of hypertension. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the cluster randomized controlled study of community health workers (CHWs) interventions for reduction of blood pressure in a randomly selected sample of young and middle-aged population in rural Morogoro. Sociodemographics, lifestyle-related factors, history of diagnosis, and treatment for hypertension were collected using a questionnaire adopted from the STEPS survey tool. Blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at home following standard procedures. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess determinants of hypertension and awareness. Result. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.3% (95% CI: 27.7–31.0). Among individuals with hypertension, only 34.3% were aware of their hypertension status. Only around one-third (35.4%) of those who were aware of their hypertension status were currently on antihypertensive medication. Hypertension control was attained in only 29.9% among those on medications. Older age (), use of raw table salt (), and being overweight/obese () were associated with hypertension. Predictors of awareness of hypertension status were older age, being a female, higher socioeconomic status, use of raw table salt, a history of diabetes, and overweight/obesity (all ). Alcohol drinking was associated with low awareness for hypertension status ().Conclusion. There is high prevalence of hypertension with low rates of awareness, treatment, and control among young and middle-aged adults in rural Tanzania. Community-level health promotion and screening campaigns for hypertension and other CVD risk factors should be intensified.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Sep 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Blood Pressure Variability during Angiography in Patients with Ischemic
           Stroke and Intracranial Artery Stenosis

    • Abstract: Our aim was to investigate factors predicting blood pressure (BP) variability during diagnostic cerebral angiography and associations between BP variability and clinical outcomes in patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke and intracranial artery stenosis. 114 patients with ischemic stroke and intracranial artery stenosis (stenosis rate >50%) were recruited. Patients who underwent cerebral angiography within 3 days and 3–14 days of disease onset are referred to be Group A and Group S, respectively. BP variability in Group A was defined as the coefficient of variance (CV) of BP. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictors of CV of BP and associations between CV of BP and clinical outcomes at discharge. In Group A patients, advanced age was associated with increased CV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and antihypertensive use was associated with lower CV of SBP. Male was associated with lower CV of DBP. In Group S, higher CV of SBP was associated with hypertension and antihypertensive use. Males had lower CV of SBP than females. The calcium channel blocker was associated with lower CV of DBP. Higher scores of the Stroke Scale at admission were significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes for both groups, while BP variability was not. Factors associated with BP variability are significantly different between stroke patients undergoing angiography within 3 days vs. 3–14 days after disease onset. BP variability is not significantly associated with clinical outcomes at discharge.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 03:35:00 +000
  • High Efficiency and Problems of Chemiluminescence Assay-Detected
           Aldosterone-To-Renin Ratio in Practical Primary Aldosteronism Screening

    • Abstract: Primary aldosteronism is a main cause of secondary hypertension which can be effectively treated. The screening test for primary aldosteronism is benefit for minimizing damage to the patient. In the previous retrospective study, we obtained the optimal cutoff value of aldosterone-to-renin ratio detected by chemiluminescence assay, a newly developing method, and prompted its high efficiency in primary aldosteronism screening in upright position. In this study, we want to evaluate its efficiency in practical work. We used this ratio to continuously screen 238 patients, and 58 patients were finally diagnosed with primary aldosteronism. We found it had 86.13% accuracy rate in the upright position compared with the final clinical diagnosis. False negative and positive rates were 13.79% and 13.89%. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 86.21% and 86.11%, which are slightly different from results in our previous study. False negative rate can be improved by combining the aldosterone-to-renin ratio with aldosterone concentration. We also found impaired glucose tolerance may be a reason for high false positive rate. Besides, chemiluminescence assay may be interfered in aldosterone detection. Although it has some shortcomings, chemiluminescence assay-detected aldosterone-to-renin ratio is a highly effective index for screening primary aldosteronism in practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 07:50:03 +000
  • Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Factors among the Outpatient
           Department in Akaki Kality Subcity Health Centers, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Fatalities from hypertension in East Africa are increasing, even though they decreased in western industrial regions. Older age, being female, illiterate, smoking, physical inactivity, and high waist circumferences are major risk factors for the development of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among Federal Ministry Civil servants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has found to be high; which is an indication for institution-based hypertension-screening programs. Objective. Prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among the outpatient department in Akaki Kality Subcity Health Centers, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methodology. Facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out on systematically sampled 401 out-department patients whose age was greater than or equal to 18 years in four government health centers in Addis Ababa. Data collection took place from March 10, 2018, to April 06 2018. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of hypertension. Results. Patients had a mean age of 41.17 years (95% CI: 39.77–42.57). The prevalence of hypertension was 14% (95% CI: 13.653–14.347), and 30 (53.57%) were males. Alcohol drinkers were 11.844 times more likely to be hypertensive as compared to non-alcohol drinkers (AOR = 11.844, 95% CI: 3.596–39.014). Cigarette smokers were 16.511 times more likely to be hypertensive as compared to non-cigarette smokers (AOR = 16.511, 95% CI: 4.775–57.084). Khat chewers were 6.964 times more likely to be hypertensive as compared to non-khat chewers (AOR = 6.964, 95% CI: 1.773–26.889). Conclusion. The prevalence of patients with hypertension was 14%. Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, khat chewing, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and age ≥44 years old are major determinants identified by this study. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors would be of great benefit in controlling hypertension.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Aug 2020 10:05:01 +000
  • How Much Hypertension is Attributed to Overweight, Obesity, and
           Hyperglycemia Using Adjusted Population Attributable Risk in Adults'

    • Abstract: Background. High blood pressure (HBP) is a proven risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. So, determining the extent of the contribution of the factors associated with HBP seems to be necessary. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate how much the prevalence of HBP attributed to obesity and high blood glucose (HBG). Methods. Data were collected from 7612 participants extracted from a screening program in 2018, in Iran, which was conducted on the subjects with the age of 30 years old and older to investigate the prevalence of HBP and their associated risk factors. To collect data, we used a standard checklist in terms of the WHO STEPS manual, and a stratified multistage sampling method was also applied. The adjusted population attributable risk of overweight, obesity, and HBG for HBP was calculated by the logistic regression model using the aflogit module. Results. Among the studied people, 7.4% of male and 10.8% of female subjects were hypertensive. The adjusted analysis showed that, in men, 27% and 41% and, among women, 19% and 37% of HBP prevalence rates were attributable to obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and fast blood sugar (FBS) (≥126), respectively. In people with both obesity and HBG, 59% of the prevalence rate of HBP in men and 46% of the prevalence in women were due to the abovementioned risk factors altogether. The results show that, if obesity and HBG were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP could be theoretically decreased from 7.4% to 5.4% and 4.3% in male subjects and from 10.8% to 8.7% and 6.8% in female subjects, respectively. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that how much the prevalence of HBP attributes to obesity and HBG in middle-age and older population. It seems that the prevention programs should be administered in the general population, and excess body weight prevention programs should also be implemented in childhood.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Aug 2020 12:20:00 +000
  • The Role and Regulation of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells in
           Pulmonary Hypertension

    • Abstract: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is one of the most devastating cardiovascular diseases worldwide and it draws much attention from numerous scientists. As an indispensable part of pulmonary artery, smooth muscle cells are worthy of being carefully investigated. To elucidate the pathogenesis of PH, several theories focusing on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC), such as hyperproliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and cancer theory, have been proposed and widely studied. Here, we tried to summarize the studies, concentrating on the role of PASMC in the development of PH, feasible molecular basis to intervene, and potential treatment to PH.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Aug 2020 06:50:01 +000
  • Knowledge and Practices towards Prevention and Early Detection of Chronic
           Kidney Disease and Associated Factors among Hypertensive Patients in
           Gondar Town, North West Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Chronic kidney disease is a global health problem with serious adverse effects, including kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Improving awareness and practice on the impact, prevention, and early detection of chronic kidney disease will reduce the significant economic and public health burden. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine knowledge and practice towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease and its associated factors among hypertensive patients in Gondar town in 2019. The study included hypertensive patients visiting health institutions from February to March 2019. Data was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and individuals who fulfilled our inclusion criteria were selected using a systemic random sampling technique. Epi Info software version 7 was used for data entry, and SPSS version 20 was used for descriptive and logistic regression analysis. Result. Out of a total of 442 participants, 434 completed the questionnaire, with a response rate of 98.1%. Of the total, 298 (68.7%) had good knowledge of chronic kidney disease with a mean knowledge score of 8.78 ± 2.80 and 210 (48.4%) had good practice with mean practice score of 6.58 ± 1.61. Educational status, residence, and duration of hypertension were significantly associated with the knowledge and practice scores of the participants in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion. More than half of the participants had good knowledge about chronic kidney disease and its risk factors. However, the level of preventive practice among participants was low. The educational status, residence, and duration of hypertension were significantly associated variables with knowledge and practice scores in multivariate logistic regression.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Aug 2020 06:35:02 +000
  • Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge, Awareness, and Adherence
           to Medication among Hypertensive Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre in
           Colombo District, Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Objective. This study was aimed to assess the patient’s knowledge and awareness about hypertension and adherence to antihypertensive medication among hypertensive patients. Methods. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three medical clinics of Colombo South Teaching hospital, Kalubowila, Sri Lanka, from April 2019 to September 2019. Total of 384 hypertensive patients were recruited by systematic randomized controlled sampling and interviewed with validated questionnaires to assess their knowledge about hypertension and adherence to antihypertensive medication. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21) analytical package, and the chi-squared test was performed. Results. The total sample consisted of 384 hypertensive patients with a mean age of 59.32 (±12.34SD). This included 180 (46.9%) males and 204 (53.1%) females. The male : female ratio was approximately 9 : 10. Most of patients were with primary and ordinary educational status (65.9%), normal body mass index (54.9%), mild elevation of LDL cholesterol (76.3%), and coexistent ischemic heart disease (39.6%). The knowledge about hypertension among majority of patients was reasonable. However, they were unaware about normal values of blood pressure (69%, 95% of CI 1.92–2.09) and diagnostic values of hypertension (90.1%, 95% of CI 2.26–2.40). Moreover, they were unaware of their blood pressure values at time of diagnosis (75.3%, 95% of CI 2.09–2.25), at recent clinic visit (71.3%, 95% of CI 2.0-2.17), and target level (81.8%, 95% of CI 2.25-2.41). Most patients had adequate knowledge about the risk factors and complications of hypertension and were aware of their target organ damage (70.3%). Most patients believed that medication alone is not sufficient to control blood pressure (41.7%, 95% of CI 1.40-1.51) and adequate control of their blood pressure reduces complications (68.2%, 95% of CI 1.37-1.51). Most of the patients (71.8%) had reasonable good drug compliance. The forgetfulness was commonly attributed for nonadherence (69%, 95% of CI 1.26-1.36). Conclusions. The knowledge about hypertension among majority of patients was reasonable. But, they were unaware about their disease status and their diagnosis, target, and recent blood pressure values. Most of patients had adequate knowledge about the risk factors and complications of hypertension. However, they were unaware about their target organ damage due to hypertension. The drug compliance was reasonable among them. The forgetfulness was common reason for nonadherence. Therefore, healthcare professionals should implement individualized educational programmes to increase the awareness of disease status, appropriate blood pressure levels, and adherence of treatment to improve the outcome of patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Aug 2020 14:05:03 +000
  • Comparison of Effects of ACEIs and ARBs on Albuminuria and Hyperkalemia in
           Indonesian Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    • Abstract: Purpose. Due to economic consideration, Indonesia’s formulary restrictions are at odds with the treatment guidelines of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). ADA and JNC 8 equally recommend the prescription of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with overt proteinuria (urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥ 300 mg/g creatinine). However, since 1 April 2018, Indonesian formulary restricted telmisartan and valsartan only for T2DM patients with declined renal function as shown by eGFR value. There is no compelling evidence in favor of ACEI over ARB or vice versa except for data supporting the early use of both drugs in patients with overt proteinuria. However, ARB is a choice if ACEI’s side effects, that is, coughing, occurs. Therefore, it necessitates a detailed evaluation of the effects of ACEIs and ARBs on albuminuria and their side effect, hyperkalemia, specific to Indonesian T2DM patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study involved 134 T2DM patients whose treatment was restricted to either ACEIs (n = 57) or ARBs (n = 77) for at least two months before the study during May–October 2018. Patients with known end-stage renal disease and those receiving dialysis were excluded. UACR and blood potassium levels were compared between the two study groups. Also, the risk factors of albuminuria and hyperkalemia were estimated using multivariate analysis. Results. T2DM patients in the ACEI and ARB groups had similar characteristics except for a higher body mass index (), lower glomerular filtration rate (), and a longer duration of prior treatment () in the ARB group. This study showed no differences between the ACEI and ARB groups in the proportion of cases with albuminuria () and hyperkalemia (), even after adjustment for confounders. In addition, uncontrolled diastolic blood pressure was a significant factor associated with albuminuria (OR: 4.897, 95% CI: 1.026–23.366; ), whereas a female was 70.1% less likely to develop hyperkalemia than a male (OR: 0.299, 95% CI: 0.102–0.877; ).Conclusion. This cross-sectional study demonstrated that ACEIs and ARBs have a similar effect on albuminuria and hyperkalemia in Indonesian hypertensive T2DM patients, even after correction for potentially confounding variables.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Jul 2020 13:50:06 +000
  • Efficacy of Diltiazem for the Control of Blood Pressure in Puerperal
           Patients with Severe Preeclampsia: A Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled

    • Abstract: Background. Postpartum preeclampsia is a serious disease related to high blood pressure that occurs commonly within the first six days after delivery. Objective. To evaluate if diltiazem improves blood pressure parameters in early puerperium patients with severe preeclampsia. Methodology. A randomized, single-blind longitudinal clinical trial of 42 puerperal patients with severe preeclampsia was carried out. Patients were randomized into two groups: the experimental group (n = 21) received diltiazem (60 mg) and the control group (n = 21) received nifedipine (10 mg). Both drugs were orally administered every 8 hours. Systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures as well as the heart rate were recorded and analyzed (two-way repeated measures ANOVA) at baseline and after 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, and 48 hours. Primary outcome measures were all the aforementioned blood pressure parameters. Secondary outcome measures included the number of hypertension and hypotension episodes along with the length of stay in the intensive care unit. Results. No statistical differences were found between groups (diltiazem vs. nifedipine) regarding basal blood pressure parameters. Interarm differences in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean) and heart rate were statistically significant between treatment groups from 6 to 48 hours. Patients in the diltiazem group had lower blood pressure levels than patients in the nifedipine group. Significantly, patients who received diltiazem had fewer hypertension and hypotension episodes and stayed fewer days in the intensive care unit than those treated with nifedipine. Conclusions. Diltiazem controlled arterial hypertension in a more effective and uniform manner in patients under study than nifedipine. Patients treated with diltiazem had fewer collateral effects and spent less time in the hospital. This trial is registered with NCT04222855.
      PubDate: Sat, 25 Jul 2020 01:20:00 +000
  • New Biomarkers of Hypertension and Related Vascular Disorders

    • PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 18:20:00 +000
  • Hypertension among Mississippi Workers by Sociodemographic Characteristics
           and Occupation, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    • Abstract: In 2017, Mississippi had the third highest age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension in the United States. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension by sociodemographic characteristics and occupation and examined the association between hypertension with occupation and sociodemographic characteristics among Mississippi workers. We calculated adjusted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) by sociodemographic characteristics and occupation among Mississippi adult workers. We analyzed combined 2013, 2015, and 2017 data from the Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 6,965 workers in ten Standard Occupational Classification System major groups. Of the estimated 1.1 million Mississippi workers during the three survey years, 31.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 30.0–32.8) had hypertension. The likelihood of having hypertension was significantly higher among workers aged 30–44 years, 45–64 years, blacks, and those classified as overweight and obese workers compared to their counterparts. The likelihood of having hypertension among workers in the fields of installation, repair and maintenance, and production were 26% higher (APR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03–1.55) and 33% higher (APR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.11–1.58), respectively, than workers in all other occupational groups. Among Mississippi workers, hypertension prevalence varied by sociodemographic characteristics and occupational groups. Age, race, obesity status, installation, repair, maintenance, and production occupation groups are associated with an increased likelihood of hypertension. Novel and/or community-based or linked programs are needed that could target workers at risk of hypertension that are outside of a single-site workplace.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 06:35:00 +000
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control, and Related Factors of
           Hypertension among Tajik Nomads Living in Pamirs at High Altitude

    • Abstract: Background. Hypertension is a global problem, for which high-altitude residents exhibit higher burden. Hypertension in Tajik nomads from Pamirs with an average altitude above 4000 m remains less studied. We aimed to determine the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension among Tajik population in Pamirs. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between August and September 2015 using stratified three-stage random sampling in Taxkorgan county, Pamirs, China. Hypertension is defined as mean systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) ≥140/90 mmHg and/or taking antihypertensive medication within the past two weeks. The prevalence (SBP ≥130 or DBP ≥80 mmHg) was also estimated using the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) High Blood Pressure Guideline. The awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and associated factors were evaluated. Results. Totally, 797 subjects aged ≥18 years were enrolled with 46.3% men and 88.8% nomads with the mean age of 42.3 ± 15.2 years. The prevalence of hypertension was 24.2% (140/90 mmHg), and the prevalence was as high as 40.3%, based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline. Overall awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were 52.8%, 40.9%, and 9.3%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression, BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2 (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.44–4.04) was a risk factor for prehypertension, and age ≥60 years (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.15–3.61), BMI ≥24.0 kg/m2 (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.15–3.61), and abdominal obesity (OR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.09–3.22) were risk factors for hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers were the most commonly used antihypertensive medication (45.4%) as monotherapy, and 13.6% of treated hypertensive patients used two drugs. Conclusions. There is a considerable prevalence of hypertension with low awareness, treatment, and control rates among Tajik nomads in Pamirs, where health programs improving the hypertension status are urgently needed, with the excess weight loss as a strategy.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jul 2020 17:35:01 +000
  • Blood Pressure Variability and Severity of Early Prognosis in Patients
           with Acute Pontine Infarction

    • Abstract: Background. Increased blood pressure (BP) variability may worsen the prognosis of stroke. This study aimed at investigating the association between BP variability and early functional prognosis in patients with pontine infarction. Methods. According to types of pontine infarction, all the 137 patients were divided into two groups: 70 patients with paramedian pontine infarction (PPI) and 67 patients with deep pontine infarction (DPI). Common risk factors, 24-hour continuous blood pressure monitoring data, and the coefficient of variation were collected after admission in the hospital. Functional outcomes were evaluated with modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after discharge (favorable outcome: mRS scores ≤ 2; poor outcome: mRS scores > 2). Results. The level of Glu, HbA1c, LDL, and NIHSS scores in the PPI group was significantly higher than that in the DPI group, and the concentration of blood uric acid was lower in the PPI group. Diastolic pressure in the PPI group is significantly higher than that in the DPI group, and coefficient of variation (CV) of systolic pressure in PPI is higher when compared with DPI ((88.77 ± 1.71) mmHg vs. (80.74 ± 1.31) mmHg; (11.54 ± 0.35) vs. (10.24 ± 0.25)). In multivariate analyses, the CV of systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, NIHSS scores, and the paramedian pontine infarction was independently associated with 3-month clinical outcome (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.252–2.994, ; OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.002–1.166, ; OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.164–2.159, ; OR = 9.87, 95% CI = 1.045–32.193, ).Conclusion. In conclusion, increased 24-hour (BP) variability, NIHSS scores, and paramedian pontine were associated with early poor prognosis in patients with acute pontine infarction.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jul 2020 16:05:00 +000
  • Gender-Specific Longitudinal Association of Sleep Duration with Blood
           Pressure among Children: Evidence from CHNS 2004–2015

    • Abstract: Purpose. We conducted this study to add the evidence regarding the gender-specific association between sleep duration and blood pressure (BP) in children. Methods. A secondary analysis was performed among 1000 children aged 7–13 years, who had at least two rounds of survey records in China Health and Nutrition Survey through 2004–2015. Generalized estimating equation was used to explore the gender-specific association of sleep duration with BP. The subgroup analysis was applied in those participants with normal weight. Results. The time trend of decreasing sleep duration, along with increasing BP level, was observed in each age group during the survey period. Short sleepers (
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Jul 2020 10:20:00 +000
  • Blood Pressure Control among Hypertensive Diabetic Patients on Follow-Up
           at Chronic Clinic of Nekemte Referral Hospital in West Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Hypertension is a prevalent comorbid condition in diabetes, affecting ∼20–60% of patients with diabetes, depending on obesity, ethnicity, and age. Adults with diabetes historically have two or three times higher rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than adults without diabetes. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess blood pressure (BP) control and its predictors among hypertensive diabetic patients on follow-up at the chronic clinic of Nekemte Referral Hospital (NRH) in West Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among hypertensive adult patients comorbid with diabetes taking antihypertensive drugs for at least one year in NRH. Both bivariable and multivariable analyses were done. The odds ratio, along with 95% confidence level, was estimated to identify factors associated with uncontrolled BP by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The level of statistical significance was declared at value
      PubDate: Sat, 20 Jun 2020 02:05:00 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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