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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 281 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 288 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
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Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
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AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
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Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
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BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
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J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
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J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
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J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
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Journal Cover International Journal of Hypertension
  [SJR: 0.823]   [H-I: 20]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2090-0384 - ISSN (Online) 2090-0392
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Blood Pressure and Haematological Indices in Twelve Communities in
           Ashanti, Ghana

    • Abstract: Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa. In western populations, high haemoglobin levels are associated with raised BP unlike in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is a paucity of data. Our study examines the association between haematological indices with BP variables. Weight, height, BP, and whole blood indices of viscosity (Hb, haematocrit, RBC count, and MCV) were measured in 921 adults (340 men, 581 women; aged 40–75) in 12 communities in Ghana. Mean values for Hb (12.3 g/dl ± 1.7 SD), haematocrit (), RBC (4.10 million/μL ± 0.64), and MCV were lower than reference values used in Sub-Saharan Africa. Mean BMI was indicating a lean population. Systolic BP increased by 1.0 mmHg (95% CI 0.5–1.5), , for women and 0.5 (0.1–1.0), , for men per unit increase in haematocrit. Similar relationships were found for Hb and RBC but not for MCV or platelets. The relationships were weaker when adjusted for BMI, 0.7 mmHg (0.2–1.2) in women and 0.5 (0.0–1.0) in men. Findings for diastolic BP were similar. Overall haematological indices were low. We have found a significant, positive relationship between BP, Hb, Haematocrit, and RBC count in our population.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Association between Intradialytic Hypertension and Metabolic Disorders
           in End Stage Renal Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Intradialytic hypertension was associated with a high mortality risk. We examined the relationship between intradialytic hypertension and metabolic disorders in hemodialysis treatment patients. Methods. We studied 76 patients in online hemodiafiltration. Dialysis adequacy was defined by for urea. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), as a marker of protein intake, was calculated. Sodium removal was determined as percent sodium removal. Metabolic acidosis was determined by serum bicarbonate less than 22 mmol/L. Interdialytic urine volume more than 100 ml was recorded. Intradialytic hypertension was defined by an increase in systolic blood pressure equal to 10 mmHg from pre- to posthemodialysis. Arterial stiffness was assessed as carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-fPWV) and carotid augmentation index (AIx). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were applied for intradialytic hypertension prediction. Results. Patients with intradialytic hypertension were older and had significantly lower hemoglobin, nPCR, urine output, and serum bicarbonate and significantly higher c-fPWV, though similar for urea, than patients without intradialytic hypertension. They also had increased sodium removal and pulse pressure related to less urine output. Serum bicarbonate was inversely associated with c-fPWV (, ). Chi-square test showed significant association between intradialytic hypertension and serum bicarbonate < 22 mmol/L (, ), which was supported by an adjusted model. Conclusion. The intradialytic hypertension was significantly associated with metabolic disorders including malnutrition/inflammation and uncontrolled metabolic acidosis in hemodialysis treatment patients. Severe metabolic acidosis may reflect sodium imbalance and hemodynamic instability of these patients resulting in volume overload and increased vascular resistance.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Suburban Community in Nigeria

    • Abstract: The burden of hypertension, a silent killer, continues to increase in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated blood pressure (BP) in healthy adults to determine their risk of developing hypertension and to reduce associated morbidity of the disease. Overall, 182 subjects aged>16 years participated in the study. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was measured after a resting period using mercury sphygmomanometer. Random blood glucose (RBG) concentration was also determined. Regression models were used to determine risk of high BP with values < 0.05 indicating statistical difference. Prehypertension was present in 36.8% population and high BP in 31% individuals with hypertensive symptoms. DBP ≥ 90 mmHg was prevalent in the undiagnosed group, while diabetes comorbidity was detected in only 4 individuals. High BP or diabetes was not detected in those 35 years was an independent risk (likelihood ratio: 22.56, ); this increases to 26.48 () in the presence prediabetes and RBG> 100 mg/dl. Undiagnosed hypertension rate is high in the study area, and urgent interventions for large scale screening and management of the disease are required to reduce the burden of hypertension in Nigeria.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Doctors’ Knowledge of Hypertension Guidelines Recommendations
           Reflected in Their Practice

    • Abstract: Aim. To evaluate doctors’ knowledge, attitude, and practices and predictors of adherence to Malaysian hypertension guidelines (CPG 2008). Methods. Twenty-six doctors involved in hypertension management at Penang General Hospital were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Doctors’ knowledge and attitudes towards guidelines were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire. Their practices were evaluated by noting their prescriptions written to 520 established hypertensive outpatients (20 prescriptions/doctor). SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Results. Nineteen doctors (73.07%) had adequate knowledge of guidelines. Specialists and consultants had significantly better knowledge about guidelines’ recommendations. Doctors were positive towards guidelines with mean attitude score of points on a 30-point scale. The median number of guidelines compliant prescriptions was 13 (range 5–20). Statistically significant correlation ( = 0.635, ) was observed between doctors’ knowledge and practice scores. A total of 349 (67.1%) prescriptions written were guidelines compliant. In multivariate analysis hypertension clinic (OR = 0.398, ), left ventricular hypertrophy (OR = 0.091, ) and heart failure (OR = 1.923, ) were significantly associated with guidelines adherence. Conclusion. Doctors’ knowledge of guidelines is reflected in their practice. The gap between guidelines recommendations and practice was seen in the pharmacotherapy of uncomplicated hypertension and hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy, renal disease, and diabetes mellitus.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 09:02:41 +000
       
  • A Proposed Middle-Range Theory of Nursing in Hypertension Care

    • Abstract: Nursing in hypertension care comprises counselling about lifestyle changes, blood pressure measurement, and being a translator for the physician. For the patient, changing lifestyle means performing self-care. As not much in the form of research and guidelines for nurses is available, a middle-range theory of nursing in hypertension care was developed to guide nurses in their practice, in order to improve the nursing of patients and design studies for investigating nursing in hypertension care. Concepts are presented related to the patient (attitude and beliefs regarding health and sickness, autonomy, personality and traits, level of perceived vulnerability, hardiness, sense of coherence, locus of control, self-efficacy, and access to social support and network) and the nursing (applying theories and models for behavioural change in the consultation and using counselling skills, patient advocacy, empowerment, professional knowledge and health education, and supporting the patient). Then the concepts related to the consultation (communication, shared decision-making, concordance, coping, adherence, and self-care) are integrated with Orem’s theory of nursing. Clinical and research implications of the theory are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Carotid Intima Media Thickness Reference Intervals for a Healthy
           Argentinean Population Aged 11–81 Years

    • Abstract: Reference intervals (RIs) of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) from large healthy population are still lacking in Latin America. The aim of this study was to determine CIMT RIs in a cohort of 1012 healthy subjects from Argentina. We evaluated if RIs for males and females and for left and right carotids were necessary. Second, mean and standard deviation (SD) age-related equations were obtained for left, right, and average (left + right)/2) CIMT using parametric regression methods based on fractional polynomials, in order to obtain age-specific percentiles curves. Age-specific percentile curves were obtained. Males showed higher A-CIMT ( mm versus  mm, ) in comparison with females. For males, the equations were as follows: A-CIMT mean = 0.42 + ; A-CIMT SD = 5.9 × 10−2 + . For females, they were as follows: A-CIMT mean = 0.40 + ; A-CIMT SD = 4.67 × 10−2 + . Our study provides the largest database concerning RIs of CIMT in healthy people in Argentina. Specific RIs and percentiles of CIMT for children, adolescents, and adults are now available according to age and gender, for right and left common carotid arteries.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Factors Predicting Self-Care Behaviors among Low Health Literacy
           Hypertensive Patients Based on Health Belief Model in Bushehr District,
           South of Iran

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing adherence to self-care behaviors among low health literacy hypertensive patients based on health belief model. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 152 hypertensive patients with low health literacy. Patients with limited health literacy were identified by S-TOFHLA. The data were collected using H-scale for assessing self-care behaviors and, HK-LS for assessing knowledge of hypertension. A researcher-made questionnaire was applied for collecting data of health belief model constructs. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22 with using multiple logistic regression analyses. Perceived self-efficacy was associated with all self-care behaviors except medication regimens. There was a significant association between perceived susceptibility and adherence to both low-salt diet (OR = 3.47) and nonsmoking behavior (OR = 1.10). Individuals who had more perceived severity (OR = 1.82) had significantly greater adherence to their medication regimens. Perceived benefits and barriers were not significantly associated with either type of hypertension self-care behaviors. It seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase self-efficacy of patients and promote their beliefs about perceived susceptibility and severity of complications may improve self-care behaviors among low health literacy hypertensive patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Serum Presepsin Levels Are Not Elevated in Patients with Controlled
           Hypertension

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hypertension (HT) is a common serious condition associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of HT is multifactorial and has been widely investigated. Besides the vascular, hormonal, and neurological factors, inflammation plays a crucial role in HT. Many inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein, cytokines, and adhesion molecules have been studied in HT, which supported the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HT. Presepsin (PSP) is a novel biomarker of inflammation. Therefore, the potential relationship between PSP and HT was investigated in this study. Methods. Forty-eight patients with controlled HT and 48 controls without HT were included in our study. Besides routine clinical and laboratory data, PSP levels were measured in peripheral venous blood samples from all the participants. Results. PSP levels were significantly lower in patients with HT than in controls ( versus  pg/mL, ). PSP levels were positively correlated with hsCRP among both the patient and the control groups ( and , resp.). However, PSP levels were not correlated with WBC among both groups ( and , resp.). Conclusions. PSP levels are not elevated in patients with well-controlled HT compared to controls. This result may be associated with anti-inflammatory effects of antihypertensive medicines.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Prevalence of Hypertension in Ethiopian and Non-Ethiopian
           HIV-Infected Adults

    • Abstract: Objectives. Prevalence of hypertension has not been studied in the Ethiopian HIV-infected population, which represents 60% of the patients in our AIDS unit. Our aim was to identify risk factors and characterize the prevalence of hypertension in the population monitored at our unit. Methods. A retrospective chart review categorized subjects according to their blood pressure levels. Hypertension prevalence was determined and stratified according to variables perceived to contribute to elevated blood pressure. Results. The prevalence of hypertension in our study population was significantly higher compared to the general population (53% versus 20%, ) and was associated with known risk factors and not with patients’ viral load and CD4 levels. Ethiopian HIV-infected adults had a prominently higher rate of blood pressure rise over time as compared to non-Ethiopians (). Conclusions. The high prevalence of hypertension in this cohort and the rapid increase in blood pressure in Ethiopians are alarming. We could not attribute high prevalence to HIV-related factors and we presume it is part of the metabolic syndrome. The lifelong cardiovascular risk associated with HIV infection mandates hypertension screening and close monitoring in this population.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jan 2018 08:45:54 +000
       
  • Association between CD4 Cell Count and Blood Pressure and Its Variation
           with Body Mass Index Categories in HIV-Infected Patients

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to establish whether an independent relationship exists between CD4 count and hypertension and if this relationship is modified or confounded by the body mass index (BMI). Methods. A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study on 200 HIV/AIDS patients at a referral hospital in Cameroon was conducted. Linear and logistic regression models were used as appropriate to explore the association between the variables of interest. Results. There was no linear association between log CD4 count and both systolic (; ) and diastolic blood pressures (; ), respectively. After adjusting for BMI, patients with CD4 count ≥ 350 cells/μl were more likely to have hypertension than those with CD4 count < 350 cells/μl (AOR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.05–5.93, and ). There was no effect modification from BMI (test of homogeneity, ). There was no independent relationship between CD4 count and hypertension after controlling for age, sex, family history of hypertension, BMI-defined overweight, HAART use, and duration of HIV infection (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 0.48–5.71, and ). Conclusion. This study did not identify any independent relationship between CD4 count and hypertension. Large prospective studies are recommended to better explore this relationship between hypertension and CD4 count.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypertension and Associated Factors in Rural and Urban Areas Mali: Data
           from the STEP 2013 Survey

    • Abstract: Background. Our study aims to estimate hypertension (HTN) prevalence and its predictors in rural and urban area. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study involving subjects aged 15 to 65 years. Collected data (sociodemographic, blood pressure, weight, height, and blood glucose) were analyzed using SPSS version 20. A logistic regression was conducted to look for factors associated with HTN. Results. Mean was 47 years. High blood pressure (HBP) prevalence was 21.1 and 24.7%, respectively, in rural and urban setting. In rural area age group significantly predicted hypertension with age of 60 years having more-than-4-times risk of hypertension, whereas, in urban area age group, sex and body mass index were predictors with OR: HTN raising from 2.06 [1.24–3.43] for 30–44 years old to 7.25 [4.00–13.13] for 60 years and more using
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jan 2018 08:10:12 +000
       
  • Factors Associated with Outcomes of Percutaneous Transluminal Renal
           Angioplasty in Patients with Renal Artery Stenosis: A Retrospective
           Analysis of 50 Consecutive Cases

    • Abstract: Background. The results of recent trials have brought some confusion to the treatment strategy for renal artery stenosis (RAS). To evaluate the applicability of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) for RAS, we extracted the factors that may affect the effectiveness of PTRA from cases experienced at a hypertension center. Methods and Results. We retrospectively assessed the blood pressure (BP) lowering effects and renoprotective effects in 50 consecutive patients that had hemodynamically significant RAS and had undergone PTRA and stenting during 2001–2005. Subjects were diagnosed with atherosclerotic RAS (42), fibromuscular dysplasia (6), or Takayasu disease (2). After PTRA, BP significantly lowered from 152.3/80.3 mmHg to 132.6/73.2 mmHg (), but the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) did not change significantly. There were no factors associated with the BP lowering effects of PTRA. The baseline resistive index (RI) was negatively correlated with the change in eGFR (). After correction for age, sex, BMI, and the dose of contrast medium, the association of RI with change in eGFR remained significant. Conclusion. In cases with hemodynamically significant RAS, PTRA lowered BP but was not effective in improving renal function. Higher baseline RI may be a factor for predicting poor clinical course of renal function after PTRA.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypertension in Non-Type 2 Diabetes in Isfahan, Iran: Incidence and Risk
           Factors

    • Abstract: Objective. To estimate the incidence of and risk factors for the development of hypertension (HTN) in people with T1D using routinely collected data. Method. The mean 16-year incidence of HTN was measured among 1,167 (557 men and 610 women) nonhypertensive patients with T1D from Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center outpatient clinics, Iran. HTN was defined as a systolic blood pressure (BP) of 140 mm Hg or higher and/or a diastolic BP 90 mm Hg or higher and/or use of antihypertensive medications. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of participants was 20.6 years (10.5 years) with a mean (SD) duration of diabetes of 3.6 years (4.8 years) at registration. Results. The prevalence of HTN at baseline was 9.7% (95% CI: 8.2, 11.5). Among the 1,167 patients free of HTN at registration who attended the clinic at least twice in the period 1992–2016, the incidence of HTN was 9.6 (8.0 women and 11.3 men) per 1000 person-years based on 18,870 person-years of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that male gender, older age, higher triglyceride, and higher systolic BP were significantly and independently associated with the development of HTN in this population. Conclusion. These findings will help the identification of those patients with T1D at particular risk of HTN and strongly support the case for vigorous control of BP in patients with T1D.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 09:41:54 +000
       
  • Characteristics of Inpatient Hypertension Cases and Factors Associated
           with Admission Outcomes in Ashanti Region, Ghana: An Analytic
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. Hypertension remains a cause of morbidity and mortality in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. It has been featured in the top ten causes of OPD attendance, admissions, and deaths since 2012. We investigated the sociodemographic characteristics and spatial distribution of inpatient hypertensives and factors associated with their admission outcomes. Methods. A 2014 line list of 1715 inpatient HPT cases aged ≥25 years was used for the cross-sectional analytic study. Accounting for clustering, all analyses were performed using the “svy” command in Stata. Frequencies, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were used in the analysis. Arc view Geographic Information System (ArcGIS) was used to map the density of cases by place of residence and reporting hospital. Results. Mean age of cases was 58 (S.D 0.0068). Females constituted 67.6% of the cases. Age, gender, and NHIS status were significantly associated with admission outcomes. Cases were clustered in the regional capital and bordering districts. However, low case densities were recorded in the latter. Conclusion. Increasing NHIS access can potentially impact positively on hypertension admission outcomes. Health educational campaigns targeting men are recommended to address hypertension-related issues.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional
           Study in Urban Varanasi

    • Abstract: Hypertension is a major public health problem and important area of research due to its high prevalence and being major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Objectives. (1) To assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors and (2) to estimate awareness, treatment, and adequacy of control of hypertension among study subjects. Methods and Materials. A community based cross-sectional study with multistage sampling design was conducted among urban population of Varanasi. A modified WHO STEPS interview schedule on 640 study subjects aged 25–64 years was used. Results. The prevalence of hypertension was 32.9% (male: 40.9%, female: 26.0%). Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 124.25 ± 15.05 mmHg and 83.45 ± 9.49 mmHg, respectively. Higher odds of being hypertensive were found in male subjects, eldest age group, married subjects, subjects of upper socioeconomic status, illiterate subjects, and retired subjects. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity were also associated with hypertension. Out of the total hypertensive 211 subjects, only 81 (38.4%) were aware about their hypertension status; out of those, 57 (70.4%) were seeking treatment and 20 (35.08%) had their blood pressure adequately controlled. Conclusion. Around one-third of the subjects were hypertensive and half of the study subjects were prehypertensive in this area. The awareness, treatment, and control of high blood pressure were also very low.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Study on Knowledge, Awareness, and Medication Adherence in Patients with
           Hypertension from a Tertiary Care Centre from Northern Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Objective. To assess the patient’s knowledge and awareness about hypertension and adherence to antihypertensive medication among hypertensive patients with validated Morisky questionnaires in a tertiary care centre of northern Sri Lanka. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive comparative study was carried out at Teaching Hospital Jaffna, from January 2017 to April 2017. Hypertensive patients were recruited by systematic randomized controlled sampling and interviewed with validated Morisky questionnaires to assess their knowledge about hypertension. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21) analytical package. Results. 73 of 303 patients were males. 69.9% of patients had adequate knowledge about hypertension. 40.5% of patients were unaware of their disease status. 75.8% of patients could not recall their blood pressure values at the time of diagnosis. 72.3% of patients were unaware of their values of blood pressure during their last outpatient clinic visit. 48.2% of patients had awareness of target organ damage due to hypertension (kidney, 72, 23.7%; heart, 128, 42.2%; brain, 140, 46.7%; eye, 42, 13.8%). Most of the patients had poor drug compliance. The most common reasons for nonadherence were forgetfulness (70, 23.1%) and interruptions of daily routine (53, 17.5%). Conclusion. The knowledge about hypertension among majority of patients was reasonable. But they were unaware of their disease status. The drug compliance among them was poor. Forgetfulness and interruptions of daily routine were common reasons attributed for nonadherence.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 07:47:28 +000
       
  • Review of and Updates on Hypertension in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    • Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a prevalent sleep disorder as is hypertension (HTN) in the 21st century with the rising incidence of obesity. Numerous studies have shown a strong association of OSA with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is overwhelming evidence supporting the relationship between OSA and hypertension (HTN). The pathophysiology of HTN in OSA is complex and dependent on various factors such as sympathetic tone, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, and altered baroreceptor reflexes. The treatment of OSA is multifactorial ranging from CPAP to oral appliances to lifestyle modifications to antihypertensive drugs. OSA and HTN both need prompt diagnosis and treatment to help address the growing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to these two entities.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison between Central and Brachial Blood Pressure in Hypertensive
           Elderly Women and Men

    • Abstract: Aim. To compare the values of central and brachial systemic blood pressure (SBP) between women and men over 60 years of age with systemic arterial hypertension. Methods. This study was a quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with elderly patients admitted to and selected from spontaneous and scheduled demand at basic health units in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, between March 2013 and March 2014. We included 69 study participants and compared central and brachial SBP using a Sphygmocor® XCEL device (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia). Results. Significant differences were found in the blood pressure values of the whole population in the central versus brachial systolic blood pressure (SP) [140(21) versus 153(23) mmHg] and in the central versus brachial pulse pressure (PP) [55(18) versus 70(18) mmHg]. Additionally, females exhibited higher blood pressure levels than males [central SP 144(23) versus 134(16) mmHg and brachial SP 161(26) versus 148(18) mmHg and central PP 62(17) versus 45(14) mmHg and brachial PP 80(21) versus 63(15) mmHg, resp.]. Conclusion. Elderly women exhibited higher blood pressure values than elderly hypertensive men.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 06:33:40 +000
       
  • The Effects of Socioeconomic Determinants on Hypertension in a
           Cardiometabolic At-Risk European Country

    • Abstract: Background. A relationship has been established between socioeconomic status and hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and to explore the links between hypertension and socioeconomic factors in the adult population of Malta. Methods. A national representative cross-sectional health examination study was performed between 2014 and 2016. Sociodemographic and medical history data was gathered by validated questionnaires while blood pressure was measured. Prevalence rates of known hypertension, newly hypertension, and global hypertension were calculated. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and hypertension were identified through logistic regression models. Results. Hypertension contributed to 30.12% (CI 95%: 28.71–31.57) of the study population, with a male preponderance. The majority was known hypertensive (73.59% CI 95%: 71.01–76.02), with only three-quarters on medication. Multivariant analyses showed that increasing age and body mass index, male gender, and living in Gozo, Western district, and Northern Harbour district were associated with having hypertension. Conclusion. Hypertension is a problem in Malta especially in the male population and with increasing age and body mass index. Education did not exhibit any associated risk for having hypertension, which is inconsistent with the literature, while habitat localities played a role in hypertension development.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 06:32:41 +000
       
  • Predictors of Hypertension in a Population of Undergraduate Students in
           Sierra Leone

    • Abstract: We report on the first survey of hypertension in undergraduates in Sierra Leone. Levels of hypertension (12%) and obesity (4%) appear low compared to the general population but given the rapid increase of both and the expectation that many graduates will enter the formal employment sector and a sedentary lifestyle, there is still cause for concern. We measured their BMI (body mass index) and used a questionnaire to investigate demographic and lifestyle choices. In agreement with most authorities, we found that BMI and age were statistically significant predictors of systolic and diastolic blood pressure but that the explanatory power was low ( to 0.27). Men may be more sensitive than women to an increase in BMI on blood pressure (). We failed to find statistically significant relationships with ethnicity, religion, stress, course of study, levels of physical activity, diet, smoking, or consumption of caffeine and alcohol. Family history of hypertension, consumption of red palm oil, and self-diagnosed attacks of typhoid fever were close to conventional levels of significance (). We intend to use this as a baseline for longitudinal studies to assess risks and suggest appropriate public health action.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 09:41:03 +000
       
  • Nebivolol Attenuates Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio: A Marker of Subclinical
           Inflammation in Hypertensive Patients

    • Abstract: Background. High value of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong independent predictor and biomarker of ongoing vascular inflammation in various cardiovascular disorders. Objective. The main focus of the study is to investigate the effect of nebivolol on NLR in mild to moderate hypertensive patients in comparison with metoprolol. In addition, BMI, blood pressure, TLC count, blood sugar, and lipid profile were also assayed before and after treatment. Materials and Methods. In this 12-week prospective double-blinded randomized study, 120 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly divided into two groups to prescribed daily dose of tab nebivolol 5–10 mg and metoprolol 50–100 mg, respectively, for 12 weeks. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software. Results. A total of 100 patients completed the study. Both drugs lowered blood pressure significantly, nebivolol 20.5/10.5 and metoprolol 22.5/11.2 from baseline. Regarding inflammation, nebivolol reduced total leukocyte count and neutrophil count and increased lymphocyte count as compared to metoprolol. Similarly, nebivolol but not metoprolol significantly reduced NLR ratio . Nebivolol improved lipid profile and blood sugar compared to metoprolol, but values were nonsignificant. Conclusion. Nebivolol has a strong impact on reducing NLR, a marker of subclinical inflammation in hypertensive patients. Moreover NLR can be used as a disease and drug monitoring tool in these patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypertension Management in Brazil: Usual Practice in Primary Care—A
           Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Knowing the usual clinical practice is relevant for evaluations in health care and economic policies of management of hypertension. This study aimed to describe the usual management of hypertension in the Brazilian primary healthcare system through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The search of population-based studies conducted in Brazil was undertaken using PubMed, EMBASE, and Brazilian databases. Eligible studies were those conducted in adults with hypertension (blood pressure (BP) ≥ 140/90 mmHg or using BP lowering drugs). Three datasets’ data were analyzed: SESI study (in Brazilian workers); HIPERDIA (Brazilian Registration and Monitoring of Hypertensive and Diabetic Patients Program); and a population-based study. Meta-analysis has been performed using the fixed and random effect models. A total of 11 studies or data sets were included in the systematic review. Hypertensive individuals had, on average, 2.6 medical visits annually and 18.2% were on diuretics ( hypertensive patients) and 16.2% on ACE inhibitors ( hypertensive patients). BP control rate ranged from 43.7 to 67.5%; 35.5% had measured total cholesterol and 36.5% determined fasting plasma glucose in the previous 12 months. Thiazide diuretics and ACE inhibitors were the most used BP lowering medications as single drugs, but the control rate of hypertension is insufficient.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Target Organ Damage and the Long Term Effect of Nonadherence to Clinical
           Practice Guidelines in Patients with Hypertension: A Retrospective Cohort
           Study

    • Abstract: Background. There was limited published data on target organ damage (TOD) and the effect of nonadherence to practice guidelines in Ethiopia. This study determined TOD and the long term effect of nonadherence to clinical guidelines on hypertensive patients. Methods. An open level retrospective cohort study has been employed at cardiac clinic of Gondar university hospital for a mean follow-up period of 78 months. Multivariate Cox regression was conducted to test associating factors of TOD. Results. Of the total number of 612 patients examined, the overall prevalence of hypertensive TOD was 40.3%. The presence of comorbidities, COR = 1.073 [1.01–1.437], AOR = 1.196 [1.174–1.637], and nonadherence to clinical practice guidelines, COR = 1.537 [1.167–2.024], AOR = 1.636 [1.189–2.251], were found to be predicting factors for TOD. According to Kaplan-Meier analysis patients who were initiated on appropriate medication tended to develop TOD very late: Log Rank [11.975 ()]. Conclusion. More than forty percent of patients acquired TOD which is more significant. Presence of comorbidities and nonadherence to practice guidelines were correlated with the incidence of TOD. Appropriate management of hypertension and modification of triggering factors are essential to prevent complications.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 06:35:51 +000
       
  • Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with
           Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

    • Abstract: Background. Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods. A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results. Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4%) reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1%) reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion. The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Brain Oscillations Elicited by the Cold Pressor Test: A Putative Index of
           Untreated Essential Hypertension

    • Abstract: Objective. Essential hypertension is associated with reduced pain sensitivity of unclear aetiology. This study explores this issue using the Cold Pressor Test (CPT), a reliable pain/stress model, comparing CPT-related EEG activity in first episode hypertensives and controls. Method. 22 untreated hypertensives and 18 matched normotensives underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). EEG recordings were taken before, during, and after CPT exposure. Results. Significant group differences in CPT-induced EEG oscillations were covaried with the most robust cardiovascular differentiators by means of a Canonical Analysis. Positive correlations were noted between ABPM variables and Delta (1–4 Hz) oscillations during the tolerance phase; in high-alpha (10–12 Hz) oscillations during the stress unit and posttest phase; and in low-alpha (8–10 Hz) oscillations during CPT phases overall. Negative correlations were found between ABPM variables and Beta2 oscillations (16.5–20 Hz) during the posttest phase and Gamma (28.5–45 Hz) oscillations during the CPT phases overall. These relationships were localised at several sites across the cerebral hemispheres with predominance in the right hemisphere and left frontal lobe. Conclusions. These findings provide a starting point for increasing our understanding of the complex relationships between cerebral activation and cardiovascular functioning involved in regulating blood pressure changes.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among
           Chinese First-Generation Migrants and Italians in Prato, Italy: The CHIP
           Study

    • Abstract: Data on health needs of Chinese living in the South of Europe are lacking. To compare prevalence, awareness, treatment, control, and risk factors for hypertension between Chinese migrants and Italian adults, a sample of 1200 first-generation Chinese migrants and 291 native Italians aged 35–59 years living in Prato (Italy) was recruited in a community-based participatory cross-sectional survey. Primary outcome measure was hypertension, diagnosed for blood pressure values ≥ 140/90 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medications. Associations with exposures (including age, gender, body mass index, waist, education level, total cholesterol, and triglycerides) were examined using logistic regression. When compared with Italians, Chinese had higher hypertension prevalence (27.2% versus 21.3%, ), with comparable levels of awareness (57.4% and 48.4%) but lower treatment rates (70.6% and 90.0%, resp.). In both ethnic groups age and parental history of hypertension were predictors of awareness and treatment, body mass index being predictor of hypertension diagnosis. In Chinese participants, where the optimum cut-off point for body mass index was ≥23.9 kg/m2, the sensibility and specificity prediction for hypertension were 61.7% and 59.8%, respectively (area under the ROC curve = 0.629). Implementation of specific, culturally adapted health programs for the Chinese community is now needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Excess of Aminopeptidase A in the Brain Elevates Blood Pressure via the
           Angiotensin II Type 1 and Bradykinin B2 Receptors without Dipsogenic
           Effect

    • Abstract: Aminopeptidase A (APA) cleaves angiotensin (Ang) II, kallidin, and other related peptides. In the brain, it activates the renin angiotensin system and causes hypertension. Limited data are available on the dipsogenic effect of APA and pressor effect of degraded peptides of APA such as bradykinin. Wistar-Kyoto rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) APA in a conscious, unrestrained state after pretreatment with (i) vehicle, (ii) 80 g of telmisartan, an Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor blocker, (iii) 800 nmol of amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, and (iv) 1 nmol of HOE-140, a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker. Icv administration of 400 and 800 ng of APA increased blood pressure by 12.6 ± 3.0 and 19.0 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively. APA did not evoke drinking behavior. Pressor response to APA was attenuated on pretreatment with telmisartan (vehicle: 22.1 ± 2.2 mmHg versus telmisartan: 10.4 ± 3.2 mmHg). Pressor response to APA was also attenuated with amastatin and HOE-140 (vehicle: 26.5 ± 1.1 mmHg, amastatin: 14.4 ± 4.2 mmHg, HOE-140: 16.4 ± 2.2 mmHg). In conclusion, APA increase in the brain evokes a pressor response via enzymatic activity without dipsogenic effect. AT1 receptors and B2 receptors in the brain may contribute to the APA-induced pressor response.
      PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Burden of Hypertension in the Capital of Afghanistan: A Cross-Sectional
           Study in Kabul City, 2015

    • Abstract: Background. This study had the objective to assess the prevalence and associated factors of hypertension in an urban setting, Kabul city, Afghanistan. Materials and Methods. The World Health Organization’s STEP-wise approach was adopted and used in Kabul in November 2015. The study analyzed a sample of 1172 adults in the age group of 25–70 years. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavior data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Fasting venous blood sample was collected to assess the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. Results. The study showed that the prevalence of hypertension among adult Kabul citizens was 32.3%. From this figure, 599 (51.1%) were females and 573 (48.9%) males with a mean age of years. Illiteracy rate was 49.6% and 77.5% were married. Smoking in adults were 8.1% and mouth snuff users were 9.8%. More than half (57.6%) of the study respondents were overweight and obese and 9.1% were recorded having raised blood sugar. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, general obesity, central obesity, smoking, moderate physical activity, and taking fruits 3 days or less weekly were statistically significant predictors of hypertension. Conclusions. Burden of hypertension is increasing in main urban settings in Afghanistan. Integrated intervention focusing in main modifiable risk factors is needed to detect and prevent hypertension.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 10:40:36 +000
       
 
 
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