Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Hypertension
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.578
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2090-0384 - ISSN (Online) 2090-0392
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Higher Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI) Were
           Independently Associated with Increased Risks of Hypertension in Patients
           with T2DM: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Objective. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between OSAS and hypertension and whether polysomnography (PSG) indices were independently associated with hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods. This study recruited 316 T2DM patients. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent association of apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) with hypertension with adjustment for potential confounders. Results. Among 316 patients, 130 (41.1%) and 204 (64.6%) had hypertension and OSAS, respectively. T2DM patients with hypertension showed significantly increased levels of AHI ((median (interquartile range)): 17.2 (5.7–34.9) vs. 5.7 (2.1–17.3) events/hour,  
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jan 2021 13:05:01 +000
  • Individual and Obstetric Risk Factors of Preeclampsia among Singleton
           Pregnancy in Hospitals of Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Preeclampsia is the second most common problem that causes maternal morbidity and complication in low-income countries. In contrast to death due to other direct causes, preeclampsia-related death is appeared to be connected with multiple factors; yet, factors have paucity and are limited. Considering the clinical significance, this study aimed to identify that individual and obstetric factors of preeclampsia can be an input for disease identification involving clinicians in southern Ethiopia. Methods. A case-control study was conducted among mothers with a singleton pregnancy who attended perinatal care in all six public hospitals in the provinces around the Omo stream. A sample size of 487 women with a singleton pregnancy (163 cases and 326 controls) was involved in the study. All cases were enrolled, while controls were selected consecutively using a random sampling technique. Data were gathered using a structured questionnaire and data extraction sheet. Descriptive data were presented using percentages and numbers. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify factors at a value of less than 0.05. Results. There was a statistically significant association between the family history of hypertension (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.16–5.05), no pregnancy interval (AOR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.03–2.55), and normal body mass index (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.21–0.87) and the occurrence of preeclampsia. Conclusion. Primary relatives with a history of chronic hypertension and no pregnancy interval were identified as risk factors of preeclampsia, while having a normal body mass index was found to be a protective factor of preeclampsia occurrence. To improve early detection and timely management of preeclampsia, the clinician should give attention to women who have no previous childbirth and whose close relatives had a history of chronic hypertension, as well as working on the protective factor is recommended.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Jan 2021 14:05:00 +000
  • Analyzing Trio-Anthropometric Predictors of Hypertension: Determining the
           Susceptibility of Blood Pressure to Sexual Dimorphism in Body Stature

    • Abstract: Background. Several studies had suggested that complex body stature could be a risk factor of hypertension. Objectives. We aim to correlate body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-height ratio (WHtR) of rural dwellers in Afikpo community, Ebonyi State, Nigeria, with blood pressure parameters. Furthermore, we aim to ascertain how each of the anthropometric variables affects blood pressure in men and women, respectively. Materials and Methods. A sample of 400 (200 males and 200 females) adults aged 18–89 years were selected for the correlation cross-sectional study. Data for weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences were collected by means of anthropometric measurement protocol with the aid of a calibrated flexible tape and health scale and mercury sphygmomanometer for measurement of blood pressure. A participant was classified as being hypertensive if systolic blood pressure (SBP) was>140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP)>90 mmHg. Pulse pressure was recorded as the numeric difference of SBP and DBP. Results. The result revealed that male BMI and WHR were higher than those of females while female WHtR was higher than that of males ( 
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jan 2021 16:05:00 +000
  • May Measurement Month 2017–2019: A Community-Wide Opportunistic Blood
           Pressure Screening Campaign in Hong Kong

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for multiple cardiovascular diseases. Early identification and intervention of new cases are crucial to improve patients’ outcomes. May Measurement Month (MMM) is an annual global synchronised blood pressure (BP) screening campaign. Participants can have their BP measured at the screening sites. It may be a possible way to identify undiagnosed hypertensive patients in the population. Methods. It was a cross-sectional study of BP among Hong Kong adults. Multiple screening sites were set in local community pharmacies and on the campus of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding their demographics, medical history, and social history. Then, they took at least one BP reading using an automated sphygmomanometer after sitting at for 5 minutes. Up to three BP readings were taken and recorded for each participant, with one-minute intervals between readings. Results. A total of 3224 adults participated in MMM between 2017 and 2019. The average BP among the 3224 participants was 139.8/75.5 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 2282 (70.8%), of which 635 (27.8%) were undiagnosed before MMM. Among the 1647 participants previously diagnosed with hypertension, 1007 (61.1%) had uncontrolled hypertension. Conclusion. A high number of cases can be identified with untreated, or treated but uncontrolled, hypertension from MMM. Citizens should be encouraged to check BP regularly and take follow-up actions if hypertension is suspected.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jan 2021 06:20:01 +000
  • Factors Affecting Hypertension in the Adult Population of the Marmara
           Region, Turkey: A Descriptive Field Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hypertension is an increasingly prevalent global public health problem. Nutritional culture and lifestyle are among the factors related to hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and influential factors of hypertension in the adult population of the Marmara region, Turkey. Methods. The study was conducted in 10 provinces in the Marmara region between June 01, 2018, and November 30, 2018. Participants included 2353 patients over 18 years of age diagnosed with hypertension by any of the 30 family physicians working in the Family Health Centers in these provinces. After the participants provided written consent, a survey consisting of 25 questions was administered by their family physicians. SPSS 25.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, United States) was used for all statistical analysis calculations. Results. The patients included 1449 females (61.6%) and 904 males (38.4%). Among the respondents, 1555 (73.1%) had primary hypertension etiology and 572 (26.9%) had secondary etiology. While 1614 patients (68.6%) did not exercise at all, 739 patients (31.4%) reported exercising; 1026 patients (43.9%) did not restrict salt in their diet; and 1134 patients (48.2%) had a family history of hypertension. Conclusion. Since individual and environmental factors affect the etiology of hypertension, it is recommended that family physicians address these factors first as part of a holistic approach for hypertension prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Dec 2020 08:20:00 +000
  • Effects of L-/N-Type Calcium Channel Blockers on Angiotensin II–Renin
           Feedback in Hypertensive Patients

    • Abstract: Objectives. Cilnidipine, an L-/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), has unique organ-protective properties due to suppression of hyperactivity in the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this study, we hypothesized that cilnidipine might exert a renoprotective effect by suppressing the RAS. Methods. A total of 25 hypertensive patients receiving a RAS inhibitor were randomly assigned to a cilnidipine (n = 12) or amlodipine (n = 13) group. The effects of cilnidipine on proteinuria and angiotensin II–renin feedback were assessed. Results. After 6 months of treatment, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly reduced to a similar extent in both groups. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly lower in the cilnidipine group () than in the amlodipine group. Amlodipine increased plasma angiotensin I and angiotensin II levels (), whereas cilnidipine did not. Interestingly, the cilnidipine group had a higher ratio of angiotensin-(1–7) (Ang-(1–7)) to angiotensin II in plasma than the amlodipine group ().Conclusions. The L-/N-type CCB cilnidipine, but not amlodipine, decreased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients. Cilnidipine also increased the ratio of Ang-(1–7) to angiotensin II in plasma, which might be one factor underlying its beneficial effects.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 09:05:01 +000
  • Long-Term Risk of Progression to Sustained Hypertension in White-Coat
           Hypertension with Normal Night-Time Blood Pressure Values

    • Abstract: Background. The long-term prognosis and transition towards sustained ambulatory hypertension (SHT) of white-coat hypertension (WCHT) remain uncertain particularly in those with both normal nighttime and daytime blood pressure (BP) values. Different classification criteria and the use of antihypertensive drugs may contribute to conflicting results. Patients and Methods. We prospectively evaluated for a 7.1 year transition to SHT in 899 nondiabetic subjects free from cardiovascular (CV) events: normotensive (NT) (n = 344; 52, 9% female; ageing 48 ± 14 years); untreated WCHT (UnWCHT n = 399; 50, 1% female; ageing 51 ± 14 years); and treated WCHT with antihypertensive drugs after baseline (TxWCHT n = 156; 54, 4% female; ageing 51 ± 15 years). All underwent 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring (24 h-ABPM) at baseline, at 30 to 60 months, and at 70 to 120 months thereafter. WCHT was at baseline (with no treatment) as office BP ≥ 140/or 90 mm·Hg, daytime BP 
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Dec 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • p38/JNK Is Required for the Proliferation and Phenotype Changes of

    • Abstract: Aim. Hypertension is a complicated disorder with multifactorial etiology and high heritability. Our previous work has identified L3MBTL4 as a novel susceptibility gene for the development of essential hypertension, accompanied with activation of p38/JNK. Yet, little evidence has been reported whether p38/JNK contributed directly to L3MBTL4-induced vascular remodeling and exploring the potential mechanism of L3MBTL4 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods. We evaluated the contribution of L3MBTL4 on proliferation, migration, and phenotype changes of VSMCs and further explored the critical role of p38 and JNK signaling pathway underlying. Results. In L3MBTL4 transgenic rats, we found that the elevated blood pressure, increased left ventricular hypertrophy, and thickened vascular media layer were significantly relieved by both p38 and JNK inhibitors. Meanwhile, increased cell proliferation, advanced cell cycle progression, greater migratory capability, and synthetic phenotype were observed in L3MBTL4 overexpressed VSMCs, which could be blocked by either p38 or JNK inhibitor. Conclusions. Our findings pinpointed that p38 and JNK were required for the proliferation and phenotype changes of VSMCs induced by L3MBTL4 in hypertension. These novel findings yield new insights into the genetic and biological basis of hypertension and are fundamental for further studies to explore the intervention strategies targeting L3MBTL4 and p38/JNK to counteract the progression of hypertension.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2020 13:35:00 +000
  • Assessment of Plasma Sodium to Potassium Ratio, Renal Function, Markers of
           Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Endothelial Dysfunction in Nigerian
           Hypertensive Patients

    • Abstract: Background. This study investigated plasma sodium/potassium ratio, markers of oxidative stress, renal function, and endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive Nigerians. Materials and Methods. Five hundred forty-nine volunteers consisting of three hundred and twenty-four hypertensive and two hundred twenty-five controls participated in this study. Blood samples were collected from the participants and were analyzed for electrolytes, markers of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, renal function, and inflammation, using ion-selective electrodes, spectrophotometric, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, respectively. Results. The mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly elevated among the hypertensive group when compared with control (). The mean sodium increased, while potassium and bicarbonate (HCO3−) decreased () in hypertensive volunteers. The sodium-potassium ratio (Na+/K+) and urea were raised () in the hypertensive group when compared with the control. Glutathione, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide (NO), and catalase were significantly reduced () while malondialdehyde (MDA), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and ferritin were raised significantly () in hypertensive participants. The odds of hypertension and its complications increased () with an increase in BMI, Na+/K+, hs-CRP, MDA, and ferritin and a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Conclusion. An increase in Na+/K+, urea, hs-CRP, ferritin, MDA, and BMI and a decrease in eGFR, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase were associated with an increased risk of hypertension complication. Abnormal values of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial function could impact deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system among hypertensive Nigerians. A decreased bicarbonate possibly suggests an occult acid-base imbalance among hypertensive volunteers.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2020 08:35:00 +000
  • Arterial Hypertension as a Risk Comorbidity Associated with COVID-19

    • Abstract: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is an ongoing global public health challenge. Current clinical data suggest that, in COVID-19 patients, arterial hypertension (AH) is one of the most common cardiovascular comorbidities; it can worsen outcomes and increase the risk of admission to intensive care unit (ICU). The exact mechanisms through which AH contributes to the poor prognosis in COVID-19 are not yet clear. The putative relationship between AH and COVID-19 may be linked to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a key element of the AH pathophysiology. Another mechanism connecting AH and COVID-19 is the dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a cytokine storm, mediated by an imbalanced response of T helper cells subtypes. Therefore, it is essential to optimize blood pressure control in hypertensive patients and monitor them carefully for cardiovascular and other complications for the duration of COVID-19 infection. The question whether AH-linked ACE2 gene polymorphisms increase the risk and/or worsen the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection should also receive further consideration.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Dec 2020 14:35:00 +000
  • Adherence to Antihypertensive Treatment and Associated Factors in Central

    • Abstract: Background. Adherence to treatment is a primary determinant of treatment success. Nonadherence attenuates clinical benefits to the recipients of the treatment. However, monitoring adherence to long treatment regimens is not given due emphasis in low-income contexts. This study aimed to assess adherence to antihypertensive treatment and factors associated with it in Central Ethiopia. Method. This is an institution-based cross-sectional study conducted in 4 public hospitals in Central Ethiopia from December 4, 2016, to September 25, 2017. The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was used to assess the level of adherence. The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) was used to assess illness perception. The MMAS-8 score ranges from 0 to 8, a score of 8 reflects high adherence, 6 to 7 medium adherence, and
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 09:05:00 +000
  • Aliskiren Reduces the Adrenal Zona Glomerulosa Apoptosis and Autophagy in
           Wistar Rats with 2K1C Hypertension

    • Abstract: Hypertension is a disease classified as primary or secondary, manifested not only by elevation of blood pressure but also involved in structural and functional changes of target organs. Renal artery stenosis is a leading factor of secondary hypertension, and its progress is associated with overactivation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Aliskiren is a renin inhibiting drug that suppresses RAAS and culminates in decreased renin release, plasma angiotensin II concentration, and inhibition of aldosterone secretion. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to analyze the structural and ultrastructural morphophysiology of the adrenal glomerular zone, after treatment with aliskiren in Wistar rats with 2K1C hypertension. Parameters as structure and ultrastructure of the adrenal glomerular zone, cellular apoptosis, nuclear cell proliferation, and AT1 receptor expression were analyzed by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Our results showed that the hypertensive animals treated with aliskiren presented a reestablishment of AT1 receptor expression and decrease in apoptosis and autophagy. In addition, treatment with aliskiren improves the cell aspects in the adrenal glomerular zone, evidenced by ultrastructural analysis through preserved nuclei and well-developed mitochondria. Therefore, our evidence suggests that aliskiren has a beneficial effect on the adrenal glomerular zone remodeling in animals with renovascular hypertension.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • An Assessment of Usual Salt Intake among Older Normotensive Adults in
           Atonsu, a Suburb of Kumasi in the Ashanti Region of Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. Globally, sodium intake has been found to be far above the normal level required by the body. Within countries, variations in salt intake exist between rural communities and urban communities. Experimental and epidemiological studies as well as studies involving clinical trials show the existence of adverse effect of salt consumption on the blood pressure of adults. The study evaluated salt intake among older normotensive adults in Atonsu, a suburb of Kumasi in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Methods. Participants were randomly selected from five churches which constituted cluster samples. A questionnaire was administered to participants for demographic information and dietary and lifestyle assessments. The study targeted 100 participants, twenty from each of the five churches. Eighty-two individuals gave their informed consent. Out of the 82 who gave their informed consent, 15 withdrew and 67 completed the course. The 67 participants comprised 36 (53.7%) men and 31 (46.3%) women. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, urinary sodium, urinary potassium, serum creatinine, serum sodium, and serum potassium concentrations were also measured. Results. Participants’ mean age was 52.3 ± 8.7 years. Participants had 24 hr urinary sodium excretion of 153.0 ± 26.9 mmol/day. All participants indicated that they consume foods high in salt even though none of them added salt to their diet at table. Mean 24 hr urinary potassium was 52.5 ± 12.9 mmol/day. Mean systolic blood pressure was 119.9 ± 10.8 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 72.5 ± 7.3 mmHg. Their mean BMI was 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2. Conclusion. The participants who can be described as quite old and normotensive were high salt consumers, indicated by their dietary assessment and urinary sodium excretion, even though they had normal blood pressure.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Hypertension Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Adult Hypertensive
           Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Objective. Hypertension (HTN) remains a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases globally. Despite considerable improvement in increasing awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, undiagnosed and uncontrolled HTN remains a major public health challenge. Our focus was on studying the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding HTN in adult hypertensive patients at a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Methodology. A descriptive study on knowledge, attitude, and practice of hypertensive patients on antihypertensive medications attending the hypertensive clinic was carried out from January 2016 to June 2016 at THP. Results. The study was on a total of 371 hypertensive patients comprising 253 (68.2%) females and 118 (31.8%) males. Among the total participants, 12 (3.2%), all females, had never been to school. About half of them (47.7%) had not even reached GCE (ordinary level). More than two-thirds (77%) of the study population were aware of the complications of HTN as they were informed by a health care team member. About 74% of them were taking all their prescribed medications. Almost all (95%) patients had checked their blood pressure (BP) during the previous 12 months, and almost the same percentage had visited their doctor for BP checkups every 1–3 months. Conclusion. Our patients were well aware of the importance of regular follow-ups and also knowledgeable about the complications related to HTN. Almost 75% of the patients had optimum drug compliance. It was revealed that forgetfulness was the frequent cause for poor drug compliance.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Effect of Different Blood-Pressure-Lowering Regimens on the Blood Pressure
           Control among Hypertensive Patients Treated in Hospital Conditions

    • Abstract: Background. Scientific references lack sufficient amount of data on analyses of the reasons for hospital admissions or assessment of efficacy of arterial hypertension treatment at hospitals. Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of antihypertensive drug therapy on the blood pressure control among hospitalized hypertensive patients. Methodology. A cross-sectional retrospective study consisted of 204 patients aged 18–65 years admitted to the hospital due to hypertension between January 2018 and December 2018. The study was based on analysis of electronic records, obtained from the medical database of the selected healthcare facility. Results. As a result of the treatment applied at the hospital, 65.19% of the patients achieved the desired degree of blood pressure normalization (≤130/80 mmHg). Vast majority of the patients during their stay at the ward would receive three or more hypertensive drugs (63.73%). The most frequently prescribed antihypertensive drug combinations included bitherapies such as diuretics + ACEI and ACEI + β-blockers and tritherapy such as diuretics + β-blockers and calcium channel antagonists and diuretics + ACEI and ARBs. The highest blood-pressure lowering effects were observed among patients receiving combination therapy of a ACEI, a diuretic, and a ARBs. Tritherapy induced a significant mean reduction of inpatients`s SBP compared with bitherapy ().Conclusion. During their hospital stay, vast majority of patients (65.19%) achieved normal values of blood pressure, mostly owing to combined treatment with several hypertensive drugs. Efficacy of the most frequently used combinations of hypertensive drugs in normalizing arterial pressure varies.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Combination of Exercise Training and SOD Mimetic Tempol Enhances
           Upregulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Kidney of Spontaneously
           Hypertensive Rats

    • Abstract: Both exercise training (Ex) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic tempol have antihypertensive and renal protective effects in rodent models of several hypertensions. We recently reported that Ex increases nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression levels of endothelial and neuronal NO synthase (eNOS and nNOS) in the kidney and aorta of the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats (WKY). We also found that endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) upregulates the expression levels of eNOS and nNOS in SHR. To elucidate the mechanism of the Ex-upregulated NO system in the kidney, we examined the additive effect of Ex and tempol on the renal NO system in SHR and WKY. Our data showed that, in SHR, both Ex and tempol increase the levels of H2O2 and nitrate/nitrite (NOx) in plasma and urine. We also observed an increased renal NOS activity and upregulated expression levels of eNOS and nNOS with decreased NADPH oxidase activity. The effects of the combination of Ex and tempol on these variables were cumulate in SHR. On the other hand, we found that Ex increases these variables with increased renal NADPH oxidase activity, but tempol did not change these variables or affect the Ex-induced upregulation in the activity and expression of NOS in WKY. The SOD activity in the kidney and aorta was activated by tempol only in SHR, but not in WKY; whereas Ex increased SOD activity only in the aorta in both SHR and WKY. These results indicate that Ex-induced endogenous H2O2 produced in the blood vessel and other organs outside of the kidney may be carried to the kidney by blood flow and stimulates the NO system in the kidney.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Polymorphism of MTHFR C677T Gene and the Associations with the Severity of
           Essential Hypertension in Northern Chinese Population

    • Abstract: Objective. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of homocysteine metabolism and is closely related to the occurrence of hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the (MTHFR) C677T and the factors influencing the severity of hypertension. Material and Methods. A total of 985 subjects were enrolled to analyze the polymorphisms of the MTHFR C677T gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 306 people with essential hypertension were selected from 985 subjects to estimate the severity of hypertension by the ordinal multivariate logistical regression model. Results. The frequencies of CC, CT, and TT genotypes were 19.5%, 49.95%, and 30.46%, respectively. The allelic frequency of mutant T was 55.43%. The plasma homocysteine level of the homozygous TT in individuals was significantly higher than in those with CC or CT . MTHFR677CT genotype, MTHFR677TT genotype, smoking, family history of hypertension, Hcy, and triglycerides (TG) were independent risk factors for the severity of hypertension (OR = 2.29, 2.24, 2.04, 1.81, 1.04, 1.26). Conclusion. MTHFR gene, smoking, family history of hypertension, Hcy, and triglycerides could be important genetic and high-risk factors of the development of severe hypertension in northern Chinese. These factors will contribute to the identification of high-risk populations of hypertension and facilitate the development of hypertension control strategies.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in COVID-19: Current Concepts

    • Abstract: The functional receptor to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), the same enzyme that physiologically counters the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Some researchers have questioned RAS inhibitors’ safety in COVID-19 patients since these drugs have demonstrated an increase in ACE-2 expression in preclinical studies; therefore, they may facilitate viral invasion. On the contrary, others have hypothesized a protective role of RAS inhibitors against COVID-19-associated lung injury. Overall, the data are grossly inadequate to reach any conclusion since no human trials have yet evaluated the effects of RAS inhibitors in COVID-19. We review the current data and pathophysiological mechanisms behind this intriguing interplay between the RAS inhibitors and the COVID-19.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 09:25:06 +000
  • Assessing Barriers to and Level of Adherence to Hypertension Therapy among
           Palestinians Living in the Gaza Strip: A Chance for Policy Innovation

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hypertension is a major health concern, especially in low-income countries. Nonadherence and poor or no persistence in adhering to hypertension treatment regimens result in uncontrolled high blood pressure, increasing rates of mortality and morbidity, and preventable healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence and barriers to treatment regimens among hypertensive patients living in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Methods. A convenience sample of 648 participants completed the Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy Scale. The great majority of participants (n = 521, 80.4%) was highly adherent to their treatment regimen, 123 participants (18.98%) were classified as moderately nonadherent, and 4 (0.62%) participants were classified as highly nonadherent to their hypertension treatment regimen. Participants of this study showed the highest adherence rate to the domain of medication adherence (mean of 1.42 out of 4) followed by appointment keeping (mean 1.8), while they were least adherent to diet (mean of 2.18). The greatest three barriers to adherence to the recommended treatment regimen reported by participants were inability to exercise, inability to resist fast and fried food, and inability to keep themselves away from salty foods. Conclusion. Overall adherence to medication in Gaza was surprisingly good in patients with a diagnosis of hypertension for at least one year. However, adherence to lifestyle advice or dietary regimes remains poor. A combination of interventions using low-cost mobile technology, combined with face-to-face interventions by healthcare professionals, can be applied to improve adherence to hypertension treatment regimens in order to reduce the consequences of uncontrolled blood pressure.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Sep 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Magnesium Lithospermate B Downregulates the Levels of Blood Pressure,
           Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Rats with Hypertension

    • Abstract: Background. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) was shown to suppress oxidative stress and reduce hypertension, but the role of MLB in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) remains unknown. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of MLB on rats with PIH. Methods. A total of 40 pregnant SD rats were selected, and 30 rats were orally given NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 60 mg/kg/day) to establish PIH rat models. Rats were equally divided into four groups: control, PIH, 5 mg/kg MLB, and 10 mg/kg MLB. MLB was consecutively administered into PIH rats for one week. The effects of MLB on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), urine protein level, inflammation, and oxidative stress together with angiogenesis were analyzed. Results. MLB prevented the elevation in MAP and urine protein levels induced by L-NAME. The activities of inflammatory cytokines were highly increased in serum and placental tissues of PIH rats, while cotreatment with MLB partially reversed the activities of these cytokines. MLB also recovered the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plasma of PIH rats together with levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in the placenta of PIH rats. The decreased expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and NO observed in PIH rats were increased by MLB. In addition, 10 mg/kg MLB exhibited higher protective effects as compared to lower doses of 5 mg/kg. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that pretreatment with MLB decreased MAP, inflammation, and oxidative stress in rats with gestational hypertension.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2020 01:50:01 +000
  • Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Factors among Indonesian

    • Abstract: Background. Given that hypertension in adulthood has its onset in childhood, it is not surprising that the prevalence of hypertension among adolescents has also increased in recent years. However, there are limited data on the prevalence of hypertension and also the new AAP guideline has not yet been applied to the Indonesian adolescent population. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension using the new AAP guideline and to assess the occurrence of its associated factors among Indonesian adolescents. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at twelve senior high schools in Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia, from June to December 2019. The study included adolescents aged 13 to 18 years old. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors most associated with hypertension among adolescents, and then an equation model was created. The prevalence of hypertension was evaluated, together with several factors such as age group, sex, ethnicity, family history of hypertension, nutritional status, physical activity, perceived stress, sleep duration, nutritional intake, and smoking. Results. In total, 1200 adolescents aged 15.9 ± 0.99 years were evaluated. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure among adolescents was 8% and 12.2%, respectively. There were significant associations between sex, family history of hypertension, hypertensive father, nutritional status, physical activity, perceived stress, and hypertension among Indonesian adolescents (). Stress was the most powerful risk factor of hypertension with an odds ratio of 5.83 (95% confidence interval 2.91–11.6). Conclusions. Nowadays, the prevalence of hypertension among Indonesian adolescents is quite high. This may be caused by lifestyle or behavior changes among adolescents. Sex, family history of hypertension, nutritional status, physical activity, and perceived stress influenced the 27% hypertension prevalence rate among Indonesian adolescents, particularly in Palembang, South Sumatera. In order to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in adults, concern about lifestyle or behavior changes and hypertension among adolescents should be given.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 00:35:01 +000
  • The Effect of Exercise on the Older Adult’s Blood Pressure Suffering
           Hypertension: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Background. Senescence refers to spontaneous and progressive irreversible degenerative changes in which both the physical and psychological power diminish significantly. Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Several studies have been conducted regarding the effect of exercise on reducing the blood pressure of the elderly, which have found contradictory results. One of the uses of meta-analysis study is responding to these assumptions and resolving the discrepancies. Accordingly, the aim of the present study is to determine the impact of exercise on the blood pressure of older adults. Method. In this research, in order to find electronic published papers from 1992 to 2019, the papers published in both domestic and foreign databases including SID, MagIran, IranMedex, IranDox, Gogole Scholar, Cohrane, Embase, Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (ISI) were used. Heterogeneity index between the studies was determined based on Cochran test Q(c) and I2. Considering existence of heterogeneity, random effects model was employed to estimate the standardized subtraction of the mean exercise test score for reduction of blood pressure in the older adults across the intervention group before and after the test. Results. In this meta-analysis and systematic review, eventually 69 papers met the inclusion criteria. The total number of participants was 2272 in the pre- and postintervention groups when examining the systolic changes and 2252 subjects in the pre- and postintervention groups when inspecting the diastolic changes. The standardized mean difference in examining the systolic changes before the intervention was 137.1 ± 8.09 and 132.98 ± 0.96 after the intervention; when exploring the diastolic changes, the pre- and postintervention values were 80.3 ± 0.85 and 76.0 ± 6.56, respectively, where these differences were statistically significant ().Conclusion. The results of this study indicated that exercise leads to significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Accordingly, regular exercise can be part of the treatment plan for hypertensive elderly.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 16:50:00 +000
  • Addition of the Electronic Educational Material to Doctor’s Face-to-Face
           Education Has No Additive Effects on Hypertension Control: A Randomized
           Single Blind Study

    • Abstract: Background. Patient education is effective for HTN treatment. There are many methods of patient education improving HTN control. Are there additive effects of combination of different educational methods for HTN treatment' Objective. To assess the effects of addition of the electronic educational material to doctor’s face-to-face education for HTN control. Method. We designed a randomized single blind study to compare the doctor’s face-to-face education alone and its combination with the electronic educational material over the cell phone. Participants were patients with a confirmed diagnosis of primary HTN. Electronic educational material over the cell phone was the intervention. Main measures were standard blood pressure measurements before and after 12 weeks of treatment. Result. The baseline characteristics of the intervention and control groups including the age, sex, SBP, DBP, and HTN control rate were not significantly different. After 12 weeks of follow-up, the blood pressure and the HTN control rate seemed worse in the combination group; however, the differences between the intervention group and the control group were not statistically significant. Conclusion. There were no additive effects in the combination of the doctor’s face-to-face education and the electronic educational material over the cell phone.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Sep 2020 03:20:00 +000
  • Characterizing Patients with Uncontrolled Blood Pressure at an Urban
           Hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam

    • Abstract: Great efforts to advance the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension for controlling hypertension have been made; however, the rates of uncontrolled blood pressure are still high. This study explored the rate of uncontrolled hypertension in patients with hypertension managed in an urban hospital of Vietnam and identified associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was performed from August to October 2019 among hypertensive patients at an urban hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. Blood pressure was evaluated at the time of medical examination. Demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics were also collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors related to uncontrolled hypertension. Among 220 patients, the rate of uncontrolled hypertension was 40.5%. Females had a lower likelihood of having uncontrolled hypertension compared to males (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.11–0.98). Higher duration of diseases (adjusted OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01–1.14) and higher body mass index (adjusted OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.05–1.45) were positively associated with uncontrolled hypertension. Patients who carried supplies needed for self-care, cut down on stress, exercised regularly, and stopped/cut down on smoking were also less likely to develop uncontrolled hypertension. This study reveals that uncontrolled hypertension was common among hypertensive patients in Vietnam. Improving self-care capacity and encouraging healthy behaviors are critically important to control blood pressure, particularly among patients who were males and had high disease duration and body mass index.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • The Role of Lifestyle Factors in Controlling Blood Pressure among
           Hypertensive Patients in Two Health Facilities in Urban Ghana: A
           Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Despite efforts to combat hypertension by pharmacotherapy, hypertension control rates remain low. Lifestyle modifications of individuals diagnosed with hypertension have prospects for the prevention and control of hypertension. This study assessed the effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on blood pressure control among adults in urban Accra. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 360 diagnosed hypertensive patients who were ≥18 years old, selected from two secondary-level referral hospitals in the Greater Accra Region, were interviewed. Demographic information, diet components, and exercise assessments as well as blood pressure measurements were taken. Chi-squared tests and binomial logistic regression were used to determine the association between demographic and lifestyle factors with blood pressure control. Area under the receiver-operator curves (AUROC) was used to identify lifestyle factors predicting optimal blood pressure control among patients diagnosed with hypertension. Results. Approximately 54.2% of participants had no knowledge of either causes or complications of hypertension. Similarly, 52.5% of patients that had not achieved blood pressure control lacked knowledge of causes or complications of hypertension. Longer time since diagnosis of 2–5 years (AOR = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01–0.47)) and 6–10 years (AOR = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01–0.50)) and diets, mainly composed of meat (AOR = 0.13 (95% CI: 0.02–0.70)) and starch (AOR = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.03–0.79)), predicted poor blood pressure control compared to patients diagnosed within a year and diets without meat and starch as main components, respectively. Additionally, engaging in some physical activity of 30 minutes to one hour (AOR = 5.64 (95% CI: 2.08–15.32)) and more than an hour (AOR = 11.38, 95% CI: 2.01–64.47)) predicted blood pressure control. Conclusion. The study concludes that increased physical activity, abstaining from alcohol and smoking, increased intake of fruits and vegetables, and reduced intake of carbohydrates, meat, and fat have a positive influence on blood pressure control. Lifestyle modifying factors have a key role in complementing pharmacotherapy in hypertension control.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2020 14:20:02 +000
  • Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Young
           and Middle-Aged Adults: Results from a Community-Based Survey in Rural

    • Abstract: Background. Hypertension, which is the single most important risk factor for CVDs, is increasing at an alarming rate in most developing countries. This study estimated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among young and middle-aged adults in rural Morogoro, Tanzania. Furthermore, it explored factors associated with both prevalence and awareness of hypertension. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of the cluster randomized controlled study of community health workers (CHWs) interventions for reduction of blood pressure in a randomly selected sample of young and middle-aged population in rural Morogoro. Sociodemographics, lifestyle-related factors, history of diagnosis, and treatment for hypertension were collected using a questionnaire adopted from the STEPS survey tool. Blood pressure, height, and weight were measured at home following standard procedures. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess determinants of hypertension and awareness. Result. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.3% (95% CI: 27.7–31.0). Among individuals with hypertension, only 34.3% were aware of their hypertension status. Only around one-third (35.4%) of those who were aware of their hypertension status were currently on antihypertensive medication. Hypertension control was attained in only 29.9% among those on medications. Older age (), use of raw table salt (), and being overweight/obese () were associated with hypertension. Predictors of awareness of hypertension status were older age, being a female, higher socioeconomic status, use of raw table salt, a history of diabetes, and overweight/obesity (all ). Alcohol drinking was associated with low awareness for hypertension status ().Conclusion. There is high prevalence of hypertension with low rates of awareness, treatment, and control among young and middle-aged adults in rural Tanzania. Community-level health promotion and screening campaigns for hypertension and other CVD risk factors should be intensified.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Sep 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Blood Pressure Variability during Angiography in Patients with Ischemic
           Stroke and Intracranial Artery Stenosis

    • Abstract: Our aim was to investigate factors predicting blood pressure (BP) variability during diagnostic cerebral angiography and associations between BP variability and clinical outcomes in patients with acute and subacute ischemic stroke and intracranial artery stenosis. 114 patients with ischemic stroke and intracranial artery stenosis (stenosis rate >50%) were recruited. Patients who underwent cerebral angiography within 3 days and 3–14 days of disease onset are referred to be Group A and Group S, respectively. BP variability in Group A was defined as the coefficient of variance (CV) of BP. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify predictors of CV of BP and associations between CV of BP and clinical outcomes at discharge. In Group A patients, advanced age was associated with increased CV of SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and antihypertensive use was associated with lower CV of SBP. Male was associated with lower CV of DBP. In Group S, higher CV of SBP was associated with hypertension and antihypertensive use. Males had lower CV of SBP than females. The calcium channel blocker was associated with lower CV of DBP. Higher scores of the Stroke Scale at admission were significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes for both groups, while BP variability was not. Factors associated with BP variability are significantly different between stroke patients undergoing angiography within 3 days vs. 3–14 days after disease onset. BP variability is not significantly associated with clinical outcomes at discharge.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 03:35:00 +000
  • High Efficiency and Problems of Chemiluminescence Assay-Detected
           Aldosterone-To-Renin Ratio in Practical Primary Aldosteronism Screening

    • Abstract: Primary aldosteronism is a main cause of secondary hypertension which can be effectively treated. The screening test for primary aldosteronism is benefit for minimizing damage to the patient. In the previous retrospective study, we obtained the optimal cutoff value of aldosterone-to-renin ratio detected by chemiluminescence assay, a newly developing method, and prompted its high efficiency in primary aldosteronism screening in upright position. In this study, we want to evaluate its efficiency in practical work. We used this ratio to continuously screen 238 patients, and 58 patients were finally diagnosed with primary aldosteronism. We found it had 86.13% accuracy rate in the upright position compared with the final clinical diagnosis. False negative and positive rates were 13.79% and 13.89%. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 86.21% and 86.11%, which are slightly different from results in our previous study. False negative rate can be improved by combining the aldosterone-to-renin ratio with aldosterone concentration. We also found impaired glucose tolerance may be a reason for high false positive rate. Besides, chemiluminescence assay may be interfered in aldosterone detection. Although it has some shortcomings, chemiluminescence assay-detected aldosterone-to-renin ratio is a highly effective index for screening primary aldosteronism in practice.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 07:50:03 +000
  • Prevalence of Hypertension and Associated Factors among the Outpatient
           Department in Akaki Kality Subcity Health Centers, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Fatalities from hypertension in East Africa are increasing, even though they decreased in western industrial regions. Older age, being female, illiterate, smoking, physical inactivity, and high waist circumferences are major risk factors for the development of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension among Federal Ministry Civil servants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has found to be high; which is an indication for institution-based hypertension-screening programs. Objective. Prevalence of hypertension and associated factors among the outpatient department in Akaki Kality Subcity Health Centers, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methodology. Facility-based cross-sectional study was carried out on systematically sampled 401 out-department patients whose age was greater than or equal to 18 years in four government health centers in Addis Ababa. Data collection took place from March 10, 2018, to April 06 2018. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of hypertension. Results. Patients had a mean age of 41.17 years (95% CI: 39.77–42.57). The prevalence of hypertension was 14% (95% CI: 13.653–14.347), and 30 (53.57%) were males. Alcohol drinkers were 11.844 times more likely to be hypertensive as compared to non-alcohol drinkers (AOR = 11.844, 95% CI: 3.596–39.014). Cigarette smokers were 16.511 times more likely to be hypertensive as compared to non-cigarette smokers (AOR = 16.511, 95% CI: 4.775–57.084). Khat chewers were 6.964 times more likely to be hypertensive as compared to non-khat chewers (AOR = 6.964, 95% CI: 1.773–26.889). Conclusion. The prevalence of patients with hypertension was 14%. Alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, khat chewing, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and age ≥44 years old are major determinants identified by this study. Hence, appropriate management of patients focusing on the relevant associated factors would be of great benefit in controlling hypertension.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Aug 2020 10:05:01 +000
  • How Much Hypertension is Attributed to Overweight, Obesity, and
           Hyperglycemia Using Adjusted Population Attributable Risk in Adults'

    • Abstract: Background. High blood pressure (HBP) is a proven risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. So, determining the extent of the contribution of the factors associated with HBP seems to be necessary. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate how much the prevalence of HBP attributed to obesity and high blood glucose (HBG). Methods. Data were collected from 7612 participants extracted from a screening program in 2018, in Iran, which was conducted on the subjects with the age of 30 years old and older to investigate the prevalence of HBP and their associated risk factors. To collect data, we used a standard checklist in terms of the WHO STEPS manual, and a stratified multistage sampling method was also applied. The adjusted population attributable risk of overweight, obesity, and HBG for HBP was calculated by the logistic regression model using the aflogit module. Results. Among the studied people, 7.4% of male and 10.8% of female subjects were hypertensive. The adjusted analysis showed that, in men, 27% and 41% and, among women, 19% and 37% of HBP prevalence rates were attributable to obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and fast blood sugar (FBS) (≥126), respectively. In people with both obesity and HBG, 59% of the prevalence rate of HBP in men and 46% of the prevalence in women were due to the abovementioned risk factors altogether. The results show that, if obesity and HBG were eliminated, the prevalence of HBP could be theoretically decreased from 7.4% to 5.4% and 4.3% in male subjects and from 10.8% to 8.7% and 6.8% in female subjects, respectively. Conclusions. Our findings indicate that how much the prevalence of HBP attributes to obesity and HBG in middle-age and older population. It seems that the prevention programs should be administered in the general population, and excess body weight prevention programs should also be implemented in childhood.
      PubDate: Fri, 14 Aug 2020 12:20:00 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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