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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 70, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Dentistry
  [SJR: 0.558]   [H-I: 11]   [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-8728 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8736
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Dental Arch Dimensions in Saudi Adults

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the arch dimensions (width, length, and depth) in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. 169 orthodontic models (73 males and 96 females) made of white stone were selected according to inclusion criteria. Measurement of arch dimensions was taken including width, length, and depth at different reference points. Differences between males and females were tested using independent samples t-test. Results. The sample comprised subjects aged 18–33 years old. Most measurements showed higher values for males compared to females. Saudi males showed smaller intercanine widths compared to Caucasians and Southern Chinese but larger widths in females compared to Caucasians and smaller widths compared to Southern Chinese. Saudi males and females showed larger intermolar widths compared to Caucasians but smaller intermolar widths compared to Southern Chinese. For arch length, Saudis showed longer arches compared to Yemenis for both males and females but smaller palatal depths compared to Yemenis. Conclusions. Differences in intercanine width, intermolar width, and palatal length and depth were found between Saudis and other nationalities. Male and female participants had differences in most of the measurements.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Oral Cancer Knowledge Assessment: Newly Graduated versus Senior Dental
           Clinicians

    • Abstract: The present study assessed the level of dentists’ knowledge regarding oral cancer in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A questionnaire was used to compare the level of knowledge among newly graduated and senior clinicians. A total of 20,154 e-mails were correctly delivered to the dentists registered in the database of the Regional Dentistry Council of São Paulo, and 477 (2.36%) responses were received. This sample consisted of 84 newly graduated clinicians and 105 senior clinicians. For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test and the logistic regression analysis were performed with α = 0.05, and the results were described herein. According to their knowledge level, the results were statistically different between the groups, since 19% of the newly graduated clinicians were evaluated with knowledge grade A (excellent) in comparison to 6.7% of the senior clinicians. In spite of the results indicated that newly graduated clinicians’ knowledge regarding oral cancer was 2.1 times higher, 34.5% of the professionals in this group had regular or poor knowledge on the subject, and several questions relating to clinical characteristics and risk factors indicated that there still exist some knowledge gaps, demonstrating that there is a need for further studies and information activities addressing oral cancer.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Oral Health of Lipjan Convicts: Kosovo Prison House

    • Abstract: Objectives. The oral health services of the prison population are considered more complex than those of the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the oral health status (the DMFT index and OHI index) and to evaluate the relation between the oral health and risk factors of inmates of this population, thus identifying the dental health status of inmates by gender, age, and the duration of their sentence. Materials and Methods. Our study has included a total number of 150 inmates, of both genders, from Lipjan prison house in Kosovo. Results. Oral health condition of inmates in Lipjan prison house is severe; the average value of DMFT is 8.44: for minors 6.22, while for adults 9.55. The assessment of DMFT index within the recruited inmates in our study shows that the mean rate of oral cure was 3.21, while the mean extraction value and caries were 3.55 and 3.58, respectively. The mean plaque test value was 1.44. Conclusion. Based on this research, we have concluded that the oral health condition of the inmates in Lipjan prison is not good, due to the presence of different risk factors among them.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Prevalence and Underreporting of Needlestick Injuries among Dental
           Healthcare Workers in Pakistan: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Needlestick injuries (NSIs) are a major occupational health problem among dental healthcare workers (HCWs) in Pakistan, which places them at a significant risk of acquiring blood-borne infections. However, not all NSIs are reported, leading to an underestimation of the actual prevalence. The harmful impacts of NSIs on the healthcare delivery necessitate an urgent need to measure its actual prevalence. Objectives. The aim of this study was to review literature to estimate the prevalence and reporting rates of NSIs among dental-HCWs in Pakistan. Methods. 713 potentially relevant citations were identified by electronic databases and hand searching of articles. Nine primary studies were subsequently identified to be included in the review. Results. The results of the included studies indicate that the prevalence of NSIs among Pakistani dental-HCWs was between 30% and 73%. The rate of reporting of NSIs was between 15% and 76%, and the most common reason was found to be the lack of awareness regarding the reporting system, or of the need to report NSIs. Conclusion. It is evident from the review of the included studies that there is a significantly high prevalence and a low rate of reporting of NSIs among dental-HCWs in Pakistan, suggesting the need to setup an occupational health department in dental settings, for preventing, managing, recording, and monitoring NSIs.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Topical Administration of
           Benzocaine and EMLA® on Oral Pain and Tactile Sensitivity

    • Abstract: Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of the topical administration of benzocaine and EMLA on oral pain and tactile sensitivity. Materials and Methods. A randomized, double-blind, split-mouth clinical trial was carried out with 20 volunteers. The sensorial and quantitative tests were applied before the contact with topical anesthetic and after the application. Results. In the superficial tactile perception test, when we compared each group singly, there were statistically significant values in the decrease of superficial tactile perception when compared to the moment prior to the application of anesthetic agents. For the sensitivity to mechanical pain, no statistical significant difference was observed at evaluated times. In the needle penetration test, in an intergroup analysis, we found a decrease in the pain sensitivity to needle penetration at 5 min () and at 10 min () after the contact of the anesthetic drug with the oral mucosa. Conclusion. The application of topical anesthetic drugs reduces the discomfort associated with this procedure, mainly until the first 10 minutes. Only the needle penetration sensitivity test showed sufficient sensitivity to reveal a difference in the anesthetic effect between EMLA and benzocaine. This trial is registered with RBR-2N2GSW.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Feb 2018 00:27:43 +000
       
  • Self-Assembled Monolayers for Dental Implants

    • Abstract: Implant-based therapy is a mature approach to recover the health conditions of patients affected by edentulism. Thousands of dental implants are placed each year since their introduction in the 80s. However, implantology faces challenges that require more research strategies such as new support therapies for a world population with a continuous increase of life expectancy, to control periodontal status and new bioactive surfaces for implants. The present review is focused on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for dental implant materials as a nanoscale-processing approach to modify titanium surfaces. SAMs represent an easy, accurate, and precise approach to modify surface properties. These are stable, well-defined, and well-organized organic structures that allow to control the chemical properties of the interface at the molecular scale. The ability to control the composition and properties of SAMs precisely through synthesis (i.e., the synthetic chemistry of organic compounds with a wide range of functional groups is well established and in general very simple, being commercially available), combined with the simple methods to pattern their functional groups on complex geometry appliances, makes them a good system for fundamental studies regarding the interaction between surfaces, proteins, and cells, as well as to engineering surfaces in order to develop new biomaterials.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 01:02:42 +000
       
  • Effect of Glazing on Flexural Strength of Full-Contour Zirconia

    • Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of glazing on flexural strength of highly translucent zirconia materials. Materials and Methods. Specimens of three brands of zirconia bars (Prettau Zirconia, Zirkonzahn; inCoris TZI, Sirona; and Zirlux FC, Pentron Ceramics) were prepared and polished according to manufacturers’ instructions. Final specimen dimensions were 20 × 4 × 2 mm. The specimens from each brand were divided into 3 groups (N = 10): control, heat-treated, and glazed. Heat-treated specimens were fired without the application of the glaze material. The glaze material was applied to the glazed specimens before being fired. A three-point bending test (15 mm span) was performed in an Instron universal testing machine (ISO 6872). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results. Two-way ANOVA showed a significant influence of surface treatments on flexural strength of zirconia materials (). There was no significant difference in flexural strength among the different brands of highly translucent zirconia (). Tukey’s HSD post hoc test showed that specimens in the “glazed” group had significantly lower flexural strength than the control and heat-treated groups (). Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, external glazing decreased the flexural strength of highly translucent zirconia.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Double Guided Surgery in All-on-4® Concept: When Ostectomy Is Needed

    • Abstract: Background. The rehabilitation of edentulous jaws with guided and flapless surgery applied to the All-on-4 concepts is a predictable treatment with a high implant and prosthetic survival rates, but there are several contraindications for this technique like when bone reduction is needed due to a high smile line in the maxilla or when there is an irregular or thin bone crest. Purpose. To report a technique with double guided surgery for bone reduction and implant placement with the All-on-4 concept. Materials and Methods. 7 patients were included in the study. Guided implant planning was performed using CBCT, and the virtual templates were created with three dedicated software. Custom surgical templates were made for the ostectomy and for implants positioning. Results. 28 implants were placed using a double bone-supported surgical guide. The mean angular errors between the preoperative-planned implant and the postoperative-placed implant were 2.155° ± 2.03°; the mean distance errors between the planned and the placed implants were 0.763 mm ± 0.55 mm on the shoulder implant and 0.570 mm ± 0.40 mm on the apex implant. Conclusions. The results of our study indicate that this treatment is predictable with an excellent survival rate allowing excellent results even when bone reduction is mandatory.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Shisha Smoking Habit among Dental School Students in the United Arab
           Emirates: Enabling Factors and Barriers

    • Abstract: Objectives. The objective of the present study was to assess shisha smoking among dental school students in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). In addition, the role of suggested barriers and enabling factors in shisha smoking was also evaluated. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, between February and May 2016. The questions were adapted from previously published water pipe smoking studies. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between shisha smoking and sociodemographic characteristics. Relevant questions were further categorized as enabling factors and barriers for shisha smoking. Results. Three enabling questionnaire items related to social environment were significantly associated with an increased risk of being a current smoker. The most powerful is peer pressure (“friends smoke shisha”), which increased the odds ratio of shisha smoking 11.3 times, followed by smoker sibling with increase in odd ratio by 4.52 times, then the belief of social acceptance with increase in odd ratio by 4.31 times. Conclusion. Shisha smoking is a serious problem among university students. Any intervention program in the university curricula should consider teaching students that shisha is no less risky than cigarettes and is addictive.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Soft Lithography and Minimally Human Invasive Technique for Rapid
           Screening of Oral Biofilm Formation on New Microfabricated Dental Material
           Surfaces

    • Abstract: Introduction. Microfabrication offers opportunities to study surface concepts focused to reduce bacterial adhesion on implants using human minimally invasive rapid screening (hMIRS). Wide information is available about cell/biomaterial interactions using eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells on surfaces of dental materials with different topographies, but studies using human being are still limited. Objective. To evaluate a synergy of microfabrication and hMIRS to study the bacterial adhesion on micropatterned surfaces for dental materials. Materials and Methods. Micropatterned and flat surfaces on biomedical PDMS disks were produced by soft lithography. The hMIRS approach was used to evaluate the total oral bacterial adhesion on PDMS surfaces placed in the oral cavity of five volunteers (the study was approved by the University Ethical Committee). After 24 h, the disks were analyzed using MTT assay and light microscopy. Results. In the present pilot study, microwell structures were microfabricated on the PDMS surface via soft lithography with a spacing of 5 µm. Overall, bacterial adhesion did not significantly differ between the flat and micropatterned surfaces. However, individual analysis of two subjects showed greater bacterial adhesion on the micropatterned surfaces than on the flat surfaces. Significance. Microfabrication and hMIRS might be implemented to study the cell/biomaterial interactions for dental materials.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Role and Impact of Salivary Zn Levels on Dental Caries

    • Abstract: Introduction. Minimal attention has been given to the role of salivary microelements, the importance they have in reducing the intensity of caries, and the effect of caries prophylaxes. Aim. This research aimed to determine the concentration and quantity of Zn and its impact on the prevention and the reduction of the intensity of caries in schoolchildren aged 12-13 years with permanent dentition. Methods. For this research, we analyzed the stimulated and nonstimulated full saliva of 106 schoolchildren divided into three groups by mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. The control group consisted of 25 caries-free children, the second group had 47 children with mean DMFT index of 1 to 6, and the third group had 34 children with DMFT index of ≥ 6. Complete saliva was collected from all children in a sterile test tube. Results. The concentration of Zn in saliva before stimulation in caries-free children has variations of the order of 0.001+ to 0.01 mmol/l. The maximum concentration after stimulation is 6.72 mmol/l, while the maximum value is 64.38 mmol/l. Conclusion. The Zn concentration in the stimulated saliva showed a significant increase in the group of caries-free children and could be described as a positive value for the reduction of caries.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Application of D-Amino Acids as Biofilm Dispersing Agent in Dental Unit
           Waterlines

    • Abstract: Aim and Purpose. Biofilms in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) are extremely difficult to eliminate. Aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a mixture of four D-amino acids on biofilm dispersion in DUWLs. Materials and Methods. A mixture of four D-amino acids (D-methionine, D-tryptophan, D-leucine, and D-tyrosine, 10 mM each), distilled water (control), and 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) was used in the experiment. In laboratory, pieces of DUWLs covered with biofilms were submerged in different solutions for 5 days, flushed, and measured OD600 of the dispersed biofilms. Remnants of biofilms on the DUWLs were evaluated by SEM. In clinic, fifteen DCUs were incubated with test and control solutions, flushed, and measured OD600 of the dispersed biofilms. Microbial count of DUWL output water was enumerated twice a week for four weeks. Results. There was a slight, but not significant, increase in OD600 of flushing water in D-amino acids group. D-amino acids effectively reduced bacterial plaque as demonstrated by SEM. Incubation with D-amino acids significantly reduced biofilms especially after the first day of flushing. Bacterial count in DUWL output water was significantly reduced after treatment with D-amino acids. Conclusion. D-amino acids are applicable as biofilm dispersing agents in DUWLs.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal:
           An In Vitro Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15) according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®); Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Efficacy of a Rinse Containing Sea Salt and Lysozyme on Biofilm and
           Gingival Health in a Group of Young Adults: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate new mouth rinse containing sea salt, xylitol, and lysozyme on biofilm formation and gingival health in a group of young adults. Methods. The subjects were divided into two groups of 15 subjects each: control (A) and experimental group (B). The Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index was used to evaluate plaque scores while the presence or absence of gingival bleeding was used to determine gingival health. Measurements were done at baseline and at the end of the one-month trial period by one blinded examiner on six representative teeth. Group (A) maintained standardized oral health practices for the duration of the experiment. In addition, group (B) rinsed with a tablespoon of the provided sea salt mouth rinse for 30 seconds once in the morning and at night. After the 30-day trial period, subjects in both groups were reassessed as per baseline. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the overall reduction from baseline in the mean plaque and gingivitis scores on all surfaces or on individual surfaces. Conclusion. Within the limitations of the study, rinsing with sea salt for thirty days did not affect the gingival and plaque scores in a group of young adults.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Osseointegration of a 3D Printed Stemmed Titanium Dental Implant: A Pilot
           Study

    • Abstract: In this pilot study, a 3D printed Grade V titanium dental implant with a novel dual-stemmed design was investigated for its biocompatibility in vivo. Both dual-stemmed (n = 12) and conventional stainless steel conical (n = 4) implants were inserted into the tibial metaphysis of New Zealand white rabbits for 3 and 12 weeks and then retrieved with the surrounding bone, fixed, dehydrated, and embedded into epoxy resin. The implants were analyzed using correlative histology, microcomputed tomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histological presence of multinucleated osteoclasts and cuboidal osteoblasts revealed active bone remodeling in the stemmed implant starting at 3 weeks and by 12 weeks in the conventional implant. Bone-implant contact values indicated that the stemmed implants supported bone growth along the implant from the coronal crest at both 3- and 12-week time periods and showed bone growth into microporosities of the 3D printed surface after 12 weeks. In some cases, new bone formation was noted in between the stems of the device. Conventional implants showed mechanical interlocking but did have indications of stress cracking and bone debris. This study demonstrates the comparable biocompatibility of these 3D printed stemmed implants in rabbits up to 12 weeks.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 06:24:28 +000
       
  • The Effect of Number of Teeth and Chewing Ability on Cognitive Function of
           Elderly in UAE: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Cognitive decline is one of the major causes of disability among the aging population. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between oral health parameters (number of teeth, chewing ability, and presence of a denture) and cognitive function in the elderly across the UAE. Fifty persons (age ≥ 60; 71.26 ± 10.23) were enrolled in the study. Cognitive status was assessed using the standardized mini-mental state examination (SMMSE) and accordingly, cognitively normal subjects scoring ≥24 were considered as the control group and cognitively impaired individuals scoring ≤23 were considered as the low scoring group. Chewing ability was examined, number of teeth was noted, and demographical data was collected. The results of this pilot study showed that individuals with low SMMSE scores were significantly less educated () and had fewer number of remaining teeth () and impaired chewing ability (). These results demonstrate a significant link between the number of teeth, chewing ability, and cognitive function. However, this pilot study had its limitations and was the first of its kind in the UAE and Gulf region; therefore, future research addressing the limitations is needed to further explore this association.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 09:03:26 +000
       
  • Relative Efficacy of Quercetin Compared with Benzydamine Hydrochloride in
           Minor Aphthae: A Prospective, Parallel, Double Blind, Active Control,
           Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Background and Objectives. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is an inflammatory condition present since ancient era wherein numerous treatment modalities have been tried. But complete eradication of the disease has not been possible and hence newer agents are being introduced. One such agent is a flavonoid named quercetin with proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and ulcer healing properties. Methods. 40 patients with minor aphthous ulcers were divided equally into two groups: A and B. Group A patients were advised to apply quercetin gel and Group B patients were advised to take benzydamine hydrochloride mouth wash. Clinical evaluation including assessment of ulcer size and pain score and questionnaire about the acceptability of both the drugs in terms of taste and ease of application was carried out. Each criterion was compared and statistically analyzed. Results. There was statistically significant reduction in the mean score of pain sensation and ulcer area in both the groups. Quercetin showed statistically highly significant ulcer size reduction as compared to benzydamine hydrochloride. Conclusion. From the present study, it is evident that quercetin is safe, well tolerated, and effective therapy which promotes complete ulcer healing in a short duration of time.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Survey of Screw-Retained versus Cement-Retained Implant Restorations in
           Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Implant-supported prostheses are currently the standard treatment for the replacement of missing teeth and deficiencies. Implant restorations can either be screw-retained, cement-retained, or both. The implant retention system type is typically chosen during the treatment plan. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the frequency of implant restoration retention systems. Materials and Methods. A five-page questionnaire was sent to private institutes, educational institutes, and governmental hospitals that provide dental services. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results. Prior to distribution, the surveys were proofread and pilot-tested at the Faculty of Dentistry at Umm Al-Qura University. The surveys were mailed to three groups: private institutes, educational institutes, and governmental hospitals. In total, 120 surveys were distributed and 87 surveys were returned, for a response rate of 73%. This included thirty-six surveys (41.4%) from private institutes, twenty-two surveys (25.3%) from educational institutes, and twenty-nine surveys (33.3%) from governmental hospitals. Conclusions. In general, Astra was cited as the most widely used implant system. In addition, cement-retained restorations were more frequently used than screw-retained restorations. However, dental implant failure was more frequently associated with cement-retained restorations than with screw-retained restorations.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2017 07:08:42 +000
       
  • A Competition between Care Teams Improved Recording of Diagnoses in
           Primary Dental Care: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. A playful competition was launched in a primary dental health care system to improve the recording of diagnoses into an electronic patient chart system and to study what diagnoses were used in primary dental care. Methods. This was a longitudinal follow-up study with public sector primary dental care practices in a Finnish city. A one-year-lasting playful competition between the dental care teams was launched and the monthly percentage of dentists’ visits with recorded diagnosis before, during, and after the intervention was recorded. The assessed diagnoses were recorded with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results. Before the competition, the level of diagnosis recordings was practically zero. At the end of this intervention, about 25% of the visits had a recorded diagnosis. Two years after the competition, this percentage was 35% without any additional measures. The most frequent diagnoses were dental caries (K02, 38.6%), other diseases of hard tissues of teeth (K03, 14.8%), and diseases of pulp and periapical tissues (K04, 11.4%). Conclusions. Commitment to the idea that recording of diagnoses was beneficial improved the recording of dental diagnoses. However, the diagnoses obtained did not accurately reflect the reputed prevalence of oral diseases in the Finnish population.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Oct 2017 08:05:10 +000
       
  • Superfast Set, Strong and Less Degradable Mineral Trioxide Aggregate
           Cement

    • Abstract: Purpose. Despite the good sealing ability and biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), its slow setting, high degradation, and weakness limit its use in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas. This study aimed to develop two new liquids to control these drawbacks. They were prepared from calcium chloride, fumed silica, and hydroxyapatite or calcium phosphate and coded “H” and “P,” respectively. Methods. Portland cement, Grey ProRoot® MTA, and white ProRoot MTA were mixed with distilled water (control) or liquid “H” or “P.” The pH, setting time, degradation rate, leachant/precipitate’ composition, compressive strength, and morphology were assessed. Results. Both liquids maintained MTA’s high alkalinity and reduced the setting time by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Both liquids, H in particular, significantly reduced the degradation rate of Grey ProRoot and White ProRoot MTA®. Calcite has been identified as the main phase of the leachant or precipitate formed during the cement’s degradation. Calcium hydroxide or hydroxyapatite was also identified with Grey ProRoot MTA mixed with H liquid. These liquids also significantly increased the compressive strength with no statistical differences between them; this was associated with the production of dense, consolidated structures. Conclusions. The modified MTA could be used in surgical endodontics and high stress-bearing areas.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 10:19:11 +000
       
  • Antibacterial Effects of Natural Herbal Extracts on Streptococcus mutans:
           Can They Be Potential Additives in Dentifrices'

    • Abstract: Background. Many plants or herbs exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against various microorganisms. They have no side effects and presumably act against and modulate the factors that are crucial for microbial survival or their activity. Streptococcus mutans is a pioneer bacteria implicated in dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of garlic bulbs, pudina leaves, and mango and eucalyptus twig extracts on Streptococcus mutans by evaluating their zone of inhibition and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Methods. Microbiological assay (well diffusion method) to determine zone of inhibition against pure forms of Streptococcus mutans was performed. The antibacterial effects of methanolic extracts of mango twigs, eucalyptus twigs, pudina leaves, and garlic bulbs were studied. Test compounds were further evaluated for their MIC. Results. Extracts derived from mango and eucalyptus twigs showed significant antibacterial effects at test concentrations. Pudina and garlic extracts did not show any significant antibacterial effects at similar concentrations. Upon further evaluation of the 2 positive compounds for their MIC, mango twigs demonstrated more antimicrobial potential than eucalyptus twigs at a lower concentration. Conclusion. Our observations indicated that the mango twig extracts possess higher antibacterial effects against Streptococcus mutans than other compounds at specific test concentration.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 08:19:39 +000
       
  • Detection of Bone Defects Using CBCT Exam in an Italian Population

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo incidence and the location of fenestrations in a young Italian population by using CBCT. Materials and Methods. Fifty patients who had previously performed CBCT for planning third molar extraction or orthodontic therapy were selected for the study. No previous dental treatment had been performed on these patients. Overall, 1,395 teeth were evaluated. Root fenestrations were identified according to the definition of Davies and the American Association of Endodontists. Data was collected and statistically analyzed. Results. Fenestrations were observed in 159 teeth out of 1,395 (11% of teeth). In the lower jaw, we found 68 fenestrations (5%) and 91 in the maxilla (6,5%). Incisors were the teeth with the highest incidence of fenestrations. Conclusion. The relative common finding (11%) of fenestration supports the need for CBCT exams before any surgical/implant treatment to avoid complications related to the initial presence of fenestrations. CBCT was found to be an effective and convenient tool for diagnosing fenestration.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Forensic Age Estimation of Chinese Malaysian Adults by Evaluating Occlusal
           Tooth Wear Using Modified Kim’s Index

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Evaluation of dental attrition is an easy and relatively accurate approach to estimating the age of an adult either ante- or postmortem for some specific population. Dental attrition represents a progressive physiological age change that can be measured using variety of indices to aid as an adjunct in forensic age estimation. Some of the previously proposed indices have their own practical limitations. This paper focuses on using modified Kim’s criteria to score dental attrition to estimate the age of Chinese Malaysian adults and validate it. Methodology. Tooth wear was evaluated on 190 dental models of Chinese Malaysian adults (age range: 20–60 years) using modified Kim’s index to custom-derive a population specific linear equation. The same equation was validated further on new 60 dental casts. Results and Conclusion. Regression analysis revealed good correlation between age and teeth wear and lower standard error of estimate. Test of regression on a test sample ( pairs, age range: 20–60 years) showed insignificant difference between predicted versus the actual age with statistically acceptable mean absolute difference. These data suggest that modified Kim’s index can be used effectively in forensic age estimation.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Validity of Digital Imaging of Fiber-Optic Transillumination in Caries
           Detection on Proximal Tooth Surfaces

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the validity of the digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination (DIFOTI) method in comparison with clinical visual examination (CV) and bitewing (BW) radiography on detecting caries lesions on proximal surfaces of teeth. Materials and Methods. Proximal tooth surfaces of premolars and molars () of 91 voluntary university students aged from 18 to 30 years were examined with CV, BW radiography, and the DIFOTI method. Results. DIFOTI detected more initial and manifested caries lesions compared with CV and BW. Of the analyzed tooth surfaces, 69.8% were classified as sound by DIFOTI, 80.3% by BW, and 91.6% by CV. Initial caries lesions were found in 21.2% of the surfaces by DIFOTI, in 14.1% by BW, and in 6.2% by CV, whereas the proportions for manifested dental caries lesions were 9.0%, 5.6%, and 2.2%, respectively. The interexaminer agreement regarding the DIFOTI findings between an experienced clinician and a fifth-year dental student was high: for initial and for manifested caries lesions. Conclusions. The noninvasive DIFOTI method seems to offer a potential tool for everyday clinical practice. In clinical use, DIFOTI finds well even initial caries lesions on proximal surfaces, thus providing an instrument for detecting lesions potential for arresting as well as for monitoring the outcome after preventive measures.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Oct 2017 08:31:46 +000
       
  • Impact of Orthognathic Surgery on Quality of Life in Patients with
           Dentofacial Deformities

    • Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of orthognathic surgery on quality of life in patients with dentofacial deformities at immediate presurgery and at 3-week, 3-month, and 6-month intervals following the surgery. Subjects included forty-three 18–40-year-old Iranian orthognathic patients who were referred to private offices in Isfahan. Data collection was performed using the 22-item Orthognathic Quality of Life Questionnaire (OQLQ). Participants completed the questionnaire prior to surgery and 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after it. Differences and correlations were calculated by the two-tailed -test, ANOVA with Repeated Measure test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The results showed significant reduction returned to baseline in OQLQ mean scores and aesthetic, awareness, and social subdomains in all 3 intervals after surgery. However oral function domain showed an increase at and then a decrease at next intervals. Maximum and minimum effect size were observed in aesthetic (ES = 0.7) and oral function (ES = 0.3) domain, respectively. Based on the finding of this study, in 6-month interval after surgery, orthognathic surgery causes significant improvements in quality of life in patients with dentofacial deformities as assessed in emotional, psychological, oral function, and social domains and maximum changes occurred in emotional domain.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessment of Elementary School Teachers’ Level of Knowledge and
           Attitude regarding Traumatic Dental Injuries in the United Arab Emirates

    • Abstract: Introduction. In this cross-sectional study, the level of knowledge and attitude of elementary school teachers regarding traumatic dental injuries (TDI) were assessed. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to 330 elementary school teachers in 30 randomly selected schools in the Emirates of Sharjah and Dubai. The questionnaire collected information on participants’ demographic characteristics, first aid training, and attitude about emergency management of TDI. Results. 292 teachers (88%) completed the questionnaires; of these, 95% were females, and 50% of the participants had first aid training. Knowledge about tooth avulsion was inadequate, and first aid training was not associated with correct responses to management of avulsed teeth . A significantly higher percentage of younger teachers expressed the need for future education on TDI management. A significantly higher percentage of participants who had an educational position (95%) indicated that they did not have enough knowledge regarding TDI compared to physical education teachers (79%) and administrators (87%) . Conclusions. Elementary school teachers in the UAE have a low level of knowledge regarding the management of dental trauma. Educational programs that address TDI are needed and could improve the elementary school teachers’ level of knowledge in emergency management of TDI.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bovine Cortical Bone: Its Potential for Guided
           Bone Regeneration Membrane

    • Abstract: Background. Bovine pericardium collagen membrane (BPCM) had been widely used in guided bone regeneration (GBR) whose manufacturing process usually required chemical cross-linking to prolong its biodegradation. However, cross-linking of collagen fibrils was associated with poorer tissue integration and delayed vascular invasion. Objective. This study evaluated the potential of bovine cortical bone collagen membrane for GBR by evaluating its antigenicity potential, cytotoxicity, immune and tissue response, and biodegradation behaviors. Material and Methods. Antigenicity potential of demineralized freeze-dried bovine cortical bone membrane (DFDBCBM) was done with histology-based anticellularity evaluation, while cytotoxicity was analyzed using MTT Assay. Evaluation of immune response, tissue response, and biodegradation was done by randomly implanting DFDBCBM and BPCM in rat’s subcutaneous dorsum. Samples were collected at 2, 5, and 7 days and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days for biocompatibility and tissue response-biodegradation study, respectively. Result. DFDBCBM, histologically, showed no retained cells; however, it showed some level of in vitro cytotoxicity. In vivo study exhibited increased immune response to DFDBCBM in early healing phase; however, normal tissue response and degradation rate were observed up to 4 weeks after DFDBCBM implantation. Conclusion. Demineralized freeze-dried bovine cortical bone membrane showed potential for clinical application; however, it needs to be optimized in its biocompatibility to fulfill all requirements for GBR membrane.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 09:02:57 +000
       
  • A Novel Approach to Determine the Prevalence of Type of Soft Palate Using
           Digital Intraoral Impression

    • Abstract: Aim. To determine the prevalence of type of soft palate in targeted population. Materials and Methods. Using computer technology in dentistry, intraoral digital scanner, and 3D analysis software tool, study was conducted. 100 patients selected from the outpatient clinics were divided into two groups based on the ages of 20–40 years and 41–60 years with equal ratio of males and females. Each selected patient’s maxillary arch was scanned with intraoral scanner; images so obtained were sectioned in anteroposterior cross section and with the 3D analysis software; the angulation between hard and soft palate was determined. Results. The prevalence of type II soft palate (angulation between hard and soft palate is between 10 and 45 degrees) was highest, 60% in group 1 and 44% in group 2. The difference between genders was statistically significant with value in both the groups, although females had higher angulation compared to the males in all classes of both groups. Conclusions. In targeted population of Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia, the prevalence of type II soft palate was more common, with higher soft palate angulation among females. The advanced age had no effect in the type of soft palate in the region.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of the Chemical Modification of Dental Enamel Submitted to 35%
           Hydrogen Peroxide “In-Office” Whitening, with or without Calcium

    • Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in calcium and phosphorus content in dental enamel when subjected to “in-office” whitening for an extended time by using a 35% hydrogen peroxide solution, with and without calcium. Materials and Methods. 10 human teeth, from which the roots had been removed, were embedded in epoxy resin, and their surfaces were smoothed. The specimens were divided into two groups; in group 1, a whitening solution without calcium was used, while in group 2, the solution included calcium. Each specimen was evaluated at 6 different points before the bleaching treatment, and these points were reassessed after each session. A total of five sessions were carried out. Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were measured by using the technique of X-ray fluorescence. Results. After performing a statistical analysis, it was found that there was no statistically significant loss of calcium and phosphorus during the whitening treatment, and the groups showed no statistical differences. Conclusion. Excessive use of hydrogen peroxide, with or without calcium, causes no loss of calcium and phosphorus.
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Aug 2017 06:36:13 +000
       
  • The Influence of Sweet Taste Perception on Dietary Intake in Relation to
           Dental Caries and BMI in Saudi Arabian Schoolchildren

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sweet taste perception on dietary habits in Saudi schoolchildren. In addition, the relationship between dietary habits and both caries and BMI was studied. Methods. A cross-sectional observational study comprising 225 schoolchildren aged 13–15 years from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted. The consumption frequency of certain food items was analysed from a beverage and snack questionnaire and a three-day estimated dietary record was obtained. The sweet taste perception level was determined as sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). Children were grouped into low, medium, and high, according to their sweet taste perception level. ICDAS and DMFS indices were used for caries registration and anthropometric measurements using BMI were collected. Results. Sweet taste perception was found to be negatively correlated to the number of main meals and positively correlated to both snack and sweet intake occasions. Statistically significant differences were found between the TT and TP groups with regard to the number of main meals and sweet intake (). No significant correlation between the dietary variables and caries or BMI was found. Conclusions. The dietary habits and sweet intake were found to be influenced by the sweet taste perception level, while the relation between the dietary habits and the caries and BMI was found insignificant.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 06:29:50 +000
       
 
 
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