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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 330 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 330 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 65)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 196)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.323, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

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Journal Cover
International Journal of Dentistry
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.649
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8728 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8736
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [330 journals]
  • Effect of Thermocycling, Teeth, and Polymerization Methods on Bond
           Strength Teeth-Denture Base

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate the shear bond strength between different artificial teeth and denture base polymerized by two polymerization methods submitted to thermocycling. Materials and Methods. Two acrylic resins were selected according to the polymerization method (water-bath and microwave), and four different artificial teeth (Biotone, Dentsply; Trilux, Vipi Dent; Premium 8, Heraeus Kulzer; Soluut PX, Yamahachi) were also tested. The polymerization of the acrylic resin was performed by using conventional cycle (8 h at 74°C) in water-bath and using two cycles (20 min at 270 W + 5 min at 360 W) by the microwave method. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 h of water storage at 37°C (immediately) and after the thermocycling test (5,000 cycles, 5–55°C). The shear bond strength () was performed using a universal testing machine (Instron 4411) at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Modes of failures were classified as cohesive and adhesive. The data (MPa) were statistically analyzed by three-way ANOVA, and the mean values were compared by the Tukey test (α = 0.05). Results. In general, the polymerization by microwave showed the highest shear bond strength values, and Trilux artificial teeth had the lowest bond strength values (). Thermocycling did not affect the shear bond strength (). There was a predominance of cohesive failures for all groups. Conclusions. The chemical composition of the artificial teeth affects the bond strength, and the microwave method is preferable to perform the acrylic resin polymerization.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Three-Dimensional Accuracy of Digital Impression versus Conventional
           Method: Effect of Implant Angulation and Connection Type

    • Abstract: Purpose. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of different implant impression techniques of the maxillary full arch with tilted implants of two connection types. Materials and Methods. Two maxillary edentulous acrylic resin models with two different implant connections (internal or external) served as a reference model. Each model had two anterior straight and two posterior angulated implants. Ninety impressions were made using an intraoral scanner (Trios 3Shape) with scan bodies for digital impression (groups DII and DIE), a custom open tray with additional silicone for the conventional direct group (groups CDI and CDE), and a custom closed tray with additional silicone for the conventional indirect group (groups CII and CIE) from both internal and external models, respectively. A coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) was used to measure linear and angular displacement for conventional specimens. For digital groups, an optical CMM was used to scan the reference model. STL data sets from the digital specimen were superimposed on STL reference data sets to assess angular and linear deviations. Data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and t-test at .Results. There were significant angular and linear distortion differences among three impression groups (), angular distortion differences between internal and external connections (), and between straight and tilted implants for either linear () or angular () distortion. The type of the connection and implant angle did not have any effect on linear and angular distortion of the digital technique (). Minimum angular and linear distortion was seen for tilted implants in DII and DIE groups (0.36° ± 0.37 and 0.16 ± 0.1 mm). Conclusion. Impression techniques (digital versus conventional) affected the transfer accuracy. Digital techniques demonstrated superior outcome in comparison with conventional methods, and the direct technique was better than the indirect conventional technique. Connection type and implant angulation were other factors that influenced accuracy. However, when digital impression was applied, accuracy was not affected by the type of connection and angulation.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Secondary Bleedings in Oral Surgery Emergency Service: A Cross-Sectional
           Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Bleeding after dental surgery is still a common cause for emergency presentation in patients using anticoagulants. Our aim was to analyze pertinent characteristic features on the one hand and to bare existing problems in handling on the other. Materials and Methods. The study included 76 patients. We documented basic data, anticoagulant medication, type of surgery, and tooth socket sutures in respective patients. Results. The vast majority of patients took a coumarin derivative (41) and acetylsalicylic acid (27). Nine (12%) of the patients had to be hospitalized due to ongoing bleeding despite local haemostyptic steps and/or circulatory dysregulation. Most patients could be successfully treated in outpatient settings. No statistically significant correlation between bleeding, level of INR value, number of extracted teeth, and sewed alveoli could be shown. Sixty-five percent of cases with tooth extractions did not have suture of tooth sockets. Eighty-seven percent of the patients denied being informed about possible self-treatment options by their surgeon/dentist, and none of the patients got presurgical-fabricated bandage plate(s). Conclusions. Patients taking coumarin derivative currently, furthermore, represent the biggest anticoagulant after-bleeding group in dentoalveolar surgery. The major part of after-bleedings (90%) can be handled in an outpatient setting with simplest surgical interventions. Unfortunately, the biggest part of the patient collective got no suture, no prefabricated dental bandage plate(s), and no explanation by their dentist how to handle in case of after-bleeding. Therefore, dental practitioners should furthermore get enlightenment on how to prevent after-bleeding situations.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Impact of Malocclusions on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of
           Early Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia

    • Abstract: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusions and its impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among early adolescents in Ndola, Zambia. It used a random sample of 384 primary school children aged 12–14 years. The Child Oral Health Impact Profile-Short Form 19 (COHIP-SF19) was used to assess OHRQoL, and the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) was used to examine dentofacial anomalies. The chi-square test was used to study whether there was a statistically significant association between variables and multivariate logistic regression for the influence of sociodemographic and malocclusions on OHRQoL. Statistical significance was set at . Participants’ sociodemographics were 53.6% female, 41.7% aged 13 years, and 43.5% from grade six. The overall reported impact on OHRQoL was 11.7%, which was significant () by age and sex, and higher in females than males. The overall prevalence of malocclusions was 27.9%, which was significant () by sex, and higher in males than females. Children with malocclusions reported significant () negative oral health impact compared to the children without malocclusions. Spacing, diastema, and crowding were most prevalent malocclusions that showed clear inverse association with OHRQoL. The study findings provide indications that malocclusions are negatively associated with OHRQoL among Zambian early adolescents.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Anterior Dental Trauma and Its Associated Factors among
           Preschool Children Aged 3–5 Years in Khartoum City, Sudan

    • Abstract: Background. Traumatic dental injury (TDI) is a challenging public health problem. Its incidence and prevalence vary within countries, states, and different social groups. Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries in primary incisors among 3–5-year-old Sudanese preschool children and associated factors such as age, sex, and size of overjet and anterior open bite. Materials and Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 600 preschool children (3–5 years old) selected by multistage cluster technique from preschools located in Khartoum city, Sudan. The data regarding age, sex, causes, and treatment of TDI were collected from the mothers through structured interview questionnaire. Children were examined in an upright position, using mouth mirror and torch. A single examiner assessed the type of trauma, the tooth involved, and overbite/overjet. The data were analyzed statistically through descriptive analysis, and the chi-square test was used to compare between different variables with .Results. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) was 18.5%. Enamel fractures were the most common type (74.8%), followed by enamel and dentin (11.7%). The maxillary central incisors were the most commonly affected teeth, and the home was most common place for TDI. The prevalence rate was 45% in boys and 55% in girls with a statistically significant difference (). Conclusions. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries to the primary anterior teeth among the Sudanese preschool children was relatively high (18.5%). Factors such as overjet size, overbite size, and lip competency were not significantly correlated with dental trauma among the studied population.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Early Childhood Caries: Epidemiology, Aetiology, and Prevention

    • Abstract: Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the most prevalent diseases in children worldwide. ECC is driven by a dysbiotic state of oral microorganisms mainly caused by a sugar-rich diet. Additionally, poor oral hygiene or insufficient dental plaque removal leads to the rapid progression of ECC. ECC leads not only to dental destruction and pain with children, but also affects the quality of life of the caregivers. Children with extensive ECC are at high risk to develop caries with the permanent dentition or will have other problems with speaking and/or eating. To prevent ECC, several strategies should be taken into account. Children should brush their teeth with toothpastes containing gentle ingredients, such as mild surfactants and agents showing antiadherent properties regarding oral microorganisms. Parents/caregivers have to help their children with brushing the teeth. Furthermore, remineralizing and nontoxic agents should be included into the toothpaste formulation. Two promising biomimetic agents for children’s oral care are amorphous calcium phosphate [Cax(PO4)yn H2O] and hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)].
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 08:02:33 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Distribution of Oral Mucosal Lesions by Sex and Age
           Categories: A Retrospective Study of Patients Attending Lebanese School of
           Dentistry

    • Abstract: Background. Prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions in a sample of Lebanese population attending the School of Dentistry of Lebanese University is necessary to evaluate their oral health situation. Objectives. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of oral mucosal lesions of patients attending the School of Dentistry. Methods. A descriptive study was carried out by retrospectively examining a total of 231 medical and clinical examination record files of patients, attending the School of Dentistry Lebanese University for multidisciplinary dental treatments. 178 medical records were retained. Each medical and clinical examination record was done by an undergraduate student and then evaluated by a doctor. The record file included a civil status, chief complaint, medical history, and extraoral and intraoral clinical examination during the period between October 2014 and May 2015. Exclusion criteria were lack of written information in their medical and clinical examination record and being nonevaluated by a doctor. Data regarding age, gender, socioeconomic status, chief complaint, systemic diseases, and drugs intake were collected by using a questionnaire while the type of extraoral and oral mucosal lesions by clinical examination. Results. The sample consisted of 102 (57.3%) females and 76 (42.7%) males. The age ranged from 10 to 92 years with a mean age of 40.1 years. Among these subjects, 110 (61.8%) presented with one or more lesions. All patients were Lebanese. The most common lesion diagnosed was coated/hairy tongue affecting 17.4% of the subjects, followed by melanotic macule (11.2%), gingivitis (9.6), linea alba (6.2%), tongue depapillation (5.1), leukoplakia (5.1), traumatic fibroma (4.5), frictional keratosis (3.9%), fissured tongue (3.9%), hemangiomas (3.9%), Fordyce granules (3.9%), dry mucosa (3.4), angular cheilitis (2.2), gingival hyperplasia (2.2), and crenulated tongue (1.7%). Overall, the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions did not significantly differ between sex and age groups. Conclusions. The high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions necessitates adequate awareness and management of these lesions in the general population. Dental clinicians should be knowledgeable and familiar with the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these lesions.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 May 2018 10:57:35 +000
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of Root Canal Transportation by Three NiTi
           Single-File Systems in Curved Canals: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography
           Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. This study is aimed at evaluating root canal transportation in the mesiobuccal canal of mandibular first molars prepared with One Shape, Reciproc, and M-One nickel titanium (NiTi) single-file rotary systems using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods. In this ex vivo study, CBCT scans of 45 extracted human mandibular first molars with 20–40° curvature were obtained. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups () for preparation of the mesiobuccal canal with One Shape, Reciproc, and M-One rotary systems according to the manufacturers’ instructions. CBCT scans were obtained again after canal preparation. Changes caused by preparation in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds were determined on CBCT scans and analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test at level of significance. Results. No significant difference was noted in the amount of canal transportation among the three groups (). M-One caused greater transportation in the apical third compared with Reciproc and One Shape, and One Shape caused greater transportation in the coronal third compared with other groups, although its magnitude was less than 0.3 mm. Conclusion. Reciproc, One Shape, and M-One are not significantly different in terms of canal transportation.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 08:36:48 +000
       
  • Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria: Biofilm Formation and Corrosive Activity in
           Endodontic Files

    • Abstract: Aim. This study describes the biofilm formation and the corrosive capacity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on the metallic structure of used endodontic files. Methods. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans oral and Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis or D. desulfuricans environmental) were inoculated into the culture media (Postgate C culture medium or modified Postgate E culture medium). The biocorrosive potential of these bacteria will be an important component of a biopharmaceutical under development called BACCOR. Afterwards, four used endodontic files (UEFs) were separately inoculated into a specific culture media for 445 days at 30°C in an incubator. The four UEFs were placed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and analyzed by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Results. The confocal laser scanning microscopic images indicate the presence of biofilm in the four samples. The SEM and SEM-EDS revealed the presence of rough, irregular structures adhering along the metallic surface of the used endodontic files, suggesting a mature calcified biofilm with a high concentration of Ca, P, C, and S. Conclusion. The formation of SRB biofilms on used endodontic files shows characteristics that may contribute to the biocorrosion of these files, and the results may also provide complementary data for a biopharmaceutical, which is still under development to assist in the removal of fractured endodontic files inside root channels.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 07:43:43 +000
       
  • Prevalence of TMJ Disorders among the Patients Attending the Dental Clinic
           of Ajman University of Science and Technology–Fujairah Campus, UAE

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (if any) among the patients attending the dental clinic (for routine dental treatment) of Ajman University of Science and Technology (AUST)–Fujairah campus, UAE, and its possible causes. A sample of 100 adult patients attending the dental clinic of AUST for different types of dental treatment were collected; the routine examination of the TMJ and possible disorders such as clicking, crepitation, limitation or deviation during mouth opening, or tenderness reveals that 41% of the sample experience varying degrees of disorders in the TMJ. Radiographs were taken if needed (panoramic radiograph). The information was collected and recorded for each patient through questionnaires.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation of Clinical Characteristics and Etiological Factors in
           Children with Molar Incisor Hypomineralization

    • Abstract: Aim. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical defects and etiological factors potentially involved in the onset of MIH in a pediatric sample. Methods. 120 children, selected from the university dental clinic, were included: 60 children (25 boys and 35 girls; average age: 9.8 ± 1.8 years) with MIH formed the test group and 60 children (27 boys and 33 girls; average age: 10.1 ± 2 years) without MIH constituted the control group. Distribution and severity of MIH defects were evaluated, and a questionnaire was used to investigate the etiological variables; chi-square, univariate, and multivariate statistical tests were performed (significance level set at ). Results. A total of 186 molars and 98 incisors exhibited MIH defects: 55 molars and 75 incisors showed mild defects, 91 molars and 20 incisors had moderate lesions, and 40 molars and 3 incisors showed severe lesions. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association () between MIH and ear, nose, and throat (ENT) disorders and the antibiotics used during pregnancy (0.019). Conclusions. Moderate defects were more frequent in the molars, while mild lesions were more frequent in the incisors. Antibiotics used during pregnancy and ENT may be directly involved in the etiology of MIH in children.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 07:52:07 +000
       
  • The Effect of Ca and Mg Concentrations and Quantity and Their Correlation
           with Caries Intensity in School-Age Children

    • Abstract: Introduction. Saliva is a watery product formed by the salivary glands and secreted in the mouth. Besides the fundamental factors, saliva with its ingredient is one of the main etiologic factors of caries presence. In the development of dental caries, the relationship between demineralization and remineralization is influenced by the presence of saliva, which facilitates the transportation of ions, oral bacteria, and fermentable carbohydrates to the exposed surfaces of teeth. The main components of saliva electrolytes are sodium, calcium, copper, magnesium, bicarbonates, and organic phosphates. Increase in calcium level in the remineralization solution may enhance the deposition velocity of minerals in the caries lesion. Magnesium, except the similar role as calcium, takes an active part in cellular reparation process. Materials and Methods. In this study were included students of age 12-13. Students were divided into three groups; the first group included caries-free children, the second group with DMF = 1–6, and the third group with DMF > 6. Fully stimulated and nonstimulated saliva was collected in sterile graded patches in the morning hours, due to the circadian rhythm in 5-minute length. Chemical analyzes have been conducted at the Faculty of Chemistry, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje. Statistical processing has been performed at the Medical Faculty, at the Institute of Medical Statistics in Skopje. Results. Depending on the DMF, before and after stimulation, regarding Ca level, no significant differences were found. However, the Ca level prior to stimulation is significantly higher in the second group compared to the third one. Also, the amount of Ca after stimulation in the first group was significantly higher. No significant differences in Mg level and amount were found prior to and after stimulation, while the amount of Mg after stimulation had a significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Saliva mineral analysis has shown significant differences in quantitative and qualitative components between examining groups. The decrease of calcium molality in saliva might play a significant role in caries occurrence; thus, we may suppose that saliva calcium level significantly influences hard dental tissues defense mechanism. Magnesium levels after stimulation showed a significant difference between groups I and III and no significant differences between groups I and II. Magnesium level and amount correlate with calcium level, favoring elemental caries resistance.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 07:57:06 +000
       
  • Effects of a New Nano-Silver Fluoride-Containing Dentifrice on
           Demineralization of Enamel and Streptococcus mutans Adhesion and
           Acidogenicity

    • Abstract: An experimental dentifrice containing nano-silver fluoride (NSF) and a sodium fluoride (NaF) toothpaste were tested in vitro, against S. mutans, to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), antiadherence, antiacid, enamel microhardness, and OCT. The microdilution technique was used to determine the MIC and MBC. Fragments of deciduous enamel were treated with dentifrice slurries, containing bacterial suspension and PBS-treated saliva. The quantification of the microorganisms that adhered to the enamel was determined after 24 hours of incubation, and media pH readings were performed after 2 hours and 24 hours. Deciduous teeth were evaluated for microhardness and OCT during 14 days of pH cycling. Data were statistically analyzed using Student’s t-test, Mann–Whitney U test, ANOVA, and Tukey tests at 5% of significance. Dentifrices containing NSF presented a lower MIC and higher statistically significant results compared to NaF dentifrices with respect to preventing bacterial adhesion and pH decreases. NSF and NaF dentifrices showed the same ability to avoid enamel demineralization corroborated by the OCT images. The NSF formulation had a better antibacterial effect compared to NaF dentifrices and similar action on the demineralization of enamel indicating their potential effectiveness to prevent caries.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dental Implants in the Third Millennium

    • PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Survival and Success Rates of Different Shoulder Designs: A Systematic
           Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Objectives. To identify whether there is a relationship between different implant shoulder positions/orientations/designs and prosthetic and/or implant failures, biological or mechanical complications, radiographic marginal bone loss (MBL), peri-implant buccal recession (RC), aesthetic scores (Papilla Index, PES, and WES), and patient satisfaction after a minimum of 1 year function in the aesthetic zone, compared to the two-piece, conventional implant neck architecture. Materials and Methods. The systematic review was written according to the PRISMA guidelines. The search strategy encompassed the English literature from 1967 to September 2016 and was performed online (in the PubMed database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, Embase, and the Cochrane Library) to identify relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria. The assessment of quality and risk of bias of the selected manuscripts was performed according to the guidelines provided by CONSORT and STROBE statements. Results. A total of 16 articles (7 randomized controlled trials, 4 observational comparative studies, and 5 systematic reviews) were selected to fulfill the inclusion criteria. A trend of higher implant failure and prosthetic complications were experienced in the one-piece group compared to the two-piece group, although no statistically significant differences were found. Higher marginal bone loss was found in the test group (one-piece, scalloped implants) compared to the control group (two-piece, flat implants). No comparative studies reporting data on sloped implants were found that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this systematic review. No differences were experienced between groups regarding aesthetic outcomes and patient satisfaction. Conclusions. There was sufficient evidence that different implant shoulder positions/orientations/designs (scalloped, sloped, and one piece) offer no benefit when compared to two-piece, conventional flat implants. Current evidence is limited due to the quality of available studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Oral Microbe Quantities from Tongue Samples and Subgingival
           Pockets

    • Abstract: Objectives. To improve understanding of periodontitis pathology, we need more profound knowledge of relative abundances of single prokaryotic species and colonization dynamics between habitats. Thus, we quantified oral microbes from two oral habitats to gain insights into colonization variability and correlation to the clinical periodontal status. Methods. We analyzed tongue scrapings and subgingival pocket samples from 237 subjects (35–54 years) with at least 10 teeth and no recent periodontal treatment from the 11-year follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania. Relative abundances of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus sanguinis, total bacteria, and Archaea were correlated to clinically assessed pocket depths (PD) and clinical attachment levels (CAL). Results. Increased relative abundances of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and F. nucleatum were linked to increased levels of PD and CAL (i) on the subject level (mean PD, mean CAL) and (ii) in subgingival pockets. Relative abundances of Archaea from tongue samples correlated negatively with mean PD or mean CAL. Detection and quantity of bacterial species correlated weakly to moderately between the tongue and subgingival pocket, except for Archaea. Conclusions. Relative abundances of specific oral species correlated weakly to moderately between habitats. Single species, total bacteria, and Archaea were linked to clinically assessed severity of periodontitis in a habitat-dependent manner.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of Marginal Adaptation and Fracture Strength of
           Different Ceramic Inlays Produced by CEREC Omnicam and Heat-Pressed
           Technique

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate marginal adaptation and fracture strength of inlays produced by CEREC Omnicam using different types of blocs and heat-pressed technique. Methods: Seventy-five extracted human mandibular molars were divided randomly into 5 groups (). 60 molars in four groups received MOD inlay preparations. Experimental groups were CO: Intact teeth, EC: IPS e.max CAD and CEREC, LU: Lava Ultimate and CEREC, EL: IPS Empress CAD and CEREC, EP: IPS Empress Esthetic ingots and heat-pressed technique. Marginal gap measurements were taken with a stereomicroscope. Restorations were cemented with Variolink N and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. All samples were subjected to thermocycling. The fracture strength of specimens was determined at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Fracture modes were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance for fracture strength data and Kruskal–Wallis for marginal gap data (). Results. The mean marginal gap size of EC, LU, EL, and EP were 33.54 µm, 33.77 µm, 34.23 µm, and 85.34 µm, respectively. EP had statistically higher values than other groups. The fracture strength values were significantly higher in the intact teeth group (3959,00 ± 1279,79 N) than those of restored groups EC (2408,00 ± 607,97 N), LU (2206,73 ± 675,16), EL (2573.27 ± 644,73) ve EP (2879,53 ± 897,30). Conclusion. Inlays fabricated using CEREC Omnicam demonstrated better marginal adaptation than inlays produced with heat-pressed technique, whereas fracture strength values of inlays fabricated with different type of blocks using CEREC Omnicam exhibited similarity to those fabricated with heat-pressed technique.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • SNP Analysis of Caries and Initial Caries in Finnish Adolescents

    • Abstract: Background. Dental caries is the most common infection in the world and is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors are largely known, but the role of genetic factors is quite unknown. The aim was to investigate the genetic background of caries in Finnish adolescents. Materials and Methods. This study was carried out at the Kotka Health Center in Eastern Finland. 94 participants aged 15–17 years gave approval for the saliva and DNA analyses. However, one was excluded in DNA analysis; thus, the overall number of participants in analysis was 93. Caries status was recorded clinically and from bite-wing X-rays to all 94 participants. Genomic DNA was extracted by genomic QIAamp® DNA Blood Mini Kit and genotyped for polymorphisms. The results were analyzed using additive and logistic regression models. Results. No significant associations between caries and the genes studied were found. However, SNPs in DDX39B and MPO showed association tendencies but were not statistically significant after false discovery rate (FDR) analysis. SNPs in VDR, LTA, and MMP3 were not statistically significant with initial caries lesions after FDR analysis. Conclusion. The present study could not demonstrate statistically significant associations between caries and the genes studied. Further studies with larger populations are needed.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Fracture Resistance of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Bonded to Teeth with Class
           V Composite Fillings after Cyclic Loading

    • Abstract: Purpose. Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) are sometimes required to be used for teeth with composite fillings. This study examined the fracture strength of PLVs bonded to the teeth restored with different sizes of class V composite fillings. Materials and Methods. Thirty-six maxillary central incisors were divided into three groups (): intact teeth (control) and teeth with class V composite fillings of one-third or two-thirds of the crown height (small or large group, resp.). PLVs were made by using IPS e.max and bonded with a resin cement (RelyX Unicem). Fracture resistance (N) was measured after cyclic loading (1 × 106 cycles, 1.2 Hz). For statistical analyses, one-way ANOVA and Tukey test were used (). Results. There was a significant difference between the mean failure loads of the test groups (), with the Tukey-HSD test showing lower failure loads in the large-composite group compared to the control () or small group (). The control and small-composite groups achieved comparable results (). Conclusions. Failure loads of PLVs bonded to intact teeth and to teeth with small class V composite fillings were not significantly different. However, extensive composite fillings could compromise the bonding of PLVs.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Barriers to Fluoride Application as a Preventive
           Measure among Oral Health Care Providers

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and possible barriers to fluoride application among oral health-care providers in Kuwait. Methods. A validated self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of 291 dentists. The questionnaire included four categories: dentists’ characteristics, knowledge of and attitude towards fluoride application, factors influencing decision-making on prescription of fluoride, and the clinician’s perception of own knowledge. Means, group differences, and logistic regression were calculated. Results. 262 completed the questionnaire (response rate of 90%). Half of the participants (49%) reported that water fluoridation is the best method for caries prevention in children. Majority of the participants (80%) acknowledged that topical fluoride prevents dental caries, but only 40% frequently use it in their practices. Fear of overdose was a concern in 57% of the participants. About 31% believed that caries is a multifactorial disease and cannot be prevented. In addition, 32% of the dentists who thought caries is multifactorial and cannot be prevented stated that restorations take precedence over preventive therapy. Conclusion. Despite the participants being in favor of topical fluoride application and believing in its effectiveness, certain barriers were apparent such as knowledge deficiencies, products labelling flaw, and lack of participation in effective continuing educational activities.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 05:32:03 +000
       
  • Oral Hygiene Practices among Saudi Arabian Children and Its Relation to
           Their Dental Caries Status

    • Abstract: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable diseases occurring among children. The aim here is to survey the oral hygiene practices that are commonly followed by Arab children and to see its relationship with their dental caries status. A cross-sectional study with multistage random sampling technique was conducted. Sociodemographic data and information on oral hygiene practices like use of toothbrush, dental floss, siwak, frequency of brushing along with number of snack between meals per day, and consumption of sugar per day was obtained. Presence of plaque on tooth surfaces was reported using plaque index, which was followed by DMFT index to determine the dental caries status. Among the sample of 500 school children, the mean plaque score in male (mean = 0.69; SD = 0.50) was slightly higher than the female (mean = 0.66; SD = 0.46). Increased frequency of snacks (;; CI = −0.00, 0.09) and sugar consumption (;; CI = 0.04, 0.27) per day significantly showed higher values of DMFT. Also, the odds of dental caries among the school children who were irregular in brushing their teeth was higher in contrast to the children brushing once (; OR = 0.89; CI = 0.70, 1.12) or twice (; OR = 0.80; CI = 0.64, 0.93) per day. It is recommended that the dental public health practitioners here should consider the effect of oral hygiene practices on oral health status in order to design the future health promotion interventions.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bone Texture Fractal Dimension Analysis of Ultrasound-Treated Bone around
           Implant Site: A Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    • Abstract: Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy of bone texture fractal dimension (FD) analysis method in predicting implant stability from intraoral periapical radiographs using two implant protocols. Materials and Methods. A double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 22 subjects who needed dental implants. The participants were randomized into two groups, the control group with standard implant protocol treatment and the intervention group with added low-intensity power ultrasound treatment (LIPUS) besides the standard implant protocol. The FD values of bone density were carried out on the mesial and distal sides of the implant on digital intraoral radiographs using the box-counting method. Both resonance frequency (RF) and fractal dimension (FD) were assessed in three time intervals: after surgery and before and after loading. Results. FD on both the mesial and distal sides serve as very good-to-excellent tests with high validity (ROC area exceeding 0.8) in predicting high implant stability (ISQ ≥ 70). The mesial side measurements were consistently better than the distal side among the intervention groups. The optimum cutoff value for the FD-mesial side that predicts a highly stable implant (ISQ ≥ 70) is ≥1.505. At this optimum cutoff value, the mesial side FD is associated with a perfect sensitivity (100%) and fairly high specificity (86.5%). Conclusion. The FD analysis could be recommended as an adjunctive quantitative method in prediction of the implant stability with very high sensitivity and specificity. This trial is registered with ISRCTN72648040.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy and Local Administration of
           Minocycline on Clinical, Microbiological, and Inflammatory Markers of
           Periodontal Pockets: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Objective. We evaluated the efficacies of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and minocycline ointment (MO) on clinical and bacteriological markers and the local host inflammatory response. Materials and Methods. A total of 30 patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to two groups. Selected periodontal pockets (probing depth 5–7 mm with bleeding on probing) were treated with aPDT or MO. Measurements of clinical parameters and the collection of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and subgingival plaque were performed at baseline, and at 1 and 4 weeks after treatment. Quantification of periodontopathic bacteria in the sulcus and a multiplex bead immunoassay of ten inflammatory cytokines in the GCF were performed. Results. Local MO administration exhibited a significant decrease in scores for clinical parameters () and a significant reduction in bacterial counts () and interleukin-1β and interferon-γ levels at 1 and 4 weeks after treatment (). No significant changes were observed in the aPDT group, except in clinical parameters. Conclusions. Although our study had some limitations, we found that while local administration of MO may slightly help to improve clinical, microbiological, and crevicular cytokine levels in periodontal pockets, aPDT did not show any effects. This trial is registered with the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000013376.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dentine Tubule Occlusion by Novel Bioactive Glass-Based Toothpastes

    • Abstract: There are numerous over-the-counter (OTC) and professionally applied (in-office) products and techniques currently available for the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH), but more recently, the use of bioactive glasses in toothpaste formulations have been advocated as a possible solution to managing DH. Aim. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to compare several bioactive glass formulations to investigate their effectiveness in an established in vitro model. Materials and Methods. A 45S5 glass was synthesized in the laboratory together with several other glass formulations: (1) a mixed glass (fluoride and chloride), (2) BioMinF, (3) a chloride glass, and (4) an amorphous chloride glass. The glass powders were formulated into five different toothpaste formulations. Dentine discs were sectioned from extracted human teeth and prepared for the investigation by removing the cutting debris (smear layer) following sectioning using a 6% citric acid solution for 2 minutes. Each disc was halved to provide test and control halves for comparison following the brushing of the five toothpaste formulations onto the test halves for each toothpaste group. Following the toothpaste application, the test discs were immersed in either artificial saliva or exposed to an acid challenge. Results. The dentine samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and observation of the SEM images indicated that there was good surface coverage following artificial saliva immersion. Furthermore, although the acid challenge removed the hydroxyapatite layer on the dentine surface for most of the samples, except for the amorphous chloride glass, there was evidence of tubular occlusion in the dentine tubules. Conclusions. The conclusions from the study would suggest that the inclusion of bioactive glass into a toothpaste formulation may be an effective approach to treat DH.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 09:40:36 +000
       
  • Appropriateness in Dentistry: A Survey Discovers Improper Procedures in
           Oral Medicine and Surgery

    • Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess appropriateness of diagnostic exams, treatments, and procedures among Italian dental practitioners. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire with multiple responses on topics of dentistry and oral medicine was administered to a sample of 198 Italian dental practitioners. Information on characteristics of the respondents was also collected. Descriptive statistics and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) were applied. Data were analyzed using R software (version 3.3.2). Results. The survey respondents included Doctors of Medicine (MD) (54/198 = 27%) with or without specialty in dentistry (33% versus 67%), Doctors of Dental Surgery (DDS) (144/198 = 73%), DDS with specialty in orthodontics (7%), and DDS with specialty in oral surgery (4%). Mandatory procedures in dental and oral medicine education and training include (a) prescription of antibiotics before/after oral surgery procedures; (b) prevention strategies for oral cancer, and (c) prescription of dental X-ray examinations (41%, 52%, and 48%, resp.). Conclusion. On examining the results of the survey, it is evident that information and implementation of the above mentioned procedures are crucially needed. Our results confirm the necessity to reduce inappropriate practices in dentistry, implementing formation and information, leading to correct prescriptions, and optimizing patients’ oral health. This coincides with the Italian Slow Medicine program entitled “Fare di più non significa fare meglio–Choosing Wisely Italy,” which has also motivated this study.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Radiographic Evaluation of Missing of Permanent First Molars in a Group
           of Iranian Children and Adults: A Retrospective Study

    • Abstract: The missing of permanent first molars influences the occlusal status and dental health. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of missing first molar teeth in a selected population of Shiraz, Iran. Methods. A total of 2206 panoramic views of patients aged from 7 to 75 years old were inspected for missing of permanent first molars. Patients were categorized into five age groups: from 7 to 15, 16 to 30, 31 to 45, 46 to 60, and more than 60 years old. Data were categorized according to sex, age, and number of lost teeth using SPSS software. Results. No first molar was missing in 59.9% of the cases, 17.05% had lost one, 10.4% had lost two, 7.2% had lost three, and 5% were missing all four of their permanent first molars. The mandibular first molar was the most commonly lost tooth, and the left side in both jaws was more affected than the right side. There was a positive relation between age and missing first molar. Conclusions. A missing first molar is a common finding in southern Iran population. Due to the important role of permanent first molars in occlusion, more education and dental care is recommended to preserve these teeth.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • TheraCal LC: From Biochemical and Bioactive Properties to Clinical
           Applications

    • Abstract: Background. Direct pulp capping is a popular treatment modality among dentists. TheraCal LC is a calcium silicate-based material that is designed as a direct/indirect pulp capping material. The material might be very attractive for clinicians because of its ease of handling. Unlike other calcium silicate-based materials, TheraCal LC is resin-based and does not require any conditioning of the dentine surface. The material can be bonded with different types of adhesives directly after application. There has been considerable research performed on this material since its launching; however, there are no review articles that collates information and data obtained from these studies. This review discusses the various characteristics of the material with the aim of establishing a better understanding for its clinical use. Methods. A search was conducted using search engines (PubMed and Cochrane databases) in addition to reference mining of the articles that was used to locate other papers. The process of searching for the relevant studies was performed using the keywords pulp protection, pulp capping, TheraCal, and calcium silicates. Only articles in English published in peer-reviewed journals were included in the review. Conclusion. This review underlines the fact that further in vitro and in vivo studies are required before TheraCal LC can be used as a direct pulp capping material.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Morphometric Analysis of the Mental Foramen Using Cone-Beam Computed
           Tomography

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of age and sex on the location and size of the mental foramen (MF). A total of 104 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans from patients’ aged 18–80 years were selected. Images were evaluated using the following parameters: position and size of the MF, and Distances A (distance from the upper limit of the MF to the apex of the first lower premolar), B (distance from the upper cortical border of the MF to the alveolar crest), and C (distance from the border of the MF to the base of the mandible). Results revealed that the location of the MF was predominantly apical (44.4%), between the long axes of the premolars, at an average distance of 4.92 mm from the root of the first lower premolar. The height of the MF was significantly different between both sexes (3.41 and 2.99 mm, resp.; mean height: 3.11 mm; ). The MF was located on average at 11.21 mm from the alveolar crest and 12.31 mm from the base of the mandible; the former measurement was significantly different between both sexes (13.13 and 11.98 mm, resp.; ). In conclusion, the location of the MF was predominantly apical between the long axes of the premolars, and the mean size and distance of the MF were greater in men.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Salivary Levels of Hemoglobin for Screening Periodontal Disease: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease. It affects about 20–50% of global population in both developed and developing countries. Early detection of slight changes of periodontal tissue plays an important role in prevention of onset and progression of periodontal disease. Hence, there is a need of a screening test to assess periodontal tissue for health check-ups. Salivary levels hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed to assess the conditions of the inflammation of gingiva. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate and summarize critically the current evidences for Hb as periodontal screening test. We performed a literature search of report published using PubMed databases. A total of 55 articles were retrieved and 16 were selected. Our review focuses on corelation coefficient with periodontal clinical parameters or sensitivity and specificity. As a result, fourteen studies calculated sensitivity and specificity of Hb. Six studies measured salivary levels hemoglobin at laboratory: three studies used polyclonal antibody reactions and other studies used colorimetric tests. Eight studies used paper strip method: 4 studies used monoclonal antibody reaction and 4 studies used colorimetric tests. Youden’s indexes by antibody reaction were better than those of colorimetric methods. Evidences are described above and further studies are necessary to set the cut off values stratified by gender, age and number of remaining teeth.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 07:15:03 +000
       
  • Dentigerous Cystic Changes in the Follicles Associated with
           Radiographically Normal Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    • Abstract: Objective. To assess the incidence of dentigerous cystic changes in the follicles of radiographically normal impacted mandibular third molars. Methods. One hundred and thirteen follicles obtained after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars with radiolucency of less than 2.5 mm in the radiograph were sent for histopathologic evaluation to evaluate pathologic changes. Results. The incidence of dentigerous cystic changes observed was 15.9%, that is, 18 out of 113 patients (51 males and 62 females), with the maximum incidence of cystic changes seen in the follicular space size of 0.5 mm. The mean age of the patients included was 27.8 ± 8.1. The most common indication for extraction among the patients in this study was recurrent pericoronitis (95%). There were no statistically significant differences in occurrence of cystic changes based on age, gender, angulation, relation to ramus, depth, side of impaction, and follicle size (). Conclusion. Dental follicles obtained from surgically removed impacted mandibular third molars should be submitted for histopathologic examination irrespective of the radiographic size of the follicle.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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