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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 281 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 288 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
  [SJR: 0.157]   [H-I: 2]   [20 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-8760 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8779
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Molecular Distributions of Soluble Oxidation Products from Coals
           Characterized by Mass Spectrometers

    • Abstract: Oxidation of three coals with rank from lignite to anthracite in NaOCl aqueous solution was investigated in this study. The oxidation products were characterized by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry. The results showed that most of organic compounds in coals were converted into water-soluble species under mild conditions, even the anthracite. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) and chloro-substituted alkanoic acids (CSAAs) were major products from the reactions. The products from lower rank coals consist of considerable CSAAs and most products from high rank coals are BPCAs. As coal rank increases, the yield of BPCAs with more carboxylic groups increases.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analyses of Essential Elements and Heavy Metals by Using ICP-MS in
           Maternal Breast Milk from Şanlıurfa, Turkey

    • Abstract: Maternal breast milk is a unique biological matrix that contains essential micronutrients. Potentially heavy metals may also affect infants’ health and growth through maternal breast milk. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the essential elements and heavy metals of maternal breast milk of nursery mothers residing in Şanlıurfa province, Turkey. Maternal breast milk concentrations of sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, and lead were analyzed in a random sample of the first time in urban and suburban nursery Turkish mothers (: 42). Eight essential elements and two heavy metals were analyzed using ICP-MS after microwave digestion. For bivariate analyses of variables, we use nonparametric Spearman’s correlation coefficient test. The mean concentrations of essential elements and heavy metals were as follows: sodium 330 ± 417 mg/L, magnesium 32.6 ± 15.5 mg/L, phosphorus 156 ± 46.2 mg/L, potassium 488 ± 146 mg/L, calcium 193 ± 53.2 mg/L, iron 1.65 ± 1.43 mg/L, copper 0.54 ± 0.46 mg/L, zinc 2.89 ± 3.23 mg/L, arsenic < 1 μg/L, and lead < 1 μg/L. Concentrations of heavy metals in maternal breast milk may have the important implication that it is not affected by environmental pollution in this province. This study provides reliable information about maternal breast milk concentrations of nursery mothers residing in Şanlıurfa, Turkey, and also compares the relations between essential elements and socioeconomic conditions, residing areas, and using copper equipment for food preparation of which some have not previously been reported.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fiber Suspensions Produced by High Shear
           

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Determination of Pyrethroids in Tea Brew by GC-MS Combined with SPME with
           Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Coated Fiber

    • Abstract: A new method has been developed to simultaneously determine 7 pyrethroid residues in tea brew using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with solid phase microextraction (SPME) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated fiber. The MWCNTs coated fiber of SPME was homemade by using stainless steel wire as coating carrier and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) solution as adhesive glue. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity was shown for bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, permethrin, and cyfluthrin in 1–50 ng mL−1 and for cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and deltamethrin in 5–50 ng mL−1. The correlation coefficients were in the range of 0.9948–0.9999. The average recoveries of 7 pyrethroids were 94.–107.3% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.12 to 1.65 ng mL−1. The tea brew samples made from some commercial tea samples were analyzed. Among them, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, and permethrin were found. The results show that the method is rapid and sensitive and requires low organic reagent consumption, which can be well used for the detection of the pyrethroids in tea brew.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Antifungal Compound Isolated from Catharanthus roseus L. (Pink) for
           Biological Control of Root Rot Rubber Diseases

    • Abstract: Rigidoporus microporus, Ganoderma philippii, and Phellinus noxius are root rot rubber diseases and these fungi should be kept under control with environmentally safe compounds from the plant sources. Thus, an antifungal compound isolated from Catharanthus roseus was screened for its effectiveness in controlling the growth of these fungi. The antifungal compound isolated from C. roseus extract was determined through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Each C. roseus of the DCM extracts was marked as CRD1, CRD2, CRD3, CRD4, CRD5, CRD6, and CRD7, respectively. TLC results showed that all of the C. roseus extracts peaked with red colour at Rf = 0.61 at 366 nm wavelength, except for CRD7. The CRD4 extract was found to be the most effective against R. microporus and G. philippii with inhibition zones of 3.5 and 1.9 mm, respectively, compared to that of other extracts. These extracts, however, were not effective against P. noxius. The CRD4 extract contained ursolic acid that was detected by NMR analysis and the compound could be developed as a biocontrol agent for controlling R. microporus and G. philippii. Moreover, little or no research has been done to study the effectiveness of C. roseus in controlling these fungi.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Optimum Extraction, Characterization, and Antioxidant Activities of
           Polysaccharides from Flowers of Dendrobium devonianum

    • Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the conditions for the ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from the flowers of Dendrobium devonianum. The optimal conditions for the maximum yields of DDFPs are as follows: an extraction temperature of 63.13°C, an extraction time of 53.10 min, and a water-to-raw material ratio of 22.11 mL/g. Furthermore, three fractions (DDFPs30, DDFPs50, and DDFPs70) were prepared from Dendrobium devonianum flowers polysaccharides (DDFPs) by the stepwise ethanol precipitation method. The DDFPs50 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other fractions. The molecular weight, polydispersity, and conformation of these fractions were also characterized. In particular, the monosaccharide composition analysis of the DDFPs indicates that mannose and glucose are the primary components, similar to those of the D. officinale plant. This study provides a rapid extraction technology and essential information for the production of DDFPs, which could be potentially used as healthcare food.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multivariate Analysis of Fruit Antioxidant Activities of Blackberry
           Treated with 1-Methylcyclopropene or Vacuum Precooling

    • Abstract: Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and vacuum precooling on quality and antioxidant properties of blackberries (Rubus spp.) were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance, principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and path analysis. Results showed that the activities of antioxidant enzymes were enhanced by both 1-MCP treatment and vacuum precooling. PCA could discriminate 1-MCP treated fruit and the vacuum precooled fruit and showed that the radical-scavenging activities in vacuum precooled fruit were higher than those in 1-MCP treated fruit. The scores of PCA showed that H2O2 content was the most important variables of blackberry fruit. PLSR results showed that peroxidase (POD) activity negatively correlated with H2O2 content. The results of path coefficient analysis indicated that glutathione (GSH) also had an indirect effect on H2O2 content.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Green and Efficient Method for the Preconcentration and Determination of
           Gallic Acid, Bergenin, Quercitrin, and Embelin from Ardisia japonica Using
           Nononic Surfactant Genapol X-080 as the Extraction Solvent

    • Abstract: A simple cloud point preconcentration method was developed and validated for the determination of gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin in Ardisia japonica by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultrasonic assisted micellar extraction. Nonionic surfactant Genapol X-080 was selected as the extraction solvent. The effects of various experimental conditions such as the type and concentration of surfactant and salt, temperature, and solution pH on the extraction of these components were studied to optimize the conditions of Ardisia japonica. The solution was incubated in a thermostatic water bath at 60°C for 10 min, and 35% NaH2PO4 (w/v) was added to the solution to promote the phase separation and increase the preconcentration factor. The intraday and interday precision (RSD) were both below 5.0% and the limits of detection (LOD) for the analytes were between 10 and 20 ng·mL−1. The proposed method provides a simple, efficient, and organic solvent-free method to analyze gallic acid, bergenin, quercitrin, and embelin for the quality control of Ardisia japonica.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Data Mining Approach to Improve Inorganic Characterization of Amanita
           ponderosa Mushrooms

    • Abstract: Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in some microclimates of Iberian Peninsula. Gastronomically this species is very relevant, due to not only the traditional consumption by the rural populations but also its commercial value in gourmet markets. Mineral characterisation of edible mushrooms is extremely important for certification and commercialization processes. In this study, we evaluate the inorganic composition of Amanita ponderosa fruiting bodies (Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Ag, Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) and their respective soil substrates from 24 different sampling sites of the southwest Iberian Peninsula (e.g., Alentejo, Andalusia, and Extremadura). Mineral composition revealed high content in macroelements, namely, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. Mushrooms showed presence of important trace elements and low contents of heavy metals within the limits of RDI. Bioconcentration was observed for some macro- and microelements, such as K, Cu, Zn, Mg, P, Ag, and Cd. A. ponderosa fruiting bodies showed different inorganic profiles according to their location and results pointed out that it is possible to generate an explanatory model of segmentation, performed with data based on the inorganic composition of mushrooms and soil mineral content, showing the possibility of relating these two types of data.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effects of Storage Conditions on Lycopene Content and Color of Tomato
           Hot Pot Sauce

    • Abstract: Tomato hot pot sauce (THPS) at different storage temperatures (0, 25, and 37°C) and with two kinds of packaging for 120 days was investigated in this study. High performance liquid chromatography was employed for detecting lycopene and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The changes of lycopene and HMF during storage were regressed with kinetic equation of both zero-order and first-order models, and the latter fitted better. The kinetic equation constant ( value) of lycopene or HMF at 37°C was higher than that at 25°C. The value of lycopene of PET/PE (P1) packaged THPS was 1.60 times of that of PET/Al/EAA/PE (P2) packaged at 37°C, while it was 2.12 times at 25°C. The value of HMF of P1 packaged THPS was 1.69 times of that of P2 packaged at 37°C, while it was 1.01 times at 25°C. Significant correlations between color index of ,, and and lycopene or HMF were found at storage temperature. Browning color was attributed to both Maillard reaction and degradation of lycopene. In conclusion, lower storage temperature and stronger oxygen barrier property of package could maintain color stability and extend shelf life.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Simultaneous Determination of Nitroimidazoles and Quinolones in Honey by
           Modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS Analysis

    • Abstract: This study reports an analytical method for the determination of nitroimidazole and quinolones in honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS methodology was used to extract the analytes and determine veterinary drugs in honey by LC-MS/MS. The linear regression was excellent at the concentration levels of 1–100 ng/mL in the solution standard curve and the matrix standard curve. The recovery rates of nitroimidazole and quinolones were 4.4% to 59.1% and 9.8% to 46.2% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 5.2% and the recovery rates of nitroimidazole and quinolones by the matrix standard curve ranged from 82.0% to 117.8% and 79% to 115.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 6.3% in acacia and jujube honey. The acacia and jujube honeys have stronger matrix inhibition effect to nitroimidazole and quinolones residue; the matrix inhibition effect of jujube honey is stronger than acacia honey. The matrix standard curve can calibrate matrix effect effectively. In this study, the detection method of antibiotics in honey can be applied to the actual sample. The results demonstrated that the modified QuEChERS method combined with LC-MS/MS is a rapid, high, sensitive method for the analysis of nitroimidazoles and quinolones residues in honey.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2018 09:20:25 +000
       
  • Characterization of Fossil and Renewable Fuels

    • PubDate: Mon, 01 Jan 2018 08:52:28 +000
       
  • A New Method for the Determination of Sucrose Concentration in a Pure and
           Impure System: Spectrophotometric Method

    • Abstract: Analytical chemistry is a set of procedures and techniques used to identify and quantify the composition of a sample of material. It is also focused on improvements in experimental design and the creation of new measurement tools. Analytical chemistry has broad applications to forensics, medicine, science, and engineering. The objective of this study is to develop a new method of sucrose dosage using a spectrophotometry method in a pure and impure system (presence of glucose and fructose). The work performed shows the reliability of this method. A model linking sucrose solution absorbance and mass percentage of glucose and fructose has been developed using experimental design. The results obtained show that all the investigated factors (sucrose concentration, mass percentage of glucose, and mass percentage of fructose) have a positive effect on the absorbance. The effect of the interaction between glucose and fructose on the absorbance is very significant.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preparation and Anticorrosion of Octadecyl Trichlorosilane SAMs for Copper
           Surface

    • Abstract: The self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was prepared using octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) in distilled solution on the copper surface. The effect of inhibitor concentration on the rate of inhibition efficiency and corrosion rate in corrosion medium on copper by using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) was studied. The results showed that OTS SAMs exhibit the better corrosion resistance; the corrosion potential of copper OTS SAMs protection increased by about 1.02 V, while the corrosion current density decreased to 0.59 A/cm2. The corrosion rate is minimized and flattened and can reach 9.2% while the inhibition efficiency reached 95.4%, when the corrosion inhibitor has concentration of 40 ppm.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analytical Strategies Involved in the Detailed Componential
           Characterization of Biooil Produced from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    • Abstract: Elucidation of chemical composition of biooil is essentially important to evaluate the process of lignocellulosic biomass (LCBM) conversion and its upgrading and suggest proper value-added utilization like producing fuel and feedstock for fine chemicals. Although the main components of LCBM are cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, the chemicals derived from LCBM differ significantly due to the various feedstock and methods used for the decomposition. Biooil, produced from pyrolysis of LCBM, contains hundreds of organic chemicals with various classes. This review covers the methodologies used for the componential analysis of biooil, including pretreatments and instrumental analysis techniques. The use of chromatographic and spectrometric methods was highlighted, covering the conventional techniques such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectrometry. The combination of preseparation methods and instrumental technologies is a robust pathway for the detailed componential characterization of biooil. The organic species in biooils can be classified into alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, benzene-ring containing hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, carboxylic acids, and other heteroatomic organic compounds. The recent development of high resolution mass spectrometry and multidimensional hyphenated chromatographic and spectrometric techniques has considerably elucidated the composition of biooils.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Multivariate Methodological Workflow for the Analysis of FTIR Chemical
           Mapping Applied on Historic Paint Stratigraphies

    • Abstract: In the field of applied researches in heritage science, the use of multivariate approach is still quite limited and often chemometric results obtained are often underinterpreted. Within this scenario, the present paper is aimed at disseminating the use of suitable multivariate methodologies and proposes a procedural workflow applied on a representative group of case studies, of considerable importance for conservation purposes, as a sort of guideline on the processing and on the interpretation of this FTIR data. Initially, principal component analysis (PCA) is performed and the score values are converted into chemical maps. Successively, the brushing approach is applied, demonstrating its usefulness for a deep understanding of the relationships between the multivariate map and PC score space, as well as for the identification of the spectral bands mainly involved in the definition of each area localised within the score maps.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Robustness of Tomato Quality Evaluation Using a Portable Vis-SWNIRS for
           Dry Matter and Colour

    • Abstract: The utility of a handheld visible-short wave near infrared spectrophotometer utilising an interactance optical geometry was assessed in context of the noninvasive determination of intact tomato dry matter content, as an index of final ripe soluble solids content, and colouration, as an index of maturation to guide a decision to harvest. Partial least squares regression model robustness was demonstrated through the use of populations of different harvest dates or growing conditions for calibration and prediction. Dry matter predictions of independent populations of fruit achieved ranging from 0.86 to 0.92 and bias from −0.14 to 0.03%. For a CIE colour model, prediction ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 and bias from −1.18 to −0.08. Updating the calibration model with new samples to extend range in the attribute of interest and in sample matrix is key to better prediction performance. The handheld spectrometry system is recommended for practical implementation in tomato cultivation.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Alkaloids Profiling of Fumaria capreolata by Analytical Platforms Based on
           the Hyphenation of Gas Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography with
           Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    • Abstract: Two analytical platforms, gas chromatography (GC) coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to diode array (DAD) and QTOF detection, were applied in order to study the alkaloid profile of Fumaria capreolata. The use of these mass analyzers enabled tentatively identifying the alkaloids by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formulae with those previously reported in libraries and databases. Moreover, the proposed structures were corroborated by studying their fragmentation pattern obtained by both platforms. In this way, 8 and 26 isoquinoline alkaloids were characterized using GC-QTOF-MS and RP-UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS, respectively, and they belonged to the following subclasses: protoberberine, protopine, aporphine, benzophenanthridine, spirobenzylisoquinoline, morphinandienone, and benzylisoquinoline. Moreover, the latter analytical method was selected to determine at 280 nm the concentration of protopine (9.6 ± 0.7 mg/g), a potential active compound of the extract. In conclusion, although GC-MS has been commonly used for the analysis of this type of phytochemicals, RP-UHPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS provided essential complementary information. This analytical method can be applied for the quality control of phytopharmaceuticals containing Fumaria extracts currently found in the market.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Recent Studies on the Speciation and Determination of Mercury in Different
           Environmental Matrices Using Various Analytical Techniques

    • Abstract: This paper reviews the current research on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques, including the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), ICP-mass spectrometry (MS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Approximately 96 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical instruments published in international journals since 2015 were reviewed. All analytical parameters, including the limits of detection, linearity range, quality assurance and control, applicability, and interfering ions, evaluated in the reviewed articles were tabulated. In this review, we found a lack of information in speciation studies of mercury in recent years. Another important conclusion from this review was that there were few studies regarding the concentration of mercury in the atmosphere.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    • Abstract: To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying) were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W.) from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying). Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Comparison of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared, Near Infrared,
           and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopies for the Determination of
           Coffee’s Geographical Origin

    • Abstract: The sensorial properties of Colombian coffee are renowned worldwide, which is reflected in its market value. This raises the threat of fraud by adulteration using coffee grains from other countries, thus creating a demand for robust and cost-effective methods for the determination of geographical origin of coffee samples. Spectroscopic techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), near infrared (NIR), and mid-infrared (mIR) have arisen as strong candidates for the task. Although a body of work exists that reports on their individual performances, a faithful comparison has not been established yet. We evaluated the performance of 1H-NMR, Attenuated Total Reflectance mIR (ATR-mIR), and NIR applied to fraud detection in Colombian coffee. For each technique, we built classification models for discrimination by species (C. arabica versus C. canephora (or robusta)) and by origin (Colombia versus other C. arabica) using a common set of coffee samples. All techniques successfully discriminated samples by species, as expected. Regarding origin determination, ATR-mIR and 1H-NMR showed comparable capacity to discriminate Colombian coffee samples, while NIR fell short by comparison. In conclusion, ATR-mIR, a less common technique in the field of coffee adulteration and fraud detection, emerges as a strong candidate, faster and with lower cost compared to 1H-NMR and more discriminating compared to NIR.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Detailed Componential Characterization of Extractable Species with Organic
           Solvents from Wheat Straw

    • Abstract: Componential analysis of extractives is important for better understanding the structure and utilization of biomass. In this investigation, wheat straw (WS) was extracted with petroleum ether (PE) and carbon disulfide (CS2) sequentially, to afford extractable fractions and , respectively. Detailed componential analyses of and were carried out with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Total extractives were quantified 4.96% by weight compared to the initial WS sample. FTIR and GC/MS analyses results showed that PE was effective for the extraction of ketones and waxes derived compounds; meanwhile CS2 preferred ketones and other species with higher degrees of unsaturation. Steroids were enriched into and with considerable high relative contents, namely, 64.52% and 79.58%, respectively. XPS analysis showed that most of the C atoms in extractives were contained in the structures of C-C, C-COOR, and C-O. TEM-EDS and EPMA analyses were used to detect trace amount elements, such as Al, Si, P, S, Cl, and Ca atoms. Detailed characterization of extractable species from WS can provide more information on elucidation of extractives in biomass.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant
           Extracts

    • Abstract: Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis) were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Hazard Content of Cadmium, Lead, and Other Trace Elements in Some
           Medicinal Herbs and Their Water Infusions

    • Abstract: 54 samples belonging to 23 herbal species (15 individuals and 8 mixtures) were analyzed for their contents of heavy metals in the raw materials and in their water infusions. Trace and toxic elements in these samples were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) following acid digestion. The order of decreasing mean metal concentrations in raw materials (mg/kg) was found to be as follows: Fe (440) > Mn (162) > Zn (45.8) > Cu (12) > Pb (10.4) > Ni (5.4) > Cr (2.9) > Co (0.91) > Cd (0.5). It was found that 21% of the analyzed samples contain both Cd and Pb above their permissible limits. However, the infusions produced from these plants were found to contain fewer amounts of metals than the raw materials. Studied metals had the following mass transfer percentages to the infusion solutions (Fe: 3.5%, Cd: 14%, Cr: 15%, Pb: 20%, Co: 29%, Ni: 31%, Zn: 36%, Cu: 48%, and Mn: 53%). The estimated daily intake calculated for the toxic elements Pb and Cd through the consumption of herbal infusions was far below the tolerable daily intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO).
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Simple Quantification of Pentosidine in Human Urine and Plasma by
           High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    • Abstract: Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end-product (AGE) and fluorescent cross-link compound. A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the detection and quantification of pentosidine in human urine and plasma. The mobile phase used a gradient system to improve separation of pentosidine from endogenous peaks, and chromatograms were monitored by fluorescent detector set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 328 and 378 nm, respectively. The retention time for pentosidine was 24.3 min and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) in human urine and plasma were 1 nM. The intraday assay precisions (coefficients of variation) were generally low and found to be in the range of 5.19–7.49% and 4.96–8.78% for human urine and plasma, respectively. The corresponding values of the interday assay precisions were 9.45% and 4.27%. Accuracies (relative errors) ranged from 87.9% to 115%. Pentosidine was stable in a range of pH solutions, human urine, and plasma. In summary, this HPLC method can be applied in future preclinical and clinical evaluation of pentosidine in the diabetic patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction for the Analysis of Veterinary Drugs
           Applied to Food Samples: A Review

    • Abstract: To achieve analytical success, it is necessary to develop thorough clean-up procedures to extract analytes from the matrix. Dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) has been used as a pretreatment technique for the analysis of several compounds. This technique is based on the dispersion of a solid sorbent in liquid samples in the extraction isolation and clean-up of different analytes from complex matrices. DSPE has found a wide range of applications in several fields, and it is considered to be a selective, robust, and versatile technique. The applications of dispersive techniques in the analysis of veterinary drugs in different matrices involve magnetic sorbents, molecularly imprinted polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials, and the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method. Techniques based on DSPE permit minimization of additional steps such as precipitation, centrifugation, and filtration, which decreases the manipulation of the sample. In this review, we describe the main procedures used for synthesis, characterization, and application of this pretreatment technique and how it has been applied to food analysis.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hollow-Fibre-Supported Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for
           Determination of Atrazine and Triclosan in Aqueous Samples

    • Abstract: We report the application of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to hollow-fibre membrane-assisted liquid-phase microextraction and its application for extraction of atrazine and triclosan. Under optimum conditions, namely, 25 μL of a 1 : 4 chlorobenzene : ethyl acetate mixture dispersed in 1 mL of aqueous sample, 10% (m/v) NaCl, a magnetic stirrer speed at 600 rpm, and 10 minutes’ extraction time with toluene-filled fibre as the acceptor phase, the method demonstrates sufficient figures of merit. These include linearity ( ≥ 0.9975), intravial precision (%RSD ≤ 7.6), enrichment factors (127 and 142), limits of detection (0.0081 and 0.0169 µg/mL), and recovery from river water and sewerage (96–101%). The relatively high detection limits are attributed to the flame ionization detector which is less preferred than a mass spectrometer in trace analyses. This is the first report of a homogenous mixture of the dispersed organic solvent in aqueous solutions and its employment in extraction of organic compounds from aqueous solutions. It therefore adds yet another candidate in the pool of miniaturised solvent microextraction techniques.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Using Odd-Alkanes as a Carbon Source to Increase the Content of
           Nutritionally Important Fatty Acids in Candida krusei, Trichosporon
           cutaneum, and Yarrowia lipolytica

    • Abstract: We investigated the possibility of utilizing unusual carbon sources by three yeast strains: Candida krusei DBM 2136, Trichosporon cutaneum CCY 30-5-10, and Yarrowia lipolytica CCY 30-26-36. These strains are characterized by high biomass yield, ability to accumulate high amounts of lipids, and their potential as producers of dietetically important fatty acids. The aim of this work was the production of nutritionally important fatty acids by utilization of n-alkanes with an odd number of carbon atoms, alone and in combination with glucose and subsequent analysis of microbial lipids accumulation and fatty acid profile. All three yeast strains were able to grow and produce high amounts of the fatty acids of interest. Yarrowia lipolytica was found as the most suitable strain for the growth on n-alkanes (n-pentadecane and n-heptadecane) as the only source of carbon. The addition of biosurfactants rhamnolipids into the cultivation increased the ratio of heptadecenoic acid (up to 17.9% of total FAs in Y. lipolytica CCY 30-26-36, 14.9% in T. cutaneum CCY 30-5-10, and 17.5% in C. krusei DBM 2136) and the total biomass yield. The results show that, by manipulation of the initial cultivation conditions, the ratio of important fatty acids may be increased.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Application of HPTLC with Densitometry for Evaluation of the Impact of
           External Factors on Contents of Diphenhydramine in Its Solutions

    • Abstract: The subject of durability of drugs is a very important problem investigated by researches. The method of accelerated aging is very often used for stability testing. It involves the influence of temperature, humidity, and light exposure. The aim of this work is estimation of contents of diphenhydramine in its standard solutions undergoing the impact of external factors, that is, temperature and UV light. The standard solutions of diphenhydramine were prepared in distilled water. The analysis of contents of compound investigated was carried out by use of HPTLC. Adsorption thin layer chromatography was performed on aluminum HPTLC plates precoated with silica gel 60F254 using mixture of ammonia, methanol, and ethyl acetate as mobile phase. The solutions investigated were exposed to UV light as well as being heated in 40°C. The contents of diphenhydramine were measured in initial solution and during experiment. The additional peaks on densitograms as well as changes in color of solution were observed as a result of exposure to UV light which can give information about new substances, degradation products of diphenhydramine, which were created during experiment.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 09:34:24 +000
       
  • Analysis of Three Compounds in Flos Farfarae by Capillary Electrophoresis
           with Large-Volume Sample Stacking

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop a method combining an online concentration and high-efficiency capillary electrophoresis separation to analyze and detect three compounds (rutin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid) in Flos Farfarae. In order to get good resolution and enrichment, several parameters such as the choice of running buffer, pH and concentration of the running buffer, organic modifier, temperature, and separation voltage were all investigated. The optimized conditions were obtained as follows: the buffer of 40 mM NaH2P04-40 mM Borax-30% v/v methanol (pH 9.0); the sample hydrodynamic injection of up to 4 s at 0.5 psi; 20 kV applied voltage. The diode-array detector was used, and the detection wavelength was 364 nm. Based on peak area, higher levels of selective and sensitive improvements in analysis were observed and about 14-, 26-, and 5-fold enrichment of rutin, hyperoside, and chlorogenic acid were achieved, respectively. This method was successfully applied to determine the three compounds in Flos Farfarae. The linear curve of peak response versus concentration was from 20 to 400 µg/ml, 16.5 to 330 µg/mL, and 25 to 500 µg/mL, respectively. The regression coefficients were 0.9998, 0.9999, and 0.9991, respectively.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 07:49:50 +000
       
 
 
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