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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 298 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Case Reports in Medicine
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9627 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9635
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Anaphylactoid Purpura Associated with Streptococcal Cellulitis: A Case
           Report and Literature Review

    • Abstract: A 54-year-old Japanese man noticed painful swelling and redness of his left leg. He was admitted for treatment of cellulitis, which was accompanied with increased anti-streptolysin O and anti-streptokinase titers in his clinical course. After Piperacillin/Tazobactam administration, the skin lesion resolved. However, the patient then developed arthritis, palpable purpura, and intermittent abdominal pain, later found to be secondary to a severe duodenal ulcer. He was diagnosed with cellulitis-associated anaphylactoid purpura and was given prednisolone, which dramatically improved his symptoms. The anaphylactoid purpura was likely caused by Streptococcus-induced cellulitis, which was successfully treated with prednisolone. Association between these diseases is rare.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 09:35:40 +000
       
  • More Than a Decade of Misdiagnosis of Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood
           with Catastrophic Outcome

    • Abstract: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a distinct clinical disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hemiplegia, abnormal ocular movement, and progressive developmental delay. It is an extremely rare genetic disorder related to ATP1A3 gene mutations. In this paper, we present a case of AHC in which the diagnosis was missed for many years until severe hypoxic brain insult occurred from prolonged status epilepticus. Not only we are presenting an interesting clinical entity and radiological images, but also we are shedding the light on a rare genetic disease with catastrophic sequelae. The challenges in diagnosis and treatment lead to a poor outcome as seen in our case. Although early recognition and accurate diagnosis and treatment of the disease may not change the outcome, counseling of the family may change their expectation and reduce their frustration. Referral to a center with expertise in genetic disorders and access to genetic laboratories is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of this disease. Due to the rarity of this disease in Saudi Arabia, a genotype-phenotype correlation is not feasible.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 07:55:02 +000
       
  • HSV-1 Encephalitis: High Index of Clinical Suspicion, Prompt Diagnosis,
           and Early Therapeutic Intervention Are the Triptych of Success—Report of
           Two Cases and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an acute infectious disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS), usually affecting the limbic structures, the median temporal cortex, and the orbitofrontal regions. Its annual incidence has significantly increased over the last 20 years and the mortality rate is 7%, if early diagnosed and treated, and 70%, if left untreated, while it is associated with high rates of morbidity. It should be noted that even when Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis seems normal, imaging studies are not specific and HSV Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test is negative; the clinician should be more aggressive, if clinical presentation is indicative for HSV encephalitis, by administrating acyclovir early after patient’s admission. The latter may be a vital intervention for the patient, modifying the patient’s clinical course. Through the presentation of two cases of HSV-1 encephalitis that we managed in our department over the last 1 year and after systematic and comprehensive research of the relevant literature, we aim at showing the crucial role of medical history and physical examination, along with the high index of clinical suspicion, in order to make promptly the diagnosis and administer timely intravenous acyclovir, limiting the possibility of complications during the disease’s course.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Aug 2017 07:12:22 +000
       
  • A Case of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Maltitol

    • Abstract: Background. Maltitol is a sugar alcohol that is frequently used as a noncaloric sweetener, although it is also used as an excipient, a plasticizer in gelatin capsules, and an emollient. It has not been previously described as an agent involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Methods. We report on an anaphylactoid reaction with pharyngeal occlusion suffered by a 60-year-old man after ingestion of a candy containing maltitol syrup. A prick-to-prick test was performed with the candy and maltitol powder. Other allergens were excluded as causative agents of the adverse reaction, although the patient refused to undergo an oral challenge test with the candy. A basophil activation test (BAT) was performed with maltitol powder, and a dose-response curve was generated. The test was also performed in 3 healthy controls. Results. Both prick-to-prick tests were negative. The result of the BAT was positive at all the concentrations tested in the patient’s blood and negative in all the controls. Conclusions. The BAT can help to clarify the agents implicated in an adverse reaction and can reduce the risk involved in diagnosis. The BAT can also prove useful in the study of reactions caused by low-molecular-weight antigens, for which routine diagnostic tests are not feasible.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 06:56:54 +000
       
  • Popliteal Artery Entrapment or Chronic Exertional Compartment
           Syndrome'

    • Abstract: Diagnosis of lower limb pain in an athlete can be a challenging task due to the variety of potential etiologies and ambiguity of presenting symptoms. Five of the most commonly encountered causes of limb pain in athletes are chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), tibial stress fractures, soleal sling syndrome, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). Of these, the least frequent but potentially most serious of the pathologies is PAES. With an incidence of less than 1% seen in living subject studies, the condition is rare. However, a missed diagnosis will likely lead to progression of the disease and potential for unnecessary invasive procedures (McAree et al. 2008). In this paper, we present a young athlete misdiagnosed and treated for chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In both descriptive and a quick-reference table format, we review current literature and discuss how best to distinguish functional PAES from other causes of activity-related leg pain.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old
           Child with Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:43:43 +000
       
  • Donor-Cell Origin High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Synchronous with an
           Intracranial Meningioma-Like Tumor, 8 Years after Allogeneic Hematopoietic
           Stem Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    • Abstract: Secondary neoplasias are well known consequences of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for a primary cancer. In this report, we describe two rare secondary neoplasias occurring in the same patient: a meningioma-like intracranial tumor and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) of donor-cells origin, both diagnosed simultaneously, 8 years after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Due to an engraftment failure during the first allo-HSCT of a matched related donor for CLL treatment, the salvage treatment was a second allo-HSCT. At the moment of meningioma-like tumor diagnosis, the patient was pancytopenic due to high-risk MDS, so it was decided to postpone a surgical intervention until hematological improvement. For the high-risk MDS of donor-cells origin the chosen treatment was induction with intensive chemotherapy. Due to refractory disease, the patient was treated with 5-azacitidine and donor-lymphocytes infusion with no response and, finally, a third allo-HSCT of a matched unrelated donor was performed. The patient died 6 months after the third allo-HSCT, in cytogenetic remission but without hematological recovery, due to an intracranial hemorrhage with origin in the meningioma-like tumor.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 10:18:51 +000
       
  • A Challenging Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Disease When Understanding
           Limitations of Laboratory Testing Was Pivotal

    • Abstract: A 76-year-old man was incidentally found on a CT scan to have lymphadenopathy and bilateral kidney enlargement suggestive of infiltrative renal disease. He was largely asymptomatic but had bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement. A grossly elevated serum IgG (>70 g/L) with concomitant suppression of other immunoglobulins, a small IgG restriction, and a parotid biopsy revealing lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with slight kappa light chain excess all suggested a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The diagnostic workup was further confounded by a normal serum IgG4 concentration. Moreover, bone marrow and renal biopsies did not reveal evidence of LPD. Discussion with the laboratory not only clarified that the markedly increased total IgG could not be accounted for by the small IgG restriction, but also identified a discrepancy in the IgG4 measurement. Repeat analysis of a follow-up sample revealed an elevated IgG4 of 5.94 (reference interval: 0.039–0.864) g/L, which prompted a repeat parotid biopsy that showed predominant IgG4+ lymphocytic infiltrates. Despite the deluding presentations, a final diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) was made based on elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings. This case highlights the importance of recognizing limitations of laboratory testing and the benefit of close communications among clinical subspecialties and the laboratory.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 08:05:20 +000
       
  • Recurrent CSF Rhinorrhea Misdiagnosed as Chronic Allergic Rhinitis with
           Subsequent Development of Bacterial Meningitis

    • Abstract: Introduction. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness. Previously, the patient was diagnosed with chronic allergic sinusitis by multiple providers. Physical exam findings and laboratory tests were consistent with bacterial meningitis. The patient was admitted and started on appropriate antibiotic therapy. The patient continued to complain of persistent unilateral clear nasal drainage. The initial report from the computerized tomography scan of the sinuses indicated findings consistent with chronic sinusitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed findings consistent with CSF rhinorrhea. Otolaryngology was consulted for surgical intervention. Conclusion. Suspected CSF rhinorrhea should prompt immediate biochemical and radiologic evaluation and surgical consultation. CSF rhinorrhea places patients at risk of developing bacterial meningitis.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 07:00:00 +000
       
  • Unilateral Headache Status after Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Placement

    • Abstract: Introduction. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation is a catheter-based treatment for coronary artery disease and decompensated heart failure to increase coronary blood flow and improve cardiac output. IABP is generally well tolerated, and complications are usually related to peripheral vasculature or red blood cell and platelet consumption. The usual insertion site via femoral artery renders the patient bedbound. Recently, axillary artery has been used in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease and documented small arteries or in those awaiting transplant to ensure ambulation and prevent deconditioning. Case Report. We present a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular dysfunction, awaiting Orthotropic Heart Transplant. His worsening intractable angina and dyspnea necessitated IABP placement via left axillary artery, significantly improving his condition. He subsequently experienced migraine-type persistent unilateral headache refractory to standard pain management. Multiple strategies were utilized to treat his pain, but the patient insisted that his pain commenced after IABP placement. Ultimately, the removal of the pump led to complete resolution with no recurrence. Conclusion. The authors hypothesize that the unilaterally directed blood flow and direct increase in cerebral perfusion from the intra-aortic balloon pump may have caused vasodilation of the extracranial arteries, leading to a persistent and debilitating headache in this susceptible patient.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multiple Osteolytic Lesions Causing Hypercalcemia: A Rare Presentation of
           Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    • Abstract: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by unchecked proliferation of malignant lymphoblasts which replaces the normal bone marrow culminating in anemia due to red blood cells inadequacy as well as in easy bruising/bleeding secondary to insufficient platelets production. Even the white blood cells which are produced excessively are immature and abnormal. ALL is the most common hematological malignancy in children. Most commonly, patients present with lymphadenopathy, recurrent infections, bleeding, fatigue, and bone pains. Bone pains, often particularly involving long bones, occur in about 21–38% of cases and are due to overcrowding of bone marrow with malignant cells. Vast majority of children with ALL have thrombocytopenia and/or anemia with a normal or mildly elevated white blood cells count with the presence of lymphoblasts on peripheral smear. About 50% of children present with bleeding while about 75% of patients have platelet count 100,000/microL. Visceromegaly is not uncommon but osteolytic lesions and hypercalcemia are rather uncommon. We present a 22-year-old gentleman with generalized fatigue and bone pains without visceromegaly. There was severe hypercalcemia with normal parathyroid levels but multiple osteolytic lesions. Peripheral smear showed anemia without blasts, whereas a bone marrow biopsy revealed > 30% blasts with interspersed CD 10 positive cells.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 08:44:57 +000
       
  • A Unique Case for Spinal Cord Stimulation: Successful Treatment of Small
           Fiber Neuropathy Pain Using Multiple Spinal Cord Stimulators

    • Abstract: Spinal cord stimulators have commonly been used to treat multiple pain conditions. This case report represents a unique case of using multiple spinal cord stimulators for widespread small fiber neuropathy pain. This case report concerns patient JJ who first presented with generalized neuropathic pain. His pain was an intermittent burning, stinging quality that originally focused in both of his feet and progressed to include his legs and arms and eventually involved his entire body. The pain would last moments to hours at least daily. He reported a poor quality of life. He was diagnosed with small fiber neuropathy with anhydrosis, suggestive of idiopathic erythromelalgia. He had a spinal cord stimulator trial involving both cervical and lower thoracic percutaneous leads. After two spinal cord stimulators were implanted, the patient began to report an improvement in pain. The patient continues to report excellent pain relief. The patient uses the stimulator intermittently as needed, in an abortive fashion for pain flares. The patient is very pleased and has increased his activity. He now attends graduate school full time. This case report hopes to illustrate a unique use of multiple spinal cord stimulators in treating widespread neuropathic pain caused by small fiber neuropathy.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Torsion of Atypical Meckel’s Diverticulum Treated by
           Laparoscopic-Assisted Surgery

    • Abstract: Introduction. Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the intestine, with an incidence of 2~4%. Of those, only 2% of patients with MD are symptomatic. Torsion of MD is extremely rare, and only a dozen cases have been previously reported. Case Report. The patient was a 49-year-old male who presented to our emergency room with a chief complaint of lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography imaging revealed an irregular polycystic mass connected to the small intestine that measured 7.5 cm in a diameter. A laparoscopic-assisted partial resection of the jejunum was performed. The lesion was found to have caused torsion and was located 130 cm from the ileocecal valve. The specimen was polycystic in appearance and showed communicating links with the submucosal layer of jejunum but not with the lumen. The pathological diagnosis was a torsion of an atypical presentation of MD. Conclusion. This case was different from typical cases of MD in that it was located on significantly oral side and had the appearance of polycystic morphology.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Secondary Syphilis Presenting as Glossodynia, Plaques en Prairie Fauchée,
           and a Split Papule at the Oral Commissure: Case Report and Review

    • Abstract: Syphilis has been coined “the great imitator” due to its extreme heterogeneity of presentation and mimicry of other conditions. Therefore, it is essential that physicians be familiar with the full spectrum of its manifestations. Syphilis may also lead to oral lesions that, occasionally, are unaccompanied by concomitant tegumentary findings. Such patients will pose unique diagnostic challenges. We report the case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected male patient in whom secondary syphilis presented with burning mouth and dysgeusia that progressed to glossodynia and odynophagia. Examination revealed painful, shallow erosions on the posterior aspect of the tongue, in a pattern of plaques en prairie fauchée. A painful split papule (fausse perlèche or false angular cheilitis) was also present in the left commissure. There were no cutaneous lesions. The oral lesions were considered highly suggestive of secondary syphilis. A novel VDRL assay (which was previously negative) yielded a titer of 1/128. Complete clinical remission was rapidly achieved after initiation of penicillin therapy. A comprehensive review of the literature on oral manifestations of syphilis is offered.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:45:35 +000
       
  • Seronegative Autoimmune Hepatitis A Clinically Challenging Difficult
           Diagnosis

    • Abstract: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a complex liver disease of unknown cause which results in immune-mediated liver injury with varied clinical presentations. Seronegative AIH follows a similar course to autoantibody-positive disease and diagnosis may be challenging. There are no single serologic tests of sufficient diagnostic specificity, and delay in appropriate treatment may lead to progression of the liver disease and liver failure. The revised conventional diagnostic criteria (RDC) scoring for AIH is complex and not routinely used in the clinical practice. The more recent simplified diagnostic criteria (SDC) scoring proposed by International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group in 2008 has wider application in routine practice facilitating the diagnosis of AIH with a specificity and sensitivity of ~90%. In this report, we describe a case of seronegative autoimmune hepatitis diagnosed using RDC. SDC score calculated in our case was 4 and was not diagnostic for AIH. We subsequently used the complex revised diagnostic criteria for definitive diagnosis. Some of the patients previously diagnosed as cryptogenic active hepatitis of unknown etiology probably had an unrecognized diagnosis of seronegative autoimmune hepatitis. SDC scoring may not be applicable in patients with seronegative autoimmune hepatitis. These patients should be reassessed by using RDC.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2017 10:09:06 +000
       
  • A Rare Case of Primary Bilateral Adrenal Lymphoma

    • Abstract: Lymphoma may involve the adrenal glands, but primary lymphoma is rare. Only a few cases have been reported in medical literature. Primary adrenal lymphoma is extremely rare, accounting for
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Acute Appendicitis: An Extracolonic Manifestation of Clostridium difficile
           Colitis

    • Abstract: The current report is the case of a 30-year-old male patient who presented with symptomatology suggestive of appendicitis. However, careful history-taking and laboratory tests led to the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile colitis, resulting in successful nonsurgical management of this patient. Although both appendicitis and C. difficile colitis are common conditions, they are rarely diagnosed concurrently. This is reflected by paucity of literature describing this manifestation. Given this current presentation, the authors contend that the manifestation of extracolonic colitis within the appendix is possibly underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as an acute appendicitis and thus potentially results in unnecessary surgical intervention. This report reminds physicians to consider the medical approach to managing acute appendicitis given the possibility of underlying C. difficile colitis as the causative factor.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 06:42:52 +000
       
  • A Case of Atopic Myelitis with Cervical Cavernous Angioma

    • Abstract: Atopic myelitis, a type of myelitis which appears in patients with elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), occurs more commonly in the cervical spinal cord, but this mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Herein, we experienced a case of atopic myelitis developed during the growth of cervical cavernous angioma caused by bleeding. A 37-year-old woman suffered from hand swelling caused by a house cat licking. At the same time when cavernous angioma had grown, she experienced a numbness in her four extremities, and multifocal peritumoral hyperintense spinal cord signals were seen. The diagnosis of atopic myelitis was made because we observed significantly elevated levels of specific IgE antibody to cat dander. Symptoms disappeared immediately after steroid pulse therapy. We subsequently resected a cavernous angioma, and eosinophil invasion was found inside it. This is the first case report of atopic myelitis which developed in association with spinal cord vascular lesions. A local blood-brain barrier breakdown due to hemorrhagic lesions of the spinal cord may have contributed to the onset of atopic myelitis.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor with Concurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma: Three Case
           Reports and a Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors (SLCTs) make up
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multiple Bony Injuries on Bone Scan in a Case of Unsuspected Child Abuse

    • Abstract: This case is described of an eleven-month-old infant with lower limbs swelling and the left elbow skeletal malformation following a fall. The radionuclide bone scan was performed to exclude bone infection or congenital skeletal anomaly. The images unexpectedly showed multiple increased radioactive foci throughout the whole body. It was a strong probability of child abuse. All lesions are readily apparent on the following plain film radiographs and MRI.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Jun 2017 09:49:09 +000
       
  • Treatment of Severe Refractory Hematuria due to Radiation-Induced
           Hemorrhagic Cystitis with Dexamethasone

    • Abstract: Treatment of pelvic neoplasms with radiotherapy may develop sequelae, especially RHC. An 85-year-old male patient was admitted to a hospital emergency with gross hematuria leading to urinary retention and was diagnosed with RHC. The urinary bladder was probed, unobstructed, and maintained in continuous three-way saline irrigation. During 45 days of hospitalization, the patient underwent two cystoscopic procedures for urinary bladder flocculation, whole blood transfusions, and one platelet apheresis. None of these interventions led to clinical resolution. As the patient hematological condition was deteriorating, dexamethasone (4 mg i.v., bolus of 6/6, 12/12, and 24 h during five days) and epoetin alpha (1000 IU, 1 ml, s.c., for four weeks) were administered which led to the remission of the urinary bleeding. Dexamethasone therapy may be considered for RHC, when conventional treatments are not effective or are not possible, avoiding more aggressive interventions such as cystectomy.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 07:16:14 +000
       
  • An Unexpected Cause of Bradycardia in a Patient with Bacterial Meningitis

    • Abstract: Sinus bradycardia which is a sinus rhythm with a resting heart rate of less than 60 bpm is caused by intrinsic cardiac disorders like sick sinus syndrome or inferior myocardial infarction, metabolic and environmental causes (such as hypothyroidism and electrolyte disorders), medications (such as beta-blockers and amiodarone), infection (such as myocarditis), increased intracranial pressure, and toxic exposure, while it can sometimes be a normal phenomenon, especially during sleep, in athletes, and during pregnancy. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia should warrant a thorough work-up in order to identify any reversible causes; otherwise, placement of a permanent pacemaker could be needed. We present the case of a patient who was admitted due to confusion and fever and was found to have pneumococcal meningitis and bacteremia, and during his hospital stay he developed symptomatic sinus bradycardia that was of intractable cause and persistent. Placement of a permanent pacemaker was chosen until the night staff of the hospital discovered by chance the neglected cause of his bradycardia.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Incidental Thrombus in Transit Causing Embolic Stroke

    • Abstract: Thrombus in transit leading to paradoxical systemic arterial embolism is a rare echocardiographic finding in patients presenting with embolic stroke. We present a case of a patient who had an atrial thrombus in transit discovered incidentally and later suffered a fatal stroke. Etiologies of cardioembolic stroke and the use of echocardiography in diagnosis and management are briefly discussed.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 06:49:29 +000
       
  • Natural History of Invasive Papillary Breast Carcinoma Followed for 10
           Years: A Case Report and Literature Review

    • Abstract: Diachronic research on untreated breast cancer completely depends on past medical records when no more recent, advanced methods are available. Herein, we report a case of invasive papillary breast carcinoma followed for 10 years in a 59-year-old woman who refused any treatment. The diagnosis was based on core needle biopsies. At the patient’s first visit in July 2006, the tumor measured 10.4 × 7.2 × 3.5 cm. It was staged as IIIB (T4bN1). In May 2016, the tumor was staged as IIIC (T4bN3a). In the past 10 years, the tumor has increased to 12.1 × 9.0 × 4.2 cm. However, a whole-body bone scan and 18F-FDG PET/CT showed no evidence of distant metastasis. Immunohistochemistry results, corresponding to biopsies taken at subsequent examinations, have remained unaltered since 2006. The tumor was estrogen/progesterone receptor-positive and C-erbB2 expression was not detected. The Ki-67 labeling index was around 10%.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 08:48:57 +000
       
  • Systemic Embolization from an Unusual Intracardiac Mass in the Left
           Ventricular Outflow Tract

    • Abstract: Endocarditis can affect any endocardial surface; in the vast majority of cases, the cardiac valves are involved. It is exceedingly rare to develop infective endocarditis on the endocardium of the left ventricular outflow tract due to the high velocity of blood that traverses this area. Herein, we present a rare case of left ventricular outflow tract endocarditis that likely occurred secondary to damage to the aortic valve leaflets (from healed prior aortic valve endocarditis) causing a high velocity aortic valve regurgitant jet that impinged upon the interventricular septum which damaged the endocardium and resulted in a fibrotic “jet lesion.” This fibrous jet lesion served as a nidus for bacterial proliferation and vegetation formation. The high shear stress (due to high blood flow velocity through the left ventricular outflow tract) likely promoted the multiple embolic events observed in this case. Our patient was successfully treated with aortic valve replacement, vegetation resection, and antibiotics.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Repair of Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Thrombosed Infrarenal
           Component: A Modified Hybrid Technique without Aortic Cross Clamping

    • Abstract: The authors report the successful repair of a Crawford type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) with a thrombosed infrarenal component using a modified hybrid technique without aortic clamping in a high-risk patient. A 64-year-old male with a history of hypertension, diabetes, and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with acute on chronic backache and bilateral short distance claudication. A computerized tomography scan demonstrated a large, nonleaking Crawford type III TAAA with thrombosed infrarenal component of the aneurysm. In addition, both common iliac arteries were occluded with the chronic thrombus. A single-stage, modified hybrid procedure involving an aortobifemoral bypass without aortic clamping, debranching of right renal, superior mesenteric, and celiac arteries as well as an endovascular repair of the thoracic aneurysm was performed. Unfortunately, despite a technically sound repair, the patient died postoperatively from a massive pulmonary embolism. TAAA with a thrombosed infrarenal aorta and bilateral common iliac arteries can be repaired using a single-stage modified hybrid procedure without aortic clamping in high-risk patients who cannot tolerate thoracotomy and aortic cross clamping.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 May 2017 06:26:02 +000
       
  • An Exceptional Case of Intraparotid Plexiform Neurofibroma Originating
           from Autonomic Fibers of the Auriculotemporal Nerve

    • Abstract: Plexiform neurofibromas are benign tumors that tend to occur in patients suffering from neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). This report addresses a rare case where the tumor affected the parotid gland, deriving almost exclusively from the peripheral portion of the facial nerve. A 6-year-old male was referred to us complaining about a gradually enlarging swelling over the right parotid area. Imaging localized the lesion to the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, suggesting a neurofibroma. Cosmetic disfigurement and a functional deficit led us to perform complete surgical resection. Meticulous surgical dissection as well as auriculotemporal nerve origin made complete extirpation possible with almost zero morbidity and ensured alleviation of both aesthetic impairment and pain. This is the first case of an intraparotid PN in a pediatric NF-1 patient, which originated from branches of the auriculotemporal nerve and particularly from fibers of the autonomic nervous system. Radical surgical excision was decided according to established decision-making algorithms.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2017 09:07:41 +000
       
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Multiple Manifestations in a Single Patient—A
           High Suspicion Is Still Needed

    • Abstract: Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder with clinical and laboratory features of vascular thrombosis, pregnancy loss, and persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The pathophysiology is thought to involve the activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, platelets, and complement by aPLs. Disease can range from asymptomatic to rapidly fatal catastrophic APS. We present a case of a 34-year-old male referred for pancytopenia and splenomegaly. On examination, he had decreased sensation and 4/5 power in the left upper extremity. A lacy, purplish rash was noted on the trunk and upper extremity. MRI of brain showed acute/subacute lacunar infarctions. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, bilirubin and ferritin, decreased haptoglobin, and positive Coombs test. Antinuclear antibody test was negative and antiphospholipid antibody panel revealed positivity for anti-cardiolipin IgG and IgM, antiphosphatidylserine IgG, and anti-β2-glycoprotein IgG. The patient was diagnosed with primary APS. Pancytopenia is relatively rare in primary APS and is more often seen in secondary APS. Our patient demonstrated involvement of multiple organ systems as well as livedo reticularis and autoimmune-related findings such as Raynaud phenomenon and Coombs positive hemolytic anemia. We discuss the various clinical and laboratory findings in patients with APS that aid in diagnosis, as well as important management considerations.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 06:35:18 +000
       
  • A Novel Surgical Technique for Fixation of Recurrent Acromioclavicular
           Dislocations: AC Dog Bone Technique in Combination with Autogenous
           Semitendinosus Tendon Graft

    • Abstract: Various surgical techniques have been described for the fixation of acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations. However, recurrent dislocation is one of the main complications associated with the majority of these techniques. We report a case of postoperative AC joint redislocation. In order to overcome recurrent dislocation after revision surgery, a reconstruction of the conoid and trapezoid ligament with the use of a free tendon graft in combination with a FiberTape was provided within a novel surgical technique. After 12 months, the patient was very satisfied with the functional outcome. The patient achieved excellent results in the Constant (98 points), SPADI (0 points), and QuickDASH score (0 points). The described technique results in an anatomic reconstruction of the AC joint. The nonrigid nature of the intervention seems to restore the normal arthrokinematics by reconstructing the coracoclavicular ligaments with an autograft which is then protected by the AC Dog Bone artificial ligaments during the healing period. The arthroscopic approach to the AC joint with minimal exposure reduces the risks and complications of the intervention. This is the first case in literature that utilizes the artificial dog bone ligament securing the autograft in an anatomic AC reconstruction.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 06:19:09 +000
       
  • Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Unusual Behavioural
           Disturbances in an Adolescent Girl

    • Abstract: Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare autoimmune disorder with neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations and elevated titres of anti-thyroid antibodies. Here we are reporting a case of HE in a 19-year-old girl who presented with seizure-like episodes, confusion, and behavioural disturbances with catatonic symptoms such as posturing, echopraxia, echolalia, and ambivalence. Patient did not respond to antipsychotics and anticonvulsants. On further investigation, patient was found to have high serum anti-TPO antibodies of about 1261 U/mL with euthyroid status, which supported a suspicion of HE. Our consultant neurologist confirmed the diagnosis and she was started on injection of methylprednisolone 750 mg OD. Since patient started showing clinical improvement, her antipsychotic medications were tapered off. On follow-up, patient has recovered and is functioning well. Since HE is a diagnosis of exclusion, very high anti-TPO antibodies and good response to steroids supported the diagnosis of HE in this patient after excluding other etiological possibilities. This case has been reported because the clinical presentation was predominantly neurobehavioural manifestations which is uncommon with HE.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 May 2017 08:55:56 +000
       
 
 
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