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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 191)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Carbon Exchange between the Atmosphere and a Subtropical Evergreen
           Mountain Forest in Taiwan

    • Abstract: Tropical, temperate, and boreal forests are the subject of various eddy covariance studies, but less is known about the subtropical region. As there are large areas of subtropical forests in the East Asian monsoon region with possibly high carbon uptake, we used three years (2011–2013) of eddy covariance data to estimate the carbon balance of a subtropical mountain forest in Taiwan. Two techniques of flux partitioning are applied to evaluate ecosystem respiration, thoroughly evaluate the validity of the estimated fluxes, and arrive at an estimate of the yearly net ecosystem exchange (NEE). We found that advection is a strong player at our site. Further, when used alone, the nighttime flux correction with the so-called method ( = friction velocity) cannot avoid underestimating the nighttime respiration. By using a two-technique method employing both nighttime and daytime parameterizations for flux corrections, we arrive at an estimate of the three-year mean NEE of −561 (±standard deviation 114) g·C·m−2·yr−1. The corrected flux estimate represents a rather large uptake of CO2 for this mountain cloud forest, but the value is in good agreement with the few existing comparable estimates for other subtropical forests.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Studies on the Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and Their
           Sensitivity to Particle Size and Optical Parameters

    • Abstract: In this paper, based on the principle of Mie scattering, we calculated the optical parameters of BC aerosols at different scales and then applied the new optical parameters to simulate the BC aerosols concentration distribution, radiative forcing, and their climate effects. We also compared the results of optical parameters of BC aerosols with homogeneous scales and analyzed the effect on climate. Compared with the conventional uniform-scheme optical parameterization, the concentrations of the first mode of BC aerosols simulated with the optical parameters that were recalculated based on the particle size are significantly higher, while the concentrations of the other modes and the total of BC aerosols are lower. In the respective of statistics, the changes of column burdens of BC in four modes are 0.085, −0.095, −0.089, −0.054 mg/m2. The clear-sky TRF of BC are weakened in the value of 0.03 W/m2 averaged over the domain, while the all-sky TRF of BC are enhanced of  0.06 W/m2 in general. The warming effect of BC becomes weaker when using the new scheme by −0.04 K to −0.24 K. When using the new optical parameters scheme, the regional average surface concentrations of BC in four modes are 0.372, 0.264, 0.055 and 0.004 μg/m3, respectively. Especially, the first and the second mode account for as large as 53% and 38%. The surface concentration and column burden of total BC are 0.69 μg/m3 and 0.28 mg/m2 can be dropped. The regional average direct RFs of BC at the top of the atmosphere are 0.49 W/m2 under clear-sky and 0.36 W/m2 under all-sky averaged over the domain. Over most areas of central China, North China, and East China, BC may increase the temperature in a range of 0.05∼0.15 K, while over South China, BC shows cooling effect. In average, the precipitation variations caused by BC over East China, North China, South China, and Northeast China are −0.83, −0.05, −0.11, and −0.13 mm/d, respectively. As a whole, the variations of circulation, pressure, and temperature show a good correspondence.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A New Weighting Scheme in Weighted Markov Model for Predicting the
           Probability of Drought Episodes

    • Abstract: Drought is a complex stochastic natural hazard caused by prolonged shortage of rainfall. Several environmental factors are involved in determining drought classes at the specific monitoring station. Therefore, efficient sequence processing techniques are required to explore and predict the periodic information about the various episodes of drought classes. In this study, we proposed a new weighting scheme to predict the probability of various drought classes under Weighted Markov Chain (WMC) model. We provide a standardized scheme of weights for ordinal sequences of drought classifications by normalizing squared weighted Cohen Kappa. Illustrations of the proposed scheme are given by including temporal ordinal data on drought classes determined by the standardized precipitation temperature index (SPTI). Experimental results show that the proposed weighting scheme for WMC model is sufficiently flexible to address actual changes in drought classifications by restructuring the transient behavior of a Markov chain. In summary, this paper proposes a new weighting scheme to improve the accuracy of the WMC, specifically in the field of hydrology.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Resolution of Water Availability for Emilia-Romagna Region over
           1961–2015

    • Abstract: In this study, monthly time series of precipitations and temperatures from 1024 controlled and homogeneous meteorological stations located in the Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy) are processed in order to assess potential climate changes that occurred during the period 1961–2015. Normal period as baseline between 1961 and 1990 (1990s) and recent period between 1991 and 2015 (2010s) were adopted in this study to analyse the possible effect of climate change on water availability during long-term period. Based on monthly and annual temperature (TT), precipitation (PP), and potential (ET0), the actual evapotranspiration (AET0) and water availability (WA) were computed at high spatial resolution. Between the two analysed periods, during the 2010s, it was found an increase in the maximum mean annual temperature by 1.08°C while the maximum mean annual precipitation saw a slight decrease (from 2222 mm to 2086 mm). The precipitation decrease is more intense in the South and West sectors of area (8%) and mainly depends on negative changes taking place during the winter and the beginning of spring (from December to March). The maximum mean annual ET0 and AET0 reached values of 663 mm and 565 mm during the 1990s, while during the 2010s, the found values were 668 mm and 572 mm, respectively. Because of the decrease in precipitation and increase in the ET0 and AET0, the WA (the proportion of precipitation that is available at the soil surface for subsequent infiltration and runoff processes) shows a reduction (about 10–20%) in the whole region, with exception of the North-East part of the Emilia-Romagna region. The decrease in the mean annual water availability induces severe issues concerning the water resources management across the whole Emilia-Romagna region.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Nov 2018 06:52:19 +000
       
  • Impacts of Water Consumption in the Haihe Plain on the Climate of the
           Taihang Mountains, North China

    • Abstract: In this study, the RegCM4 regional climate model was employed to investigate the impacts of water consumption in the Haihe Plain on the local climate in the nearby Taihang Mountains. Four simulation tests of twelve years’ duration were conducted with various schemes of water consumption by residents, industries, and agriculture. The results indicate that water exploitation and consumption in the Haihe Plain causes wetting and cooling of the local land surface and rapid increases in the depth of the groundwater table. These wetting and cooling effects increase atmospheric moisture, which is transported to surrounding areas, including the Taihang Mountains to the west. In a simulation where water consumption in the Haihe Plain was doubled, the wetting and cooling effects in the Taihang Mountains were enhanced but at less than double the amount, because a cooler land surface does not enhance atmospheric convective activities. The impacts of water consumption activities in the Haihe Plain were more obvious during the irrigation seasons (primarily spring and summer). In addition, the land surface variables in the Taihang Mountains, e.g., sensible and latent heat fluxes, were less sensitive to the climatic impacts due to the water consumption activities in the Haihe Plain because they were strongly affected by local surface energy balance.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Nov 2018 10:47:07 +000
       
  • GPS Radio Occultation Data Assimilation in the AREM Regional Numerical
           Weather Prediction Model for Flood Forecasts

    • Abstract: Based on the Backward Four-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation (Backward-4DVar) system with the Advanced Regional Eta-coordinate Model (AREM), which is capable of assimilating radio occultation data, a heavy rainfall case study is performed using GPS radio occultation (GPS RO) data and routine GTS data on July 5, 2007. The case study results indicate that the use of radio occultation data after quality control can improve the quality of the analysis to be similar to that of the observations and, thus, have a positive effect when improving 24-hour rainfall forecasts. Batch tests for 119 days from May to August during the flood season in 2009 show that only the use of GPS RO data can make positive improvements in both 24-hour and 48-hour regional rainfall forecasts and obtain a better B score for 24-hour forecasts and better TS score for 48-hour forecasts. When using radio occultation refractivity data and conventional radiosonde data, the results indicate that radio occultation refractivity data can achieve a better performance for 48-hour forecasts of light rain and heavy rain.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Assessment of GCM Performance at a Regional Scale Using a Score-Based
           Method

    • Abstract: A multicriteria score-based method was developed to assess the performances of 18 general circulation models (GCMs) in the study region from 1970 to 2005. The results indicate the following. (1) GCMs simulate temperature better than rainfall. The temporal and spatial distributions of simulated temperature performed well compared with those from the observations. In comparison to temperature, the spatial distribution of simulated precipitation performed poorly. Most of the GCMs underestimated temperature and overestimated precipitation. (2) The Grubbs test was used to detect anomalous moving changes in the rank score (RS) results; the inm-cm4 and ipsl-cm5b-lr models were rejected when simulating temperature, while the bnu-esm and canesm2 models performed poorly when simulating precipitation. (3) Adding or removing any criterion does not significantly influence the RS result, which indicates that the multicriteria score-based method is robust. The advantages of using multicriteria score-based method to assess GCMs performance were demonstrated, and this method also provides a more comprehensive assessment when compared with the single-criterion method. The multicriteria method could replace other criteria as the research requirements and could be easily extended to different study regions; the results could be used for better informed regional climate change impact analyses.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Characteristics of Annual and Seasonal Precipitation Variation in the
           Upstream of Minjiang River, Southwestern China

    • Abstract: Characteristics of annual and seasonal precipitation variation are explored in the upstream of Minjiang River (UMR), Southwestern China, spanning from 1960 to 2015. The moment of method (MOM), linear regression method, Mann–Kendall test, sequential cluster analysis, and Morlet wavelet analysis were utilized. The results clearly show the following: (1) Distribution of precipitation is uneven in space, with more in the south and less in the southeast. Decade average of annual precipitation reached the lowest in the 2000s and increased during 2010–2015 at all gauging stations and UMR. (2) Areal annual precipitation exhibited an insignificant decreasing trend with a rate of 4.47 mm/10a, which was mainly attributable to decreased summer precipitation. Spring precipitation exhibited an insignificant increasing trend and winter precipitation remained unchanged. (3) The change points mainly appeared in the 1980s and 1990s. And the almost periods of study area were generally 2–5 years, 7–11 years, and 15–20 years. (4) The increasing trend of annual precipitation is relatively obvious at higher altitudes, while the decreasing trend is more significant at low altitude stations.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessments of GMI-Derived Precipitable Water Vapor Products over the
           South and East China Seas Using Radiosonde and GNSS

    • Abstract: Satellite remote sensing of the atmospheric water vapor distribution over the oceans is essential for both weather and climate studies. Satellite onboard microwave radiometer is capable of measuring the water vapor over the oceans under all weather conditions. This study assessed the accuracies of precipitable water vapor (PWV) products over the south and east China seas derived from the Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GMI), using radiosonde and GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) located at islands and coasts as truth. PWV measurements from 14 radiosonde and 5 GNSS stations over the period of 2014–2017 were included in the assessments. Results show that the GMI 3-day composites have an accuracy of better than 5 mm. A further evaluation shows that RMS (root mean square) errors of the GMI 3-day composites vary greatly in the range of 3∼14 mm at different radiosonde/GNSS sites. GMI 3-day composites show very good agreements with radiosonde and GNSS measured PWVs with correlation coefficients of 0.896 and 0.970, respectively. The application of GMI products demonstrates that it is possible to reveal the weather front, moisture advection, transportation, and convergence during the Meiyu rainfall. This work indicates that the GMI PWV products can contribute to various studies such as climate change, hydrologic cycle, and weather forecasting.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Extreme Precipitation Events:
           Applications of CMIP5 Climate Projections Statistically Downscaled over
           South Korea

    • Abstract: Climate change may accelerate the water cycle at a global scale, resulting in more frequent extreme climate events. This study analyzed changes in extreme precipitation events employing climate projections statistically downscaled at a station-space scale in South Korea. Among the CMIP5 climate projections, based on spatial resolution, this study selected 26 climate projections that provide daily precipitation under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5. The results show that a 20-year return period of precipitation event during a reference period (1980∼2005) corresponds to a 16.6 yr for 2011 to 2040, 14.1 yr for 2041 to 2070, and 12.8 yr for 2071 to 2100, indicating more frequent extreme maximum daily precipitation may occur in the future. In addition, we found that the probability density functions of the future periods are located out of the 10% confidence interval of the PDF for the reference period. The result indicates that the design standard under the reference climate is not managed to cope with climate change, and accordingly the revision of the design standard is required to improve sustainability in infrastructures.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 10:46:16 +000
       
  • Improving TIGGE Precipitation Forecasts Using an SVR Ensemble Approach in
           the Huaihe River Basin

    • Abstract: Recently, the use of the numerical rainfall forecast has become a common approach to improve the lead time of streamflow forecasts for flood control and reservoir regulation. The control forecasts of five operational global prediction systems from different centers were evaluated against the observed data by a series of area-weighted verification and classification metrics during May to September 2015–2017 in six subcatchments of the Xixian Catchment in the Huaihe River Basin. According to the demand of flood control safety, four different ensemble methods were adopted to reduce the forecast errors of the datasets, especially the errors of missing alarm (MA), which may be detrimental to reservoir regulation and flood control. The results indicate that the raw forecast datasets have large missing alarm errors (MEs) and cannot be directly applied to the extension of flood forecasting lead time. Although the ensemble methods can improve the performance of rainfall forecasts, the missing alarm error is still large, leading to a huge hazard in flood control. To improve the lead time of the flood forecast, as well as avert the risk from rainfall prediction, a new ensemble method was proposed on the basis of support vector regression (SVR). Compared to the other methods, the new method has a better ability in reducing the ME of the forecasts. More specifically, with the use of the new method, the lead time of flood forecasts can be prolonged to at least 3 d without great risk in flood control, which corresponds to the aim of flood prevention and disaster reduction.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 10:43:52 +000
       
  • Characteristic Features of the Evolution of a Meiyu Frontal Rainstorm with
           Doppler Radar Data Assimilation

    • Abstract: During the Meiyu period, floods are prone to occur in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River because of the highly concentrated and heavy rainfall, which caused huge life and economic losses. Based on numerical simulation by assimilating Doppler radar, radiosonde, and surface meteorological observations, the evolution mechanism for the initiation, development, and decaying of a Meiyu frontal rainstorm that occurred from 4th to 5th July 2014 is analyzed. Results show that the numerical experiment can well reproduce the temporal variability of heavy precipitation and successfully simulate accumulative precipitation and its evolution over the key rainstorm area. The simulated “rainbelt training” is consistent with observed “echo training” on both spatial structure and temporal evolution. The convective cells in the mesoscale convective belt propagated from southwest to northeast across the key rainstorm area, leading to large accumulative precipitation in this area. There existed convective instability in lower levels above the key rainstorm area, while strong ascending motion developed during the rainstorm process. Combined with abundant water vapor supply, the above condition was favorable for the formation and development of heavy rainstorm. The low-level jet (LLJ) provided sufficient energy for the rainstorm system, and the low-level convergence intensified, which was important for the maintenance of precipitation system and its eventual intensification to rainstorm. At its mature stage, the rainstorm system demonstrated vertically tilted structure with strong ascending motion in the key rainstorm area, which was favorable for the occurrence of rainstorm. In the decaying stage, unstable energy decreased and the rainstorm no longer had sufficient energy to sustain. The rapid weakening of LLJ resulted in smaller energy supply to the convective system, and the stratification tended to be stable in the middle and lower levels. The ascending motion weakened correspondingly, which made it hard for the convective system to maintain.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Oct 2018 08:44:28 +000
       
  • An Innovative Methodological Approach for Monitoring and Chemical
           Characterization of Odors around Industrial Sites

    • Abstract: This study aims to highlight the potentialities of an innovative methodological approach for monitoring and chemical characterization of odors, especially in high concern and complex industrial areas. The proposed approach was developed in order to monitor and identify odor-active compounds responsible for odor annoyance coming from different industrial activities such as landfills, wastewater treatment plants, and petroleum plants. The methodology’s strengths are as follows: (1) the tailored approach for each typology of industrial areas/sites; (2) integration of technologies able to provide real-time information about the emissive sources; (3) mapping of air pollutants on the territory aimed to identify and discriminate among different fugitive emissions responsible for odor annoyance; (4) collection of more representative air samples only during the nuisance events, thanks to the implementation of innovative sampling systems and citizens’ involvement; and (5) increased analytical sensitivity in odor-active VOCs detection. This methodology reveals to be a useful tool to collect real-time information about the emission sources and their impacts on the surrounding area giving credit to citizens’ complaints. Moreover, it allows to overcome the limitations of the conventional approaches related to the lack of instrumental sensitivity and to identify the chemical compounds contributing to the odor annoyance.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Oct 2018 09:48:13 +000
       
  • Trends in Extreme Climate Events over Three Agroecological Zones of
           Southern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The study aims to assess trends in extremes of surface temperature and precipitation through the application of the World Meteorological Organization’s (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) on datasets representing three agroecological zones in Southern Ethiopia. The indices are applied to daily temperature and precipitation data. Nonparametric Sen’s slope estimator and Mann–Kendall’s trend tests are used to detect the magnitude and statistical significance of changes in extreme climate, respectively. All agroecological zones (AEZs) have experienced both positive and negative trends of change in temperature extremes. Over three decades, warmest days, warmest nights, and coldest nights have shown significantly increasing trends except in the midland AEZ where warmest days decreased by 0.017°C/year (). Temperature extreme’s magnitude of change is higher in the highland AEZ and lower in the midland AEZ. The trend in the daily temperature range shows statistically significant decrease across AEZs (). A decreasing trend in the cold spell duration indicator was observed in all AEZs, and the magnitude of change is 0.667 days/year in lowland (), 2.259 days/year in midland, and 1 day/year in highland (). On the contrary, the number of very wet days revealed a positive trend both in the midland and highland AEZs (). Overall, it is observed that warm extremes are increasing while cold extremes are decreasing, suggesting considerable changes in the AEZs.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Oct 2018 07:34:05 +000
       
  • Ground-Based Cloud-Type Recognition Using Manifold Kernel Sparse Coding
           and Dictionary Learning

    • Abstract: Recognizing cloud type of ground-based images automatically has a great influence on the weather service but poses a significant challenge. Based on the symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrix manifold, a novel method named “manifold kernel sparse coding and dictionary learning” (MKSCDL) is proposed for cloud classification. Different from classical features extracted in the Euclidean space, the SPD matrix fuses multiple features and represents non-Euclidean geometric characteristics. MKSCDL is composed of three steps: feature extraction, dictionary learning, and classification. With the learned dictionary, the SPD matrix of the cloud image can be described with the sparse code. The experiments are conducted on two different ground-based cloud image datasets. Benefitting from the sparse representation on the Riemannian matrix manifold, compared to the recent baselines, experimental results demonstrate that MKSCDL possesses a more competitive performance on both grayscale and colour image datasets.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Oct 2018 04:36:02 +000
       
  • Drought Propagation Patterns under Naturalized Condition Using Daily
           Hydrometeorological Data

    • Abstract: Drought propagation pattern forms a basis for establishing drought monitoring and early warning. Due to its regional disparity, it is necessary and significant to investigate the pattern of drought propagation in a specific region. With the objective of improving understanding of drought propagation pattern in the Luanhe River basin, we first simulated soil moisture and streamflow in naturalized situation on daily time scale by using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The threshold level method was utilized in identifying drought events and drought characteristics. Compared with meteorological drought, the number of drought events was less and duration was longer for agricultural and hydrological droughts. The results showed that there were 3 types of drought propagation pattern: from meteorological drought to agricultural/hydrological drought (M-A/H), agricultural/hydrological drought without meteorological drought (NM-A/H), and meteorological drought only (M). To explain the drought propagation pattern, possible driven factors were determined, and the relations between agricultural/hydrological drought and the driven factors were built using multiple regression models with the coefficients of determination of 0.4 and 0.656, respectively. These results could provide valuable information for drought early warning and forecast.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Investigation of Vorticity during Prevalent Winter Precipitation in Iran

    • Abstract: In this study, precipitation data for 483 synoptic stations, and the U&V component of wind and HGT data for 4 atmospheric levels were respectively obtained from IRIMO and NCEP/NCAR databases (1961–2013). The precipitation threshold of 1 mm and a minimum prevalence of 50% were the criteria based on which the prevalent precipitation of Iran was identified. Then, vorticity of days corresponding to prevalent winter precipitation was calculated and, by performing cluster analysis, the representative days of vorticity were specified. The results showed that prevalent winter precipitation vorticity in Iran is related to the vorticity patterns of low pressure of Mediterranean-low pressure of Persian Gulf dual-core, low pressure closed of central Iran-high pressure of East Europe, Ural low pressure-Middle East High pressure, Saudi Arabia low pressure-Europe high pressure, and high-pressure belt of Siberia-low pressure of central Iran. At the same time, the most intense vorticity occurred when the climate of Iran was influenced by a massive belt pattern of Siberian high pressure-low pressure of central Iran. However, at the time of prevalent winter precipitation in Iran, an intense vorticity is drawn with the direction of Northeast and Northwest from the center of Iraq to the south of Iran.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Sep 2018 11:43:15 +000
       
  • Continentality and Oceanity in the Mid and High Latitudes of the Northern
           Hemisphere and Their Links to Atmospheric Circulation

    • Abstract: The climate continentality or oceanity is one of the main characteristics of the local climatic conditions, which varies with global and regional climate change. This paper analyzes indexes of continentality and oceanity, as well as their variations in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the period 1950–2015. Climatology and changes in continentality and oceanity are examined using Conrad’s Continentality Index (CCI) and Kerner’s Oceanity Index (KOI). The impact of Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns on continentality/oceanity conditions was also evaluated. According to CCI, continentality is more significant in Northeast Siberia and lower along the Pacific coast of North America as well as in coastal areas in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. However, according to KOI, areas of high continentality do not precisely correspond with those of low oceanity, appearing to the south and west of those identified by CCI. The spatial patterns of changes in continentality thus seem to be different. According to CCI, a statistically significant increase in continentality has only been found in Northeast Siberia. In contrast, in the western part of North America and the majority of Asia, continentality has weakened. According to KOI, the climate has become increasingly continental in Northern Europe and the majority of North America and East Asia. Oceanity has increased in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and in some parts of the Mediterranean region. Changes in continentality were primarily related to the increased temperature of the coldest month as a consequence of changes in atmospheric circulation: the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and East Atlantic (EA) patterns has dominated in winter in recent decades. Trends in oceanity may be connected with the diminishing extent of seasonal sea ice and an associated increase in sea surface temperature.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Satellite Soil Moisture and Its Applications

    • PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2018 07:34:28 +000
       
  • Surface Thermodynamic Gradients Associated with Gulf of Mexico Sea-Breeze
           Fronts

    • Abstract: High spatial/temporal resolution mobile transects were used to examine the thermal and moisture structure of the sea-breeze front (SBF) along the Mississippi coast during August 2014 and 2015. Compared to most similar studies, conditions were much warmer and more humid. Results show a 1-2 g/kg increase in mixing ratio across the mature SBF zone, and up to a 2.5°C temperature decrease. When SBF radar fine lines are identifiable, their position agrees very well with surface thermodynamic changes. Although temperatures were cooler at the coast, microscale offsets in location of thermal, moisture, and radiative features are noted in the vicinity of the SBF, particularly when the sea-breeze system is relatively weak or immature. At times, it seems that strong solar insolation causes the temperature to rise temporarily within the transition zone behind the kinematic SBF. These results are at variance with most other diagnostic studies. Some thermodynamic variations are noted within the marine air mass in connection to minor water bodies such as Biloxi Bay. The potential for passage of the SBF to at least temporarily increase human heat stress as described by heat index is also noted.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2018 07:07:10 +000
       
  • Homogeneity Test and Correction of Daily Temperature and Precipitation
           Data (1978–2015) in North China

    • Abstract: Homogeneity of climate data is the basis for quantitative assessment of climate change. By using the MASH method, this work examined and corrected the homogeneity of the daily data including average, minimum, and maximum temperature and precipitation during 1978–2015 from 404/397 national meteorological stations in North China. Based on the meteorological station metadata, the results are analyzed and the differences before and after homogenization are compared. The results show that breakpoints are present pervasively in these temperature data. Most of them appeared after 2000. The stations with a host of breakpoints are mainly located in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province, where meteorological stations are densely distributed. The numbers of breakpoints in the daily precipitation series in North China during 1978–2015 also culminated in 2000. The reason for these breakpoints, called inhomogeneity, may be the large-scale replacement of meteorological instruments after 2000. After correction by the MASH method, the annual average temperature and minimum temperature decrease by 0.04°C and 0.06°C, respectively, while the maximum temperature increases by 0.01°C. The annual precipitation declines by 0.96 mm. The overall trends of temperature change before and after the correction are largely consistent, while the homogeneity of individual stations is significantly improved. Besides, due to the correction, the majority series of the precipitation are reduced and the correction amplitude is relatively large. During 1978–2015, the temperature in North China shows a rise trend, while the precipitation tends to decrease.
      PubDate: Tue, 25 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Patterns of Biomass and Carbon Allocation across Chronosequence of Chir
           Pine (Pinus roxburghii) Forest in Pakistan: Inventory-Based Estimate

    • Abstract: The quantitative relationship between carbon sequestration potential and stand ages of Pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest is not documented in Pakistan. Using field inventory data, this study underlines the patterns of biomass and carbon allocation across a chronosequence of Chir Pine forest. Based on the uniform shelterwood silvicultural management system, the forest was classified into three stand age classes representing the young stand ( 75 years). The results showed an increasing trend in living tree biomass carbon with stand age. However, soil carbon showed gradually decreasing trend from young to overmature stand. Similarly, deadwood, litter, and understory biomass carbon showed an increase pattern of changes. Altogether, the results highlighted that the mean carbon values of all components varied between 90.3 t·C·ha−1 in the young stand and 309.5 t·C·ha−1 in the overmature stand. Furthermore, our results confirm that the current management operations affect the forest floor and soil carbon. Therefore, we suggest that different protection measures should be considered during management operations to enhance soil and forest floor carbon.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 05:45:53 +000
       
  • Comparing ALADIN-CZ and ALADIN-LAEF Precipitation Forecasts for
           Hydrological Modelling in the Czech Republic

    • Abstract: Precipitation forecasting has great significance for hydrological modelling, particularly for issuing flood alerts. This study assesses the high-resolution deterministic model ALADIN-CZ (Aire Limitée, Adaptation Dynamique, Development International–Czech Republic) and the ensemble model ALADIN-LAEF (Limited Area Ensemble Forecasting). Verified precipitation data were modified to the form in which they enter the hydrological model used for flood forecasting in the Czech Republic. ALADIN-LAEF, unlike ALADIN-CZ, is currently not considered to be of any value for hydrological predictions in the Czech Republic. In the present paper, we assess the added value of the ensemble model. The most significant rainfall events from the summer seasons during 2011–2015 were selected for the purpose of this study. The results show that ALADIN-LAEF does not have a lower success rate than ALADIN-CZ in predicting significant rainfall events. In fact, for the most verification scores and metrics, ALADIN-LAEF was assessed as more skilful. Surprisingly, the high-resolution ALADIN-CZ does not yield higher success rates than ALADIN-LAEF even at short prediction lead times. This is due to spatial aggregation into hydrological regions, with an area significantly larger than the resolution of the forecasting models. Furthermore, the relationship between synoptic weather types, hydrological regions, and predictability was considered. It was found that the worst prediction results are related to weather situation C (cyclone over central Europe), which dominantly affects Berounka and Lower Elbe catchments.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Sep 2018 03:16:27 +000
       
  • Relationship between the Optical Properties and Chemical Composition of
           Urban Aerosol Particles in Lithuania

    • Abstract: In situ investigation results of aerosol optical properties (absorption and scattering) and chemical composition at an urban background site in Lithuania (Vilnius) are presented. Investigation was performed in May-June 2017 using an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), a 7-wavelength Aethalometer and a 3-wavelength integrating Nephelometer. A positive matrix factorisation (PMF) was used for the organic aerosol mass spectra analysis to characterise the sources of ambient organic aerosol (OA). Five OA factors were identified: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass-burning OA (BBOA), more and less oxygenated OA (LVOOA and SVOOA, respectively), and local hydrocarbon-like OA (LOA). The average absorption (at 470 nm) and scattering (at 450 nm) coefficients during the entire measurement campaign were 16.59 Mm−1 (standard deviation (SD) = 17.23 Mm−1) and 29.83 Mm−1 (SD = 20.45 Mm−1), respectively. Furthermore, the absorption and scattering Angström exponents (AAE and SAE, respectively) and single-scattering albedo (SSA) were calculated. The average AAE value at 470/660 nm was 0.97 (SD = 0.16) indicating traffic-related black carbon (BCtr) dominance. The average value of SAE (at 450/700 nm) was 1.93 (SD = 0.32) and could be determined by the submicron particle (PM1) dominance versus the supermicron ones (PM > 1 µm). The average value of SSA was 0.62 (SD = 0.13). Several aerosol types showed specific segregation in the SAE versus SSA plot, which underlines different optical properties due to various chemical compositions.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Sep 2018 06:52:22 +000
       
  • Assessing the Sustainability of Ski Fields in Southern Japan under Global
           Warming

    • Abstract: This is the first study in assessing the impact of climate change on Japanese ski fields with ensemble dynamical downscaling simulations. We target three ski fields in Ehime Prefecture, a southern border area for skiing in Japan. Our field survey revealed that a field located above 1200 m altitudes currently operates on natural snow supply, but those located at lower altitudes depend solely or partially on artificial snow supply. Fields are currently open for 82∼105 days. We analyzed ensemble high-resolution (5 km) dynamical downscaling simulations for future ski season durations with natural and artificial snow supplies. The future projection results for the end of the twenty-first century suggested that there would be virtually no natural snow accumulation in the study area for skiing. With artificial snow supply, a field located above 1200 m would be able to retain more than two months of ski season duration. Fields located at lower altitudes would only be able to open for 37∼43 days even with artificial snow supply. While the above projections suggest a severe outlook for the targeted ski fields, it is important to note that there is a strong demand from local skiers at beginner/intermediate levels for these ski fields. Thus, as long as these demands remain in the future, and if a business model to maximize profit during short opening periods is established, it may be possible to offset profit loss due to climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Sep 2018 02:10:43 +000
       
  • The Comparison of Grey System and the Verhulst Model for Rainfall and
           Water in Dam Prediction

    • Abstract: A time series of data of rainfall in Thailand between the years 2005 and 2015 was employed to predict possible future rainfall based on Julong Deng’s grey systems theory and the grey Verhulst model to see which model can predict more accurately with uncertain and limited data. Firstly, the rainfall data were arranged to display the overall patterns of rainfall volume along with its frequency as well as the temperature during Thailand’s rainy seasons. This makes it possible to see the cycle of rainfall, which is too long for people to intuitively understand the nature of precipitation. One puzzling phenomenon that has made rainfall forecast elusive is the unpredictability of the haphazard nature of rainfall in Thailand. A more precise prediction would certainly result in a better control of water volume in rivers and dams for fruitful agricultural business and adequate human consumption. This can also prevent the flooding that can devastate the economy and transportation of the whole country and also tremendously improve the future water management policy in many ways. This effective prediction could also be employed elsewhere around the globe for similar benefits. Hence, the grey systems theory and the grey Verhulst model are juxtaposed to determine a better prediction possible.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 08:15:49 +000
       
  • Effects of Landscape Design on Urban Microclimate and Thermal Comfort in
           Tropical Climate

    • Abstract: A climate-responsive landscape design can create a more livable urban microclimate with adequate human comfortability. This paper aims to quantitatively investigate the effects of landscape design elements of pavement materials, greenery, and water bodies on urban microclimate and thermal comfort in a high-rise residential area in the tropic climate of Singapore. A comprehensive field measurement is undertaken to obtain real data on microclimate parameters for calibration of the microclimate-modeling software ENVI-met 4.0. With the calibrated ENVI-met, seven urban landscape scenarios are simulated and their effects on thermal comfort as measured by physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are evaluated. It is found that the maximum improvement of PET reduction with suggested landscape designs is about 12°C, and high-albedo pavement materials and water bodies are not effective in reducing heat stress in hot and humid climate conditions. The combination of shade trees over grass is the most effective landscape strategy for cooling the microclimate. The findings from the paper can equip urban designers with knowledge and techniques to mitigate urban heat stress.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Use of SPEI and TVDI to Assess Temporal-Spatial Variations in Drought
           Conditions in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin,
           China

    • Abstract: Droughts represent the most complex and damaging type of natural disaster, and they have taken place with increased frequency in China in recent years. Values of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) calculated using station-based meteorological data collected from 1961 to 2013 in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin (MLRYRB) are used to monitor droughts. In addition, the SPEI is determined for different timescales (1, 3, 6, and 12 months) to characterize dry or wet conditions in this study area. Moreover, remote sensing methods can cover large areas, and multispectral and temporal observations are provided by satellite sensors. The temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) is selected to permit assessment of drought conditions. In addition, the correlation between the SPEI and TVDI values is calculated. The results show that the SPEI values over different timescales reflect complex variations in drought conditions and have been well applied in the MLRYRB. Droughts occurred on an annual basis in 1963, 1966, 1971, 1978, 1979, 1986, 2001, 2011, and 2013, particularly 2011. In addition, the regional average drought frequency in the study area during 1961–2013 is 30%, as determined using the SPEI. An analysis of the correlation between the monthly values of the TVDI and the SPEI-3 shows that a negative relationship exists between the SPEI-3 and the TVDI. That is, smaller TVDI values are associated with greater SPEI-3 values and reduced drought conditions, whereas larger TVDI values are associated with smaller SPEI-3 values and enhanced drought conditions. Therefore, this study of the relationship between the SPEI and the TVDI can provide a basis for government to mitigate the effects of drought.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variation Characteristics of Vegetative PUE in China from
           2000 to 2015

    • Abstract: Vegetative precipitation-use efficiency (PUE) is a key indicator for evaluating the dynamic response of vegetation productivity to the spatiotemporal variation in precipitation. It is also an important indicator for reflecting the relationship between the water and carbon cycles in a vegetation ecosystem. This paper uses data from MODIS Net Primary Production (NPP) and China’s spatial interpolation data for precipitation from 2000 to 2015 to calculate the annual value, multiyear mean value, interannual standard deviation, and interannual linear trend of Chinese terrestrial vegetative PUE over the past 16 years. Based on seven major administrative regions, eleven vegetation types, and four climate zones, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of China’s vegetative PUE. The research results are shown as follows: (1) China’s vegetative PUE shows obvious spatial variation characteristics, and it is relatively stable interannually, with an overall slight increasing trend, especially in Northwest and Southwest China. The vegetative PUE is higher, and its stability is declined in Xinjiang, western Gansu, and the southern Tibetan valley. The vegetative PUE is lower, and its stability is increased in northeastern Tibet and southwestern Qinghai. An increasing trend in vegetative PUE is obvious at the edge of the Tarim Basin, in western Gansu, the southern Tibetan valley, and northwestern Yunnan. (2) There is a significant difference in the PUEs among different vegetation types. The average PUE of Broadleaf Forest is the highest, and the average PUE of Alpine Vegetation is the lowest. The stability of the PUE of Mixed Coniferous and Broadleaf Forest is declined, and the stability of the PUE of Alpine Vegetation is increased. The increasing speed of the PUE of Grass-forb Community is the fastest, and the decreasing speed of the PUE of Swamp is the fastest. (3) There is a significant difference in the PUEs among different vegetation types in the same climate zone, the difference in vegetative PUE in arid and semiarid regions is mainly affected by precipitation, and the difference in vegetative PUE in humid and semihumid regions is mainly affected by soil factors. The PUEs of the same vegetation type are significantly different among climate zones. The average PUE of Cultural Vegetation has the largest difference, the stability of the PUE of Steppe has the largest difference, and the increasing speed of the PUE of Swamp has the largest difference.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Intercomparison of Downscaling Techniques for Satellite Soil Moisture
           Products

    • Abstract: During recent decades, various downscaling methods of satellite soil moisture (SM) products, which incorporate geophysical variables such as land surface temperature and vegetation, have been studied for improving their spatial resolution. Most of these studies have used least squares regression models built from those variables and have demonstrated partial improvement in the downscaled SM. This study introduces a new downscaling method based on support vector regression (SVR) that includes the geophysical variables with locational weighting. Regarding the in situ SM, the SVR downscaling method exhibited a smaller root mean square error, from 0.09 to 0.07 m3·m−3, and a larger average correlation coefficient increased, from 0.62 to 0.68, compared to the conventional method. In addition, the SM downscaled using the SVR method had a greater statistical resemblance to that of the original advanced scatterometer SM. A residual magnitude analysis for each model with two independent variables was performed, which indicated that only the residuals from the SVR model were not well correlated, suggesting a more effective performance than regression models with a significant contribution of independent variables to residual magnitude. The spatial variations of the downscaled SM products were affected by the seasonal patterns in temperature-vegetation relationships, and the SVR downscaling method showed more consistent performance in terms of seasonal effect. Based on these results, the suggested SVR downscaling method is an effective approach to improve the spatial resolution of satellite SM measurements.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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