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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 21  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Assessing the Sustainability of Ski Fields in Southern Japan under Global
           Warming

    • Abstract: This is the first study in assessing the impact of climate change on Japanese ski fields with ensemble dynamical downscaling simulations. We target three ski fields in Ehime Prefecture, a southern border area for skiing in Japan. Our field survey revealed that a field located above 1200 m altitudes currently operates on natural snow supply, but those located at lower altitudes depend solely or partially on artificial snow supply. Fields are currently open for 82∼105 days. We analyzed ensemble high-resolution (5 km) dynamical downscaling simulations for future ski season durations with natural and artificial snow supplies. The future projection results for the end of the twenty-first century suggested that there would be virtually no natural snow accumulation in the study area for skiing. With artificial snow supply, a field located above 1200 m would be able to retain more than two months of ski season duration. Fields located at lower altitudes would only be able to open for 37∼43 days even with artificial snow supply. While the above projections suggest a severe outlook for the targeted ski fields, it is important to note that there is a strong demand from local skiers at beginner/intermediate levels for these ski fields. Thus, as long as these demands remain in the future, and if a business model to maximize profit during short opening periods is established, it may be possible to offset profit loss due to climate change.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Sep 2018 02:10:43 +000
       
  • The Comparison of Grey System and the Verhulst Model for Rainfall and
           Water in Dam Prediction

    • Abstract: A time series of data of rainfall in Thailand between the years 2005 and 2015 was employed to predict possible future rainfall based on Julong Deng’s grey systems theory and the grey Verhulst model to see which model can predict more accurately with uncertain and limited data. Firstly, the rainfall data were arranged to display the overall patterns of rainfall volume along with its frequency as well as the temperature during Thailand’s rainy seasons. This makes it possible to see the cycle of rainfall, which is too long for people to intuitively understand the nature of precipitation. One puzzling phenomenon that has made rainfall forecast elusive is the unpredictability of the haphazard nature of rainfall in Thailand. A more precise prediction would certainly result in a better control of water volume in rivers and dams for fruitful agricultural business and adequate human consumption. This can also prevent the flooding that can devastate the economy and transportation of the whole country and also tremendously improve the future water management policy in many ways. This effective prediction could also be employed elsewhere around the globe for similar benefits. Hence, the grey systems theory and the grey Verhulst model are juxtaposed to determine a better prediction possible.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Sep 2018 08:15:49 +000
       
  • Effects of Landscape Design on Urban Microclimate and Thermal Comfort in
           Tropical Climate

    • Abstract: A climate-responsive landscape design can create a more livable urban microclimate with adequate human comfortability. This paper aims to quantitatively investigate the effects of landscape design elements of pavement materials, greenery, and water bodies on urban microclimate and thermal comfort in a high-rise residential area in the tropic climate of Singapore. A comprehensive field measurement is undertaken to obtain real data on microclimate parameters for calibration of the microclimate-modeling software ENVI-met 4.0. With the calibrated ENVI-met, seven urban landscape scenarios are simulated and their effects on thermal comfort as measured by physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) are evaluated. It is found that the maximum improvement of PET reduction with suggested landscape designs is about 12°C, and high-albedo pavement materials and water bodies are not effective in reducing heat stress in hot and humid climate conditions. The combination of shade trees over grass is the most effective landscape strategy for cooling the microclimate. The findings from the paper can equip urban designers with knowledge and techniques to mitigate urban heat stress.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Use of SPEI and TVDI to Assess Temporal-Spatial Variations in Drought
           Conditions in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River Basin,
           China

    • Abstract: Droughts represent the most complex and damaging type of natural disaster, and they have taken place with increased frequency in China in recent years. Values of the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) calculated using station-based meteorological data collected from 1961 to 2013 in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin (MLRYRB) are used to monitor droughts. In addition, the SPEI is determined for different timescales (1, 3, 6, and 12 months) to characterize dry or wet conditions in this study area. Moreover, remote sensing methods can cover large areas, and multispectral and temporal observations are provided by satellite sensors. The temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) is selected to permit assessment of drought conditions. In addition, the correlation between the SPEI and TVDI values is calculated. The results show that the SPEI values over different timescales reflect complex variations in drought conditions and have been well applied in the MLRYRB. Droughts occurred on an annual basis in 1963, 1966, 1971, 1978, 1979, 1986, 2001, 2011, and 2013, particularly 2011. In addition, the regional average drought frequency in the study area during 1961–2013 is 30%, as determined using the SPEI. An analysis of the correlation between the monthly values of the TVDI and the SPEI-3 shows that a negative relationship exists between the SPEI-3 and the TVDI. That is, smaller TVDI values are associated with greater SPEI-3 values and reduced drought conditions, whereas larger TVDI values are associated with smaller SPEI-3 values and enhanced drought conditions. Therefore, this study of the relationship between the SPEI and the TVDI can provide a basis for government to mitigate the effects of drought.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variation Characteristics of Vegetative PUE in China from
           2000 to 2015

    • Abstract: Vegetative precipitation-use efficiency (PUE) is a key indicator for evaluating the dynamic response of vegetation productivity to the spatiotemporal variation in precipitation. It is also an important indicator for reflecting the relationship between the water and carbon cycles in a vegetation ecosystem. This paper uses data from MODIS Net Primary Production (NPP) and China’s spatial interpolation data for precipitation from 2000 to 2015 to calculate the annual value, multiyear mean value, interannual standard deviation, and interannual linear trend of Chinese terrestrial vegetative PUE over the past 16 years. Based on seven major administrative regions, eleven vegetation types, and four climate zones, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of China’s vegetative PUE. The research results are shown as follows: (1) China’s vegetative PUE shows obvious spatial variation characteristics, and it is relatively stable interannually, with an overall slight increasing trend, especially in Northwest and Southwest China. The vegetative PUE is higher, and its stability is declined in Xinjiang, western Gansu, and the southern Tibetan valley. The vegetative PUE is lower, and its stability is increased in northeastern Tibet and southwestern Qinghai. An increasing trend in vegetative PUE is obvious at the edge of the Tarim Basin, in western Gansu, the southern Tibetan valley, and northwestern Yunnan. (2) There is a significant difference in the PUEs among different vegetation types. The average PUE of Broadleaf Forest is the highest, and the average PUE of Alpine Vegetation is the lowest. The stability of the PUE of Mixed Coniferous and Broadleaf Forest is declined, and the stability of the PUE of Alpine Vegetation is increased. The increasing speed of the PUE of Grass-forb Community is the fastest, and the decreasing speed of the PUE of Swamp is the fastest. (3) There is a significant difference in the PUEs among different vegetation types in the same climate zone, the difference in vegetative PUE in arid and semiarid regions is mainly affected by precipitation, and the difference in vegetative PUE in humid and semihumid regions is mainly affected by soil factors. The PUEs of the same vegetation type are significantly different among climate zones. The average PUE of Cultural Vegetation has the largest difference, the stability of the PUE of Steppe has the largest difference, and the increasing speed of the PUE of Swamp has the largest difference.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Intercomparison of Downscaling Techniques for Satellite Soil Moisture
           Products

    • Abstract: During recent decades, various downscaling methods of satellite soil moisture (SM) products, which incorporate geophysical variables such as land surface temperature and vegetation, have been studied for improving their spatial resolution. Most of these studies have used least squares regression models built from those variables and have demonstrated partial improvement in the downscaled SM. This study introduces a new downscaling method based on support vector regression (SVR) that includes the geophysical variables with locational weighting. Regarding the in situ SM, the SVR downscaling method exhibited a smaller root mean square error, from 0.09 to 0.07 m3·m−3, and a larger average correlation coefficient increased, from 0.62 to 0.68, compared to the conventional method. In addition, the SM downscaled using the SVR method had a greater statistical resemblance to that of the original advanced scatterometer SM. A residual magnitude analysis for each model with two independent variables was performed, which indicated that only the residuals from the SVR model were not well correlated, suggesting a more effective performance than regression models with a significant contribution of independent variables to residual magnitude. The spatial variations of the downscaled SM products were affected by the seasonal patterns in temperature-vegetation relationships, and the SVR downscaling method showed more consistent performance in terms of seasonal effect. Based on these results, the suggested SVR downscaling method is an effective approach to improve the spatial resolution of satellite SM measurements.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Combining of the H/A/Alpha and Freeman–Durden Polarization Decomposition
           Methods for Soil Moisture Retrieval from Full-Polarization Radarsat-2 Data
           

    • Abstract: Soil moisture (SM) plays important roles in surface energy conversion, crop growth, environmental protection, and drought monitoring. As crops grow, the associated vegetation seriously affects the ability of satellites to retrieve SM data. Here, we collected such data at different growth stages of maize using Bragg and X-Bragg scattering models based on the Freeman–Durden polarization decomposition method. We used the H/A/Alpha polarization decomposition approach to extract accurate threshold values of decomposed scattering components. The results showed that the H and Alpha values of bare soil areas were lower and those of vegetated areas were higher. The threshold values of the three scattering components were 0.2–0.4 H and 7–24° Alpha for the surface scattering component, 0.6–0.9 H and 22–50° Alpha for the volume scattering component, and other values for the dihedral scattering component. The SM data retrieved (using the X-Bragg model) on June 27, 2014, were better than those retrieved at other maize growth stages and were thus associated with the minimum root-mean-square error value (0.028). The satellite-evaluated SM contents were in broad agreement with data measured in situ. Our algorithm thus improves the accuracy of SM data retrieval from synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends in Extreme Temperature Events in
           Finland over the Recent Decades: Influence of Northern Hemisphere
           Teleconnection Patterns

    • Abstract: Fifteen temperature indices recommended by the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) were applied to evaluate spatiotemporal variability and trends in annual intensity, frequency, and duration of extreme temperature statistics in Finland during 1961–2011. Statistically significant relationships between these high-resolution (10 km) temperature indices and seven influential Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns (NHTPs) for the interannual climate variability were also identified. During the study period (1961–2011), warming trends in extreme temperatures were generally manifested by statistically significant increases in cold temperature extremes rather than in the warm temperature extremes. As expected, warm days and nights became more frequent, while fewer cold days and nights occurred. The frequency of frost and icing days also decreased. Finland experienced more (less) frequent warm (cold) temperature extremes over the past few decades. Interestingly, significant lengthening in cold spells was observed over the upper part of northern Finland, while no clear changes are found in warm spells. Interannual variations in the temperature indices were significantly associated with a number of NHTPs. In general, warm temperature extremes show significant correlations with the East Atlantic and the Scandinavia patterns and cold temperature extremes with the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation patterns.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Dynamical Z-R Relationship for Precipitation Estimation Based on Radar
           Echo-Top Height Classification

    • Abstract: Using echo-top height and hourly rainfall datasets, a new reflectivity-rainfall (Z-R) relationship is established in the present study for the radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (RQPE), taking into account both the temporal evolution (dynamical) and the types of echoes (i.e., based on echo-top height classification). The new Z-R relationship is then applied to derive the RQPE over the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River for two short-time intense rainfall cases in summer (2200 UTC 1 June 2016 and 2200 UTC 18 June 2016) and one stratiform rainfall case in winter (0000 UTC 15 December 2017), and then the comparative analyses between the RQPE and the RQPEs derived by the other two methods (the fixed Z-R relationship and the dynamical Z-R relationship based on radar reflectivity classification) are accomplished. The results show that the RQPE from the new Z-R relationship is much closer to the observation than those from the other two methods because the new method simultaneously considers the echo intensity (reflecting the size and concentration of hydrometers to a certain extent) and the echo-top height (reflecting the updraft to a certain extent). Two statistics of 720 rainfall events in summer (April to June 2017) and 50 rainfall events in winter (December 2017) over the same region show that the correlation coefficient (root-mean-squared error and relative error) between RQPE derived by the new Z-R relationship and observation is significantly increased (decreased) compared to the other two Z-R relationships. Besides, the new Z-R relationship is also good at estimating rainfall with different intensities as compared to the other two methods, especially for the intense rainfall.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Combined Use of GF-3 and Landsat-8 Satellite Data for Soil Moisture
           Retrieval over Agricultural Areas Using Artificial Neural Network

    • Abstract: Soil moisture is the basic condition required for crop growth and development. Gaofen-3 (GF-3) is the first C-band synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite of China, offering broad land and ocean imaging applications, including soil moisture monitoring. This study developed an approach to estimate soil moisture in agricultural areas from GF-3 data. An inversion technique based on an artificial neural network (ANN) is introduced. The neural network was trained and tested on a training sample dataset generated from the Advanced Integral Equation Model. Incidence angle and HH or VV polarization data were used as input variables of the ANN, with soil moisture content (SMC) and surface roughness as the output variables. The backscattering contribution from the vegetation was eliminated using the water cloud model (WCM). The acquired soil backscattering coefficients of GF-3 and in situ measurement data were used to validate the SMC estimation algorithm, which achieved satisfactory results (R2 = 0.736; RMSE = 0.042). These results highlight the contribution of the combined use of the GF-3 synthetic-aperture radar and Landsat-8 images based on an ANN method for improving SMC estimates and supporting hydrological studies.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Aug 2018 10:46:41 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Morphological and Chemical Properties of Particulate
           Matter in the Dammam Metropolitan Region: Dhahran, Khobar, and Dammam,
           Saudi Arabia”

    • PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Nonlocal Inadvertent Weather Modification Associated with Wind Farms in
           the Central United States

    • Abstract: Local effects of inadvertent weather changes within and near wind farms have been well documented by a number of modeling studies and observational campaigns; however, the broader nonlocal atmospheric effects of wind farms are much less clear. The goal of this study is to determine whether wind farm-induced perturbations are able to evolve over periods of days, and over areas of thousands of square kilometers, to modify specific atmospheric features that have large impacts on society and the environment, specifically midlatitude and tropical cyclones. Here, an ensemble modeling approach is utilized with a wind farm parameterization to quantify the sensitivity of meteorological variables to the presence of wind farms. The results show that perturbations to nonlocal midlatitude cyclones caused by a wind farm are statistically significant, with magnitudes of roughly 1 hPa for mean sea-level pressure, 4 m/s for surface wind speed, and 15 mm for maximum 30-minute accumulated precipitation. Cyclone perturbation magnitude is also found to be dependent on wind farm size and location relative to the midlatitude cyclone genesis region and track.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Aug 2018 07:27:51 +000
       
  • Investigation of the Air Pollution Event in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
           in December 2016 Using WRF-Chem

    • Abstract: The online coupled weather research and forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to investigate an air pollution event during December 2016 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. Evaluation indicates that WRF-Chem captured the main weather conditions and pollutant distribution in this event. The primary meteorological drivers of air pollution formation were stationary atmospheric flows in both vertical and horizontal directions. High relative humidity and a strong temperature inversion accelerated event formation. In the shallow temperature inversion layer, aerosol particles were strongly confined near the surface, producing high surface contaminant concentrations. In addition, based on a normal experiment, three sensitivity experiments were constructed by adding hypothetical terrain (HT) of 400, 300, and 200 meters, over the region 115°E, 38.8°N to 117.54°E, 38.8°N. The results indicate that pollutants were diffused and transported below 400 meters, and the pollutant amounts concentrated south of the HT because of the HT blocking effect. Nevertheless, because there were less total contaminants north of the HT in the normal run, there was a slight decrease in pollutants north of the HT. There were some increases in pollution north of the HT because of local emissions, which were obstructed by the HT. The higher the HT, the stronger the blocking effect.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jul 2018 08:42:28 +000
       
  • Evaluation of CMIP5 Global Climate Models over the Volta Basin:
           Precipitation

    • Abstract: A selected number of global climate models (GCMs) from the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) were evaluated over the Volta Basin for precipitation. Biases in models were computed by taking the differences between the averages over the period (1950–2004) of the models and the observation, normalized by the average of the observed for the annual and seasonal timescales. The Community Earth System Model, version 1-Biogeochemistry (CESM1-BGC), the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4), the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, Medium Range (MPI-ESM-MR), the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1-M), and the multimodel ensemble mean were able to simulate the observed climatological mean of the annual total precipitation well (average biases of 1.9% to 7.5%) and hence were selected for the seasonal and monthly timescales. Overall, all the models (CESM1-BGC, CCSM4, MPI-ESM-MR, and NorESM1-M) scored relatively low for correlation (
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 06:38:58 +000
       
  • CFD Analysis of Urban Canopy Flows Employing the V2F Model: Impact of
           Different Aspect Ratios and Relative Heights

    • Abstract: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is currently used in the environmental field to simulate flow and dispersion of pollutants around buildings. However, the closure assumptions of the turbulence usually employed in CFD codes are not always physically based and adequate for all the flow regimes relating to practical applications. The starting point of this work is the performance assessment of the V2F (i.e.,  − f) model implemented in Ansys Fluent for simulating the flow field in an idealized array of two-dimensional canyons. The V2F model has been used in the past to predict low-speed and wall-bounded flows, but it has never been used to simulate airflows in urban street canyons. The numerical results are validated against experimental data collected in the water channel and compared with other turbulence models incorporated in Ansys Fluent (i.e., variations of both k-ε and k-ω models and the Reynolds stress model). The results show that the V2F model provides the best prediction of the flow field for two flow regimes commonly found in urban canopies. The V2F model is also employed to quantify the air-exchange rate (ACH) for a series of two-dimensional building arrangements, such as step-up and step-down configurations, having different aspect ratios and relative heights of the buildings. The results show a clear dependence of the ACH on the latter two parameters and highlight the role played by the turbulence in the exchange of air mass, particularly important for the step-down configurations, when the ventilation associated with the mean flow is generally poor.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Climatology and Teleconnections of Mesoscale Convective Systems in an
           Andean Basin in Southern Ecuador: The Case of the Paute Basin

    • Abstract: Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) climatology, the thermodynamic and dynamical variables, and teleconnections influencing MCSs development are assessed for the Paute basin (PB) in the Ecuadorian Andes from 2000 to 2009. The seasonality of MCSs occurrence shows a bimodal pattern, with higher occurrence during March-April (MA) and October-November (ON), analogous to the regional rainfall seasonality. The diurnal cycle of MCSs shows a clear nocturnal occurrence, especially during the MA and ON periods. Interestingly, despite the higher occurrence of MCSs during the rainy seasons, the monthly size relative frequency remains fairly constant throughout the year. On the east of the PB, the persistent high convective available potential and low convective inhibition values from midday to nighttime are likely related to the nocturnal development of the MCSs. A significant positive correlation between the MCSs occurrence to the west of the PB and the Trans-Niño index was found, suggesting that ENSO is an important source of interannual variability of MCSs frequency with increasing development of MCSs during warm ENSO phases. On the east of the PB, the variability of MCSs is positively correlated to the tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies south of the equator, due to the variability of the Atlantic subtropical anticyclone, showing main departures from this relation when anomalous conditions occur in the tropical Pacific due to ENSO.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 09:22:26 +000
       
  • Simulation of Daily Rainfall from Concurrent Meteorological Parameters
           over Core Monsoon Region of India: A Novel Approach

    • Abstract: In the present work, daily rainfall is simulated over the core monsoon region of India by using a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. Daily rainfall is found to be optimally dependent on four concurrent meteorological parameters, namely, geopotential height, specific humidity, zonal, and meridional wind at 1000 mb, 925 mb, 850 mb, and 700 mb pressure levels during 00, 06, 12, and 18 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The architecture of the optimized feedforward MLP model consists of 64 nodes in the input layer, 10 nodes in the hidden layer, and 1 node in the output layer. The results from the model are compared with the 3B42 (version 7) rainfall product. In terms of root mean square error (rmse) and correlation coefficient (cc), the model is performing better compared to the satellite-derived 3B42 rainfall product, whereas in terms of bias, the performance of the 3B42 product is better compared to the model. The weight matrices of the feedforward MLP model are estimated at a particular location (22.5°N, 82.5°E). These weight matrices are able to simulate daily rainfall at neighbourhood locations also with reasonably good accuracy with cc in the range of 0.41 to 0.55. The performance of the model improves in case of an aerial average of daily rainfall with significantly enhanced cc (0.72). The model is able to capture monthly and intraseasonal variation of rainfall with reasonably good accuracy, with cc of 0.88 and 0.68, respectively. The simulation model has a limitation that it is not able to simulate extreme high rainfall events (>60 mm/day). Overall, the developed model is performing reasonably well. This approach has a potential to be used as a rain parameterization scheme in the dynamical atmospheric and coupled models to simulate daily rainfall. Nevertheless, the present approach can also be used for multistep prediction of rainfall.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multiresolution Analysis of the Relationship of Solar Activity, Global
           Temperatures, and Global Warming

    • Abstract: Sunspot number is an important parameter for presenting the intensity of solar activity. Based on the sunspot number series, which has been replaced by a new improved version since 2015, we confirm that the sunspot number has significant variations at 11-year and 112-year periods. The sunspot number has also increased from 1700 to 2016 with 0.08 annual increments on the basis of wavelet analysis and least-square fitting. We further confirm that global temperatures are remarkable in 22-year and 64-year cycles. The result of wavelet transform coherence (WTC) analysis suggests that solar activity has a positive lag effect on global temperatures in the period band of 22 years with a 3-year lag. However, the linearly increasing global temperature has hampered WTC analysis since 1960. Aiming to solve this problem, we apply wavelet decomposition and cross correlation to determine whether the aforementioned lag effect in the period band of 22 years has a 2-year lag rather than a 3-year lag. We find that the 22-year magnetic field solar cycle plays a greater role in global climate change than the 11-year sunspot cycle. In addition, we notice that the solar activity is not a representation of the driving force of the upward trend of global temperature after the industrial age. The Granger causality test results demonstrate that the phenomenon of the global warming is caused by excessive CO2 emissions.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Global and Regional Remote Sensing Precipitation Estimation, Evaluation,
           and Applications

    • PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Assessing Prone Areas to Heavy Rainfall and the Impaction of the Upper
           Warm Temperature Anomaly during March–May Rainfall Season in Tanzania

    • Abstract: This study analyses the spatial and temporal distribution of heavy rainfall events (HREs) and its associated circulation anomalies over Tanzania during March to May (MAM) rainfall season of 1980–2010. A total of 822 HREs were revealed, concentrated over the northern sector (NS) of the country. Years with anomalous HREs are associated with low-level westerly convergence, advection of moisture from both the Indian Ocean and Congo basin, an upper warm temperature anomaly (UWTA), intensified and well-positioned Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and pronounced rising motion since the ascending limb of the Walker type of circulation is centered over Tanzania. The analysis of the UWTA in this study has brought a key factor in exploring the possible likely cause and improved early warning system for the HREs during the MAM rainfall season in Tanzania. Making use of the thermal wind equation and the velocity divergent form of the continuity equation (DFCE), we found that the UWTA results into an upper-level horizontal wind divergence which significantly accelerates vertical ascent, deepening the surface low pressure for an enhanced convective process and HREs formation.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Evaluating Linkages between Atmospheric Blocking
           Patterns and Heavy Rainfall Events across the North-Central Mississippi
           River Valley for Different ENSO Phases”

    • PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Links between Temperature Biases and Flow Anomalies in an Ensemble of
           CNRM-CM5.1 Global Climate Model Historical Simulations

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate temperature and sea-level pressure (SLP) fields and to analyse a related anomalous flow over midlatitudes simulated by the CNRM-CM5.1 global climate model (GCM). Simulated flow over midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere was assessed through flow indices, classified into 11 circulation types. Reference data were taken from the NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis, version 2c. CNRM-CM5.1 exhibited analogous temperature biases to those reported for the mean of the CMIP5 GCMs’ ensemble. The most prominent features were an erroneous temperature dipole pattern in the Atlantic Ocean and a warm bias over regions of deep water upwelling (locally exceeding 5°C). The latter feature was associated with negative SLP biases in those regions. Too low pressure was found over midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, and CNRM-CM5.1 simulated too frequent zonal flow in these latitudes. The usage of three ensemble members with different initial conditions did not improve model’s outputs because the bias is found to be considerably larger compared to the ensemble members’ spread. The study showed that temperature and SLP biases are connected in certain regions, suggesting that improvement of GCMs and development of bias correction methods should be carried out with a complex insight.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “A Case Study of Mass Transport during the East-West
           Oscillation of the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone”

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • An Analysis of Anomalous Winter and Spring Tornado Frequency by Phase of
           the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, the Global Wind Oscillation, and the
           Madden-Julian Oscillation

    • Abstract: Winter and spring tornado activity tends to be heightened during the La Niña phase of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and suppressed during the El Niño phase. Despite these tendencies, some La Niña seasons have fewer tornadoes than expected and some El Niño seasons have more than expected. To gain insight into such anomalous seasons, the two La Niña winters and springs with the fewest tornadoes and the two El Niño winters and springs with the most tornadoes between 1979 and 2016 are identified and analyzed in this study. The relationships between daily tornado count and the Global Wind Oscillation and Madden-Julian Oscillation in these anomalous seasons are also explored. Lastly, seasonal and daily composites of upper-level flow, low-level flow and humidity, and atmospheric instability are generated to describe the environmental conditions in the anomalous seasons. The results of this study highlight the potential for large numbers of tornadoes to occur in a season if favorable conditions emerge in association with individual synoptic-scale events, even during phases of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, Global Wind Oscillation, and Madden-Julian Oscillation that seem to be unfavorable for tornadoes. They also highlight the potential for anomalously few tornadoes in a season even when the oscillations are in favorable phases.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bias Correction in Monthly Records of Satellite Soil Moisture Using
           Nonuniform CDFs

    • Abstract: It is important to eliminate systematic biases in the field of soil moisture data assimilation. One simple method for bias removal is to match cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of modeled soil moisture data to satellite soil moisture data. Traditional methods approximate numerical CDFs using 12 or 20 uniformly spaced samples. In this paper, we applied the Douglas–Peucker curve approximation algorithm to approximate the CDFs and found that three nonuniformly spaced samples can achieve the same reduction in standard deviation. Meanwhile, the matching results are always closely related to the temporal and spatial availability of soil moisture observed by automatic soil moisture station (ASM). We also applied the new nonuniformly spaced sampling method to a shorter time series. Instead of processing a whole year of data at once, we divided it into 12 datasets and used three nonuniformly spaced samples to approximate the model data’s CDF for each month. The matching results demonstrate that NU-CDF3 reduced the SD, improved R, and reduced the RMSD in over 70% of the stations, when compared with U-CDF12. Additionally, the SD and RMSD have been reduced by over 4% with R improved by more than 9%.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Analysis of SO2 Pollution Changes of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region over
           China Based on OMI Observations from 2006 to 2017

    • Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as a kind of gaseous pollutant has a strong effect regarding atmospheric environment, air quality, and climate change. As one of the most polluted regions in China, air quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region has attracted more attention. This paper aims to study the characteristics of SO2 distribution and variation over BTH. Spatial and temporal variations for a long term (2006–2017) over BTH derived from OMI PBL SO2 products were discussed. The temporal trends confirm that the SO2 loading falls from average 0.88 DU to 0.16 DU in the past 12 years. Two ascending fluctuations in 2007 and 2011 appeared to be closely related to the economic stimulus of each five-year plan (FYP). The spatial analysis indicates an imbalanced spatial distribution pattern, with higher SO2 level in the southern BTH and lower in the northern. This is a result of both natural and human factors. Meanwhile, the SO2 concentration demonstrates a decreasing trend with 14.92%, 28.57%, and 27.43% compared with 2006, during the events of 2008 Olympic Games, 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit, and 2015 Military Parade, respectively. The improvement indicates that the direct effect is attributed to a series of long-term and short-term control measures, which have been implemented by the government. The findings of this study are desirable to assist local policy makers in the BTH for drawing up control strategies regarding the mitigation of environmental pollution in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Vertical Structure of Moisture Content over Europe

    • Abstract: The vertical structure of water vapor content in the atmosphere strongly affects the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth’s surface and processes associated with the formation of clouds and atmospheric precipitation. The purpose of this study was to assess the vertical differentiation of water vapor over Europe on a seasonal basis and also to evaluate the role of atmospheric circulation in changes therein. Daily values of specific humidity (SHUM) for the time period 1981–2015 were obtained from pressure levels available from ECMWF Era-Interim reanalysis data and used in the study. Eight grid points were analyzed in detail. Each point is representative of a region with different moisture conditions. SHUM profiles were then used to identify cases of moisture inversion. Horizontal flux of specific humidity (SHUMF) was analyzed for principal pressure levels that occur in both inversion-type and inversion-free situations. In addition, SHUM and SHUMF anomalies were identified for advection directions. The research results showed the existence of differences in the vertical structure of water vapor content in the troposphere over Europe, and the Northeastern Atlantic and the presence of moisture inversions not only in areas north of 60°N but also in temperate and subtropical zones. Inversions can occur in two different forms—surface-based and elevated. The occurrence of inversions varies with the seasons. The role of atmospheric circulation is observable in the winter and triggers both surpluses and shortages of moisture via the effect of specific pressure system types (significant role of seasonal pressure high) and via advection directions. In addition, there exists a clear difference between the structure of moisture in the atmospheric boundary layer and in the free atmosphere.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Temporal Trends and Spatial Patterns of Temperature and Its Extremes over
           the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region (1960–2014), China

    • Abstract: In order to examine temperature changes and extremes in the Beijing-Tianjin Sand Source Region (BTSSR), ten extreme temperature indices were selected, categorized, and calculated spanning the period 1960–2014, and the spatiotemporal variability and trends of temperature and extremes on multitimescales in the BTSSR were investigated using the Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, Sen’s slope estimator, and linear regression. Results show that mean temperatures have increased and extreme temperature events have become more frequent. Annual temperature has recorded a significant increasing trend over the BTSSR, in which 51 stations exhibited significant increasing trends (); winter temperature recorded the most significant increasing trend in the northwest subregion. All extreme temperature indices showed warming trends at most stations; a higher warming slope in extreme temperature mainly occurred along the northeast border and northwest border and in the central-southern mountain area. As extreme low temperature events decrease, vegetation damage due to freezing temperatures will reduce and low cold-tolerant plants may expand their distribution range northward to revegetate barren areas in the BTSSR. However, in water-limited areas of the BTSSR, increasing temperatures in the growing season may exacerbate stress associated with plants relying on precipitation due to higher temperatures combining with decreasing precipitation.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration Distribution in the Huaihe River
           Upstream Basin Based on the Generalized Complementary Principle

    • Abstract: The accurate estimation of actual evapotranspiration can help improve the utilization of water resources and ease the ecological stress. Based on the generalized complementary principle proposed by Brutsaert in 2015, we used meteorological and hydrological data to estimate the actual evapotranspiration at a resolution of 1 km × 1 km between the years of 1961 and 2000 and also verified the model’s stability. In this study, we used the water balance equation to calibrate the parameters, coupled with the spatial simulation results of the meteorological elements in the actual evapotranspiration model. The estimation results of actual evapotranspiration show that the generalized complementary principle model had high estimation precision in this basin, with an average absolute error of 16.64 mm and an average relative error of 2.25%. With respect to spatial distribution, the average actual evapotranspiration over the years in the basin tended to have high and low distribution in the northern and southern parts of the basin, respectively. The actual evapotranspiration in the basin showed a decreasing trend over the period, with a rate of 24.1 mm/10 years. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that the percentage decreases in percentage sunshine and the decreases in the daily range of temperature were the main reasons for the decrease in actual evapotranspiration.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Accuracy Analysis of the Aerosol Backscatter Coefficient Profiles Derived
           from the CYY-2B Ceilometer

    • Abstract: Ceilometers are originally designed for cloud base height monitoring. Since a few years, the number of ceilometers available worldwide is rapidly increasing, and these simple backscatter lidars are investigated to be used for aerosol research. This study presents an assessment of the potential of CYY-2B ceilometer for the quantitative retrieval of aerosol properties. The signal-to-noise ratio of the ceilometer is calculated, and the effective height of inversion is determined. It is shown that the effective height of the ceilometer for backscatter coefficient profile inversion is 3-4 km at night and about 1.5–2 km during the day, which is lower than that of the micropulse lidar (MPL) system. The accuracy of the backscatter coefficient profiles derived from the CYY-2B ceilometer is analyzed by using the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer, MPL, forward scatter visibility instrument, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) dataset from aerosol robotic network (AERONET). Spectral conversions of the ceilometer’s and lidar’s data are performed using the Ångström exponent estimated by AERONET measurements. A good agreement is found between two ceilometers and the MPL lidar in backscatter coefficient profiles inversion. The AODs agree well with the AERONET AODs during the observation period of small AODs. However, for the period of large AODs, the results are approximately 50%–60% of AERONET AODs. The limited range of extinction integration is the main cause of this problem.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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