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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 339 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 197)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Monitoring the Interannual Spatiotemporal Changes in the Land Surface
           Thermal Environment in Both Urban and Rural Regions from 2003 to 2013 in
           China Based on Remote Sensing

    • Abstract: The thermal environment is closely related to human well-being. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, interannual changes in SUHIs as well as in land surface temperatures (LSTs) in cities and their corresponding villages remain poorly understood, particularly using data from several continuous years to analyse change rates and corresponding significance levels. Using Aqua/Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2003–2013, we explored not only the interannual changes in annual and seasonal mean LSTs in rural and urban regions which were identified based on modified criteria, but also the SUHI intensities (SUHIIs) for these cities. The results showed that most of LSTs and SUHIIs did not change significantly (). Their changes exhibited clear spatiotemporal agglomeration and variation laws. The rural region LST change rates, which exhibited significant changes, were generally highest in the summer, with most of values of 0.1–0.5°C (yr−1) during the daytime across China, except for the Xinjiang autonomous regions, and 0.1–0.2°C (yr−1) during the night-time. The rates were lowest in the winter, with most of values of −0.4 to −0.1°C (yr−1). The rates of daytime SUHIIs with significant changes were generally highest in the summer, with most of values of 0.1–0.3°C (yr−1), and lowest in the winter, even with most of values of −0.4 to −0.1°C (yr−1) in northern central China. During the night-time, most of rates were 0.0–0.1°C (yr−1). In China, most of the changes in the surface thermal environment were harmful to humans at both large national and local urban scales. The changes could lower thermal comfort levels, harm human health, affect human reproduction rates and lives, and increase the energy consumed for refrigeration or heating, thereby increase emissions of greenhouse gases.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 12:05:12 +000
  • Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Cloud Condensation Nuclei
           Concentration on the Microphysical Processes in Typhoon Usagi

    • Abstract: The Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3.2.1 with the Lin microphysics scheme was used herein to simulate super typhoon Usagi, which occurred in 2013. To investigate the effect of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) on the development of typhoon Usagi, a control simulation was performed with a CCN concentration of 100 cm−3, together with two sensitivity tests: C10 and C1000, having CCN concentrations of 10 cm−3 and 1000 cm−3, respectively. The path, intensity, precipitation, microphysical processes, and the release of latent heat resulting from the typhoon in all three simulations were analyzed to show that an increase in CCN concentration leads to decreases in intensity and precipitation, an increase of the cloudless area in the eye of the typhoon, a more disordered cloud system, and less latent heat released through microphysical processes, especially the automatic conversion of cloud water into rainwater. Overall, an increase in CCN concentration reduces the total latent heat released during the typhoon suggesting that typhoon modification by aerosol injection may be optimized using numerical simulations to ensure the strongest release of latent heat within the typhoon.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 18:05:01 +000
  • Harmonic Analysis of the Spatiotemporal Pattern of Thunderstorms in Iran

    • Abstract: The current study aimed at investigating cycles and the spatial autocorrelation pattern of anomalies of thunderstorms in Iran during different periods from 1961 to 2010. In this analysis, 50-year periods (1961–2010) of thunderstorm codes have been collected from 283 synoptic stations of Meteorological Organization of Iran. The study period has been divided into five different decades (1961–1970, 1971–1980, 1981–1990, 1991–2000, and 2001–2010). Spectral analysis and Moran’s I were used to analyze cycles and the spatial autocorrelation pattern, respectively. Furthermore, in order to conduct the calculations, programming facilities of MATLAB have been explored. Finally, Surfer and GIS were employed to come up with the graphical depiction of the maps. The results showed that the maximum of positive anomalies mainly occurred in the northwestern and western parts of Iran due to their special topography, during all the five studied periods. On the other hand, the minimum of negative anomalies took place in central regions of the country because of lack of appropriate conditions (e.g., enough humidity). Moran’s I spatial analysis further confirmed these findings as Moran’s I depicts the positive and negative spatial autocorrelation patterns in line with negative and positive anomalies, respectively. However, in recent decades, this pattern has experienced a declining trend, especially in southern areas of Iran. The results of harmonic analysis indicated that mainly short-term and midterm cycles dominated Iran’s thunderstorms.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 16:05:02 +000
  • Overestimating Impacts of Urbanization on Regional Temperatures in
           Developing Megacity: Beijing as an Example

    • Abstract: Land-use and land cover changes may have important local, regional, and global climatic impacts by modifying the underlying land surface conditions, which in turn influence the exchange of energy and moisture between the land surface and atmosphere. Many studies have shown that urbanization has contributed to climate warming, and the amount of warming has varied. As the capital of China and one of the world’s megacities, Beijing has experienced rapid urbanization over the past 30 years. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the impacts of urbanization on regional temperatures based on observations from meteorological stations and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data and overestimating of the impacts were found. Comparing the temperature trends of land-use types, forest showed stronger inhibitory effects on temperature increase (−0.085°C/10a). Cropland also had a negative effect on climate warming yearly and seasonally, especially in winter (−1.133°C/10a) and spring (−0.299°C/10a). Conversely, the urban area showed strong warming effects (0.438°C/10a). The conversion of cropland to urban land appeared to show the highest warming trend (0.548°C/10a). However, the cooling effect of forest and grassland with high vegetation coverage inhibited climatic warming attributed to rapid urbanization. In addition, planting trees or grass along roadsides and increasing green parks and green roofs can also suppress surface warming. Therefore, the actual warming effects of urbanization on temperatures were overestimated in megacities or urban agglomeration regions. The results showed that the green space and landscape configuration should be considered in urban planning to increase green space and reduce the influence of urban heat island effect.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Feb 2019 18:05:01 +000
  • Sensitivity of CO2 and CH4 Annual Cycles to Different Meteorological
           Variables at a Rural Site in Northern Spain

    • Abstract: The focus of the current paper is to explore the influence of meteorological variables on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 mean annual cycles at a rural site. Four variables were investigated: boundary layer height, recirculation factor, trajectory direction, and wind speed modelled at the altitude of the site. Boundary layer height and wind speed were provided by the METeorological data EXplorer (METEX) model. Recirculation factor and trajectory direction were obtained from calculations based on this trajectory model, and a nonparametric procedure was used to obtain a smooth evolution. The main results are higher concentrations obtained during the night, attributed to lower dispersion in this period. The smoothed values of the boundary layer height reached nearly 1200 m AGL during the day in August, and its low values caused high concentrations in spring. During the night, the recirculation factor and wind speed showed a sharp contrast between summer and winter. The average recirculation factor was low, 0.10, and average wind speed was 5.1 m·s−1. Trajectories were directionally distributed in four quadrants. Different tests were performed by selecting values of meteorological variables above or below certain thresholds. The influence of these variables reached values around 6.3 and 0.023 ppm for CO2 and CH4 average concentrations, respectively, during the day when the boundary layer was below 400 m. The main conclusion of this study is that the influence of meteorological variables should not be ignored. In particular, extremely low boundary layer heights may have noticeable effects on both gases.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Feb 2019 16:05:01 +000
  • PM2.5/PM10 Ratios in Eight Economic Regions and Their Relationship with
           Meteorology in China

    • Abstract: China is suffering severe ambient air pollution in recent decades and particulate matter (PM) has become the major pollutant, especially for PM2.5 and PM10, which have highly raised scholars and policy-makers’ attention in last few years. The existing research has focused on the characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively, or analyzed the correlation between the two pollutants, while the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 has been taken less consideration. In this study, daily mean PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations in 31 provincial capitals from 2014 to 2016 were used to present the temporal variations and spatial distribution of PM2.5/PM10 ratios among eight economic regions. And then, statistical method and correlation analysis were adopted to investigate the relationship between the ratios and AQI, the rate of change on the ratios, and the impact of meteorological parameters on the ratios. The results indicated that PM2.5/PM10 ratios showed an increasing trend from northwest to southeast due to different economic development and industrial types. The highest values were observed in winter among all regions, and the ratios on weekends were higher than that of on weekdays in most of the regions. Besides, domestic heating in northern China had a significant contribution to the ratios. Moreover, ratios had less changes, and the rate of change was stable in summer. As for air quality, the higher the ratio, the larger the possibility of high AQI so that the air pollution will be more severe. In terms of meteorological factors, the results demonstrated that relative humidity, precipitation, and pressure were the most important factors and had significantly positive impacts, while sunshine duration, temperature, and wind speed had negative effects on the ratios. The findings could identify the pollution sources among PM10 and be helpful for making regulation locally to reduce emission which considers anthropogenic sources and meteorological diffusion simultaneously.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 17:05:02 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Changes in Extreme Precipitation and Its Dependence on
           Topography over the Poyang Lake Basin, China

    • Abstract: Spatiotemporal changes in extreme precipitation at local scales in the context of climate warming are overwhelmingly important for prevention and mitigation of water-related disasters and also provide critical information for effective water resources management. In this study, the variability and trends of extreme precipitation in both time and space in the Poyang Lake basin over the period of 1960–2012 are analyzed. Also, changes in precipitation extremes with topography are investigated, and possible causes are briefly discussed. The results show that extreme precipitation over the Poyang Lake basin is intensified during the last 50 years, especially the increasing trends are more significant before the end of the 1990s. Moreover, high contribution rates of extreme precipitation to the total rainfall (40–60%) indicated that extreme precipitation plays an important role to the total water resources in this area. The precipitation extremes also exhibited a significant spatial dependence in the basin. The northeastern and eastern areas are exposed to high risk of flood disaster with the higher frequency of extreme precipitation events. In addition, the distribution of precipitation extremes had a clear dependence on elevation, and the topography is an important factor affecting the variability of extreme precipitation over the Poyang Lake basin.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Simulation of Threshold UV Exposure Time for Vitamin D Synthesis in South

    • Abstract: The threshold exposure time for synthesis of vitamin D was simulated by using a radiative transfer model considering variations in total ozone, cloud, and surface conditions. The prediction of total ozone took the form of an empirical linear regression with the variables of meteorological parameters in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and the climatology value of total ozone. Additionally, to consider cloud extinction after the estimation of clear-sky UV radiation using a radiative transfer model simulation, a cloud modification factor was applied. The UV irradiance was estimated at one-hour intervals, and then, to improve the temporal resolution of the exposure time simulation, it was interpolated to a one-minute resolution. Exposure times from the simulation clearly followed seasonal and diurnal cycles. However, upon comparison with observations, biases with large variations were found, and the discrepancy in the exposure time between the observations and simulations was higher in low UV irradiance conditions. The large deviations in the prediction errors for total ozone and the simplified assumption for the cloud modification factor contributed to the large deviations in exposure time differences between the model estimation and observations. To improve the accuracy of the simulated exposure time, improved predictions of total ozone with a more detailed cloud treatment will be essential.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Trends of Sampling Error in Surface Air Temperature on the Tibetan Plateau
           during Recent Decades

    • Abstract: Understanding errors in surface air temperature (SAT) data and related uncertainties is crucial for climate studies because of their impact on the accuracy of statistical inferences in scientific conclusions. In recent decades, considerable research has focused on the trends and evolution of SAT on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, assessment of the uncertainties in SAT change on the TP has not been done adequately, which is of considerable importance for climate research. Using station-observed SAT data from the TP, this study estimates long-term variations and trends of sampling error variances in gridded monthly SAT data over recent decades. Results revealed large sampling error variances in northern and western parts of the TP but small variances in eastern, southern, and central areas. The sampling error variances also exhibited strong monthly variations with maximum errors in winter and minimum values in summer. Furthermore, spatial distributions of the trends of seasonal and annual mean sampling error variances were found distributed unevenly with decreasing trends found mainly in central and southern parts of the TP and increasing trends in northeastern, southeastern, and northwestern areas. Additionally, differences were also found in the trends of seasonal and annual mean sampling error variances on various timescales.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 17:05:05 +000
  • Performance of Three Reanalysis Precipitation Datasets over the
           Qinling-Daba Mountains, Eastern Fringe of Tibetan Plateau, China

    • Abstract: Evaluation of different reanalysis precipitation datasets is of great importance to understanding the hydrological processes and water resource management practice in the Qinling-Daba Mountains (QDM), located at the eastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau. Although the evaluation of satellite precipitation data in this region has been performed, another kind of popular precipitation product-reanalysis dataset has not been assessed in depth. Three popular reanalysis precipitation datasets, including ERA-Interim Reanalysis of European Centre for Medium Forecasts (ERA-Interim), Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis-1 (NCEP/NCAR-1) were evaluated against rain gauge data over the Qinling-Daba Mountains from 2000 to 2014 on monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. Different statistical measures based on the Correlation Coefficient (CC), relative BIAS (BIAS), Root-Mean-Square Error (RMSE), and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) were adopted to determine the performance of the above reanalysis datasets. Results show that ERA-Interim and JRA-55 have good performance on a monthly scale and annual scale. However, the NCEP/NCAR-1 has the least BIAS with the observed precipitation in annual scale in QDM. All reanalysis datasets performed better in spring, summer, and autumn than in winter. The advantages of involving more precipitation observation stations was probably the main reason of the different performance of three precipitation reanalysis products, and the benefit of a four-dimensional variational analysis model over a three-dimensional variational analysis model may be another reason. The evaluation suggested that ERA-Interim is more suitable for study the precipitation and water cycles in the QDM.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Jan 2019 11:05:30 +000
  • Observation and Real-Time Simulation of a Tornado Event in Hong Kong on 29
           August 2018

    • Abstract: An observational and simulation study of a tornado event in Hong Kong that occurred in the morning of 29 August 2018 is documented in this paper. Rotating airflow associated with the tornado is well captured by the Doppler velocity from a Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) in Hong Kong. The Doppler velocity patterns show the typical signature of a velocity couplet associated with a meso/microcyclone, and for most part of its lifetime, it captures clearly the evolution with time. Weather radar echoes of those thunderstorms inducing the current tornado, as well as the meso/microcyclone itself, are also successfully reproduced in a real-time simulation by a fine-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model initialised 3 hours earlier, albeit with a time lag of about 15 minutes when compared to the actual event. The model simulation displays some interesting features of the cyclone, including the vertical structure of horizontal and vertical velocities and cloud liquid water content, which are consistent with literature that accounts in other parts of the world. The vertical profile of maximum radial velocity associated with the velocity couplet also compares well between the actual weather radar observation and numerical simulation. The results in this paper could serve as an interesting reference for both meteorologists and wind engineers, also demonstrating the power of very high-resolution NWP in predicting such events in a real-time fashion.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Jan 2019 17:05:04 +000
  • Local and Regional Scale Evaluation of the Integrated Urban Land Model by
           Comparing with the Common Land Model

    • Abstract: Land surface evaporation is not only an important parameter in natural land surface modeling, but a crucial important parameter in urban hydrology modeling. A whole-layer soil evaporation scheme was developed in the integrated urban land model (IUM) to improve the soil evaporation simulation. The impervious surface evaporation (ISE) was used as a component of urban water balance equation. In this paper, the integrated urban land model was validated at one desert site and six urban road sites to emphasize the improvement in the evaporation simulations for arid and urban areas. A sensitivity analysis was implemented in seven basins to expand the utility of the whole layer soil evaporation scheme. For the urban road sites, the validation results indicate that imperious surface evaporation (ISE) plays a crucial role in road surface temperature (RST) simulations on rainy days. For the desert site, the validation results show that the inner layer evaporation is very important in arid regions. For the basins, the analysis results indicate that the relative monthly mean differences in the evapotranspiration (ET) between the simulations with (IUM) and without (Common Land Model (CoLM)) considering the inner layer evaporation range from −8% to 8%, which is proportional to the degree of dryness. In arid areas, especially deserts, the inner layer soil evaporation could not be neglected.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 Jan 2019 01:05:04 +000
  • Development of Lightning Nowcasting and Warning Technique and Its

    • Abstract: The Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences Lightning Nowcasting and Warning System (CAMS_LNWS) was designed to predict lightning within the upcoming 0-1 h and provide lightning activity potential and warning products. Multiple remote sensing data and numerical simulation of an electrification and discharge model were integrated in the system. Two core algorithms were implemented: (1) an area identification, tracking, and extrapolating algorithm and (2) a decision tree algorithm. The system was designed using a framework and modular structure, and integrated warning methods were applied in the warning program. Two new algorithms related to the early warning of the first lightning and thunderstorm dissipation were also introduced into the system during the upgrade process. Thunderstorms occurring in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei during 2016-2017 were used to evaluate the CAMS_LNWS by the low-frequency cloud to ground lightning detection data, and the results showed that the system has good forecasting and warning ability for local lightning activities. The TS score in 0-1 h ranged from 0.11 to 0.32, with a mean of 0.20. Operational experiments and promotional work for the CAMS_LNWS are now in progress.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jan 2019 16:05:03 +000
  • Temporal Characteristics of Heat Waves and Cold Spells and Their Links to
           Atmospheric Circulation in EURO-CORDEX RCMs

    • Abstract: We study summer heat waves and winter cold spells and their links to atmospheric circulation in an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX RCMs in Central Europe. Results of 19 simulations were compared against observations over 1980–2005. Atmospheric circulation was represented by circulation types and supertypes derived from daily gridded mean sea level pressure. We examined observed and simulated characteristics of hot and cold days (defined using percentiles of temperature anomalies from the mean annual cycle) and heat waves and cold spells (periods of at least three hot/cold days in summer/winter). Although the ensemble of RCMs reproduces on average the frequency and the mean length of heat waves and cold spells relatively well, individual simulations suffer from biases. Most model runs have an enhanced tendency to group hot/cold days into sequences, with several simulations leading to extremely long heat waves or cold spells (the maximum length overestimated by up to 2-3 times). All simulations also produce an extreme winter season with (often considerably) higher number of cold days than in any observed winter. The RCMs reproduce in general the observed circulation significantly conducive to heat waves and cold spells. Zonal flow reduces the probability of temperature extremes in both seasons, while advection of warm/cold air from the south-easterly/north-easterly quadrant plays a dominant role in developing heat waves/cold spells. Because of these links, the simulation of temperature extremes in RCMs is strongly affected by biases in atmospheric circulation. For almost all simulations and all circulation supertypes, the persistence of supertypes is significantly overestimated (even if the frequency of a given supertype is underestimated), which may contribute to development of too-long heat waves/cold spells. We did not identify any substantial improvement in the EURO-CORDEX RCMs in comparison to previous ENSEMBLES RCMs, but the patterns of the biases are generally less conclusive as to general RCMs’ drawbacks.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 15:05:06 +000
  • Based on the Gaussian Fitting Method to Derive Daily Evapotranspiration
           from Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration

    • Abstract: Evapotranspiration (ET) is a significant component in the water cycle, and the estimation of it is imperative in water resource management. Regional ET can be derived by using remote sensing technology which combines remote sensing inputs with ground-based measurements. However, instantaneous ET values estimated through remote sensing directly need to be converted into daily totals. In this study, we attempted to retrieve daily ET from remotely sensed instantaneous ET. The study found that the Gaussian fitting curve closely followed the ET measurements during the daytime and hence put forward the Gaussian fitting method to convert the remotely sensed instantaneous ET into daily ETs. The method was applied to the middle reaches of Heihe River in China. Daily ETs on four days were derived and evaluated with ET measurements from the eddy covariance (EC) system. The correlation between daily ET estimates and measurements showed high accuracy, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.82, a mean average error (MAE) of 0.41 mm, and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.46 mm. To make more scientific assessments, percent errors were calculated on the estimation accuracy, which ranged from 0% to 18%, with more than 80% of locations having the percent errors within 10%. Analyses on the relationship between daily ET estimates and land use status were also made to assess the Gaussian fitting method, and the results showed that the spatial distribution of daily ET estimates well demonstrated ET differences caused by land use types and was intimately linked with the vegetation pattern. The comparison between the Gaussian fitting method and the sine function method and the ETrF method indicated that results derived through the Gaussian fitting method had higher precision than that obtained by the sine function method and the ETrF method.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 15:05:05 +000
  • Projected Effects of Climate Change on Future Hydrological Regimes in the
           Upper Yangtze River Basin, China

    • Abstract: Climate change directly impacts the hydrological cycle via increasing temperatures and seasonal precipitation shifts, which are variable at local scales. The water resources of the Upper Yangtze River Basin (UYRB) account for almost 40% and 15% of all water resources used in the Yangtze Basin and China, respectively. Future climate change and the possible responses of surface runoff in this region are urgent issues for China’s water security and sustainable socioeconomic development. This study evaluated the potential impacts of future climate change on the hydrological regimes (high flow (Q5), low flow (Q95), and mean annual runoff (MAR)) of the UYRB using global climate models (GCMs) and a variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model. We used the eight bias-corrected GCM outputs from Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to examine the effects of climate change under two future representative concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The direct variance method was adopted to analyze the contributions of precipitation and temperature to future Q5, Q95, and MAR. The results showed that the equidistant cumulative distribution function (EDCDF) can considerably reduce biases in the temperature and precipitation fields of CMIP5 models and that the EDCDF captured the extreme values and spatial pattern of the climate fields. Relative to the baseline period (1961–1990), precipitation is projected to slightly increase in the future, while temperature is projected to considerably increase. Furthermore, Q5, Q95, and MAR are projected to decrease. The projected decreases in the median value of Q95 were 21.08% to 24.88% and 16.05% to 26.70% under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively; these decreases were larger than those of MAR and Q5. Temperature increases accounted for more than 99% of the projected changes, whereas precipitation had limited projected effects on Q95 and MAR. These results indicate the drought risk over the UYRB will increase considerably in the future.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 15:05:04 +000
  • Evaluation of Rainfall and Temperature Conditions for a Perennial Crop in
           Tropical Wetland: A Case Study of Cocoa in Côte d’Ivoire

    • Abstract: The rainfall and temperature conditions are evaluated for the first time during the 1989–2006 period, in six main cocoa production areas (Abengourou, Agboville, Daloa, Dimbokro, Guiglo, and Soubre) of Côte d’Ivoire using data from SODEXAM (ground-based observation) and the ex-CAISTAB. Statistical analysis shows an important sensitivity of cocoa production to rainfall conditions in all regions. It is worth noting that only the major rainy season from April to July and the rainfall amount of the little dry season from August to September affect the cocoa production for an 80% confidence level. This influence varies from one cacao production area to another. Moreover, the effects related to temperature on the cocoa yield seem to represent a smaller contribution of climate impact than those related to precipitation during the studied period. The temperature change remains in the acceptable range of values, between 25°C and 29°C, which is a favorable condition for cocoa growing. These findings are obtained despite the significant contributions from nonclimatic factors, to year-to-year variability in cocoa production.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Jan 2019 00:05:08 +000
  • Large-Scale Dynamics, Anomalous Flows, and Teleconnections 2018

    • PubDate: Thu, 10 Jan 2019 10:05:08 +000
  • Fractal Analysis of the Long-Term Memory in Precipitation over Bénin
           (West Africa)

    • Abstract: This study analyzed the long-term memory (LTM) in precipitation over Bénin synoptic stations from 1951 to 2010 using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method. Results reveal the existence of positive long-term memory characteristic in rainfall field. DFA exponent values are different regarding the concerned synoptic stations, reflecting the effect of geographical position and climate on the LTM. These values were related to the type of climate. The best DFA1-4 method depends on the geographical position of the studied station. However, DFA2 is generally the best in terms of spatial average from DFA1 to DFA4. In Bénin synoptic stations, except the Parakou station, the long-term temporal correlations are systematically the source of multifractality in rainfall. Except Natitingou, the strength of long-term memory characteristic decreases each twenty years in the study period. Considering the fractal approach, our results show that the subperiod 1991–2010 is not really a transition period as shown before. Thus, the drought is prolonging until 2010. So, fractal theory reveals more Bénin climatic characteristics.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 18:05:03 +000
  • Occurrence of Anticyclonic Tornadoes in a Topographically Complex Region
           of Mexico

    • Abstract: Tornadoes are violent and destructive natural phenomena that occur on a local scale in most regions around the world. Severe storms occasionally lead to the formation of mesocyclones, whose direction or sense of rotation is often determined by the Coriolis force, among other factors. In the Northern Hemisphere, more than 99% of all tornadoes rotate anticlockwise. The present research shows that, in topographically complex regions, tornadoes have a different probability of rotating clockwise or anticlockwise. Our ongoing research programme on tornadoes in Mexico has shown that the number of tornadoes is significantly higher than previously thought. About 40% of all tornadoes occur in the complex topographic region of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Data collected (from Internet videos) on the rotation of tornadoes formed in this region showed that about 50% of them rotated in a clockwise direction, contradicting tornado statistics for most of North America. Time series of the helicity parameter showed that tornadoes formed in topographically complex areas exhibited different behaviours compared to those formed in plains that are related with supercell systems.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Jan 2019 18:05:01 +000
  • Cycle Analysis Method of Tree Ring and Solar Activity Based on Variational
           Mode Decomposition and Hilbert Transform

    • Abstract: According to the correlation of tree ring and solar activity, the cycle analysis method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and Hilbert transform is proposed. Firstly, the tree ring width of cypress during 1700 to 1955 beside the Huangdi Tomb and the long-term sunspot number during 1700 to 1955, respectively, are decomposed by VMD into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Secondly, Hilbert transformation on the decomposed IMF component is performed. Then, the marginal spectra are given and analyzed. Finally, their quasiperiodic properties are obtained as follows: the tree ring width has the quasiperiodicity of 2 to 7a, 10.8a, and 25a; the sunspot number has the quasiperiodicity of 8.3a, 9.9a, 11.1a, 52.2a, and 101.2a. The result obtained by analyzing that quasiperiodicity shows that the main periods of tree ring width and the sunspot number in the same period are basically consistent, and tree ring width has other cycles. This shows that sunspot activity is an important factor affecting tree ring growth, and tree ring width is influenced by other external environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 18:05:01 +000
  • Estimation of Maximum Daily Fresh Snow Accumulation Using an Artificial
           Neural Network Model

    • Abstract: For estimation of maximum daily fresh snow accumulation (MDFSA), a novel model based on an artificial neural network (ANN) was proposed. Daily precipitation, mean temperature, and minimum temperature were used as the input data for the ANN model. The ANN model was regularized and trained using a set of 19,923 data points, observed daily in South Korea between 1960 and 2016. Leave-one-out cross validation was performed to validate the model. When the input data were known at the gauged locations, the correlation coefficient between the observed MDFSA and the estimated one by the ANN model was 0.90. When the input data were spatially interpolated at ungauged locations using the ordinary kriging (OK) method, the correlation coefficient was 0.40. The difference in correlation coefficients between the two methods implies that, while the ANN model itself has good performance, a significant portion of the uncertainty of the estimated MDFSA at ungauged locations comes from high spatial variability of the input variables that cannot be captured by the network of in situ gauges. However, these correlation coefficients were significantly greater than the correlation coefficient obtained by spatially interpolating the MDFSA values with the OK method (R = 0.20). These findings suggest that our ANN model significantly reduces the uncertainty of the estimated MDFSA caused by its high spatial variability.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • High-Resolution Climate Simulations in the Tropics with Complex Terrain
           Employing the CESM/WRF Model

    • Abstract: This study evaluates the high-resolution climate simulation system CESM/WRF composed of the global climate model, Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1, and the mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), for simulating high-resolution climatological temperature and precipitation in the tropics with complex terrain where temperature and precipitation are strongly inhomogeneous. The CESM/WRF climatological annual and seasonal precipitation and temperature simulations for years 1980–1999 at 10 km resolution for Sumatra and nearby regions are evaluated using observations and the global climate reanalysis ERA-Interim (ERA). CESM/WRF simulations at 10 km resolution are also compared with the downscaled reanalysis ERA/WRF at 10 km resolution. Results show that while temperature and precipitation patterns of the original CESM are very different from observations, those for CESM/WRF agree well with observations. Resolution and accuracies of simulations are significantly improved by dynamically downscaling CESM using WRF. CESM/WRF can simulate locations of very cold temperature at mountain peaks well. The high-resolution climate simulation system CESM/WRF can provide useful climate simulations at high resolution for Sumatra and nearby regions. CESM/WRF-simulated climatological temperature and precipitation at 10 km resolution agree well with ERA/WRF. This suggests the use of CESM/WRF for climate projections at high resolution for Sumatra and nearby regions.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Five Decadal Trends in Averages and Extremes of Rainfall and Temperature
           in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: In this study, we used a comprehensive set of statistical metrics to investigate the historical trends in averages and extremes of rainfall and temperature in Sri Lanka. The data consist of 55 years (1961–2015) of daily rainfall, maximum temperature (Tmax), and minimum temperature (Tmin) records from 20 stations scattered throughout Sri Lanka. The linear trends were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test and Sen–Theil regression. The prewhitening method was first used to remove autocorrelation from the time series, and the modified seasonal Mann–Kendall test was then applied for the seasonal data. The results show that, during May, 15% of the stations showed a significant decrease in wet days, which may be due to the delayed southwest monsoon (SWM) to Sri Lanka. A remarkable increase in the annual average temperature of Tmin and Tmax was observed as 70% and 55% of the stations, respectively. For the entire period, 80% of the stations demonstrated statistically significant increases of Tmin during June and July. The daily temperature range (DTR) exhibited a widespread increase at the stations located within the southwestern coast region of Sri Lanka. Although changes in global climate, teleconnections, and local deforestation in recent decades at least partially influence the trends observed in Sri Lanka, a formal trend attribution study should be conducted.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Dec 2018 09:36:19 +000
  • Predicting Microbursts in the Northeastern U.S. Using Lightning Flash
           Rates and Simple Radar Parameters

    • Abstract: Convective storms that produce microburst winds are difficult to predict because the strong surface winds arise in a short time period. Previous research suggests that timing and patterns in cloud height, echo top height, vertical integrated liquid (VIL), intracloud (IC) lightning, and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning may identify and predict microbursts. Eleven quasi-cellular microburst cases and eight non-microburst severe wind cases were identified from New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey between 2012 and 2016. Total lightning data (IC + CG) were obtained from Vaisala’s National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and radar parameters were obtained from the Thunderstorm Identification Tracking Analysis and Nowcasting (TITAN) software. Values of VIL, echo top height, and cloud height were tracked through time along with total lightning strikes within a 15 km radius of the storm center. These parameters were plotted with respect to their mean and standard deviation for the 45 minutes leading up to event occurrence. Six of eleven cases featured peaks in total and IC lightning within 25 minutes prior to the microburst. These were the only variables among those examined to peak more than half the time for either the microburst cases or the null cases. The results suggest that microbursts behave somewhat differently than severe wind events, particularly in terms of lightning and VIL timing. The results dispute previous research that suggests that microbursts are highly predictable by the behavior of lightning and radar parameters.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Trend and Abrupt Regime Shift of Temperature Extreme in Northeast China,

    • Abstract: Trend and an abrupt regime shift of temperature extremes were investigated based on diurnal data at 116 meteorological stations in the Northeast China region during 1957–2015. A total of 10 temperature indices divided into two categories: extremely cold and warm indices, were used in this study. The Mann–Kendall (MK) test was employed to evaluate the trend in temperature while changepoint, an R package for changepoint analysis, was used to detect changes in the mean levels of temperature extreme data series. The results of this study reveal that occurrence frequencies of the extreme cold night (TN10p) and extreme warm night (TN90p) have decreased and increased by −1.67 and 1.79 days/decade, respectively. Moreover, variations in temperature extremes have not been uniform with warming trends in minimum temperature being rapidly compared to maximum temperature extremes. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) depicted a remarkable decrease as a result of rapid warming in the minimum temperature. Warming in the region led to a reduction in the number of frost days (FD) and icing days (ID) and an increase in the number of growing season length (GSL) and tropical nights (Tr). Seasonally, TN10p largely decreased in winter and spring, while TNn and TN90p largely increased in winter and summer, respectively. Spatially, most of the stations with a significant warming trend in minimum temperatures were located in the Changbai Mountain, Greater Khingan Range, and Lesser Khingan Range. This implies that the mountainous regions are more sensitive and vulnerable to warming than the plain regions. On the contrary, most stations located in the Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, and Liao River Plain displayed significant positive trend GSL and Tr. These climate extreme trends show that the region is experiencing warming which may have an impact on the hydrological process, ecological process, and agricultural production capacity.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Step towards Integrating CMORPH Precipitation Estimation with Rain Gauge

    • Abstract: Accurate daily rainfall estimation is required in several applications such as in hydrology, hydrometeorology, water resources management, geomorphology, civil protection, and agriculture, among others. CMORPH daily rainfall estimations were integrated with rain gauge measurements in Brazil between 2000 and 2015, in order to reduce daily rainfall estimation errors by means of the statistical objective analysis scheme (SOAS). Early comparisons indicated high discrepancies between daily rain gauge rainfall measurements and respective CMORPH areal rainfall accumulation estimates that tended to be reduced with accumulation time span (e.g., yearly accumulation). Current results show CMORPH systematically underestimates daily rainfall accumulation along the coastal areas. The normalized error variance (NEXERVA) is higher in sparsely gauged areas at Brazilian North and Central-West regions. Monthly areal rainfall averages and standard deviation were obtained for eleven Brazilian watersheds. While an overall negative tendency (3 mm·h−1) was estimated, the Amazon watershed presented a long-term positive tendency. Monthly areal mean precipitation and respective spatial standard deviation closely follow a power-law relationship for data-rich watersheds, i.e., with denser rain gauge networks. Daily SOAS rainfall accumulation was also used to calculate the spatial distribution of frequencies of 3-day rainfall episodes greater than 100 mm. Frequencies greater than 3% were identified downwind of the Peruvian Andes, the Bolivian Amazon Basin, and the La Plata Basin, as well as along the Brazilian coast, where landslides are recurrently triggered by precipitation.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Evaluation and Correction of GPM IMERG Precipitation Products over the
           Capital Circle in Northeast China at Multiple Spatiotemporal Scales

    • Abstract: Accurate remote-sensed precipitation data are crucial to the effective monitoring and analysis of floods and climate change. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite product offers new options for the global study of precipitation. This paper evaluates the applicability of GPM IMERG products at different time resolutions in comparison to ground-measured data. Based on precipitation data from 107 meteorological stations in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, GPM products were analysed at three timescales: half-hourly (GPM-HH), daily (GPM-D), and monthly (GPM-M). We use a cumulative distribution function (CDF) model to correct GPM-D and GPM-M products to analyse temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation. We came to the following conclusions: (1) The GPM-M product is strongly correlated with ground station data. Based on five evaluation indexes, NRMSE (Normalized Root Mean Square Error), NSE (Nash-Sutcliffe), FAR (False Alarm Ratio), UR (Underreporting Rate), and CSI (Critical Success Index), the monthly GPM products showed the best performance, better than GPM-HH products and GPM-D products. (2) The performance of GPM products in summer and autumn was better than in winter and spring. However, the GPM satellite’s precision in undulating terrain was poor, which could easily lead to serious errors. (3) CDF models were successfully used to modify GPM-D and GPM-M products and improve their accuracy. (4) The range of 0–100 mm precipitation could be corrected best, but the GPM-M products were underestimated. Corrected GPM-M data in the range >100 mm were overestimated. According to this analysis, the GPM IMERG Final Run products at daily and monthly timescales have good detection ability and can provide data support for long-time series analyses in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 07:26:17 +000
  • Historical Spatiotemporal Trends in Snowfall Extremes over the Canadian
           Domain of the Great Lakes Basin

    • Abstract: The Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) is prone to snowfall events developed from extratropical cyclones or lake-effect processes. Monitoring extreme snowfall trends in response to climate change is essential for sustainability and adaptation studies because climate change could significantly influence variability in precipitation during the 21st century. Many studies investigating snowfall within the GLB have focused on specific case study events with apparent under examinations of regional extreme snowfall trends. The current research explores the historical extremes in snowfall by assessing the intensity, frequency, and duration of snowfall within Ontario’s GLB. Spatiotemporal snowfall and precipitation trends are computed for the 1980 to 2015 period using Daymet (Version 3) monthly gridded interpolated datasets from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Results show that extreme snowfall intensity, frequency, and duration have significantly decreased, at the 90% confidence level, more so for the Canadian leeward shores of Lake Superior than that of Lake Huron, for the months of December and January. To help discern the spatiotemporal trends is snowfall extremes, several trend analyses for lake-induced predictor variables were analysed for two cities, Wawa and Wiarton, along the snowbelts of Lakes Superior and Huron, respectively. These variables include monthly maximum and minimum air temperature, maximum wind gust velocity, lake surface temperature, and maximum annual ice cover concentration. Resultant significant increase in December’s maximum and minimum air temperature for the city of Wawa may be a potential reason for the decreased extreme snowfall trends.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comprehensive Evaluation of GPM-IMERG, CMORPH, and TMPA Precipitation
           Products with Gauged Rainfall over Mainland China

    • Abstract: The comprehensive assessment of the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) V05B is important for benchmarking the product’s continued improvement and future development. The performance of IMERG V05B precipitation products was systematically evaluated using 542 precipitation gauges at multiple spatiotemporal scales from March 2014 to February 2017 over China. Moreover, IMERG V05B was compared with IMERG V04A, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42, and the Climate Prediction Center Morphing technique (CMORPH)-CRT in this study. Categorical verification techniques and statistical methods are used to quantify their performance. Results illustrate the following. (1) Except for IMERG V04A’s severe underestimation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Xinjiang (XJ) with high negative relative biases (RBs) and CMORPH-CRT’s overestimation over XJ with high positive RB, the four satellite-based precipitation products generally capture the same spatial patterns of precipitation over China. (2) At the annual scale over China, the IMERG products do not show an advantage over its predecessor (TRMM 3B42) in terms of RMSEs, RRMSEs, and Rs; meanwhile, the performance of IMERG products is worse than TRMM 3B42 in spring and summer according to the RMSE, RRMSE, and R metrics. Between the two IMERG products, IMERG V05B shows the anticipated improvement (over IMERG V04A) with a decrease in RMSE from 0.4496 to 0.4097 mm/day, a decrease of RRMSE from 16.95% to 15.44%, and an increase of R from 0.9689 to 0.9759 during the whole study period. Similar results are obtained at the seasonal scale. Among the four satellite products, CMORPH-CRT shows the worst seasonal performance with the highest RMSE (0.6247 mm/day), RRMSE (23.55%), and lowest R (0.9343) over China. (3) Over XJ and TP, IMERG V05B clearly improves the strong underestimation of precipitation in IMERG V04A with the RBs of 5.2% vs. −21.8% over XJ, and 2.78% vs. −46% over TP. Results at the annual scale are similar to those obtained at the seasonal scale, except for summer results over XJ. While, over the remaining subregions, the two IMERG products have a close performance; meanwhile, IMERG V04A slightly improves IMERG V05B’s overestimation according to RBs (except for HN) at the annual scale. However, all four products are unreliable over XJ at both an annual and seasonal scale. (4) Across all products, TRMM 3B42 best reproduces the probability density function (PDF) of daily precipitation intensity. (5) According to the categorical verification technique in this study, both IMERG products yield better results for the detection of precipitation events on the basis of probability of detection (POD) and critical success index (CSI) categorical evaluations compared to TRMM 3B42 and CMORPH-CRT over China and across most of the subregions. However, all four products have room for further improvement, especially in high-latitude and dry climate regions. These findings provide valuable feedback for both IMERG algorithm developers and data set users.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Dec 2018 06:34:55 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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