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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Advances in Meteorology
  [SJR: 0.498]   [H-I: 10]   [18 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Simulation of the Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Meteorological Fields
           over the Pearl River Delta Region

    • Abstract: The influences of urbanization on weather in Guangdong Province, China, were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model from 31 December 2009 through 3 January 2010. Model outputs were compared with extensive monitoring of meteorological data to examine the simulation ability. Model results between tests (with and without land-use change) show that the urbanization had major effects on meteorological fields across nearly the entire Pearl River Delta region and particularly in urban areas. Studied fields (wind speed, temperature, precipitation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes) were affected by the urbanization of the PRD region. The major influences occurred in urban areas, where wind speeds decreased greatly, while the daytime surface upward sensible heat flux clearly increased. Unlike the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux had a nonmonotonic increase or decrease. As a consequence of the two heat fluxes, 2-m temperature varied with location and time. Change of precipitation was complex. The main rain band became more concentrated, while precipitation decreased upwind of the urban area and increased downwind.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 08:57:57 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Development and Application of Improved Long-Term
           Datasets of Surface Hydrology for Texas”

    • PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 06:42:12 +000
  • Seasonal Variations of the Urban Thermal Environment Effect in a Tropical
           Coastal City

    • Abstract: Shenzhen city was selected to analyze the Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) variations based on land surface temperature (LST) in four different seasons of 2015. UHI intensity (UHII) as an indicator of SUHI was established and the method of density segmentation was utilized to classify the SUHI after LSTs were normalized. The gravity center model of UHII and Moran’s (a spatial autocorrelation index) were used to analyze the spatiotemporal variations of SUHI. Results indicated that LST was higher in the west than in the east of the city. The values of UHII were higher in spring and summer and lower in autumn and winter. Five profiles were drawn to analyze the distribution of UHII in different seasons, and it was found that the No. 1 path profiles, corresponding to the western urban development axis, had higher UHII than other path profiles. The center of UHII gravity shifts converged in the Longhua, Baoan, and Nanshan Districts throughout the four seasons and Moran’s values were higher in summer and spring. From the UHII’s spatial distribution pattern analysis, a spatially discontinuous pattern was observed in four seasons; there was a compact pattern of high temperature zones.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Influences of the Model Configuration on the Simulation of
           Stratospheric Northern-Hemisphere Polar Vortex in the CMIP5 Models

    • Abstract: As a basic part of the atmosphere, the stratosphere plays an important role in the tropospheric climate and weather systems, especially during the winter, when the stratosphere and troposphere have their strongest interactions. This study assesses the abilities of the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and CMIP3 models to simulate the boreal winter stratospheric polar vortex. Analysis indicates that the models with well-resolved stratospheres, that is, with a high model top (HTOP) covering the whole stratosphere, a high vertical resolution (HVer) of the stratosphere, and nonorographic gravity wave drag (NOG), rank higher in both the temporal scoring system and the spatial scoring system. The extreme cold polar vortex bias, which was found in the CMIP3 models, vanishes in the CMIP5 models with HTOP, HVer, and NOG but persists in the other CMIP5 models. A dynamical analysis shows that the heat flux propagating into the stratosphere is stronger in models with HTOP, HVer, and NOG, but these propagations are still weaker than those in the ERA40 reanalysis, indicating the lack of variability in the current CMIP5 models.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Nov 2017 07:28:08 +000
  • Drought Trends in the Iberian Peninsula over the Last 112 Years

    • Abstract: The Iberian Peninsula (IP) is a drought-prone area located in the Mediterranean which presents a significant tendency towards dryness during the last decades, reinforcing the need for a continuous monitoring of drought. The long-term evolution of drought in the IP is analyzed, using the Standardized Precipitation Evaporation Index (SPEI) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), for the period of 1901–2012 and for three subperiods: 1901–1937, 1938–1974, and 1975–2012. SPI and SPEI were calculated with a 12-month time scale, using data from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) database. Trends in the drought indices, precipitation, and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) were analysed and series of drought duration, drought magnitude, time between drought events, and mean intensity of the events were computed. SPI and SPEI significant trends show areas with opposite signals in the period 1901–2012, mainly associated with precipitation trends, which are significant and positive in the northwestern region and significant and negative in the southern areas. Additionally, SPEI identified dryer conditions and an increase in the area affected by droughts, which agrees with the increase in ET0. The same spatial differences were identified in the drought duration, magnitude, mean intensity, and time between drought events.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Case Study of Anomalous Snowfall with an Alberta Clipper

    • Abstract: An Alberta clipper moved over western New York state on 11-12 January 2004, producing snowfall amounts of up to 27 cm in portions of the region during a roughly 12-h period. In addition, lightning and thunder were reported. Such systems, known primarily for their fast motion and relatively dry nature, are not generally associated with significant snowfalls. A postmortem analysis of this event, following an ingredients-based methodology, revealed that as the weak low approached the lower Great Lakes, it came under the influence of coupled 300-hPa jets that produced enhanced divergence and significant upward vertical motion over western New York, resulting in the enhanced convective snowfall over the region for a limited time. Instability and possible enhancement via the Great Lakes are also investigated, which show that while there was at least modest instability over the region during the time of heavy snowfall, lake enhancement was unlikely.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Ecosystem Drought Response Timescales from Thermal Emission versus
           Shortwave Remote Sensing

    • Abstract: Remote sensing is used for monitoring the impacts of meteorological drought on ecosystems, but few large-scale comparisons of the response timescale to drought of different vegetation remote sensing products are available. We correlated vegetation health products derived from polar-orbiting radiometer observations with a meteorological drought indicator available at different aggregation timescales, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), to evaluate responses averaged globally and over latitude and biome. The remote sensing products are Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), which uses normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to identify plant stress, Temperature Condition Index (TCI), based on thermal emission as a measure of surface temperature, and Vegetation Health Index (VHI), the average of VCI and TCI. Globally, TCI correlated best with 2-month timescale SPEI, VCI correlated best with longer timescale droughts (peak mean correlation at 13 months), and VHI correlated best at an intermediate timescale of 4 months. Our results suggest that thermal emission (TCI) may better detect incipient drought than vegetation color (VCI). VHI had the highest correlations with SPEI at aggregation times greater than 3 months and hence may be the most suitable product for monitoring the effects of long droughts.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Multiscale Dynamics of the February 11-12, 2010, Deep South US Snowstorm

    • Abstract: This study investigates the synoptic/mesoscale dynamics responsible for an unusually heavy southern US snowstorm that occurred on February 11-12, 2010, using reanalysis, observations, and numerical simulations. This record breaking snowfall event represents an example of multiple upper level and low-level jets (LLJs) and their accompanying baroclinic zones. The analysis reveals the following synoptic scale processes as significant contributors: (1) upper level jet splitting and merging, (2) advection of cold arctic air at low levels by a large anticyclone, and (3) an incoming upper level shortwave trough. In addition to the synoptic scale processes, the following mesoscale features played a major role in this snowstorm event: coexisting potential (convective) instability and conditional symmetric instability, terrain blocking, and a double LLJ development process. Sensitivity experiments including (1) limiting the orographic effects of elevated plateau in Texas and the Sierra Madre Mountains in Mexico by reducing the terrain height to 225 meters, (2) the microphysics/latent heating effects, and (3) surface fluxes on the development and intensity of the snowstorm were also conducted by turning these options off in the numerical model. Of all three experiments, the surface flux experiment displays the least amount of influence on the developing frozen precipitation bands.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Utility of the Bering Sea and East Asia Rules in Long-Range

    • Abstract: Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCAR/NCEP) reanalyses and the daily Pacific North American (PNA) index values from the Climate Prediction Center from 1 January 1950 to 31 December 2016, the utility of the Bering Sea Rule (BSR) and the East Asia Rule (EAR) for making forecasts in the two-to-four-week time frame for the central USA region is examined. It is demonstrated using autocorrelation and Fourier transforms that there may be a degree of predictability in this time frame using the PNA, another teleconnection index, or some variation of them. Neither the BSR nor EAR based forecasts showed skill over climatology in the traditional sense, but using signal detection techniques these indexes were skillful at predicting the onset of anomalous temperature conditions (greater than two standard deviations) in the central USA. The BSR generally produced better results that the EAR and formulae for each index are proposed. Three case studies demonstrate the efficacy of these indexes for forecasting temperatures in the central USA. Then, it is proposed that the success of these indexes is likely due to a strong, quasistationary, and persistent Rossby wave train in the Pacific teleconnection region.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Efficient T-S Assimilation Strategy Based on the Developed
           Argo-Extending Algorithm

    • Abstract: Data assimilation is an efficient technique in the estimation of ocean state, by introducing the benefit of in situ measurements. Considering the insufficiency of the observations, the performance of assimilation with few temperature and salinity (T-S) profiles is not satisfied. To modify the situation, an extending algorithm based on the Argo temperature profile is developed and applied to present more reconstructed information. Meanwhile, when the reconstructed information is assimilated into the ocean model, the accuracy of the outcomes would obtain a notable enhancement. To validate it, an experiment including four cases is conducted based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and 4-dimensional variational method (4DVAR). The comparison with the EN4 dataset shows that the cases assimilated the Argo and the reconstructed temperature profiles are both promoted; the addition of reconstructed temperature profiles does enhance the accuracy; the impact of SST introduced in the extending algorithm process is negligible; the net enhancement of reconstructed temperature profiles is comparable with Argo T-S observations. Finally, the positive impact of the developed algorithm on data assimilation is validated.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 08:44:37 +000
  • Composition and Thermal Structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower
           Stratosphere in a Penetrating Mesoscale Convective Complex Determined by
           Satellite Observations and Model Simulations

    • Abstract: We describe here the composition and thermal structure of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during a penetrating mesoscale convective complex (MCC) event that occurred in southern China on 8 June 2009. Our results are based on satellite observations and Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations. Ice-rich and ozone-poor air reached as high as 17 km. The air was −5°C colder inside the mature MCC than outside at the first cold-point tropopause near 17 km, −2°C colder inside the mature MCC than outside at the second cold-point tropopause, and 3°C warmer inside the mature MCC than outside between the two cold-point tropopauses. Corresponding to the temperature structure, there were two lower water vapor contents inside the MCC than outside near 17 km and 19 km while there was a higher water vapor content inside the MCC than outside near 18 km.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Case Study of Offshore Advection of Boundary Layer Rolls over a Stably
           Stratified Sea Surface

    • Abstract: Streaky structures of narrow (8-9 km) high wind belts have been observed from SAR images above the Baltic Sea during stably stratified conditions with offshore winds from the southern parts of Sweden. Case studies using the WRF model and in situ aircraft observations indicate that the streaks originate from boundary layer rolls generated over the convective air above Swedish mainland, also supported by visual satellite images showing the typical signature cloud streets. The simulations indicate that the rolls are advected and maintained at least 30–80 km off the coast, in agreement with the streaks observed by the SAR images. During evening when the convective conditions over land diminish, the streaky structures over the sea are still seen in the horizontal wind field; however, the vertical component is close to zero. Thus advected feature from a land surface can affect the wind field considerably for long times and over large areas in coastal regions. Although boundary layer rolls are a well-studied feature, no previous study has presented results concerning their persistence during situations with advection to a strongly stratified boundary layer. Such conditions are commonly encountered during spring in coastal regions at high latitudes.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 09:08:04 +000
  • Spatiotemporal High-Resolution Cloud Mapping with a Ground-Based IR

    • Abstract: The high spatiotemporal variability of clouds requires automated monitoring systems. This study presents a retrieval algorithm that evaluates observations of a hemispherically scanning thermal infrared radiometer, the NubiScope, to produce georeferenced, spatially explicit cloud maps. The algorithm uses atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles and an atmospheric radiative transfer code to differentiate between cloudy and cloudless measurements. In case of a cloud, it estimates its position by using the temperature profile and viewing geometry. The proposed algorithm was tested with 25 cloud maps generated by the Fmask algorithm from Landsat 7 images. The overall cloud detection rate was ranging from 0.607 for zenith angles of 0 to 10° to 0.298 for 50–60° on a pixel basis. The overall detection of cloudless pixels was 0.987 for zenith angles of 30–40° and much more stable over the whole range of zenith angles compared to cloud detection. This proves the algorithm’s capability in detecting clouds, but even better cloudless areas. Cloud-base height was best estimated up to a height of 4000 m compared to ceilometer base heights but showed large deviation above that level. This study shows the potential of the NubiScope system to produce high spatial and temporal resolution cloud maps. Future development is needed for a more accurate determination of cloud height with thermal infrared measurements.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Case Study of Mass Transport during the East-West Oscillation of the
           Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone

    • Abstract: We use ERA-Interim reanalysis, MLS observations, and a trajectory model to examine the chemical transport and tracers distribution in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) associated with an east-west oscillation case of the anticyclone in 2016. The results show that the spatial distribution of water vapor (H2O) was more consistent with the location of the anticyclone than carbon monoxide (CO) at 100 hPa, and an independent relative high concentration center was only found in H2O field. At 215 hPa, although the anticyclone center also migrated from the Tibetan Mode (TM) to the Iranian Mode (IM), the relative high concentration centers of both tracers were always colocated with regions where upward motion was strong in the UTLS. When the anticyclone migrated from the TM, air within the anticyclone over Tibetan Plateau may transport both westward and eastward but was always within the UTLS. The relative high concentration of tropospheric tracers within the anticyclone in the IM was from the east and transported by the westward propagation of the anticyclone rather than being lifted from surface directly. Air within the relative high geopotential height centers over Western Pacific was partly from the main anticyclone and partly from lower levels.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Evaluating the Solar Slowly Varying Component at C-Band Using Dual- and
           Single-Polarization Weather Radars in Europe

    • Abstract: Six C-band weather radars located in Europe (Finland, Netherlands, and Switzerland) have been used to monitor the slowly varying solar emission, which is an oscillation with an amplitude of several decibels and a period of approximately 27 days. It is caused by the fact that the number of active regions that enhance the solar radio emission with respect to the quiet component, as seen from Earth, varies because of the Sun’s rotation about its axis. The analysis is based on solar signals contained in the polar volume data produced during the operational weather scan strategy. This paper presents hundreds of daily comparisons between radar estimates and the Sun’s reference signal, during the current active Sun period (year 2014). The Sun’s reference values are accurately measured by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) at S-band and converted to C-band using a standard DRAO formula. Vertical and horizontal polarization receivers are able to capture the monthly oscillation of the solar microwave signal: the standard deviation of the log-transformed ratio between radars and the DRAO reference ranges from 0.26 to 0.4 dB. A larger coefficient (and a different value for the quiet Sun component) in the standard formula improves the agreement.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Climatic Characteristics and Determination Method for Freezing Rain in

    • Abstract: The climatic characteristics and temperature profiles of freezing rain in China are analyzed based on the observational data at 650 stations in China from 2000 to 2015. The freezing rain of China is generally in stripe-shape spatial distribution. The stations with freezing rain over 100 station-hours are mainly concentrated at the southeast areas of Southwest China and high-elevation mountainous areas of Eastern China. There are mainly two types of freezing rain temperature profiles, including single-warm-layer profile and double-warm-layer profile. The freezing rain profiles of mountainous area and urban area in Southwest China are similar to each other, and the freezing rain in Central and East China shares the similar single-warm-layer profile. The profiles in South China show the characteristics of freezing rain’s profile in both Southwest China and Central/East China as the position of stations. PA of freezing rain’s profiles is negatively correlated with NA, with correlation coefficients ranging from −0.36 to −0.70. The configuration of weak cold/warm layer (both smaller than 150°C·hPa) is one of major reasons causing frequent freezing rain at mountainous areas of Southwest China. The more obvious the change of NA with the variations of PA is, the more the freezing rain is likely to occur.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Climate Change Impact on Monthly Precipitation Wet and Dry Spells in Arid
           Regions: Case Study over Wadi Al-Lith Basin

    • Abstract: Durations of monthly precipitation wet and dry spells are calculated using historical records and regional climate model (RCM) simulations for the Wadi Al-Lith basin in western Saudi Arabia. The characteristics of durations of wet and dry spells are based on the 50% risk level corresponding to the monthly records for average regional precipitation. The duration of wet spells in the model data is compared with observations for the base period 1971–2000. The impact of climate change on the durations of wet and dry spells is obtained using three global climate models projections with RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios downscaled by RCM. The probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the climate model scenarios and the precipitation records for the base period prove that climate change has a clear impact on the durations of wet and dry spells over the study area. There is an increase in wet spells frequency in the far future (2070–2099) compared to the near future (2020–2049). The increase in wet spells can be partly explained by the increase in extreme rainfall events and by the decrease in dry spells expected to occur over the study area towards the end of 21st century.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Oct 2017 08:15:41 +000
  • Verification for Different Contrail Parameterizations Based on Integrated
           Satellite Observation and ECMWF Reanalysis Data

    • Abstract: Aviation induced cloud termed contrail plays a more and more important role in the climate change, which makes a significant contribution to anthropogenic climate forcing through impacting the coverage of cirrus in the intersection of troposphere and stratosphere. In this paper, we propose one novel automatic contrail detecting method based on Himawari-8 stationary satellite imagery and two kinds of potential contrail coverage (PCC1 and PCC2) from contrail parameterization in ECHAM4 and HadGEM2. In addition, we propose one new climatological index called contrail occurrence and persistence (COP). According to the algorithm identification (AI) and artificial visual inspection (AVI), COP measured from Himawari-8 stationary satellite imagery is related to upper tropospheric relative humidity over ice (RHI) computed with the ECMWF reanalysis data by simple linear regression. Similarly, we compared the linear correlation between COP and PCCs fractions and found that PCC1 has better correspondence with COP than PCC2.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Oct 2017 10:58:35 +000
  • Comparison of the Long-Range Climate Memory in Outgoing Longwave Radiation
           over the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian Monsoon Region

    • Abstract: Based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, scaling behaviors of the daily outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from 1979 to 2015 over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Indian Monsoon Region (IMR) are analyzed. The results show that there is long-term memory for the OLR time series over the TP and IMR. The long-range memory behaviors of OLR over TP are stronger than those over IMR. The averaged values of the scaling exponents over TP and IMR are 0.71 and 0.64; the maximum values in the two regions are 0.81 and 0.75; the minimum values are 0.59 and 0.58. The maximum frequency counts for scaling exponents occur in the range of 0.625 and 0.675 both in TP and in IMR. The spatial distribution of the scaling exponents of the OLR sequence is closely related to the conditions of climatic high cloud cover in the two areas. The high cloud cover over TP is obviously less than that of IMR. In addition, the scaling behaviors of OLR over TP and IMR are caused by the fractal characteristics of time series, which is further proved by randomly disrupting the time series to remove trends and correlation.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 12:54:35 +000
  • Evaluation of the Impact of Argo Data on Ocean Reanalysis in the Pacific

    • Abstract: Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) have been conducted to evaluate the effect of Argo data assimilation on ocean reanalysis in the Pacific region. The “truth” is obtained from a 5-year model integration from 2003 to 2007 based on the MIT general circulation model with the truly varying atmospheric forcing. The “observations” are the projections of the truth onto the observational network including ocean station data, CTD, and various BTs and Argo, by adding white noise to simulate observational errors. The data assimilation method employed is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme within a multigrid framework. Results show the interannual variability of temperature, salinity, and current fields can be reconstructed fairly well. The spread of temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific region is also able to be reflected accurately when Argo data is assimilated, which may provide a reliable initial field for the forecast of temperature and currents for the subsurface in the tropical Pacific region. The adjustment of salinity by using T-S relationship is vital in the tropical Pacific region. However, the adjustment of salinity is almost meaningless in the northwest Pacific if Argo data is included during the reanalysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Sep 2017 08:57:34 +000
  • A New Method for Evaporation Modeling: Dynamic Evolving Neural-Fuzzy
           Inference System

    • Abstract: Evaporation estimation is very essential for planning and development of water resources. The study investigates the ability of new method, dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system (DENFIS), in modeling monthly pan evaporation. Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures, solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity data obtained from two stations located in Turkey are used as inputs to the models. The results of DENFIS method were compared with the classical adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) by using root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute relative error (MARE), and Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient (NS) statistics. Cross validation was applied for better comparison of the models. The results indicated that DENFIS models increased the accuracy of ANFIS models to some extent. RMSE, MARE, and NS of the ANFIS model were increased by 11.13, 11.45, and 6.83% for the Antalya station and 20.11, 12.94%, and 8.29% for the Antakya station using DENFIS.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 09:06:23 +000
  • Downscaling of Open Coarse Precipitation Data through Spatial and
           Statistical Analysis, Integrating NDVI, NDWI, Elevation, and Distance from

    • Abstract: This study aims to improve the statistical spatial downscaling of coarse precipitation (TRMM 3B43 product) and also to explore its limitations in the Mediterranean area. It was carried out in Morocco and was based on an open dataset including four predictors (NDVI, NDWI, DEM, and distance from sea) that explain TRMM 3B43 product. For this purpose, four groups of models were established based on different combinations of the four predictors, in order to compare from one side NDVI and NDWI based models and the other side stepwise with multiple regression. The models that have given rise to the best approximations and best fits were used to downscale TRMM 3B43 product. The resulting downscaled and calibrated precipitations were validated by independent RGS. Aside from that, the limitations of the proposed approach were assessed in five bioclimatic stages. Furthermore, the influence of the sea was analyzed in five classes of distance. The findings showed that the models built using NDVI and NDWI have a high correlation and therefore can be used to downscale precipitation. The integration of elevation and distance improved the correlation models. According to , RMSE, bias, and MAE, the study revealed that there is a great agreement between downscaled precipitations and RGS measurements. In addition, the analysis showed that the contribution of the variable (distance from sea) is evident around the coastal area and decreases progressively. Likewise, the study demonstrated that the approach performs well in humid and arid bioclimatic stages compared to others.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Impact of Ozone Valley over the Tibetan Plateau on the South Asian High in

    • Abstract: Local climate effects of Tibetan Plateau Ozone Valley (OVTP) were investigated by numerical simulations using Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1.1 (CAM5). After a 20-year spin-up period, two additional 10-year experiments were conducted. CAM5 was driven by monthly mean climatological ozone in control experiment (CE) and OVTP in the sensitivity experiment (SE) was removed from May to September. After the removal of OVTP, South Asian High (SAH) becomes more robust and colder from June to August, especially in June. The reason for enhancement of SAH is that removal of OVTP increasing ozone in 200–30 hPa leads to significant enhancement of longwave and shortwave radiative heating rate in SAH region in June, and then enhancement of horizontal divergence resulting from the radiative warming leads to strengthening of SAH influenced by the Coriolis force, while the colder SAH is primarily caused by dynamic processes. Adiabatic expansion and ascending movement mainly bring about temperature decrease in SAH after OVTP removal, but the thermodynamic process related to radiative heating offsets part of the cooling response.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 09:13:54 +000
  • Separation of the Climatic and Land Cover Impacts on the Flow Regime
           Changes in Two Watersheds of Northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    • Abstract: Assessment of the effects of climate change and land use/cover change (LUCC) on the flow regimes in watershed regions is a fundamental research need in terms of the sustainable water resources management and ecosocial developments. In this study, a statistical and modeling integrated method utilizing the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has been adopted in two watersheds of northeastern Tibetan Plateau to separate the individual impacts of climate and LUCC on the flow regime metrics. The integrated effects of both LUCC and climate change have led to an increase in the annual streamflow in the Yingluoxia catchment (YLC) region and a decline in the Minxian catchment (MXC) region by 3.2% and 4.3% of their total streamflow, respectively. Climate change has shown an increase in streamflow in YLC and a decline in MXC region, occupying 107.3% and 93.75% of the total streamflow changes, respectively, a reflection of climatic latitude effect on streamflow. It is thus construed that the climatic factors contribute to more significant influence than LUCC on the magnitude, variability, duration, and component of the flow regimes, implying that the climate certainly dominates the flow regime changes in northeastern Tibetan Plateau.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 07:29:10 +000
  • Impacts of Microphysics Schemes and Topography on the Prediction of the
           Heavy Rainfall in Western Myanmar Associated with Tropical Cyclone ROANU

    • Abstract: The impacts of different microphysics and boundary schemes and terrain settings on the heavy rainfall over western Myanmar associated with the tropical cyclone (TC) ROANU (2016) are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The results show that the microphysics scheme of Purdue Lin (LIN) scheme produces the strongest cyclone. Six experiments with various combinations of microphysics and boundary schemes indicated that a combination of WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6) scheme and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) best fits to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) data. WSM6-MYJ also performs the best for the track and intensity of rainfall and obtains the best statistics skill scores in the range of maximum rainfall intensity for 48-h. Sensitivity experiments on different terrain settings with Normal Rakhine Mountain (NRM), with Half of Rakhine Mountain (HRM), and Without Rakhine Mountain (WoRM) are designed with the use of WSM6-MYJ scheme. The track of TC ROANU moved northwestward in WoRM and HRM. Due to the presence of Rakhine Mountain, TC track moved into Myanmar and the peak rainfall occurred on the leeward side of the Mountain. In the absence of Rakhine Mountain, a shift in peak rainfall was observed in north side of the Mountain.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Probabilistic Interval Forecasts: An Individual Differences Approach to
           Understanding Forecast Communication

    • Abstract: Predictive interval forecasts, showing a range of values with specified probability, have the potential to improve decisions compared to point estimates. The research reported here demonstrates that this advantage extends from college undergraduates to a wide user group and does not depend on education. In two experiments, participants made decisions based on predictive intervals or point estimates and answered questions about them. In Experiment , they also completed numeracy and working memory span tests. Those using predictive intervals were better able to identify situations requiring precautionary action. Nonetheless, two errors were noted: (1) misinterpreting predictive intervals as diurnal fluctuation (deterministic construal errors) and (2) judging the probability of events within and beyond the interval, when asked about them separately, as greater than 100%. These errors were only partially explained by WMS and numeracy. Importantly, omitting visualizations eliminated deterministic construal errors and overestimation of percent chance was not consistently related to decision quality. Thus, there may be important benefits to predictive interval forecasts that are not dependent on a full understanding of the theoretical principles underlying them or an advanced education, making them appropriate for a broad range of users with diverse backgrounds, weather concerns, and risk tolerances.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Sep 2017 10:46:34 +000
  • Comparison of Chebyshev and Legendre Polynomial Expansion of Phase
           Function of Cloud and Aerosol Particles

    • Abstract: Chebyshev and Legendre polynomial expansion is used to reconstruct the Henyey-Greenstein phase function and the phase functions of spherical and nonspherical particles. The result of Legendre polynomial expansion is better than that of Chebyshev polynomial for around 0-degree forward angle, while Chebyshev polynomial expansion produces more accurate results in most regions of the phase function. For large particles like ice crystals, the relative errors of Chebyshev polynomial can be two orders of magnitude less than those of Legendre polynomial.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Cloud Base Height Estimation from ISCCP Cloud-Type Classification Applied
           to A-Train Data

    • Abstract: Cloud base height (CBH) is an important cloud macro parameter that plays a key role in global radiation balance and aviation flight. Building on a previous algorithm, CBH is estimated by combining measurements from CloudSat/CALIPSO and MODIS based on the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud-type classification and a weighted distance algorithm. Additional constraints on cloud water path (CWP) and cloud top height (CTH) are introduced. The combined algorithm takes advantage of active and passive remote sensing to effectively estimate CBH in a wide-swath imagery where the cloud vertical structure details are known only along the curtain slice of the nonscanning active sensors. Comparisons between the estimated and observed CBHs show high correlation. The coefficient of association () is 0.8602 with separation distance between donor and recipient points in the range of 0 to 100 km and falls off to 0.5856 when the separation distance increases to the range of 401 to 600 km. Also, differences are mainly within 1 km when separation distance ranges from 0 km to 600 km. The CBH estimation method was applied to the 3D cloud structure of Tropical Cyclone Bill, and the method is further assessed by comparing CTH estimated by the algorithm with the MODIS CTH product.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Sep 2017 07:12:22 +000
  • Error Analysis and Evaluation of the Latest GSMap and IMERG Precipitation
           Products over Eastern China

    • Abstract: The present study comprehensively analyzes error characteristics and performance of the two latest GPM-era satellite precipitation products over eastern China from April 2014 to March 2016. Analysis results indicate that the two products have totally different spatial distributions of total bias. Many of the underestimations for the GSMap-gauged could be traced to significant hit bias, with a secondary contribution from missed precipitation. For IMERG, total bias illustrates significant overestimation over most of the eastern part of China, except upper reaches of Yangtze and Yellow River basins. GSMap-gauged tends to overestimate light precipitation (
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 10:47:03 +000
  • Extreme Precipitation and Floods: Monitoring, Modelling, and Forecasting

    • PubDate: Wed, 30 Aug 2017 06:34:43 +000
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