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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 334 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 334 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epidemiology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover Advances in Meteorology
  [SJR: 0.498]   [H-I: 10]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [334 journals]
  • Composites of Heavy Rain Producing Elevated Thunderstorms in the Central
           United States

    • Abstract: Composite analyses of the atmosphere over the central United States during elevated thunderstorms producing heavy rainfall are presented. Composites were created for five National Weather Service County Warning Areas (CWAs) in the region. Events studied occurred during the warm season (April–September) during 1979–2012. These CWAs encompass the region determined previously to experience the greatest frequency of elevated thunderstorms in the United States. Composited events produced rainfall of >50 mm 24 hr−1 within the selected CWA. Composites were generated for the 0–3 hr period prior to the heaviest rainfall, 6–9 hours prior to it, and 12–15 hours prior to it. This paper focuses on the Pleasant Hill, Missouri (EAX) composites, as all CWA results were similar; also these analyses focus on the period 0–3 hours prior to event occurrence. These findings corroborate the findings of previous authors. What is offered here that is unique is (1) a measure of the interquartile range within the composite mean fields, allowing for discrimination between variable fields that provided a strong reliable signal, from those that may appear strong but possess large variability, and (2) composite soundings of two subclasses of elevated thunderstorms. Also, a null case (one that fits the composite but failed to produce significant rainfall) is also examined for comparison.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 06:13:07 +000
       
  • Precipitating Cloud Characteristics during Changma as Seen in TRMM PR
           Observations

    • Abstract: The climatological characteristics of precipitating clouds during Changma, the summer rainy period in the Korean Peninsula, were investigated using the Precipitation Radar (PR) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. This investigation was further augmented with reanalysis data. Specifically, Changma clouds are compared with post-Changma clouds. Similarities and differences in cloud properties between the two periods are discussed based on seasonal changes in thermodynamic environments. For convective clouds migrating along the Changma (stationary) front, rain intensity is much stronger and cloud height is relatively higher than during any other summer period, including post-Changma period. Convective rain clouds have a large seasonal variability, even during summer. The seasonal variability in rain parameters related to convective rain type appears to be due to the thermodynamic and dynamic environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Statistical Downscaling of Temperature with the Random Forest Model

    • Abstract: The issues with downscaling the outputs of a global climate model (GCM) to a regional scale that are appropriate to hydrological impact studies are investigated using the random forest (RF) model, which has been shown to be superior for large dataset analysis and variable importance evaluation. The RF is proposed for downscaling daily mean temperature in the Pearl River basin in southern China. Four downscaling models were developed and validated by using the observed temperature series from 61 national stations and large-scale predictor variables derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis dataset. The proposed RF downscaling model was compared to multiple linear regression, artificial neural network, and support vector machine models. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial correlation analysis (PAR) were used in the predictor selection for the other models for a comprehensive study. It was shown that the model efficiency of the RF model was higher than that of the other models according to five selected criteria. By evaluating the predictor importance, the RF could choose the best predictor combination without using PCA and PAR. The results indicate that the RF is a feasible tool for the statistical downscaling of temperature.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2017 09:59:13 +000
       
  • The Contribution of Geomagnetic Activity to Polar Ozone Changes in the
           Upper Atmosphere

    • Abstract: Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) has significant impacts on ozone depletion in the polar middle atmosphere during geomagnetic activity. It is well known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in ozone generation. Therefore, it is interesting to compare the contributions of EPP and solar UV to ozone changes in the polar upper atmosphere. In this article, we use the annual average index to denote the annual-mean magnitude of the geomagnetic activity, which is closely correlated with the EPP flux, and the annual average index to denote the annual-mean magnitude of the solar radiation, which is somewhat related to the solar UV. We adopt the 5° zonal annual-mean ozone profile dataset to study the statistical characters between the ozone dataset and the , indices. Multiple regression analysis shows that the contributions of geomagnetic activity are not negligible and are of a similar order of magnitude as the solar UV radiation in the polar upper atmosphere (above 10 hPa). The results also show that high-speed solar-wind-stream-induced and coronal-mass-ejection-driven geomagnetic activity is of the same order of magnitude. There are interhemispheric differences according to our multiple regression analysis. We discuss the possible causes of these differences.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 06:55:57 +000
       
  • Arctic-Mid-Latitude Linkages in a Nonlinear Quasi-Geostrophic Atmospheric
           Model

    • Abstract: A quasi-geostrophic three-level T63 model of the wintertime atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere has been applied to investigate the impact of Arctic amplification (increase in surface air temperatures and loss of Arctic sea ice during the last 15 years) on the mid-latitude large-scale atmospheric circulation. The model demonstrates a mid-latitude response to an Arctic diabatic heating anomaly. A clear shift towards a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO−) during low sea-ice-cover conditions occurs, connected with weakening of mid-latitude westerlies over the Atlantic and colder winters over Northern Eurasia. Compared to reanalysis data, there is no clear model response with respect to the Pacific Ocean and North America.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 08:37:47 +000
       
  • Forest Evapotranspiration and Energy Flux Partitioning Based on Eddy
           Covariance Methods in an Arid Desert Region of Northwest China

    • Abstract: In this study, the characteristics of energy flux partitioning and evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests were examined in the extreme arid region of Northwest China. Energy balance closure of the ecosystem was approximately 72% ( + LE = 0.72 ∗ , , ), where is the net radiation, is the soil heat flux, is the sensible heat flux, and LE is the latent heat flux. LE was the main term of energy consumption at annual time scale because of higher value in the growing season. The ratios of the latent (LE) and sensible () heat fluxes to net radiation were 0.47 and 0.28 throughout the year, respectively. Moreover, the yearly evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests was 744 mm year−1. And the mean daily ET was 5.09 mm·d−1 in the vibrant growing season. In particular, a small spike in the actual evapotranspiration distribution occurred during the soil ablation period due to the higher temperature and sufficient soil moisture associated with soil thawing. This period is accompanied by a series of physical processes, such as moisture transfer and heat exchange.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 09:54:43 +000
       
  • On the Potential of 25 Years (1991–2015) of Rawinsonde Measurements for
           Elucidating Climatological and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Afternoon
           Boundary Layer Depths over the Contiguous US

    • Abstract: The daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth is an essential parameter in, for example, dispersion models and numerical weather prediction. We applied a recently developed technique to estimate afternoon PBL depths from 516,887 daily rawinsonde measurements obtained at 0000 UTC between 1 Jan 1991 and 31 Dec 2015 from 67 US sites. We discuss salient features in the PBL depth variability and examine the climatology of afternoon PBL depths as a function of geographical region and Köppen-Geiger climate regime. Results indicated a strong east to west PBL depth gradient, with higher PBL depths over the semiarid regions of the western US in spring and summer. Many sites located near coastlines exhibited no seasonal cycle due to marine boundary layer influences, and an inverse relationship was found between distance from the coast and observed afternoon PBL depth. Differentiating by climate type, BWk (arid, desert, and cold) has the largest median winter (1075 m) and summer (2500 m) PBL depths. Median PBL depths for Cfa (temperate, no dry season, and hot summers), Dfa (cold, no dry season, and warm summer), and Dfb (cold, no dry season, and hot summers) climate types are 750 m and 1000 m during winter and summer, respectively.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 08:14:16 +000
       
  • Brewer–Dobson Circulation: Recent-Past and Near-Future Trends Simulated
           by Chemistry-Climate Models

    • Abstract: Based on data from 16 chemistry-climate models (CCMs) and separate experimental results using a state-of-the-art CCM, the trends in the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) during the second half of the 20th century (1960–2000) and the first half of the 21st century (2001–2050) are examined. From the ensemble mean of the CCMs, the BDC exhibits strengthening trends in both the 20th and 21st centuries; however, the acceleration rates of tropical upwelling and southern downwelling during 2001–2050 are smaller than those during 1960–2000, while the acceleration rate of the northern downward branch of the BDC during 2001–2050 is slightly larger than that during 1960–2000. The differences in the extratropical downwelling trends between the two periods are closely related to changes in planetary-wave propagation into the stratosphere caused by the combined effects of increases in the concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and changes in stratospheric ozone. Model simulations demonstrate that the response of southern downwelling to stratospheric ozone depletion is larger than that to the increase in GHGs, but that the latter plays a more important role in the strengthening of northern downwelling. This result suggests that, under the expected future climate, northern downwelling will play a more important role in balancing tropical upwelling.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Influence of the Intermittent Behavior of the Nocturnal Atmospheric
           Flow on the Prediction of the Diurnal Temperature Range: A Simplified
           Model Analysis

    • Abstract: The variation of the atmospheric temperature near the surface associated with anthropogenic effects is analyzed using a simplified atmospheric model. Local changes in cloud cover and four different scenarios of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide are considered. The results show that the highest temperature variability occurs in the weak wind and decoupled state and in the transition between flow regimes. In agreement with previous efforts, the results indicate that the reduction of diurnal temperature range is related to the existence of two distinct flow regimes in the stable boundary layer. However, in the decoupled state, the occurrence of intermittent bursts of turbulence may cause temperature variations among the different scenarios to become unpredictable. It implies that it is difficult to predict the diurnal temperature range in places where low winds are common.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 07:38:20 +000
       
  • Improving Daytime Planetary Boundary Layer Height Determination from
           CALIOP: Validation Based on Ground-Based Lidar Station

    • Abstract: An integrated algorithm by combining the advantages of the wavelet covariance method and the improved maximum variance method was developed to determine the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements, and an aerosol fraction threshold was applied to the integrated algorithm considering the applicability of the two methods. We compared the CALIOP retrieval with the measurements of PBLH derived from nine years of ground-based Lidar synchronous observations located in Lille, north of France. The results indicate that a good correlation () exists between the PBLHs derived from CALIOP and ground-based Lidar under clear sky conditions. The mean absolute differences of PBLHs are, respectively, of 206 m and 106 m before and after the removal of the aloft aerosol layer. The results under cloudy sky conditions show a lower agreement () in regard of the comparisons performed under clear sky conditions. Besides, the spatial correlation of PBLHs decreases with the increasing spatial distance between CALIOP footprint and Lille observation platform. Based on the above analysis, the PBLHs can be effectively derived by the integrated algorithm under clear sky conditions, while larger mean absolute difference (i.e., 527 m) exists under cloudy sky conditions.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Jun 2017 08:46:48 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Reliability of MODIS Evapotranspiration Products for
           Heterogeneous Dry Forest: A Study Case of Caatinga”

    • PubDate: Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Vertical Variation of Relationship at Hallasan Mountain during Typhoon
           Nakri in 2014

    • Abstract: Hallasan Mountain is located at the center of Jeju Island, Korea. Even though the height of the mountain is just 1,950 m, the orographic effect is strong enough to cause heavy rainfall. In this study, a rainfall event, due to Typhoon Nakri in 2014, observed in Jeju Island was analyzed fully using the radar and rain gauge data. First, the relationship was derived for every 250 m interval from the sea level to the mountain top. The resulting relationships showed that the exponent could be assumed as constant but that the parameter showed a significant decreasing trend up to an altitude around 1,000 m before it increased again. The orographic effect was found to be most significant at this altitude of 1,000 m. Second, the derived relationships were applied to the corresponding altitude radar reflectivity data to generate the rain rate field over Jeju Island. This rain rate field was then used to derive the areal-average rain rate data. These data were found to be very similar to the rain gauge estimates but were significantly different from those derived from the application of the Marshall-Palmer equation to the 1.5 km CAPPI data, which is the data type that is generally used by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA).
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 07:47:58 +000
       
  • Drought Assessment and Projection under Climate Change: A Case Study in
           the Middle and Lower Jinsha River Basin

    • Abstract: To gain an insight into the spatiotemporal variability of drought events and to assess trends under future climate change scenarios are fundamental for making sound mitigation and adaptation strategies. A new drought index, standardized supply-demand water index (SSDI), has been proposed in this research. The SSDI describes drought from the view of water supply-demand relations using a simple water balance model. It was used to assess historical drought events in the middle and lower Jinsha river basin (MLJRB) located in the southwest China and applied to address the drought conditions in the MLJRB under current and future climates. The results showed the following: (1) The average drought area during 2001 to 2011 reached up to 9.9 × 103 km2, accounting for 35.4% of the whole farmland area in the MLJRB, which was about twice as the drought area during 1961 to 2000. The region for greater drought severity with more drought events and longer duration was mainly distributed in Dali, Chuxiong, Kunming, and Yuxi. (2) For the period 2021 to 2050, total drought area was projected to increase by 43.2%. The drought-prone regions could move further towards the northwest of the MLJRB.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 07:42:49 +000
       
  • Climatological Behavior of Precipitating Clouds in the Northeast Region of
           Brazil

    • Abstract: This study aims to analyze the climatological classification of precipitating clouds in the Northeast of Brazil using the radar on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. Thus, for this research a time series of 15 years of satellite data (period 1998–2012) was analyzed in order to identify what types of clouds produce precipitation estimated by Precipitation Radar (PR) and how often these clouds occur. From the results of this work it was possible to estimate the average relative frequency of each type of cloud present in weather systems that influence the Northeast of Brazil. In general, the stratiform clouds and shallow convective clouds are the most frequent in this region, but the associated rainfall is not as abundant as precipitation caused by deep convective clouds. It is also seen that a strong signal of shallow convective clouds modulates rainfall over the coastal areas of Northeast of Brazil and adjacent ocean. In this scenario, the main objective of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the patterns of cloud types associated with precipitation and building a climatological analysis from the classification of clouds.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Coupled 1D-2D Hydrodynamic Model for Urban Flood Inundation

    • Abstract: Hydrodynamic models were commonly used for flood risk management in urban area. This paper presents initial efforts in developing an urban flood inundation model by coupling a one-dimensional (1D) model with a two-dimensional (2D) model to overcome the drawbacks of each individual modelling approach, and an additional module is used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process in study areas. For the 1D model, the finite difference method is used to discretize the Saint-Venant equations. An implicit dual time-stepping method (DTS) is then applied to a 2D finite volume model for an inundation simulation to improve computational efficiency. A total of four test cases are applied to validate the proposed model; its performance is demonstrated by a comparison with an explicit scheme and previously published results (an extensive physical experiment benchmark case, a vertical linking example, and two real drainage cases with actual topography). Results demonstrate that the proposed model is accurate and efficient in simulating urban floods for practical applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Measuring Hydrometeors with a Precipitation Microphysical Characteristics
           Sensor: Calibration and Field Measurements

    • Abstract: Aiming at the simultaneous measurement of the size, shape, and fall velocity of precipitation particles in the natural environment, we present here a new ground-based precipitation microphysical characteristics sensor (PMCS) based on the particle imaging velocimetry technology. The PMCS can capture autocorrelated images of precipitation particles by double-exposure in one frame, by which the size, axis ratio, and fall velocity of precipitation particles can be calculated. The PMCS is calibrated by a series of glass balls with certain diameters under varying light conditions, and a self-adaptive threshold method is proposed. The shape, axis ratio, and fall velocity of raindrops were calculated and discussed based on the field measurement results of PMCS. The typical shape of large raindrop is an oblate ellipsoid, the axis ratio of raindrops decreases linearly with the diameter, the fall velocity of raindrops approaches its asymptote, and the above observed results are in good agreement with the empirical models; the synchronous observation of a PMCS, an OTT PARSIVEL disdrometer, and a rain gauge shows that the PMCS is able to measure the rain intensity, accumulated rainfall, and drop size distribution with high accuracy. These results have validated the performance of PMCS.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Indoor/Outdoor Air Quality Assessment at School near the Steel Plant in
           Taranto (Italy)

    • Abstract: This study aims to investigate the air quality in primary school placed in district of Taranto (south of Italy), an area of high environmental risk because of closeness between large industrial complex and urban settlement. The chemical characterization of PM2.5 was performed to identify origin of pollutants detected inside school and the comparison between indoor and outdoor levels of PAHs and metals allowed evaluating intrusion of outdoor pollutants or the existence of specific indoor sources. The results showed that the indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5, BaP, Cd, Ni, As, and Pb never exceeded the target values issued by World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, high metals and PAHs concentrations were detected especially when school were downwind to the steel plant. The ratio showed the impact of outdoor pollutants, especially of industrial markers as Fe, Mn, Zn, and Pb, on indoor air quality. This result was confirmed by values of diagnostic ratio as B(a)P/B(g)P, IP/(IP + BgP), BaP/Chry, and BaP/(BaP + Chry), which showed range characteristics of coke and coal combustion. However, Ni and As showed ratio of 2.5 and 1.4, respectively, suggesting the presence of indoor sources.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 May 2017 06:35:07 +000
       
  • Regional Attenuation Correction of Weather Radar Using a Distributed
           Microwave-Links Network

    • Abstract: The complex temporal-spatial variation of raindrop size distribution will affect the precision of precipitation quantitative estimates (QPE) produced from radar data, making it difficult to correct echo attenuation. Given the fact that microwave links can obtain the total path attenuation accurately, we introduce the concept of regional attenuation correction using a multiple-microwave-links network based on the tomographic reconstruction of attenuation coefficients. Derived from the radar-based equation, the effect of rainfall distribution on the propagation of radar and microwave link signals was analyzed. This article focuses on modeling of the tomographic reconstruction of attenuation coefficients and regional attenuation correction algorithms. Finally, a numerical simulation of regional attenuation correction was performed to verify the algorithms employed here. The results demonstrate that the correction coefficient (0.9175) falls between the corrected and initial field of radar reflectivity factor (root mean square error, 2.3476 dBz; average deviation, 0.0113 dBz). Compared with uncorrected data, the accuracy of the corrected radar reflectivity factor was improved by 26.12%, and the corrected rainfall intensity distribution was improved by 51.85% validating the region attenuation correction algorithm. This method can correct the regional attenuation of weather radar echo effectively and efficiently; it can be widely used for the radar attenuation correction and the promotion of quantitative precipitation estimation by weather radar.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Exploration of Use of Copulas in Analysing the Relationship between
           Precipitation and Meteorological Drought in Beijing, China

    • Abstract: Drought risk analysis is essential for regional water resource management. In this study, the probabilistic relationship between precipitation and meteorological drought in Beijing, China, was calculated under three different precipitation conditions (precipitation equal to, greater than, or less than a threshold) based on copulas. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was calculated based on monthly total precipitation and monthly mean temperature data. The trends and variations in the SPEI were analysed using Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) and Mann-Kendall (MK) trend tests with a running approach. The results of the HHT and MK test indicated a significant decreasing trend in the SPEI. The copula-based conditional probability indicated that the probability of meteorological drought decreased as monthly precipitation increased and that 10 mm can be regarded as the threshold for triggering extreme drought. From a quantitative perspective, when  mm, the probabilities of moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought were 22.1%, 18%, and 13.6%, respectively. This conditional probability distribution not only revealed the occurrence of meteorological drought in Beijing but also provided a quantitative way to analyse the probability of drought under different precipitation conditions. Thus, the results provide a useful reference for future drought prediction.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cold Outbreaks at the Mesoscale in the Western Mediterranean Basin: From
           Raincells to Rainbands

    • Abstract: This paper investigates cold outbreaks that form offshore density currents within the whole mesoscale over the Western Mediterranean basin. Reflectivity radar and satellite images are used to detect clouds and precipitation that are associated with these density currents in the meso-, meso-, and meso- over the Western Mediterranean basin (WMB). Version 3.3 of the WRF-ARW model is used to describe the formation and evolution of these density currents and to estimate their lifetime as well as horizontal and vertical scales. Based on the observations and simulations, this paper suggests that a new perspective could effectively be adopted regarding the WMB region delineated by the Balearic Islands, the northeastern Iberian Peninsula, and the Gulf of Lion, where inland cold outbreaks develop into density currents that move offshore and can produce precipitation ranging from raincells to rainbands at the whole mesoscale.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hydrometeorological Applications: Severe Weather Precipitation Detection,
           Estimation, and Forecast

    • PubDate: Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Mesoscale and Local Scale Evaluations of Quantitative
           Precipitation Estimates by Weather Radar Products during a Heavy Rainfall
           Event”

    • PubDate: Wed, 10 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Monitoring and Forecasting Air Pollution Levels by Exploiting Satellite,
           Ground-Based, and Synoptic Data, Elaborated with Regression Models

    • Abstract: This paper presents some of the results of a project that aimed at the design and implementation of a system for the spatial mapping and forecasting the temporal evolution of air pollution from dust transport from the Sahara Desert into the eastern Mediterranean and secondarily from anthropogenic sources, focusing over Cyprus. Monitoring air pollution (aerosols) in near real-time is accomplished by using spaceborne and in situ platforms. The results of the development of a system for forecasting pollution levels in terms of particulate matter concentrations are presented. The aim of the present study is to utilize the recorded PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) ground measurements, Aerosol Optical Depth retrievals from satellite, and the prevailing synoptic conditions established by Artificial Neural Networks, in order to develop regression models that will be able to predict the spatial and temporal variability of PM10 in Cyprus. The core of the forecasting system comprises an appropriately designed neural classification system which clusters synoptic maps, Aerosol Optical Depth data from the Aqua satellite, and ground measurements of particulate matter. By exploiting the above resources, statistical models for forecasting pollution levels were developed.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Forecasting Drought Using Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network
           Model

    • Abstract: These days human beings are facing many environmental challenges due to frequently occurring drought hazards. It may have an effect on the country’s environment, the community, and industries. Several adverse impacts of drought hazard are continued in Pakistan, including other hazards. However, early measurement and detection of drought can provide guidance to water resources management for employing drought mitigation policies. In this paper, we used a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) algorithm for drought forecasting. We applied and tested MLPNN algorithm on monthly time series data of Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for seventeen climatological stations located in Northern Area and KPK (Pakistan). We found that MLPNN has potential capability for SPEI drought forecasting based on performance measures (i.e., Mean Average Error (MAE), the coefficient of correlation (), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)). Water resources and management planner can take necessary action in advance (e.g., in water scarcity areas) by using MLPNN model as part of their decision-making.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2017 09:58:28 +000
       
  • Influence of the Anomalous Patterns of the Mascarene and Australian Highs
           on Precipitation during the Prerainy Season in South China

    • Abstract: The authors investigate the features of precipitation during the prerainy season in South China (PSCPRS) and the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), which is expected to influence the PSCPRS significantly. The Morlet wavelet method revealed that the PSCPRS has significant interannual variability, especially in its quasi-biennial oscillation. The PSCPRS exhibits a significant monsoonal precipitation pattern. Using singular value decomposition (SVD) and composite analysis, the anomalous characteristics of SH atmospheric circulations and their impacts on the PSCPRS are studied. The results reveal that eastward movements or extensions of the Mascarene high (MH) and Australian high (AH), which have quasi-baroclinic geopotential height structures in the lower and middle troposphere, are the most significant factors affecting the PSCPRS. Their impacts on the PSCPRS anomalies are further studied using the index east of the MH (IEMH) and index east of the AH (IEAH). The IEMH and IEAH have notable significant positive correlations with the PSCPRS. When either the IEMH or IEAH is stronger (weaker), more (less) rainfall occurs during the prerainy season in South China.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Apr 2017 07:15:00 +000
       
  • Sensitivity Evaluation of Spectral Nudging Schemes in Historical Dynamical
           Downscaling for South Asia

    • Abstract: Sensitivity experiments testing two scale-selective bias correction (SSBC) methods have been carried out to identify an optimal spectral nudging scheme for historical dynamically downscaled simulations of South Asia, using the coordinated regional climate downscaling experiment (CORDEX) protocol and the regional spectral model (RSM). Two time periods were selected under the category of short-term extreme summer and long-term decadal analysis. The new SSBC version applied nudging to full wind components, with an increased relaxation time in the lower model layers, incorporating a vertical weighted damping coefficient. An evaluation of the extraordinary weather conditions experienced in South Asia in the summer of 2005 confirmed the advantages of the new SSBC when modeling monsoon precipitation. Furthermore, the new SSBC scheme was found to predict precipitation and wind patterns more accurately than the older version in decadal analysis, which applies nudging only to the rotational wind field, with a constant strength at all heights.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Apr 2017 08:12:05 +000
       
  • Dynamical Modulation of Wintertime Synoptic-Scale Cyclone Activity over
           the Japan Sea due to Changbai Mountain in the Korean Peninsula

    • Abstract: The dynamical impact of the Changbai Mountain Range in the Korean Peninsula on the extratropical cyclone activity over the Japan Sea in early winter is examined using the Weather Research Forecasting model. We have conducted two independent long-term integrations over 15 winter months (December only) from 2000 to 2014 with and without modified topography. The results show that the Changbai Mountain Range plays a vital role in increasing cyclone track frequency, low-level poleward eddy heat flux, and the local deepening rate over the Japan Sea through enhancement of the lower-tropospheric baroclinic zone (LTBZ). This mountain range gives rise to activation of the synoptic-scale cyclone activity over that region. From our case study on three typical cyclones, it is found that mesoscale structures in the vicinity of a cyclone’s center are dynamically modulated when it passes through the LTBZ and that cyclogenesis is triggered around that zone. A vorticity budget analysis shows that the stretching term relevant to enhanced low-level convergence plays a dominant role in intensifying cyclonic vorticities. We confirmed that the composite features of the three typical cases are consistent with the statistical ones of the dynamical modulation of the Changbai Mountain on synoptic-scale cyclone activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Apr 2017 07:30:03 +000
       
  • A New Variational Assimilation Method Based on Gradient Information from
           Satellite Data

    • Abstract: With the development of meteorological observation technology, satellite data have found increasingly wide use in the numerical weather prediction field. However, there are various observational biases in satellite data, including a random bias brought about by complex weather systems and a systematic bias caused by the instrument itself, which greatly influence the quality of satellite data. A gradient information assimilation method is proposed in this paper to eliminate systematic bias. This method uses a gradient operator for gradient transformation between the model variable and observation variable and reaches the objective of eliminating systematic bias. An ideal experiment of variational data assimilation is conducted using the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) data, indicating that only assimilating gradient information can eliminate the smooth systematic bias in observation data. Then, a numerical simulation of tropical cyclone (TC) Megi and data assimilation experiment are conducted using the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) and WRF Data Assimilation (WRFDA) model as well as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) data. The results show that the method of gradient information assimilation can improve the accuracy of TC tracks forecast and is also applicable for dealing with unreliable satellite data.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Apr 2017 07:27:42 +000
       
  • Impact of the Choice of Land Surface Scheme on a Simulated Heatwave Event:
           The Case of Sichuan-Chongqing Area, China

    • Abstract: The Sichuan-Chongqing area in China has complex basin topography and is known for its extremely hot summer weather. In this paper, the mesoscale model WRF version 3.6.1 was used to simulate a period of 1–10 days in advance of the hot weather that occurred in Sichuan-Chongqing on August 10, 2006, to investigate the effect of six different land surface schemes (LSSs) (SLAB, RUC, PX, NOAH, NOAH_MP, and CLM4) on short- and medium-range simulations of high temperatures. The simulated surface air temperatures (SATs) are sensitive to the LSSs and simulation lengths. Specifically, all of the LSSs except PX generally reproduce the observed high temperatures, with CLM4 SATs at 06 UTC (SAT06) the most consistent with measurements whereas the short-range (medium-range) results from NOAH_MP (NOAH) are the worst. Detailed explanations were given in terms of surface fluxes and physical processes. RUC soil moisture initialization appears poor and the LSS reflects too strong gravity drainage. When the LSSs with increased numbers of soil layers are used, the simulated high temperatures are found more consistent with measurements. Additionally, regional sensible heat flux (SHF) does not show high consistency with SAT. The results that differ from the previous studies are partly due to the complex geography and the LSS deficiencies.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 06:49:15 +000
       
  • Two Different Integration Methods for Weather Radar-Based Quantitative
           Precipitation Estimation

    • Abstract: We discuss two different integration methods for radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE): the echo intensity integral and the rain intensity integral. Theoretical analyses and simulations were used to test differences between these two methods. Cumulative rainfall calculated by the echo intensity integral is usually greater than that from rain intensity integral. The difference of calculated precipitation using these two methods is generally smaller for stable precipitation systems and larger for unstable precipitation systems. If the echo intensity signal is sinusoidal, the discrepancy between the two methods is most significant. For stratiform and convective precipitation, the normalized error ranges from −0.138 to −0.15 and from −0.11 to −0.122, respectively. If the echo intensity signal is linear, the normalized error ranges from 0 to −0.13 and from 0 to −0.11, respectively. If the echo intensity signal is exponential, the normalized error ranges from 0 to −0.35 and from 0 to −0.30, respectively. When both the integration scheme and real radar data were used to estimate cumulative precipitation for one day, their spatial distributions were similar.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 06:06:47 +000
       
 
 
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