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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 298 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

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Journal Cover Advances in Meteorology
  [SJR: 0.498]   [H-I: 10]   [18 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Characteristics of Water Vapor in the UTLS over the Tibetan Plateau Based
           on AURA/MLS Observations

    • Abstract: Water vapor (WV) has a vital effect on global climate change. Using satellite data observed by AURA/MLS and ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets, the spatial distributions and temporal variations of WV were analyzed. It was found that high WV content in the UTLS over the southern Tibetan Plateau is more apparent in summer, due to monsoon-induced strong upward motions. The WV content showed the opposite distribution at 100 hPa, though, during spring and winter. And a different distribution at 121 hPa indicated that the difference in WV content between the northern and southern plateau occurs between 121 and 100 hPa in spring and between 147 and 121 hPa in winter. In the UTLS, it diminishes rapidly with increase in altitude in these two seasons, and it shows a “V” structure in winter. There has been a weak increasing trend in WV at 100 hPa, but a downtrend at 147 and 215 hPa, during the past 12 years. At the latter two heights, the WV content in summer has been much higher than in other seasons. Furthermore, WV variation showed a rough wave structure in spring and autumn at 215 hPa. The variation of WV over the Tibetan Plateau is helpful in understanding the stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) and climate change.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 11:11:09 +000
       
  • The Advantage of Using International Multimodel Ensemble for Seasonal
           Precipitation Forecast over Israel

    • Abstract: This study analyzes the results of monthly and seasonal precipitation forecasting from seven different global climate forecast models for major basins in Israel within October–April 1982–2010. The six National Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) models and the ECMWF seasonal model were used to calculate an International Multimodel Ensemble (IMME). The study presents the performance of both monthly and seasonal predictions of precipitation accumulated over three months, with respect to different lead times for the ensemble mean values, one per individual model. Additionally, we analyzed the performance of different combinations of models. We present verification of seasonal forecasting using real forecasts, focusing on a small domain characterized by complex terrain, high annual precipitation variability, and a sharp precipitation gradient from west to east as well as from south to north. The results in this study show that, in general, the monthly analysis does not provide very accurate results, even when using the IMME for one-month lead time. We found that the IMME outperformed any single model prediction. Our analysis indicates that the optimal combinations with the high correlation values contain at least three models. Moreover, prediction with larger number of models in the ensemble produces more robust predictions. The results obtained in this study highlight the advantages of using an ensemble of global models over single models for small domain.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Jul 2017 05:59:49 +000
       
  • Responses of Streamflow to Climate Change and Human Activities in a River
           Basin, Northeast China

    • Abstract: It is now common knowledge that many water resources stresses relate to access to water within a basin. Yi River Basin, a typical river basin characterized by intensive agricultural processes, significant population growth, and water management, has been undergoing grave water problems. In this paper, the long-term trend of precipitation and streamflow in Yi River Basin, from 1964 to 2010, was investigated via Mann-Kendall test. The change point occurred in the year 1965 dividing the long-term series into two periods. Climate elasticity method and linear regression method were implemented to quantify the impact of precipitation and human activities on runoff and presented basically consistent results of the percentage change in an annual runoff for the postchange period. The results reveal that the decline of annual runoff in postchange period is mainly attributed to precipitation variability of 53.66–58.25% and human activities of 46.34–41.74%, as estimated by climate elasticity method and linear regression method, respectively. This study detected the changes in the precipitation-streamflow relationship and investigated the possible causes in the Yi River, which will be helpful for providing a reference for the management of regional water resources.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Comparison of Thermal Growing Season Indices for the Northern China
           during 1961–2015

    • Abstract: Vegetation phenology is one of the most direct and sensitive indicators of terrestrial ecosystem in response to climate change. Based on daily mean air temperature at 877 meteorological stations over northern China from 1961 to 2015, the correlations and differences for different definitions of the growing season parameters (start, end, and length of the growing season) were investigated, and results show that higher correlations of 0.81–0.93 are found when indices which do not consider frost are compared with those of the same length which include the frost criteria, and lower correlations of 0.63–0.79 are observed when the length of indices is different and one of the indices includes the frost criteria or EI 3 (10 d < 5°C) is included. Lower correlations and larger differences are generally observed in the eastern and northwestern parts while higher correlation and smaller difference appeared in the northeastern and southwestern parts of northern China; thus the applicability comparison and selection of different definitions have important influence on the identifying and counting of the timing and length of the growing season in the eastern and northwestern regions of northern China.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spatiotemporal Variation of Frost within Growing Periods

    • Abstract: Frost is one of the devastating agroclimatological hazards affecting crop production in the Free State Province of South Africa. In this study, frost (0°C threshold) probabilities within different growing periods starting from the first dekad of October to the third dekad of February for a 100-day, 120-day, and 140-day crop were determined. The data used in the investigation was daily minimum temperature obtained from 55 weather stations located in and around the Free State Province with data from 1950 to 2010. The results show high spatial and temporal variability of frost within the different growing periods. The western, central, northern, and northwestern parts of the province have the longest planting window for all the growing lengths from mid-October to mid-January. The eastern, northeastern, southern, and southeastern parts of Free State have the highest frost risk with shortened planting window mostly from the first dekad of November to the second dekad of December. Thus, careful consideration of frost incidences is important for successful crop production in this area.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 09:30:50 +000
       
  • Effects of the Representation of Convection on the Modelling of Hurricane
           Tomas (2010)

    • Abstract: The cumulus parameterization is widely recognised as a crucial factor in tropical meteorology: this paper intends to shed further light on the effects of convection parameterization on tropical cyclones’ numerical predictions in the “grey zone” (10–1 km grid spacing). Ten experiments are devised by combining five different convection treatments over the innermost, 5 km grid spacing, domain, and two different global circulation model datasets (IFS and ERA-Interim). All ten experiments are finally analysed and compared to observations provided by the National Hurricane Center’s best track record and multisatellite rainfall measurements. Results manifestly point to the superiority of employing no convective parameterization at the scale of 5 km versus the usage of any of those provided by WRF to reproduce the case study of Hurricane Tomas, which hit the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles in late October and early November 2010.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 08:14:13 +000
       
  • Classifying Aerosols Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Their Optical and
           Microphysical Properties Study in Beijing, China

    • Abstract: Classification of Beijing aerosol is carried out based on clustering optical properties obtained from three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. The fuzzy -mean (FCM) clustering algorithm is used to classify fourteen-year (2001–2014) observations, totally of 6,732 records, into six aerosol types. They are identified as fine particle nonabsorbing, two kinds of fine particle moderately absorbing (fine-MA1 and fine-MA2), fine particle highly absorbing, polluted dust, and desert dust aerosol. These aerosol types exhibit obvious optical characteristics difference. While five of them show similarities with aerosol types identified elsewhere, the polluted dust aerosol has no comparable prototype. Then the membership degree, a significant parameter provided by fuzzy clustering, is used to analyze internal variation of optical properties of each aerosol type. Finally, temporal variations of aerosol types are investigated. The dominant aerosol types are polluted dust and desert dust in spring, fine particle nonabsorbing aerosol in summer, and fine particle highly absorbing aerosol in winter. The fine particle moderately absorbing aerosol occurs during the whole year. Optical properties of the six types can also be used for radiative forcing estimation and satellite aerosol retrieval. Additionally, methodology of this study can be applied to identify aerosol types on a global scale.
      PubDate: Mon, 24 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Identification of the Impacts of Climate Changes and Human Activities on
           Runoff in the Jinsha River Basin, China

    • Abstract: Quantifying the impacts of climate changes and human activities on runoff has received extensive attention, especially for the regions with significant elevation difference. The contributions of climate changes and human activities to runoff were analyzed using rainfall-runoff relationship, double mass curve, slope variation, and water balance method during 1961–2010 at the Jinsha River basin, China. Results indicate that runoff at upstream and runoff at midstream are both dominated by climate changes, and the contributions of climate changes to runoff are 63%~72% and 53%~68%, respectively. At downstream, climate changes account for only 13%~18%, and runoff is mainly controlled by human activities, contributing 82%~87%. The availability and stability of results were compared and analyzed in the four methods. Results in slope variation, double mass curve, and water balance method except rainfall-runoff relationship method are of good agreement. And the rainfall-runoff relationship, double mass curve, and slope variation method are all of great stability. The four methods and availability evaluation of them could provide a reference to quantification in the contributions of climate changes and human activities to runoff at similar basins in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 06:52:40 +000
       
  • Large-Scale Analysis of Relationships between Mineral Dust, Ice Cloud
           Properties, and Precipitation from Satellite Observations Using a Bayesian
           Approach: Theoretical Basis and First Results for the Tropical Atlantic
           Ocean

    • Abstract: Mineral dust and ice cloud observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) are used to assess the relationships between desert dust aerosols and ice clouds over the tropical Atlantic Ocean during the hurricane season 2008. Cloud property histograms are first adjusted for varying cloud top temperature or ice water path distributions with a Bayesian approach to account for meteorological constraints on the cloud variables. Then, histogram differences between dust load classes are used to describe the impact of dust load on cloud property statistics. The analysis of the histogram differences shows that ice crystal sizes are reduced with increasing aerosol load and ice cloud optical depth and ice water path are increased. The distributions of all three variables broaden and get less skewed in dusty environments. For ice crystal size the significant bimodality is reduced and the order of peaks is reversed. Moreover, it is shown that not only are distributions of ice cloud variables simply shifted linearly but also variance, skewness, and complexity of the cloud variable distributions are significantly affected. This implies that the whole cloud variable distributions have to be considered for indirect aerosol effects in any application for climate modelling.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 06:03:03 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Spatiotemporal Variability and Trends of Extreme
           Precipitation in the Huaihe River Basin, a Climatic Transitional Zone in
           East China”

    • PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2017 08:17:06 +000
       
  • Surface Air Temperature Fluctuations and Lapse Rates on Olivares Gamma
           Glacier, Rio Olivares Basin, Central Chile, from a Novel Meteorological
           Sensor Network

    • Abstract: Empirically based studies of glacier meteorology, especially for the Southern Hemisphere, are relatively sparse in the literature. Here, we use an innovative network of highly portable, low-cost thermometers to report on high-frequency (1-min time resolution) surface air temperature fluctuations and lapse rates (LR) in a ~800-m elevational range (from 3,675 to 4,492 m a.s.l.) across the glacier Olivares Gamma in the central Andes, Chile. Temperatures were measured during an intense field campaign in late Southern summer, 19–27 March 2015, under varying weather conditions. We found a complex dependence of high-frequency LR on time of day, topography, and wider meteorological conditions, with hourly temperature variations during this week that were probably mainly associated with short- and long-wave radiation changes and not with wind speed/direction changes. Using various pairs of sites within our station network, we also analyze spatial variations in LR. Uniquely in this study, we compare temperatures measured at heights of 1-m and 2-m above the glacier surface for the network of five sites and found that temperatures at these two heights occasionally differed by more than ±4°C during the early afternoons, although the mean temperature difference is much smaller (~0.3°C). An implication of our results is that daily, hourly, or even monthly averaged LR may be insufficient for feeding into accurate melt models of glacier change, with the adoption of subhourly (ideally 1–10-min) resolution LR likely to prove fruitful in developing new innovative high-time-resolution melt modelling. Our results are potentially useful as input LR for local glacier melt models and for improving the understanding of lapse rate fluctuations and glacier response to climate change.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Survey and Perspectives on Mathematical Models for Quantitative
           Precipitation Estimation Using Lightning

    • Abstract: Lightning is one of the most spectacular phenomena in nature. It is produced when there is a breakdown in the resistance in the electric field between the ground and an electrically charged cloud. By simple observation, we observe that precipitation, especially the most intense, is often accompanied by lightning. Given this observation, lightning has been employed to estimate convective precipitation since 1969. In early studies, mathematical models were deduced to quantify this relationship and used to estimate precipitation. Currently, the use of several techniques to estimate precipitation is gaining momentum, and lightning is one of the novel techniques to complement the traditional techniques for Quantitative Precipitation Estimation. In this paper, the authors provide a survey of the mathematical methods employed to estimate precipitation through the use of cloud-to-ground lightning. We also offer a perspective on the future research to this end.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Response of South American Terrestrial Ecosystems to Future Patterns of
           Sea Surface Temperature

    • Abstract: Global warming in the first half of the 21st century is likely to have profound influences on South American vegetation and climate. Although coupled atmosphere-biosphere models have been widely used to forecast future vegetation patterns under various scenarios of global warming, they have not been used to assess the potentially critical role of variations in sea surface temperature (SST) in modifying the climate-vegetation interactions. Here, we use monthly output of a 100-year coupled model run to investigate the relationship between SST, precipitation, and productivity of vegetation. Specifically, we assess statistical correlations between SST variability and vegetation in six different South America regions: Northern South America, Western Amazonia, Eastern Amazonia, Northeast Brazil, Central Brazil, and Patagonia. Our model robustly simulates changes in mean precipitation, net primary production (NPP), upper canopy leaf area index (LAI), and lower canopy LAI under warming and nonwarming scenarios. Most significantly, we demonstrate that spatial-temporal variability in SST exerts a strong influence over the vegetation dynamics in all six South American regions.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Spatiotemporal Analysis of Drought Characteristics in Song-Liao River
           Basin in China

    • Abstract: The monthly accumulated precipitation and monthly average temperature of 117 meteorological stations in Song-Liao River Basin (SLRB) were used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI) to analyze the drought characteristics, including long-term trends, drought affected area, climate abrupt change, intensive drought occurrence regions, and drought durations during 1964–2013 with the support of GIS. The Area Drought Severity (ADS), a comprehensive index, is proposed to assess both the variations of drought degree and the extent of the drought affected area. The results revealed that the drought happening probability and degree are rising and the affected areas of all degrees of drought have an increasing trend during the last 50 years; there is a climate abrupt change which occurred in around 1994, and the area with declining SPEI is larger than that with declining SPI, which could be due to the rising temperature after the climate abrupt change; all degrees of drought occurrence probability increased, and the intensive drought occurrence regions altered from the northern SLRB to the southwestern SLRB after the climate abrupt change; the drought duration increased from 1994, and the increased drought durations occurred in most parts of SLRB.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Quality Control Method Based on an Improved Random Forest Algorithm for
           Surface Air Temperature Observations

    • Abstract: A spatial quality control method, ARF, is proposed. The ARF method incorporates the optimization ability of the artificial fish swarm algorithm and the random forest regression function to provide quality control for multiple surface air temperature stations. Surface air temperature observations were recorded at stations in mountainous and plain regions and at neighboring stations to test the performance of the method. Observations from 2005 to 2013 were used as a training set, and observations from 2014 were used as a testing set. The results indicate that the ARF method is able to identify inaccurate observations; and it has a higher rate of detection, lower rate of change for the quality control parameters, and fewer type I errors than traditional methods. Notably, the ARF method yielded low performance indexes in areas with complex terrain, where traditional methods were considerably less effective. In addition, for stations near the ocean without sufficient neighboring stations, different neighboring stations were used to test the different methods. Whereas the traditional methods were affected by station distribution, the ARF method exhibited fewer errors and higher stability. Thus, the method is able to effectively reduce the effects of geographical factors on spatial quality control.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • ANN Model-Based Simulation of the Runoff Variation in Response to Climate
           Change on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    • Abstract: Precisely quantitative assessments of stream flow response to climatic change and permafrost thawing are highly challenging and urgent in cold regions. However, due to the notably harsh environmental conditions, there is little field monitoring data of runoff in permafrost regions, which has limited the development of physically based models in these regions. To identify the impacts of climate change in the runoff process in the Three-River Headwater Region (TRHR) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, two artificial neural network (ANN) models, one with three input variables (previous runoff, air temperature, and precipitation) and another with two input variables (air temperature and precipitation only), were developed to simulate and predict the runoff variation in the TRHR. The results show that the three-input variable ANN model has a superior real-time prediction capability and performs well in the simulation and forecasting of the runoff variation in the TRHR. Under the different scenarios conditions, the forecasting results of ANN model indicated that climate change has a great effect on the runoff processes in the TRHR. The results of this study are of practical significance for water resources management and the evaluation of the impacts of climatic change on the hydrological regime in long-term considerations.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Effect of the Dry Line and Convective Initiation on Drought Evolution
           over Oklahoma during the 2011 Drought

    • Abstract: Observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations were used to evaluate the effect that the dry line and large-scale atmospheric patterns had on drought evolution during 2011. Mesonet observations showed that a “dry” and “wet” pattern developed across Oklahoma due to anomalous atmospheric patterns. The location of the dry line varied due to this “dry” and “wet” pattern, with the average dry line location around 1.5° longitude further to the east than climatology. Model simulations were used to further quantify the impact of variable surface conditions on dry line evolution and convective initiation (CI) during April and May 2011. Specifically, soil moisture conditions were altered to depict “wet” and “dry” conditions across the domain by replacing the soil moisture values by each soil category’s porosity or wilting point value. Overall, the strength of the dry line boundary, its position, and subsequent CI were dependent on the modification of soil moisture. The simulations demonstrated that modifying soil moisture impacted the nature of the dry line and showed that soil moisture conditions during the first half of the warm season modified the dry line pattern and influenced the evolution and perpetuation of drought over Oklahoma.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jul 2017 09:26:59 +000
       
  • Evaluating the TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis for Extreme
           Precipitation and Streamflow in Ganjiang River Basin, China

    • Abstract: Based on the observed precipitation data and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B42 RTV7 and 3B42 V7 precipitation products from 2003 to 2010, the extreme precipitation and streamflow in the Ganjiang River basin were analyzed. The VIC hydrological model was used to simulate the streamflow driven by RTV7/V7 precipitation products in the Ganjiang River basin. The results show that () both of the RTV7 and V7 precipitation products have good applicability in precipitation estimation in the Ganjiang River basin and the correlation between the observed precipitation and RTV7 (V7) was as higher as 0.85 (0.86); () the RTV7/V7 precipitation products can well be used to simulate the streamflow by using the VIC hydrological model and the correlation between the observed streamflow and simulated streamflow driven by RTV7 (V7) products was as high as 0.86 (0.89); () the extreme precipitation varied greatly in the Ganjiang River basin and both of the RTV7 and V7 can capture the pattern of extreme precipitation in the Ganjiang River basin; however, higher extreme precipitation can be found in the northern Ganjiang River basin; () the extreme streamflow simulated driven by RTV7/V7 products agreed well with the observed extreme streamflow in the Ganjiang River basin. This study indicated that the TRMM 3B42 RTV7 and V7 products can be well used in the estimation of extreme precipitation and extreme streamflow.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Composites of Heavy Rain Producing Elevated Thunderstorms in the Central
           United States

    • Abstract: Composite analyses of the atmosphere over the central United States during elevated thunderstorms producing heavy rainfall are presented. Composites were created for five National Weather Service County Warning Areas (CWAs) in the region. Events studied occurred during the warm season (April–September) during 1979–2012. These CWAs encompass the region determined previously to experience the greatest frequency of elevated thunderstorms in the United States. Composited events produced rainfall of >50 mm 24 hr−1 within the selected CWA. Composites were generated for the 0–3 hr period prior to the heaviest rainfall, 6–9 hours prior to it, and 12–15 hours prior to it. This paper focuses on the Pleasant Hill, Missouri (EAX) composites, as all CWA results were similar; also these analyses focus on the period 0–3 hours prior to event occurrence. These findings corroborate the findings of previous authors. What is offered here that is unique is (1) a measure of the interquartile range within the composite mean fields, allowing for discrimination between variable fields that provided a strong reliable signal, from those that may appear strong but possess large variability, and (2) composite soundings of two subclasses of elevated thunderstorms. Also, a null case (one that fits the composite but failed to produce significant rainfall) is also examined for comparison.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 06:13:07 +000
       
  • Precipitating Cloud Characteristics during Changma as Seen in TRMM PR
           Observations

    • Abstract: The climatological characteristics of precipitating clouds during Changma, the summer rainy period in the Korean Peninsula, were investigated using the Precipitation Radar (PR) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. This investigation was further augmented with reanalysis data. Specifically, Changma clouds are compared with post-Changma clouds. Similarities and differences in cloud properties between the two periods are discussed based on seasonal changes in thermodynamic environments. For convective clouds migrating along the Changma (stationary) front, rain intensity is much stronger and cloud height is relatively higher than during any other summer period, including post-Changma period. Convective rain clouds have a large seasonal variability, even during summer. The seasonal variability in rain parameters related to convective rain type appears to be due to the thermodynamic and dynamic environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Statistical Downscaling of Temperature with the Random Forest Model

    • Abstract: The issues with downscaling the outputs of a global climate model (GCM) to a regional scale that are appropriate to hydrological impact studies are investigated using the random forest (RF) model, which has been shown to be superior for large dataset analysis and variable importance evaluation. The RF is proposed for downscaling daily mean temperature in the Pearl River basin in southern China. Four downscaling models were developed and validated by using the observed temperature series from 61 national stations and large-scale predictor variables derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis dataset. The proposed RF downscaling model was compared to multiple linear regression, artificial neural network, and support vector machine models. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial correlation analysis (PAR) were used in the predictor selection for the other models for a comprehensive study. It was shown that the model efficiency of the RF model was higher than that of the other models according to five selected criteria. By evaluating the predictor importance, the RF could choose the best predictor combination without using PCA and PAR. The results indicate that the RF is a feasible tool for the statistical downscaling of temperature.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Jun 2017 09:59:13 +000
       
  • The Contribution of Geomagnetic Activity to Polar Ozone Changes in the
           Upper Atmosphere

    • Abstract: Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) has significant impacts on ozone depletion in the polar middle atmosphere during geomagnetic activity. It is well known that solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays an important role in ozone generation. Therefore, it is interesting to compare the contributions of EPP and solar UV to ozone changes in the polar upper atmosphere. In this article, we use the annual average index to denote the annual-mean magnitude of the geomagnetic activity, which is closely correlated with the EPP flux, and the annual average index to denote the annual-mean magnitude of the solar radiation, which is somewhat related to the solar UV. We adopt the 5° zonal annual-mean ozone profile dataset to study the statistical characters between the ozone dataset and the , indices. Multiple regression analysis shows that the contributions of geomagnetic activity are not negligible and are of a similar order of magnitude as the solar UV radiation in the polar upper atmosphere (above 10 hPa). The results also show that high-speed solar-wind-stream-induced and coronal-mass-ejection-driven geomagnetic activity is of the same order of magnitude. There are interhemispheric differences according to our multiple regression analysis. We discuss the possible causes of these differences.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Jun 2017 06:55:57 +000
       
  • Arctic-Mid-Latitude Linkages in a Nonlinear Quasi-Geostrophic Atmospheric
           Model

    • Abstract: A quasi-geostrophic three-level T63 model of the wintertime atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere has been applied to investigate the impact of Arctic amplification (increase in surface air temperatures and loss of Arctic sea ice during the last 15 years) on the mid-latitude large-scale atmospheric circulation. The model demonstrates a mid-latitude response to an Arctic diabatic heating anomaly. A clear shift towards a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO−) during low sea-ice-cover conditions occurs, connected with weakening of mid-latitude westerlies over the Atlantic and colder winters over Northern Eurasia. Compared to reanalysis data, there is no clear model response with respect to the Pacific Ocean and North America.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Jun 2017 08:37:47 +000
       
  • Forest Evapotranspiration and Energy Flux Partitioning Based on Eddy
           Covariance Methods in an Arid Desert Region of Northwest China

    • Abstract: In this study, the characteristics of energy flux partitioning and evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests were examined in the extreme arid region of Northwest China. Energy balance closure of the ecosystem was approximately 72% ( + LE = 0.72 ∗ , , ), where is the net radiation, is the soil heat flux, is the sensible heat flux, and LE is the latent heat flux. LE was the main term of energy consumption at annual time scale because of higher value in the growing season. The ratios of the latent (LE) and sensible () heat fluxes to net radiation were 0.47 and 0.28 throughout the year, respectively. Moreover, the yearly evapotranspiration of P. euphratica forests was 744 mm year−1. And the mean daily ET was 5.09 mm·d−1 in the vibrant growing season. In particular, a small spike in the actual evapotranspiration distribution occurred during the soil ablation period due to the higher temperature and sufficient soil moisture associated with soil thawing. This period is accompanied by a series of physical processes, such as moisture transfer and heat exchange.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 09:54:43 +000
       
  • On the Potential of 25 Years (1991–2015) of Rawinsonde Measurements for
           Elucidating Climatological and Spatiotemporal Patterns of Afternoon
           Boundary Layer Depths over the Contiguous US

    • Abstract: The daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) depth is an essential parameter in, for example, dispersion models and numerical weather prediction. We applied a recently developed technique to estimate afternoon PBL depths from 516,887 daily rawinsonde measurements obtained at 0000 UTC between 1 Jan 1991 and 31 Dec 2015 from 67 US sites. We discuss salient features in the PBL depth variability and examine the climatology of afternoon PBL depths as a function of geographical region and Köppen-Geiger climate regime. Results indicated a strong east to west PBL depth gradient, with higher PBL depths over the semiarid regions of the western US in spring and summer. Many sites located near coastlines exhibited no seasonal cycle due to marine boundary layer influences, and an inverse relationship was found between distance from the coast and observed afternoon PBL depth. Differentiating by climate type, BWk (arid, desert, and cold) has the largest median winter (1075 m) and summer (2500 m) PBL depths. Median PBL depths for Cfa (temperate, no dry season, and hot summers), Dfa (cold, no dry season, and warm summer), and Dfb (cold, no dry season, and hot summers) climate types are 750 m and 1000 m during winter and summer, respectively.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 08:14:16 +000
       
  • Brewer–Dobson Circulation: Recent-Past and Near-Future Trends Simulated
           by Chemistry-Climate Models

    • Abstract: Based on data from 16 chemistry-climate models (CCMs) and separate experimental results using a state-of-the-art CCM, the trends in the Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) during the second half of the 20th century (1960–2000) and the first half of the 21st century (2001–2050) are examined. From the ensemble mean of the CCMs, the BDC exhibits strengthening trends in both the 20th and 21st centuries; however, the acceleration rates of tropical upwelling and southern downwelling during 2001–2050 are smaller than those during 1960–2000, while the acceleration rate of the northern downward branch of the BDC during 2001–2050 is slightly larger than that during 1960–2000. The differences in the extratropical downwelling trends between the two periods are closely related to changes in planetary-wave propagation into the stratosphere caused by the combined effects of increases in the concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and changes in stratospheric ozone. Model simulations demonstrate that the response of southern downwelling to stratospheric ozone depletion is larger than that to the increase in GHGs, but that the latter plays a more important role in the strengthening of northern downwelling. This result suggests that, under the expected future climate, northern downwelling will play a more important role in balancing tropical upwelling.
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Influence of the Intermittent Behavior of the Nocturnal Atmospheric
           Flow on the Prediction of the Diurnal Temperature Range: A Simplified
           Model Analysis

    • Abstract: The variation of the atmospheric temperature near the surface associated with anthropogenic effects is analyzed using a simplified atmospheric model. Local changes in cloud cover and four different scenarios of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide are considered. The results show that the highest temperature variability occurs in the weak wind and decoupled state and in the transition between flow regimes. In agreement with previous efforts, the results indicate that the reduction of diurnal temperature range is related to the existence of two distinct flow regimes in the stable boundary layer. However, in the decoupled state, the occurrence of intermittent bursts of turbulence may cause temperature variations among the different scenarios to become unpredictable. It implies that it is difficult to predict the diurnal temperature range in places where low winds are common.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Jun 2017 07:38:20 +000
       
  • Improving Daytime Planetary Boundary Layer Height Determination from
           CALIOP: Validation Based on Ground-Based Lidar Station

    • Abstract: An integrated algorithm by combining the advantages of the wavelet covariance method and the improved maximum variance method was developed to determine the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) measurements, and an aerosol fraction threshold was applied to the integrated algorithm considering the applicability of the two methods. We compared the CALIOP retrieval with the measurements of PBLH derived from nine years of ground-based Lidar synchronous observations located in Lille, north of France. The results indicate that a good correlation () exists between the PBLHs derived from CALIOP and ground-based Lidar under clear sky conditions. The mean absolute differences of PBLHs are, respectively, of 206 m and 106 m before and after the removal of the aloft aerosol layer. The results under cloudy sky conditions show a lower agreement () in regard of the comparisons performed under clear sky conditions. Besides, the spatial correlation of PBLHs decreases with the increasing spatial distance between CALIOP footprint and Lille observation platform. Based on the above analysis, the PBLHs can be effectively derived by the integrated algorithm under clear sky conditions, while larger mean absolute difference (i.e., 527 m) exists under cloudy sky conditions.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Jun 2017 08:46:48 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Reliability of MODIS Evapotranspiration Products for
           Heterogeneous Dry Forest: A Study Case of Caatinga”

    • PubDate: Sun, 04 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Vertical Variation of Relationship at Hallasan Mountain during Typhoon
           Nakri in 2014

    • Abstract: Hallasan Mountain is located at the center of Jeju Island, Korea. Even though the height of the mountain is just 1,950 m, the orographic effect is strong enough to cause heavy rainfall. In this study, a rainfall event, due to Typhoon Nakri in 2014, observed in Jeju Island was analyzed fully using the radar and rain gauge data. First, the relationship was derived for every 250 m interval from the sea level to the mountain top. The resulting relationships showed that the exponent could be assumed as constant but that the parameter showed a significant decreasing trend up to an altitude around 1,000 m before it increased again. The orographic effect was found to be most significant at this altitude of 1,000 m. Second, the derived relationships were applied to the corresponding altitude radar reflectivity data to generate the rain rate field over Jeju Island. This rain rate field was then used to derive the areal-average rain rate data. These data were found to be very similar to the rain gauge estimates but were significantly different from those derived from the application of the Marshall-Palmer equation to the 1.5 km CAPPI data, which is the data type that is generally used by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA).
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 07:47:58 +000
       
 
 
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