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Showing 1 - 200 of 333 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epidemiology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
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Journal Cover Advances in Meteorology
  [SJR: 0.498]   [H-I: 10]   [18 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [333 journals]
  • Impact of the Choice of Land Surface Scheme on a Simulated Heatwave Event:
           The Case of Sichuan-Chongqing Area, China

    • Abstract: The Sichuan-Chongqing area in China has complex basin topography and is known for its extremely hot summer weather. In this paper, the mesoscale model WRF version 3.6.1 was used to simulate a period of 1–10 days in advance of the hot weather that occurred in Sichuan-Chongqing on August 10, 2006, to investigate the effect of six different land surface schemes (LSSs) (SLAB, RUC, PX, NOAH, NOAH_MP, and CLM4) on short- and medium-range simulations of high temperatures. The simulated surface air temperatures (SATs) are sensitive to the LSSs and simulation lengths. Specifically, all of the LSSs except PX generally reproduce the observed high temperatures, with CLM4 SATs at 06 UTC (SAT06) the most consistent with measurements whereas the short-range (medium-range) results from NOAH_MP (NOAH) are the worst. Detailed explanations were given in terms of surface fluxes and physical processes. RUC soil moisture initialization appears poor and the LSS reflects too strong gravity drainage. When the LSSs with increased numbers of soil layers are used, the simulated high temperatures are found more consistent with measurements. Additionally, regional sensible heat flux (SHF) does not show high consistency with SAT. The results that differ from the previous studies are partly due to the complex geography and the LSS deficiencies.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 06:49:15 +000
  • Two Different Integration Methods for Weather Radar-Based Quantitative
           Precipitation Estimation

    • Abstract: We discuss two different integration methods for radar-based quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE): the echo intensity integral and the rain intensity integral. Theoretical analyses and simulations were used to test differences between these two methods. Cumulative rainfall calculated by the echo intensity integral is usually greater than that from rain intensity integral. The difference of calculated precipitation using these two methods is generally smaller for stable precipitation systems and larger for unstable precipitation systems. If the echo intensity signal is sinusoidal, the discrepancy between the two methods is most significant. For stratiform and convective precipitation, the normalized error ranges from −0.138 to −0.15 and from −0.11 to −0.122, respectively. If the echo intensity signal is linear, the normalized error ranges from 0 to −0.13 and from 0 to −0.11, respectively. If the echo intensity signal is exponential, the normalized error ranges from 0 to −0.35 and from 0 to −0.30, respectively. When both the integration scheme and real radar data were used to estimate cumulative precipitation for one day, their spatial distributions were similar.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Apr 2017 06:06:47 +000
  • Response of Extreme Precipitation to Solar Activity and El Nino Events in
           Typical Regions of the Loess Plateau

    • Abstract: Extreme climatic oscillation has been the subject of global attention. The purpose of this study is to explore the response of extreme precipitation to solar activity and El Nino events in typical regions of the Loess Plateau—a case study in the Yan’an area. The precipitation data was from nine weather stations in Yan’an and the sunspot number and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) were from 1951 to 2015. The results show that maximum precipitation occurred mainly at the peak sunspot number or 2a near it and the sunspot number minimum and valley values were not significantly correlated. The results of Morlet wavelet showed that a 41-year period of precipitation was the most obvious within the 64-year scale. Similarly, sunspot number showed a 16-year periodic variability. Correlation analyses of the 16-year and 41-year scales demonstrated that the relationships between precipitation and sunspot number were close. In addition, extreme precipitation often occurred in the year following El Nino events. According to 10-year moving average curves, precipitation generally showed a downward trend when SOI was negative. The results indicate that solar activity and El Nino events had significant impacts on precipitation in typical regions of the Loess Plateau.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple
           Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    • Abstract: This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT) technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM). The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz). Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI) scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Evaluation of Satellite Precipitation Products and Their Potential
           Influence on Hydrological Modeling over the Ganzi River Basin of the
           Tibetan Plateau

    • Abstract: In the last few years, satellite-based precipitation datasets are believed to be a potential source for forcing inputs in driving hydrological models, which are important especially in complex terrain areas or ungauged basins where ground gauges are generally sparse or nonexistent. This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the satellite precipitation products, CMORPH-CRT, PERSIANN-CDR, 3B42RT, and 3B42 against gauge-based datasets and to infer their relative potential impacts on hydrological processes simulation using the HEC-HMS model in the Ganzi River Basin (GRB) of the Tibetan Plateau. Results from a quantitative statistical comparison reveal that, at annual and seasonal scales, both CMORPH-CRT and 3B42 perform better than PERSIANN-CDR and 3B42RT. The CMORPH-CRT and 3B42 tend to underestimate values at the medium and high precipitation intensities ranges, whereas the opposite tendency is found for PERSIANN-CDR and 3B42RT. Overall, 3B42 exhibits the best performance for streamflow simulations over GRB and even outperforms simulation driven by gauge data during the validation period. PERSIANN-CDR shows the worst overall performance. After recalibrating with input-specific precipitation data, the performance of all satellite precipitation forced simulations is substantially improved, except for PERSIANN-CDR. Furthermore, 3B42 is more suitable to drive hydrological models and can be a potential alternative source of sparse data in Tibetan Plateau basins.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Mar 2017 12:34:50 +000
  • Satellite Observations of the Seasonal Evolution of Total Precipitable
           Water Vapour over the Mediterranean Sea

    • Abstract: This study shows satellite observations and new findings on the time and spatial distribution of the Total Precipitable Water (TPW) column over the Mediterranean Sea throughout the year. Annual evolution and seasonality of the TPW column are shown and compared to the estimated net evaporation over the Mediterranean Sea. Daily spatiotemporal means are in good agreement with previous short-term field campaigns and also corroborate hypothesis and conclusions reached from previous mesoscale modelling studies: (a) from a meteorological point of view, Mediterranean Basin should be considered as two different subbasins (the Western and the Eastern Mediterranean); (b) accumulation processes may affect the radiative balance at regional scale and the summer precipitation regimes. Furthermore, these satellite observations constitute strong empirical evidences that, (a) from late May to early October, contrary to what happens in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin (EMB), there is a net accumulation of TPW on the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) that favours the instability of the atmosphere, (b) there is a seasonal anticorrelation between the seasonal variability of the TPW column over the two Mediterranean subbasins, (c) solar radiation can not be the only driver for the annual variability of the TPW column over the Mediterranean Sea, and (d) both previous features are seasonally dependent and, therefore, their effects on the TPW column are attenuated by annual variability.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Mar 2017 07:31:33 +000
  • The Effects of Sandstorms on the Climate of Northwestern China

    • Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the observational direct radiation characteristics of several sandstorm events in Northwestern China (NWC). A simulating sensitivity experiment was designed to reduce the downward radiation in RegCM4 to investigate the climatic impacts and persistence of the direct radiation effect (DRE) from dust aerosols in sandstorms. The results show that dust aerosols in sandstorms can change the radiation heating rate of the atmosphere, heating the air in the middle and low troposphere and cooling Earth’s surface. The climate effects of continuous and intense sandstorms in April in NWC can reach downstream areas such as Southeast and Northeast China and can persist for months. The dust aerosols in sandstorms can enhance diabatic heating and moisture loss. Therefore, dust storms lead to the environment in NWC becoming warmer and dryer. Through analysis of the dust tracer total burden, we identified that the enhancement of the dust total burden in the arid region illustrated that the DRE of dust aerosol in sandstorm process can react with the dust emission, thus forming a self-feedback loop. The DRE can persist three months.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 08:02:31 +000
  • An Analysis of Tropical Cold-Point Tropopause Warming in 1999

    • Abstract: Using reanalysis datasets, the warming of the tropical tropopause in 1999 and its evolution are investigated. It is found that there is a strong rate of increase in tropical cold-point tropopause temperature (CPTT) in June 1999, with negative CPTT anomalies before June (March-April-May) and large positive anomalies after June (July-August-September). Multiple linear regression analysis shows that deep convection, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), and tropical upwelling associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) largely explain the variations of CPTT in 1999. Before June, enhanced deep convection resulting from increased sea surface temperature (SST) over the western Pacific and enhanced tropical upwelling of the BDC lead to a higher and colder tropopause. Those two factors explain 22% and 17% of the variance in CPTT, respectively. In June, the transformation of the east phase of QBO to the west phase contributes up to more than 50% of the variance in CPTT changes. After June, reduced tropical upwelling induced by weakened wave activity results in the warmer tropical tropopause temperatures to a large extent.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 09:39:07 +000
  • Temporal and Spatial Evolution Features of Precipitable Water in China
           during a Recent 65-Year Period (1951–2015)

    • Abstract: Water vapor in the atmosphere is not only an important greenhouse gas, but also an important factor that significantly affects the variations of global climate and water circulation. This study utilized the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) reanalysis data to probe the temporal and spatial distribution features of atmospheric precipitable water (PW) in China during a recent 65-year period (1951–2015), and the relationship between PW and actual precipitation was also studied. The temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of PW in China presented an overall decreasing spatial trend from the southeast to northwest direction. The spatial distribution pattern of the first eigenvector demonstrated that the PW in China shows nationwide variation features with a varying amount of PW across different regions. The year 1967 was further identified as an important transition period for the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of the PW. We also found that the PW had inherent variability of around 30 years. Regarding the relationship with precipitation, PW was most closely correlated with precipitation in the northeastern region and the upper northwestern region in China. Different regions displayed different efficiencies for converting PW to precipitation. The conclusions are useful for understanding the long-term water vapor evolution and its potential effects on precipitation in China.
      PubDate: Sun, 26 Mar 2017 07:16:08 +000
  • Effects of Climate and Land Use Changes on Water Resources in the Taoer

    • Abstract: The changes of both climate and land use/cover have some impacts on water resources. In the Taoer River basin, these changes have directly influenced the land use pattern adjustment, wetland protection, connections between rivers and reservoirs, local social and economic development, and so forth. Therefore, studying the impacts of climate and land use/cover changes is of great practical significance. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is employed in this study. With historical measured runoff data and remote sensing maps of annual land use classifications, we analyzed the impacts of climate change on the runoff of the Taoer River. Based on the land use/cover classifications of 1990, 2000, and 2010, we analyzed the land use/cover change over the last 30 years and the contribution coefficient of farmland, woodland, grassland, and other major land use types to the runoff. This study can provide a reference for the rational allocation of water resources and the adjustment of land use structure for decision makers.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Mar 2017 09:05:07 +000
  • Applications of Cluster Analysis and Pattern Recognition for Typhoon
           Hourly Rainfall Forecast

    • Abstract: Based on the factors of meteorology and topography, it is assumed that there exist some certain patterns in spatial and temporal rainfall distribution of a watershed. A typhoon rainfall forecasting model is developed under this assumption. If rainfall patterns can be analyzed and recognized in terms of individual watershed topography, only the spatial rainfall distribution prior to a specific moment is needed to forecast the rainfall in the next coming hours. It does not need any other condition in meteorology and climatology. Besides, supplement techniques of missing rainfall gage data are also considered to build an all-purpose forecast model. By integrating techniques of cluster analysis and pattern recognition, present proposed rainfall forecasting model is tested using historical data of Tamsui River Basin in Northern Taiwan. Good performance is validated by checking on coefficient of correlation and coefficient of efficiency.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Quantifying the Spatial Variations of Hyporheic Water Exchange at
           Catchment Scale Using the Thermal Method: A Case Study in the Weihe River,

    • Abstract: Understanding the dynamics of hyporheic water exchange (HWE) has been limited by the hydrological heterogeneity at large catchment scale. The thermal method has been widely used to understand water exchange patterns in a hyporheic zone. This study was conducted in the Weihe River catchment in Shaanxi Province, China. A conceptual model was developed to determine water transfer patterns, and a one-dimensional heat diffusion-advection equation was employed to estimate vertical fluxes of ten different segments in the hyporheic zone in various ten segments of the catchment. The amount of water exchange varied from 78.47 mm/d to 23.66 mm/d and a decreasing trend from the upstream to downstream of catchment was observed. The spatial correlation of variability between the water exchange and distance is 0.62. The results indicate that mountain’s topography trend is the primary driver influencing the distribution of river tributaries, and the water exchange amount has a decreasing trend from upstream to downstream of the main river channel.
      PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Meteorological Drought Index Mapping in Bangladesh Using Standardized
           Precipitation Index during 1981–2010

    • Abstract: Natural disasters are a major concern in Bangladesh, particularly drought which is one of the most common disaster in Bangladesh. Drought needs to be explained spatially to understand its spatiotemporal variations in different areas. In this paper, the meteorological drought has been shown by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) method and illustrated through the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method across Bangladesh. We used rainfall data of 30 meteorological stations in Bangladesh during the study period of 1981–2010. The results indicate that drought has been fluctuating and it has become a recurrent phenomenon during the study period. The SPI depicted the drought conditions that plunged dramatically in 1981, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1989, 1992, 1994, and 1996 and then gradually improved in 2004, 2006, and 2009 in the country. The present study demonstrated that drought occurred in Bangladesh on an average of 2.5 years. Drought was more prominent in the northern, south-western, and eastern regions in Bangladesh compared to the rest of the areas of the country. The outcomes of the present study will help in during disaster management strategies, particularly drought, by initiating effective plans and adaptation remedies in different areas of Bangladesh.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 07:32:03 +000
  • Modeling Temperature and Pricing Weather Derivatives Based on Temperature

    • Abstract: This study first proposes a temperature model to calculate the temperature indices upon which temperature-based derivatives are written. The model is designed as a mean-reverting process driven by a Levy process to represent jumps and other features of temperature. Temperature indices are mainly measured as deviations from a base temperature, and, hence, the proposed model includes jumps because they may constitute an important part of this deviation for some locations. The estimated value of a temperature index and its distribution in this model apply an inversion formula to the temperature model. Second, this study develops a pricing process over calculated index values, which returns a customized price for temperature-based derivatives considering that temperature has unique effects on every economic entity. This personalized price is also used to reveal the trading behavior of a hypothesized entity in a temperature-based derivative trade with profit maximization as the objective. Thus, this study presents a new method that does not need to evaluate the risk-aversion behavior of any economic entity.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 07:17:16 +000
  • Interdecadal Changes in the Freeze Depth and Period of Frozen Soil on the
           Three Rivers Source Region in China from 1960 to 2014

    • Abstract: On the basis of observed soil freeze depth data from 14 meteorological stations on the Three Rivers Source Region (TRSR) in China during 1960 to 2014, trends in the freeze depth, first date, last date, and duration of frozen soil were analyzed, together with other meteorological variables, such as air temperature, snow depth, and precipitation, observed at the same locations. The results showed the following. (1) A continuous, accelerated decreasing trend in freeze depth appeared in the TRSR during the 1985–2014 and 2000–2014 periods, compared with that during the 1960–2014 period. (2) The freeze first date had been delayed and the freeze last date had been advanced significantly. The advanced trends in freeze last date were more significant than the delayed trends in freeze first date. The freeze duration also experienced an accelerated decrease. (3) The freeze depth and period were strongly affected by air temperature, thawing index, and soil moisture (precipitation), but not by snow. The freeze depth, freeze first date, freeze last date, and duration also influenced each other. (4) These decreasing trends in freeze depth and duration are expected to continue given the increasing trends in air temperature and precipitation in this region.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Mapping of Maize Growing Period over the Free State Province of South
           Africa: Heat Units Approach

    • Abstract: Temperature is one of the important environmental parameters that determines the development of a crop from one stage to another. It is integral in the calculation of heat units. In this study, the thermal index concept is used to determine the length of the growing period of short season, medium season, and medium-late season maize crop varieties for different sowing dates (1st dekad of October to 1st dekad of January). The results show high spatiotemporal variation in the median growing period for all three maize varieties. The length of the growing period for the short, medium, and medium-late season varieties is relatively short during October to early December with values in some areas of less than 100, 120, and 120 days, respectively. The duration of the planting period increases exponentially in most places starting from the 2nd dekad of November to 2nd dekad of December, depending on the region and crop variety. Long growing periods are likely to align maize growing period with dates of high frost risk and water shortages. Thus, appropriate choice of sowing date taking into consideration the thermal time requirements of the cultivar is crucial for proper growth and development of the maize crop.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Development and Assessment of the Sand Dust Prediction Model by Utilizing
           Microwave-Based Satellite Soil Moisture and Reanalysis Datasets in East
           Asian Desert Areas

    • Abstract: For several decades, satellite-based microwave sensors have provided valuable soil moisture monitoring in various surface conditions. We have first developed a modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) dataset by utilizing Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) soil moisture datasets in order to estimate dust outbreaks over desert areas of East Asia. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer- (MODIS-) based AOD products were used as reference datasets to validate the modeled AOD (MA). The SMOS-based MA (SMOS-MA) dataset showed good correspondence with observed AOD (-value: 0.56) compared to AMSR2- and GLDAS-based MA datasets, and it overestimated AOD compared to observed AOD. The AMSR2-based MA dataset was found to underestimate AOD, and it showed a relatively low -value (0.35) with respect to observed AOD. Furthermore, SMOS-MA products were able to simulate the short-term AOD trends, having a high -value (0.65). The results of this study may allow us to acknowledge the utilization of microwave-based soil moisture datasets for investigation of near-real time dust outbreak predictions and short-term dust outbreak trend analysis.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Regional Frequency Analysis of Extremes Precipitation Using L-Moments and
           Partial L-Moments

    • Abstract: Extremes precipitation may cause a series of social, environmental, and ecological problems. Estimation of frequency of extreme precipitations and its magnitude is vital for making decisions about hydraulic structures such as dams, spillways, and dikes. In this study, we focus on regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation based on monthly precipitation records (1999–2012) at 17 stations of Northern areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. We develop regional frequency methods based on L-moment and partial L-moments (L- and PL-moments). The L- and PL-moments are derived for generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized logistic (GLO), generalized normal (GNO), and generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions. The -statistics and L- and PL-moments ratio diagrams of GNO, GEV, and GPA distributions were identified to represent the statistical properties of extreme precipitation in Northern areas and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to examine the sampling properties of L- and PL-moments. The results show that PL-moments perform better than L-moments for estimating large return period events.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Development and Application of Improved Long-Term Datasets of Surface
           Hydrology for Texas

    • Abstract: Freshwater availability and agricultural production are key factors for sustaining the fast growing population and economy in the state of Texas, which is the third largest state in terms of agricultural production in the United States. This paper describes a long-term (1918–2011) grid-based (1/8°) surface hydrological dataset for Texas at a daily time step based on simulations from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model. The model was calibrated and validated against observed streamflow over 10 Texas river basins. The simulated soil moisture was also evaluated using in situ observations. Results suggest that there is a decreasing trend in precipitation and an increasing trend in temperature in most of the basins. Droughts and floods were reconstructed and analyzed. In particular, the spatially distributed severity and duration of major Texas droughts were compared to identify new characteristics. The modeled flood recurrence interval and the return period were also compared with observations. Results suggest the performance of extreme flood simulations needs further improvement. This dataset is expected to serve as a benchmark which may contribute to water resources management and to mitigating agricultural drought, especially in the context of understanding the effects of climate change on crop yield in Texas.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • An Integrated Method of Multiradar Quantitative Precipitation Estimation
           Based on Cloud Classification and Dynamic Error Analysis

    • Abstract: Relationships between radar reflectivity factor and rainfall are different in various precipitation cloud systems. In this study, the cloud systems are firstly classified into five categories with radar and satellite data to improve radar quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) algorithm. Secondly, the errors of multiradar QPE algorithms are assumed to be different in convective and stratiform clouds. The QPE data are then derived with methods of -, Kalman filter (KF), optimum interpolation (OI), Kalman filter plus optimum interpolation (KFOI), and average calibration (AC) based on error analysis on the Huaihe River Basin. In the case of flood on the early of July 2007, the KFOI is applied to obtain the QPE product. Applications show that the KFOI can improve precision of estimating precipitation for multiple precipitation types.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2017 10:00:44 +000
  • Statistical Comparison of Cloud and Aerosol Vertical Properties between
           Two Eastern China Regions Based on CloudSat/CALIPSO Data

    • Abstract: The relationship between cloud and aerosol properties was investigated over two 4° × 4° adjacent regions in the south (R1) and in the north (R2) in eastern China. The CloudSat/CALIPSO data were used to extract the cloud and aerosol profiles properties. The mean value of cloud occurrence probability (COP) was the highest in the mixed cloud layer (−40°C~0°C) and the lowest in the warm cloud layer (>0°C). The atmospheric humidity was more statistically relevant to COP in the warm cloud layer than aerosol condition. The differences in COP between the two regions in the mixed cloud layer and ice cloud layer (
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 06:48:39 +000
  • Seasonal Multifactor Modelling of Weighted-Mean Temperature for
           Ground-Based GNSS Meteorology in Hunan, China

    • Abstract: In this study, radiosonde observations during the period of 2012-2013 from three stations in the Hunan region, China, were used to establish regional models (RTMs) that are a fitting function of multiple meteorological factors (, , and ). One-factor, two-factor, and three-factor RTMs were assessed by comparing their against the radiosonde-derived (as the truth) during the period of 2013-2014. Statistical results showed that the bias and RMS of the one-factor RTM, in comparison to the BTM result, were reduced by 88% and 28%, respectively. The two-factor and three-factor RTMs showed similar accuracy and both outperformed the one-factor RTM, with an improvement of 7% in RMS. The bias and RMS of all the four seasonal two-factor RTMs were smaller than the yearly two-factor RTM, with the improvements of 3%, 10%, 2%, and 3% in RMS. The improvement of the conversion factors in mean bias and RMS resulting from the seasonal two-factor RTM is 92% and 31%. The bias and RMS of the PWV resulting from the seasonal two-factor RTM are improved by 37% and 12%, respectively. Therefore, the seasonal two-factor RTMs are recommended for the research and applications of GNSS meteorology in the Hunan region, China.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Analysis of Spatiotemporal Evolution of Isolated Rainstorm Events in Huai
           River Basin, China

    • Abstract: Because of the impacts of extreme climate, the severity, areal extent, and frequency of rainstorm events are rapidly increasing, especially in the Huai River Basin of China. This article is based on hourly precipitation data of 229 meteorological stations from 1951 through 2012, combined with statistical and meteorological theory. We used the Mann-Kendall mutation test, moving -test, and inverse distance weighting spatial interpolation to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of precipitation, duration, intensity, and frequency of isolated rainstorm events under climate change. The main results are as follows: () isolated rainstorm events were obviously bimodal and their occurrence moved backward in time. Their average duration and time of maximum intensities changed dramatically, without a significant increasing trend. The period since the 2000s has seen an increase of rainstorms and their temporal regression across the entire basin. () The intensity of isolated rainstorm events in the study area decreased, but precipitation, its duration, areal extent, and frequency had increasing trends basin-wide. () Four rainstorm event indices were examined for the period of 1990–2000. Relative to the years before 2003, the average precipitation increased by 2.1%, the average total duration by 8.1%, and the average frequency of occurrence by 25.5%. All indices show smaller minimum and larger maximum values. Overall, the isolated rainstorm events tended to increase.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 07:19:14 +000
  • Disaggregation of Annual to Monthly Streamflow: A Case Study of
           Kızılırmak Basin (Turkey)

    • Abstract: This study utilizes a recent nonparametric disaggregation -nearest neighbor (NN) model, to resample monthly flows depending on annual flows at different sites. Both temporal and spatial approaches will be followed in this model while preserving the distributional statistics of the observed data. This model assumes that a set of aggregated annual streamflows at a key station is available and desired for disaggregation to a corresponding series of streamflow at key station (temporal disaggregation) as well as at tributary stations (spatial disaggregation). The model is applied to the annual streamflow data of particular stations in the Kızılırmak Basin, which is exposed to drought periods during the years (1970–1974 and 1994-1995). The aim of this study is to find the possibilities of using the nonparametric approaches as generators of monthly flows, with emphasis on the ability to reproduce the statistics related to drought and storage analysis for the selected stations in Turkey. The results show that the spatial disaggregation approach has the ability to reproduce the historical data better than the temporal approach for the tested sites and provides a variety of generated monthly sequence flows that can then be utilized to analyze the performance of the water resources planning system.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 07:23:50 +000
  • Relation between the Atmospheric Boundary Layer and Impact Factors under
           Severe Surface Thermal Conditions

    • Abstract: This paper reported a comprehensive analysis on the diurnal variation of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in summer of Badain Jaran Desert and discussed deeply the effect of surface thermal to ABL, including the Difference in Surface-Air Temperature (DSAT), net radiation, and sensible heat, based on limited GPS radiosonde and surface observation data during two intense observation periods of experiments. The results showed that affected by topography of the Tibetan Plateau, the climate provided favorable external conditions for the development of Convective Boundary Layer (CBL), deep CBL showed a diurnal variation of three- to five-layer structure in clear days and five-layer ABL structure often occurred about sunset or sunrise, the diurnal variation of DSAT influenced thickness of ABL through changes of turbulent heat flux, integral value of sensible heat which rapidly converted by surface net radiation had a significant influence on the growth of CBL throughout daytime. The cumulative effect of thick RML dominated the role after CBL got through SBL in the development stage, especially in late summer, and the development of CBL was promoted and accelerated by the variation of wind field and distribution of warm advection in high and low altitude.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 11:04:33 +000
  • Assessment of Wave Energy in the South China Sea Based on GIS Technology

    • Abstract: China is now the world’s largest user of coal and also has the highest greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining and use of coal. Under today’s enormous pressures of the growing shortage of conventional energy sources and the need for emission reductions, the search for clean energy is the most effective strategy to address the energy crisis and global warming. This study utilized satellite remote sensing technology, geographic information system (GIS) technology, and simulated wave data for the South China Sea. The characteristic features of the wave energy were obtained by analysis through the wave resource assessment formula and the results were stored in a GIS database. Software for the evaluation of wave energy in the South China Sea was written. The results should provide accurate, efficient references for wave energy researchers and decision-makers. Based on a 24-year WW3 model simulation wave data and GIS technology, this study presented the characteristic of the wave energy in the SCS; results demonstrated that the SCS has the feasibility and viability for wave energy farming.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Temporal and Spatial Changes in Snow Cover and the Corresponding Radiative
           Forcing Analysis in Siberia from the 1970s to the 2010s

    • Abstract: In the context of global climate change, the extent of snow cover in Siberia has significantly decreased since the 1970s, especially in spring. The changes of snow cover at middle and high latitudes have significant impacts on the meteorological and hydrological processes because the snow cover can affect the surface energy, water balance, and the development of the atmospheric boundary layer. In this paper, the temporal and spatial changes in snow cover were firstly estimated based on a long time series of remote sensing snow cover data, both showing a decreased trend. Based on this, we estimated the radiative forcing caused by the snow cover changes from the 1970s to the 2010s and compared it with the radiative forcing caused by the vegetation cover changes over the same time period in Siberia, indicating that the snow cover changes in Siberia can accelerate climate warming and the vegetation cover changes here have the opposite effect. Furthermore, the snow cover changes may play a more important role than the vegetation cover changes in regulating the surface radiation balance in Siberia on the regional scale.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Feb 2017 06:20:43 +000
  • Assessment of Rainfall Intensity Equations Enlisted in the Egyptian Code
           for Designing Potable Water and Sewage Networks

    • Abstract: The design of combined sewage system networks is based on the sanitary discharge (domestic, industrial) and the runoff generated by rainfall. The Egyptian code of practice for designing potable water and sewage networks gives two Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) equations to calculate the intensity of rainfall to be applied to all cities of Egypt. The purpose of this research is to study and assess the adequacy of the rainfall intensity equations suggested by the aforementioned Egyptian code. This is carried out taking into consideration the available rainfall ground station measurements and remote sensing Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite rainfall estimates. This assessment leads to the following results. For the Mediterranean coastal cities, the code of practice equations significantly underestimates the rainfall intensities for all storm durations, which may lead to road networks damage and accidents due to hydroplaning and road flooding. On the contrary, for many other southern cities along the Nile Valley, the code equations significantly overestimate the rainfall intensities, which affects the economical aspect of the sewage network. Consequently, the current research suggests new rainfall intensity equations instead of the code equations.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Comparative Frequency Analysis of Maximum Daily Rainfall for a SE Asian
           Region under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    • Abstract: The impact of changing climate on the frequency of daily rainfall extremes in Jakarta, Indonesia, is analysed and quantified. The study used three different models to assess the changes in rainfall characteristics. The first method involves the use of the weather generator LARS-WG to quantify changes between historical and future daily rainfall maxima. The second approach consists of statistically downscaling general circulation model (GCM) output based on historical empirical relationships between GCM output and station rainfall. Lastly, the study employed recent statistically downscaled global gridded rainfall projections to characterize climate change impact rainfall structure. Both annual and seasonal rainfall extremes are studied. The results show significant changes in annual maximum daily rainfall, with an average increase as high as 20% in the 100-year return period daily rainfall. The uncertainty arising from the use of different GCMs was found to be much larger than the uncertainty from the emission scenarios. Furthermore, the annual and wet seasonal analyses exhibit similar behaviors with increased future rainfall, but the dry season is not consistent across the models. The GCM uncertainty is larger in the dry season compared to annual and wet season.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 Feb 2017 07:21:19 +000
  • Application of Dynamical and Statistical Downscaling to East Asian Summer
           Precipitation for Finely Resolved Datasets

    • Abstract: Various downscaling approaches have been developed to overcome the limitation of the coarse spatial resolution of general circulation models (GCMs). Such techniques can be grouped into two approaches of dynamical and statistical downscaling. In this study, we investigated the performances of different downscaling methods, focusing on East Asian summer monsoon precipitation to obtain more finely resolved and value added datasets. The dynamical downscaling was conducted by the Regional Model Program (RMP) of the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs), while the statistical downscaling was performed through coupled pattern-based simple linear regression. The dynamical downscaling resulted in a better representation of the spatial distribution and long-term trend than the GCM produced; however, it tended to overestimate precipitation over East Asia. In contrast, the application of the statistical downscaling resulted in a bias in the amount of precipitation, due to low variance that is inherent in regression-based downscaling. A combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling produced the best results in time and space. This study provides a guideline for determining the most effective and robust downscaling method in the hydrometeorological applications, which are quite sensitive to the accuracy of downscaled precipitation.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 06:20:23 +000
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