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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 90)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 214)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Coupling a Bat Algorithm with XGBoost to Estimate Reference
           Evapotranspiration in the Arid and Semiarid Regions of China

    • Abstract: Accurate estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is key to agricultural irrigation scheduling and water resources management in arid and semiarid areas. This study evaluates the capability of coupling a Bat algorithm with the XGBoost method (i.e., the BAXGB model) for estimating monthly ETo in the arid and semiarid regions of China. Meteorological data from three stations (Datong, Yinchuan, and Taiyuan) during 1991–2015 were used to build the BAXGB model, the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and the gaussian process regression (GPR) model. Six input combinations with different sets of meteorological parameters were applied for model training and testing, which included mean air temperature (), maximum air temperature (), minimum air temperature (), wind speed (U), relative humidity (RH), and solar radiation () or extraterrestrial radiation (, MJ m−2·d−1). The results indicated that BAXGB models (RMSE = 0.114–0.412 mm·d−1, MAE = 0.087–0.302 mm·d−1, and R2 = 0.937–0.996) were more accurate than either MARS (RMSE = 0.146–0.512 mm·d−1, MAE = 0.112–0.37 mm·d−1, and R2 = 0.935–0.994) or GPR (RMSE = 0.289–0.714 mm·d−1, MAE = 0.197–0.564 mm·d−1, and R2 = 0.817–0.980) model for estimating ETo. Findings of this study would be helpful for agricultural irrigation scheduling in the arid and semiarid regions and may be used as reference in other regions where accurate models for improving local water management are needed.
      PubDate: Thu, 17 Oct 2019 10:05:07 +000
  • Weakening Relationship between East Asian Summer Monsoon and Asian-Pacific
           Oscillation after 1990s

    • Abstract: The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM), which is an important influencing summer climate of East Asia, is associated with large-scale change of the land-sea thermal contrast. The Asian-Pacific Oscillation (APO) can modulate the EASM because it not only represents the upper-tropospheric zonal land-sea thermal contrast over Asia and the Pacific region, but it also affects the sea surface temperature (SST) over the North Pacific, which can tune the land-sea thermal contrast for the EASM. This study revealed weakening of the APO-EASM relationship since the 1990s. It was found that the relationship between the APO and the EASM during 1948–1990 (1991–2016) was statistically significant (insignificant). Further study indicated that the APO was concurrent with significant positive SST in the central North Pacific and subtropical central-western Pacific during 1948–1990, which contributed to the shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) from its cold to warm phase and led to a weakened EASM. The APO-related SST and atmospheric circulation anomalies were found statistically to be insignificant during 1991–2016, which indicates a weakening of influence of the APO on shift of the PDO, and even a weaker link to the EASM.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Oct 2019 11:05:03 +000
  • Atmospheric PM2.5 Concentration Prediction Based on Time Series and
           Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    • Abstract: Urbanization, industrialization, and regional economic integration have developed rapidly in China in recent years. Air pollution has attracted more and more attention. However, PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in air pollution. Therefore, how to predict PM2.5 accurately and effectively has become a concern of experts and scholars. For the problem, atmosphere PM2.5 concentration prediction algorithm is proposed based on time series and interactive multiple model in this paper. PM2.5 concentration is collected by using the monitor at different air quality levels. The time series models are established by historical PM2.5 concentration data, which were given by the autoregressive model (AR). In the paper, three PM2.5 time series models are established for three different air quality levels. Then, the three models are converted to state equation, respectively, by autoregressive integrated with Kalman filter (AR-Kalman) approaches. Besides, the proposed interactive multiple model (IMM) algorithm is, respectively, compared with autoregressive (AR) model algorithm and AR-Kalman prediction algorithm. It is turned out the proposed IMM algorithm is more accurate than the other two approaches for PM2.5 prediction, and it is effective.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 15:05:05 +000
  • Impacts of Recent Climate Trends and Human Activity on the Land Cover
           Change of the Abbay River Basin in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The Abbay River Basin, which originates in Ethiopia, is a major tributary and main source of the Nile River Basin. Land cover and vegetation in the Abbay River Basin is highly susceptible to climate change. This study was conducted to investigate the trends of climate change for a period of thirty-six years (1980–2016) within selected stations of the basin by using the innovative trend analysis method, Mann–Kendall test, and Sen’s slope estimator test to investigate the mean annual precipitation and temperature variables. Changes in land cover and vegetation in the Abbay River Basin were studied for a period of thirteen years (2001–2013) by using remote sensing, GIS analysis, land cover classification, and vegetation detection methods to assess the land cover and vegetation in the basin. In addition, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Transformation Matrix were employed to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover and vegetation impacted by changes in climate. The result reflects that the trend of average annual temperature was remarkably increased ( = 0.12, Z = 0.75) in the 36-year period, and the temperature was increased by 0.5°C, although precipitation had slightly decreased during the same period. In the thirteen years’ period, forest land and water resource decreased by 3429.62 km2 and 81.45 km2, respectively. In contrast, an increment was observed in grassland (2779.33 km2), cultivated land (535.34 km2), bare land (43.08 km2), urban land (0.65 km2), and wetland (152.66 km2) in the same period. In the study, it was also observed a decrease of an NDVI value by 0.1 was observed in 2013 in the southern part of the basin. The findings of the present study illustrate a significant change in eco-hydrological conditions in the ARB with an adverse impact on the environment. Hydroclimatic changes caused the increase in temperature and decreasing trend in precipitation which significantly impacted the land cover and vegetation in the basin. The changes in land cover were mostly caused by global and local climate influence which mainly affects the hydroclimate and eco-hydrology systems of the basin. The result is consistent with that of the previous studies conducted elsewhere. The findings of this paper could help researchers to understand the eco-hydrological condition of the study basin and become a foundation for further studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 14:05:03 +000
  • Drought Early Warning and the Timing of Range Managers’ Drought

    • Abstract: The connection between drought early warning information and the timing of rangeland managers’ response actions is not well understood. This study investigates U.S. Northern Plains range and livestock managers’ decision-making in response to the 2016 flash drought, by means of a postdrought survey of agricultural landowners and using the Protective Action Decision Model theoretical framework. The study found that managers acted in response to environmental cues, but that their responses were significantly delayed compared to when drought conditions emerged. External warnings did not influence the timing of their decisions, though on-farm monitoring and assessment of conditions did. Though this case focused only on a one-year flash drought characterized by rapid drought intensification, waiting to destock pastures was associated with greater losses to range productivity and health and diversity. This study finds evidence of unrealized potential for drought early warning information to support proactive response and improved outcomes for rangeland management.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 07:05:23 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Differences in Dominants of Dryness/Wetness Changes in
           Southwest China

    • Abstract: A full analysis of 3-month Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration index (SPEI-3) changes and attribution analyses are of significance for deeply understanding dryness/wetness evolutions and thus formulating specific measures to sustain regional development. In this study, we analyze monthly and annual SPEI-3 changes over Southwest China (SWC; including Sichuan (SC), Chongqing (CQ), Guizhou (GZ), Yunnan (YN), and west Guangxi (wGX)) during 1961–2012, using the SPEI model and routine meteorological measurements at 269 weather sites. For SWC and each subregion (excluding wGX), annual SPEI-3 during 1961–2012 tends to decrease, and drying is at most of months in January and September–December, but wetting is in February–August (excluding March for wGX). Additionally, more than 50% of sites show declined and increased SPEI-3 in January, April, June, and August–December and the remaining months, respectively. Except for wGX with dominant of ET0, annual SPEI-3 changes in SWC and other four subregions have dominant of precipitation. Spatially, annual SPEI-3 changes at 59% of sites are because of precipitation, generally located in southeast SC, south YN, CQ, GZ, and south and northeast wGX. Nevertheless, dominants at regional and site scales vary among months, e.g., SWC, SC, CQ, and GZ, having dominant of precipitation (ET0) during September–December (most of months during January–August), YN always with dominant of precipitation, and wGX with dominant of precipitation (ET0) in February–April and July–December (January, May, and June). Importantly, this study provides a reference for quantitatively evaluating spatiotemporal dryness/wetness variations with climate change, especially for regions with significant drying/wetting.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Oct 2019 06:05:04 +000
  • Satellite-Based Assessment of Various Cloud Microphysics Schemes in
           Simulating Typhoon Hydrometeors

    • Abstract: The accurate simulation of typhoon hydrometeors remains a challenge. This study attempts to evaluate the performances of five microphysics schemes (MPSs) in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in simulating the supertyphoon Neoguri in July 2014. The observed microwave brightness temperature, as well as retrieved data from the microwave radiometer imager (MWRI) onboard Chinese FY-3B satellite, are used to test hydrometeor simulations. In particular, two MWRI radiance indices, including the emission index (EI) and scattering index (SI), are used to assess the performance of five MPSs in simulating liquid and frozen hydrometeors, respectively. Overall, the WRF model can well reproduce the overall pattern of typhoon-produced precipitation, albeit with slightly overestimated precipitation in the inner rainband and underestimated precipitation in the stratiform rainband. Moreover, ice water paths (IWPs) from all five MPS simulations are higher than those estimated from MWRI retrieval in most areas, and the spatial pattern and values of IWP for the National Severe Storms Laboratory double-moment MPS (NSSL) are much closer to those for MWRI. The NSSL scheme reproduces a more realistic joint histogram distribution of SI and EI than other MPSs do, relative to the observation. Besides, the nonlinear Lucas–Kanade optical flow approach has been used to reflect the horizontal distribution of hydrometeors in the typhoon. The results show that the simulated EI and SI from the five MPSs show a systematic southwest bias of approximately about 10∼20 km and significant intensity bias in the convection area. Further model sensitivity tests confirm that the NSSL scheme generates more realistic graupel and supercooled water close to the observations among all MPSs. The findings suggest that satellite measurements would be helpful to assess MPSs in numeric weather models, especially for hydrometeor distributions in the whole typhoon system.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Oct 2019 12:05:03 +000
  • Assessing the Applicability of Random Forest, Stochastic Gradient Boosted
           Model, and Extreme Learning Machine Methods to the Quantitative
           Precipitation Estimation of the Radar Data: A Case Study to Gwangdeoksan
           Radar, South Korea, in 2018

    • Abstract: Machine learning algorithms should be tested for use in quantitative precipitation estimation models of rain radar data in South Korea because such an application can provide a more accurate estimate of rainfall than the conventional ZR relationship-based model. The applicability of random forest, stochastic gradient boosted model, and extreme learning machine methods to quantitative precipitation estimation models was investigated using case studies with polarization radar data from Gwangdeoksan radar station. Various combinations of input variable sets were tested, and results showed that machine learning algorithms can be applied to build the quantitative precipitation estimation model of the polarization radar data in South Korea. The machine learning-based quantitative precipitation estimation models led to better performances than ZR relationship-based models, particularly for heavy rainfall events. The extreme learning machine is considered the best of the algorithms used based on evaluation criteria.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Oct 2019 07:05:03 +000
  • Effect of Climatic Factors on Stem Biomass and Carbon Stock of Larix
           gmelinii and Betula platyphylla in Daxing’anling Mountain of Inner
           Mongolia, China

    • Abstract: Climate change has become a global concern for scientists as it is affecting almost every ecosystem. Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla are native and dominant forest species in the Daxing’anling Mountains of Inner Mongolia, playing a major role in carbon sequestration of this region. This study was carried out to assess the effect of climate variables including precipitation and temperature on the biomass of Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla forests. For this purpose, we used the climate-sensitive stem biomass allometric model for both species separately to find out accurate stem biomass along with climatic factors from 1950 to 2016. A total of 66 random plots were taken to attain the data from this study area. Larix gmelinii and Betula platyphylla stem biomass have a strong correlation with annual precipitation (R2 = 0.86, R2 = 0.71, R2 = 0.79, and R2 = 0.59) and maximum temperature (R2 = 0.76, R2 = 0.64, R2 = 0.67, and R2 = 0.52). However, annual minimum temperature (R2 = 0.58, R2 = 0.43, R2 = 0.55, and R2 = 0.46) and annual mean temperature (R2 = 0.40, R2 = 0.22, R2 = 0.36, and R2 = 0.19) have a relatively negative impact on tree biomass. Therefore, we suggest that both species have a very strong adaptive nature with climatic variation and hence can survive under drought and high-temperature stress climatic conditions.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Oct 2019 12:05:03 +000
  • Observational Study on the Characteristics of the Boundary Layer during

    • Abstract: Eleven tropical cyclones that landed in Guangdong Province since 2012 and experienced strengthening or weakening over the offshore area were studied. Since the structure of the tropical cyclone boundary layer significantly influences the variation of the intensity of the cyclone, continuous observations of the wind profile radar at a coastal radar station in Guangdong Province were combined with aircraft observation data of the No. 1604 “Nida” cyclone to analyse the variations in the distributions of the radial wind, tangential wind, and angular momentum in the typhoon boundary layer and the similarities and differences between the boundary layers of the 11 tropical cyclones during the strengthening or weakening of their intensities. The analysis results show that the presence of the supergradient wind and the enhancement effect of the radial inflow play important roles in enhancing the intensity of a tropical cyclone. The observations indicate that when the tangential wind velocity in the maximum wind velocity radius reaches the velocity of the supergradient wind and when the radial inflow either gradually increases towards the centre of the tropical cyclone or gradually covers the entire boundary layer, the angular momentum tends to be shifted towards the centre. At this time, the maximum radial inflow, maximum tangential wind, and maximum angular momentum are in the same height range in the vertical direction. When a strong radial outflow occurs in the boundary layer of a tropical cyclone or the area with maximum wind velocity is located in the air outflow, the angular momentum cannot easily be transported towards the centre of the typhoon. Therefore, the spatial configuration of the three physical quantities will determine future changes in the intensity of tropical cyclones. The scope of the results presented here is limited to the 11 selected cases and suggests extending the analysis to more data.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Sep 2019 00:06:48 +000
  • Evaluation of CMIP5 Global Climate Models for Simulating Climatological
           Temperature and Precipitation for Southeast Asia

    • Abstract: This study evaluates the performances of all forty different global climate models (GCMs) that participate in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for simulating climatological temperature and precipitation for Southeast Asia. Historical simulations of climatological temperature and precipitation of the 40 GCMs for the 40-year period of 1960–1999 for both land and sea and those for the century of 1901–1999 for land are evaluated using observation and reanalysis datasets. Nineteen different performance metrics are employed. The results show that the performances of different GCMs vary greatly. CNRM-CM5-2 performs best among the 40 GCMs, where its total error is 3.25 times less than that of GCM performing worst. The performance of CNRM-CM5-2 is compared with those of the ensemble average of all 40 GCMs (40-GCM-Ensemble) and the ensemble average of the 6 best GCMs (6-GCM-Ensemble) for four categories, i.e., temperature only, precipitation only, land only, and sea only. While 40-GCM-Ensemble performs best for temperature, 6-GCM-Ensemble performs best for precipitation. 6-GCM-Ensemble performs best for temperature and precipitation simulations over sea, whereas CNRM-CM5-2 performs best over land. Overall results show that 6-GCM-Ensemble performs best and is followed by CNRM-CM5-2 and 40-GCM-Ensemble, respectively. The total errors of 6-GCM-Ensemble, CNRM-CM5-2, and 40-GCM-Ensemble are 11.84, 13.69, and 14.09, respectively. 6-GCM-Ensemble and CNRM-CM5-2 agree well with observations and can provide useful climate simulations for Southeast Asia. This suggests the use of 6-GCM-Ensemble and CNRM-CM5-2 for climate studies and projections for Southeast Asia.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Sep 2019 06:05:09 +000
  • Differences in Cloud Vertical Structures between the Tibetan Plateau and
           Eastern China Plains during Rainy Season as Measured by CloudSat/CALIPSO

    • Abstract: Cloud vertical structures over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Eastern China Plains (ECP) were analyzed by using data in rainy seasons from 2006 to 2009, in order to clarify the cloud development over adjacent regions but with distinct topographies. Results indicate that the largest occurrences of cloud top height over the TP are at 7-8 km above mean sea level, which is about 4 km lower than that over the ECP. Mixed-phase clouds dominated more than 30% over the TP, while it is lower than 10% over the ECP. The infrequent mixed-phase clouds over the ECP are attributed to the unique dynamic and moisture situations over the downstream areas of the TP. Ice clouds have similar occurrences over the two regions. The prominent distinctions are manifested by the probability density of cloud thickness. The probability density of cloud thickness around 4–8 km is about 2% higher over the TP than the ECP. However, there is almost no ice cloud thicker than 10 km over the TP, while it is about 1% over the ECP. Compared with those over the ECP, every cloud layer within multilayered clouds is generally higher and thinner over the TP, which is closely related to the elevated surface and the resulting thinner troposphere. The significant differences in cloud vertical structures between the TP and the ECP present in this study emphasize that topographical characteristics and the resulting moisture and circulation conditions have strong impacts on the cloud vertical structures.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Sep 2019 06:05:07 +000
  • Water Supply Risk Analysis Based on Runoff Sequence Simulation with Change
           Point under Changing Environment

    • Abstract: This study investigates the water supply risk of Panjiakou reservoir in the Luanhe River basin of China during 1956–2016 under environmental change. Since the monthly runoff series during 1956–2016 is a time series with change points, it is necessary to find a new stochastic streamflow series generation approach to preserve the statistical characteristics of the original series and to refine the reliability of water supply risk analysis. This paper improves a known stochastic streamflow simulation method of previous research to better reflect the characteristics of series with change points. And this paper simulates the monthly runoff series with change point of Panjiakou reservoir during 1956–2016 by three different methods, including Thomas–Fiering model, copula function stochastic simulation method, and copula function stochastic simulation method with the mixed distribution model. Among the three methods, the copula function stochastic simulation method with the mixed distribution model which is improved on the basis of copula function stochastic simulation method in this study performs best in simulating the observed monthly runoff series during 1956–2016, and the water supply risk indices including reliability (time-based and volume-based), resilience, vulnerability, drought risk index (DRI), and sustainability index (SUI) are evaluated for Panjiakou reservoir and analyzed by using the stochastic simulation results. By comparing with the previous studies, all indicators are between the corresponding results of 1956–1979 and 1980–2016 with stationary inflows; it can be seen that change point seriously affects the water supply risk of Panjiakou reservoir. These results make it easy to formulate water supply strategies and schemes in changing environment for water resources managers.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Sep 2019 08:05:03 +000
  • Flood Prediction in Ungauged Basins by Physical-Based TOPKAPI Model

    • Abstract: Scarce historical flood data in ungauged basins make it difficult to establish empirical and conceptual model forecast in these areas. The physical-based distributed model TOPKAPI is introduced for flood prediction in an ungauged basin by parameter transplant. Five main parameters are selected, and the sensitivity is analyzed by the GLUE method. The Xixian basin and Huangchuan basin in the upper Huaihe basin in China are chosen as study areas. The Xixian basin is regarded as a gauged basin for parameter calibration, and the Huangchuan basin is regarded as an ungauged basin by ignoring the historical discharge data. The model is calibrated in gauged Xixian basin, and then parameters are directly transplanted to adjacent “ungauged” Huangchuan basin to simulate flood forecast in an ungauged basin. The sensitivity analysis shows that soil thickness and soil saturated water content are the most sensitive parameters, and the Manning coefficient of main channel with high Strahler also significantly affects forecast results. According to the simulation results, the TOPKAPI model exhibits good performance in building and the prediction of the ungauged basin, in which the qualified rate of volume and peaks reaches 69.23%, and the average NSE criterion is over 0.67, which is acceptable forecast accuracy and has positive implication for the hydrological forecasting research.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 13:05:28 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Spatio‐temporal Variability and Trends in Extreme
           Temperature Events in Finland over the Recent Decades: Influence of
           Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Patterns”

    • Abstract: Fifteen temperature indices recommended by the ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) were applied to evaluate spatiotemporal variability and trends in annual intensity, frequency, and duration of extreme temperature statistics in Finland during 1961–2011. Statistically significant relationships between these high-resolution (10 km) temperature indices and seven influential Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns (NHTPs) for the interannual climate variability were also identified. During the study period (1961–2011), warming trends in extreme temperatures were generally manifested by statistically significant increases in cold temperature extremes rather than in the warm temperature extremes. As expected, warm days and nights became more frequent, while fewer cold days and nights occurred. The frequency of frost and icing days also decreased. Finland experienced more (less) frequent warm (cold) temperature extremes over the past few decades. Significant lengthening in warm spells was observed in Finland during 1961–2011, while no clear changes are found in cold spells. Interannual variations in the temperature indices were significantly associated with a number of NHTPs. In general, warm temperature extremes show significant correlations with the East Atlantic and the Scandinavia patterns and cold temperature extremes with the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation patterns.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 13:05:27 +000
  • Comparison of Statistical Methods to Graphical Methods in Rainfall Trend
           Analysis: Case Studies from Tropical Catchments

    • Abstract: Time series analyses for climatic factors are important in climate predictions. Rainfall is being one of the most important climatic factors in today’s concern for future predictions; thus, many researchers analyze the data series for identifying potential rainfall trends. The literature shows several methods in identifying rainfall trends. However, statistical trend analysis using Mann–Kendall equation and graphical trend analysis are the two widely used and simplest tests in trend analysis. Nevertheless, there are few studies in comparing various methods in the trend analysis to suggest the simplest methods in analyzing rainfall trends. Therefore, this paper presents a comparison analysis of statistical and graphical trend analysis techniques for two tropical catchments in Sri Lanka. Results reveal that, in general, both trend analysis techniques produce comparable results in identifying rainfall trends for different time steps including annual, seasonal, and monthly rainfalls.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Sep 2019 13:30:07 +000
  • Connection between Two Leading Modes of Autumn Rainfall Interannual
           Variability in Southeast China and Two Types of ENSO-Like SSTA

    • Abstract: The interannual variability of autumn rainfall in Southeast China (SEC) is significant, with two major modes, namely, monopole and dipole modes. It is found that the monopole mode is closely related to EP ENSO-like sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), and the dipole mode is related to CP ENSO-like SSTA. During the warm phase of EP ENSO-like SSTA, an anomalous anti-Walker circulation emerges in the tropical Pacific, with an anomalous subsiding during 110°E–120°E and an anomalous ascending branch in SEC. These two branches of anomalous current are in the same longitude and form a closed meridional circulation. Besides, there also exists an anticyclone anomaly in the Northwest Pacific (NWP), transporting water vapor into SEC. These circulation configurations induced by the warm phase of EP ENSO-like SSTA are consistent with those of monopole mode positive anomaly year. The good correspondence between EP ENSO warm event and the positive monopole mode also helps to support the corresponding relationship between the EP ENSO-like SSTA and monopole mode of SEC autumn rainfall. After the diagnosis of the perturbation omega equation, the anomalous subsiding branch over SEC, as the key link of EP ENSO-like warm phase SSTA exerting impact on the monopole mode during positive anomaly year, is mainly related with the anomalous relative vorticity advection transported by basic zonal wind and temperature advection transported by meridional wind anomaly. As for the dipole mode, it is related to the CP ENSO-like SSTA, but the corresponding relationship is weaker than that of the monopole mode and EP ENSO-like SSTA. In special, during the warm phase of CP ENSO-like SSTA, an anomalous cyclone appears in the NWP and prevailing sinking motion over SEC, both of which favors the appearance of positive anomaly of the dipole mode. Specially, the local anomalous vertical motion mainly depends on anomalous relative vorticity transported by basic meridional wind. Generally speaking, the monopole (dipole) mode is closely associated with the EP (CP) ENSO-like SSTA, demonstrating some correspondence.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Aug 2019 11:05:09 +000
  • Analysis of the Gale in the Bohai Sea Caused by Tropical Cyclone

    • Abstract: In this study, we analyzed the meteorological processes associated with 2018 tropical cyclone No. 14, “Yagi.” TC Yagi continued moving northeastward after losing its numerical designation from the National Meteorological Center of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) because of weakening and then restrengthened when it moved over the Bohai Sea, inducing an ocean gale on 14-15 August 2018. The results of our investigation revealed that the continued northeastward movement of Yagi on 14 August was related to the divergence of the upper-level westerly jet stream, the northward shift of the subtropical high in the midtroposphere, as well as the steering flow and asymmetrical air flow around the disturbance itself in the lower troposphere. The enhancement of Yagi over the Bohai Sea on the night of 14 August was related to the decrease of friction over the ocean and the increase of diabatic heating from the sea surface flux. The wind speed increased to a maximum when the depression moved over the Bohai Sea, an occurrence that was not only due to the enhancement of the cyclone itself but also due to the flow of cold air from high latitudes along the north side of the Bohai Sea. The behavior of the cold air was related to the shift of the convergence zone in the upper-level westerly jet at 200 hPa, long-wave troughs and ridges at 500 hPa, and terrain effects. Thus, the gale development in the Bohai Sea was due to both the enhancement of tropical cyclone Yagi after it moved over the ocean and the flow of cold air from high latitudes.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Aug 2019 03:05:02 +000
  • Quantitative Analysis of Water Vapor Transport during Mei-Yu Front
           Rainstorm Period over the Tibetan Plateau and Yangtze-Huai River Basin

    • Abstract: There are continuous precipitation systems moving eastward from the Tibetan Plateau to the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze-Huai River during the Mei-yu period. We selected 20 typical Mei-yu front precipitation cases from 2010 to 2015 based on observational and reanalysis data and studied the characteristics of their environmental fields. We quantitatively analyzed the transport and sources of water vapor in the rainstorms using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT_4.9) model. All 20 Mei-yu front precipitation cases occurred in a wide region from the Tibetan Plateau to the Yangtze-Huai River. The South Asian high and upper level jet stream both had strong intensities during the Mei-yu front rainstorm periods. Heavy rainfall mainly occurred in the divergence zone to the right of the high-level jet and in the convergence zone of the low-level jet, where strong vertical upward flows provided the dynamic conditions required for heavy rainfall. The water vapor mainly originated from the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal, and South China Sea. 52% of the air masses over the western Tibetan Plateau originated from Central Asia, which were rich in water vapor. The water vapor contribution at the initial position was only 41.5% due to the dry, cold air mass over Eurasia, but increased to 47.6% at the final position. Over the eastern Tibetan Plateau to the Sichuan Basin region, 40% of the air parcels came from the Indian Ocean, which was the main channel for water vapor transport. For the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, 37% of the air parcels originated from the warm and humid Indian Ocean. The water vapor contribution at the initial position was 38.6%, but increased to 40.2% after long-distance transportation.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Aug 2019 00:05:55 +000
  • Increase of Extreme Drought over Ethiopia under Climate Warming

    • Abstract: Recurrent extreme drought and flood in Ethiopia lead to more economic loss. This study examines change and trends of 21 climate extremes of temperature and precipitation over Ethiopia by using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The analysis was based on the records of observed meteorological data and the future projected from the CMIP5 model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. The results of the seasonal standardized rainfall anomaly and EOF analysis show a decreasing rainfall in JJAS season and significant variability in the FMAM season. The first mode of EOF in FMAM shows that 49.6% was mostly negative with a high amount of variability. The observed precipitation extreme of annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), consecutive wet days (CWD), and the number of heavy precipitation days (R10) show a decreasing trend, and consecutive dry days (CDD) shows an increasing trend. Additionally, temperature extremes like tropical nights (TR20) and daily maximum and minimum temperatures show a significantly increasing trend. The projected precipitation extremes of CWD, PRCPTOT, very wet day annual total (R95p), and the number of heavy precipitation days (R10) show a decreasing trend. CDD shows longer periods of dryness and a substantial increase which is conducive to the increase of drought. The projected temperature extremes of the warm spell duration indicator (WSDI), daily maximum temperature (TXx) and daily minimum temperature (TNx), summer days (SU25), and tropical nights (TR20) show an increasing trend, while the diurnal temperature range shows a decreasing trend. The projected changes in temperature and precipitation extremes are likely to have significant negative impacts on various socioeconomic activities over Ethiopia. These results highlight the need for planning and developing effective adaptation strategies for disaster prevention.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Aug 2019 00:05:53 +000
  • Impacts of Different Physical Parameterization Configurations on
           Widespread Heavy Rain Forecast over the Northern Area of Vietnam in
           WRF-ARW Model

    • Abstract: This study investigates the impacts of different physical parameterization schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the ARW dynamical core (WRF-ARW model) on the forecasts of heavy rainfall over the northern part of Vietnam (Bac Bo area). Various physical model configurations generated from different typical cumulus, shortwave radiation, and boundary layer and from simple to complex cloud microphysics schemes are examined and verified for the cases of extreme heavy rainfall during 2012–2016. It is found that the most skilled forecasts come from the Kain–Fritsch (KF) scheme. However, relating to the different causes of the heavy rainfall events, the forecast cycles using the Betts–Miller–Janjic (BMJ) scheme show better skills for tropical cyclones or slowly moving surface low-pressure system situations compared to KF scheme experiments. Most of the sensitivities to KF scheme experiments are related to boundary layer schemes. Both configurations using KF or BMJ schemes show that more complex cloud microphysics schemes can also improve the heavy rain forecast with the WRF-ARW model for the Bac Bo area of Vietnam.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 08:05:12 +000
  • Meteorological Temperature and Humidity Prediction from
           Fourier-Statistical Analysis of Hourly Data

    • Abstract: The temperature readings for all the 365 days and the 24 hours may be fitted through a 3 × 3 matrix (the so-called T-matrix). The mean square deviation between this fit and the actual meteorological measurements is smaller than three degrees Celsius. Four entries of this (nonsymmetric) matrix may be fixed by other means, leaving only five independent components. However, the same method applied to the humidity measurements produces a larger mean square deviation. A strong stochastical connection is found between the T-temperature matrix and the U-humidity matrix. The computer program, in C, may be used to adjust a (2M + 1) × (2m + 1) matrix simply by changing the arguments at the command line and has been tested with m and M ranging from zero to 11 (eleven) (more than 24 readings per day are necessary for larger values of m). The physical meaning of these constants is given only in the case m = M = 1. Our results have also been connected to fundamental cosmological properties: Earth’s orbit, the ecliptic angle, and the latitude of Querétaro (or whatever geographical location is chosen). A separate program calculates the angular position of the Sun as measured in the sky of Querétaro, to determine the length of the day or the mean value of the solar cosine. This work introduces several new variables which happen to be stochastically connected.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 07:05:13 +000
  • Study on the Change Characteristics of and Population Exposure to Heatwave
           Events on the North China Plain

    • Abstract: In accordance with the China Meteorological Administration definition, this study considered a weather process with a maximum surface temperature of ≥35°C for more than three consecutive days as a heatwave event. Based on a dataset of daily maximum temperatures from meteorological stations on the North China Plain, including ordinary and national basic/reference surface stations, the intensity-area-duration method was used to analyze the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of heatwave events on the North China Plain (1961–2017). Moreover, based on demographic data from the Statistical Yearbook and Greenhouse Gas Initiative (GGI) Population Scenario Database of the Austrian Institute for International Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), population exposure to heatwave events was also studied. The results showed that the frequency, intensity, and area of impact of heatwave events on the North China Plain initially decreased (becoming weaker and less extensive) and then increased (becoming stronger and more extensive). Similarly, the trend of population exposure to heatwave events initially decreased and then increased, and the central position of exposure initially moved southward and then returned northward. Population exposure in the eastern Taihang Mountains was found significantly higher than in the western Taihang Mountains. In relation to the change of population exposure to heatwave events on the North China Plain, the influence of climatic factors was found dominant with an absolute contribution rate of >75%. Except for 2011–2017, increase in population also increased the exposure to heatwaves, particularly in the first half of the study period. Interaction between climatic and population factors generally had less impact on population exposure than either climatic factors or population factors alone. This study demonstrated a method for assessing the impact of heatwave events on population exposure, which could form a scientific basis for the development of government policy regarding adaption to climate change.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Aug 2019 07:05:12 +000
  • Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change Trends and Adaptation Strategies
           in Semiarid Highlands of Eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: This study examined smallholder farmers’ perception about climate change and variability compared with the observed metrological data and their adaptation strategies in response to the perceived impacts of climate change. The multistage sampling method was employed to select 358 rural farmers in Hawzen and Irob districts located in semiarid highlands of Eastern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Moreover, areal gridded surface monthly rainfall and temperature data between 1983 and 2015 were collected from National Meteorology Agency of Ethiopia. The results revealed that about 98.56 and 92 percent of farmers perceived a decrease in annual rainfall. In addition, 87 and 90 percent of farmers noticed that temperature was increased in Hawzen and Irob districts, respectively. Harmoniously, the modified Mann–Kendall trend test confirmed that annual rainfall was decreased by 32.38 mm and 121.33 mm during the period of analysis. Furthermore, mean annual temperature increased statistically significant () by about 0.40°C and 0.39°C per decade during the period of analysis cognate with the farmers’ perception. To reduce the perceived impacts of climate change, farmers adopted various farm-level adaptation strategies that vary significantly between the two groups. Soil and water conservation, planting trees, crop varieties, changing crop calendar, biological conservation, and irrigation were among the dominant adaptation strategies, respectively, in the study area. The results of this study provide baseline information for local governments, subsequent researchers, and policy-makers in terms of farmers’ perception of climate change and adaptation strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Aug 2019 10:05:03 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Changes and Frequency Analysis of Multiday Extreme
           Precipitation in the Huai River Basin during 1960 to 2014

    • Abstract: Floods and droughts are more closely related to the extreme precipitation over longer periods of time. The spatial and temporal changes and frequency analysis of 5-day and 10-day extreme precipitations (PX5D and PX10D) in the Huai River basin (HRB) are investigated by means of correlation analysis, trend and abrupt change analysis, EOF analysis, and hydrological frequency analysis based on the daily precipitation data from 1960 to 2014. The results indicate (1) PX5D and PX10D indices have a weak upward trend in HRB, and the weak upward trend may be due to the significant downward trend in the 21st century, (2) the multiday (5-day and 10-day) extreme precipitation is closely associated with flood/drought disasters in the HRB, and (3) for stations of nonstationary changes with significant upward trend after the abrupt change, if the whole extreme precipitation series are used for frequency analysis, the risk of future floods will be underestimated, and this effect is more pronounced for longer return periods.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 07:05:09 +000
  • Atmospheric Sounding from Fengyun-3C GPS Radio Occultation Observations:
           First Results and Validation

    • Abstract: Carrying global positioning system (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receiver, Chinese meteorological satellite Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) was launched on September 23, 2013, which provides new observation data for observations and studies of weather and climate change. In this paper, the results of FY-3C GPS RO atmospheric sounding are presented for the first time, including high-order ionospheric correction, atmospheric parameters estimation, and evaluation by COSMIC and radiosonde observations as well as applications in estimating gravity wave activities. It is found that the effect of the ionospheric correction residual on the phase delay is below 20 mm, which has minimal impact on bending angle estimation and generates differences of about 1 K in the average temperature profile. The difference between FY-3C and COSMIC temperatures at all heights is within 1°C, and the tropopause temperature and height have a good consistency. Deviations from Radiosonde measurements are within 2°C, and the tropopause temperature and height results also have a strong consistency. Furthermore, global gravity wave potential energy is estimated from FY-3C GPS RO, exhibiting similar behavior to results derived from COSMIC radio occultation measurements. The mean value of the gravity wave potential energy near the equator is 10 J/kg and decreases toward the two poles while in the northern hemisphere, it is stronger than that in the southern hemisphere.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Aug 2019 10:05:11 +000
  • Typhoon Cloud System Identification and Forecasting Using the Feng-Yun
           4A/Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager Based on an Improved Fuzzy
           Clustering and Optical Flow Method

    • Abstract: This study adopted an improved fuzzy clustering and optical flow method for the multiscale identification and forecasting of a cloud system based on the cloud images from a 10.8-micron infrared channel of the Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager. First, we used the locally constrained fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering method to identify typhoon-dominant cloud systems. Second, we coupled the background field-constrained optical flow method with the semi-Lagrangian scheme to forecast typhoon-dominant cloud systems. The experimental results for Typhoon Maria showed that the improved FCM method was able to effectively identify changes in the cloud system while retaining its edge information through the effective removal of the offset field. The identified dominant cloud system was consistent with the precipitation field of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission. We optimized the semi-Lagrangian nonlinear extrapolation of the optical flow field by introducing background field information, thus improving the forecast accuracy of the optical flow field. Based on the assessment indicators of structural similarity, normalized mutual information, peak signal-to-noise ratio, relative standard deviation, and root mean square error, the forecast results demonstrated that the forecast effect of the background field-constrained optical flow method was better than that of the standard optical flow method.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2019 14:05:04 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Distribution of Air Pollution Characteristics in Jiangsu
           Province, China

    • Abstract: Following the deepening of climate change and the increasing industrialization in recent years, the problem of air pollution in cities has become increasingly prominent. Based on the data of air pollutants and meteorological elements in Jiangsu Province, China (2013–2017), we analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of air pollution. The results show that the air-quality index (AQI) in Jiangsu Province decreased from 2013 to 2017 and the highest AQI is in winter and the lowest in the summer, while its values in coastal cities of Jiangsu are less than those of inland cities. For the temporal distribution of primary pollutants, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO present the same trend under seasonal and monthly time scales, i.e., winter is higher and summer is lower; however, the other secondary pollutant, O3, presents opposite characteristics under the same time scale: it has higher concentration levels in summer and lower in winter. For the spatial distribution, PM2.5 and PM10 are in good concord: the higher values are found in the west of Jiangsu Province and lower in the east. For the spatial distribution of NO2, this presents higher concentrations in south and lower concentrations in north according to the position of Yangzi River, while the distribution of O3 concentration is opposite to that of NO2. The meteorological elements selected are related to air pollution, the AQI is significantly negatively correlated with monthly temperature (including average, minimum, and maximum temperatures), monthly average water vapor pressure, monthly precipitation, and monthly sunshine duration; the correlation coefficients are –0.852, –0.846, –0.850, –0.797, –0.727, and –0.599, respectively. As far as the relationships between air pollutions are concerned, there is a significant positive correlation between AQI, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2, while O3 is remarkably negatively correlated with other pollutants and AQI. The most prominent correlations are distinguished into two groups: one is AQI, PM2.5, and PM10, with correlation coefficients of 0.876 and 0.966, and the other is SO2, NO2, with correlation coefficient of about 0.9.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2019 09:05:12 +000
  • Use of the C-Band Microwave Link to Distinguish between Rainy and Dry

    • Abstract: As a method that does not require additional cost, precipitation measurement by microwave links (MLs) has quickly attracted the attention of experts in meteorological, hydrological, and other related fields, of which wet-dry classification by MLs is one of the most important methods. Considering that existing commercial MLs are usually single-path, single-polarization, or low-frequency MLs, this paper uses the C-band ML and analyzes the variation in the receive signal level (RSL) of the C-band ML under the conditions of no rain, drizzle, light rain, and moderate rain. The RSL data are analyzed at different time scales by using long short-term memory (LSTM) network techniques, and then the method for distinguishing parts of the precipitation period by using the RSL from low-frequency MLs is proposed and validated. The results show that wet-dry classification is ideal. The accuracy on each day was higher than 60%, and some days had accuracies that were even higher than 98%. MLs below 10 GHz also had the potential to monitor ground rainfall. This study will broaden the range of available equipment for MLs for precipitation measurement.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jul 2019 08:05:03 +000
  • Associated Determinants of Surface Urban Heat Islands across 1449 Cities
           in China

    • Abstract: The thermal environment is closely related to human well-being. Determinants of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, some research fields remain blank or have conflicting findings, which need to be further addressed. Particularly, few studies focus on drivers of SUHIs in massive cities with different sizes under various contexts at large scales. Using multisource data, we explored 11 determinants of surface urban heat island intensity (SUHII) for 1449 cities in different ecological contexts throughout China in 2010, adopting the Spearman and partial correlation analysis and machine learning method. The main results were as follows: (1) Significant positive partial correlations existed between daytime SUHII and the differences in nighttime light intensity and built-up intensity between cities and their corresponding villages except in arid or semiarid western China. The differences in the enhanced vegetation index were generally partially negatively correlated with daytime and nighttime SUHII. The differences in white sky albedo were usually partially negatively correlated with nighttime SUHII. The mean air temperature was partially positively correlated with nighttime SUHII in 40% of cases. Only a few significant partial relationships existed between SUHII and urban area, total population, and differences in aerosol optical depth. The explanation rates during daytime were larger than during nighttime in 72% of cases. The largest and smallest rates occurred during summer days in humid cold northeastern China (63.84%) and in southern China (10.44%), respectively. (2) Both the daytime and nighttime SUHII could be well determined by drivers using the machine learning method. The RMSE ranged from 0.49°C to 1.54°C at a national scale. The simulation SUHII values were always significantly correlated with the actual SUHII values. The simulation accuracies were always higher during nighttime than daytime. The highest accuracies occurred in central-northern China and were lowest in western China during both daytime and nighttime.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Jul 2019 07:05:10 +000
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