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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 202)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Meteorology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.48
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 24  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-9309 - ISSN (Online) 1687-9317
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Analysis of a Late-Autumn Rainstorm in the Sichuan Basin on the Eastern
           Side of the Tibetan Plateau

    • Abstract: An abnormal heavy rainfall that occurred on 27 October 2014 in the Sichuan Basin (SB), China, is analyzed. An inverted trough at 850 hPa evolved into a Southwest China Vortex (SWCV), and strong upward motion caused by interaction between the low-level jet (LLJ) at 850 hPa and the upper-level jet (ULJ) at 200 hPa triggered the rainstorm process. Under a large-scale circulation system featuring a westerly trough and subtropical high, there were two cloud bands over the northeast side and south side of the Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Influenced by the eastward-moving trough, the inverted trough, LLJ, and the SWCV, a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) was generated near the intersection of the two cloud bands, and it was the direct rainstorm system. The MCS strengthened under the situation of the 850 hPa inverted trough, but weakened when the inverted trough evolved to into the SWCV. Eventually, it formed the phenomenon known as “existing vortex without cloud.” Through analysis of the possible reasons why precipitation strengthened (weakened) under the situation of the inverted trough (SWCV), it was found that the strengthening of precipitation was due to a strong tilting updraft in the area of the ULJ and LLJ intersection. On one hand, the upward motion was related to the vorticity advection variation with height and the low-level warm advection forcing; while on the other hand, the dew-point front near the LLJ also played a lifting role in the upward flow of the lower-layer vertical circulation. Meanwhile, the LLJ “head” was a high-value area of water vapor convergence, which provided sufficient water vapor for the rainstorm. During the SWCV, the weakening of precipitation was due to the SWCV weakening gradually; plus, the ULJ was interrupted over the SB, the upper airflow presented downdrafts, and its superposition with the ascending branch of low-level vertical circulation. This airflow structure inhibited the development of strong upward motion, whilst at the same time, the LLJ retreated toward the south and the dew-point front ultimately weakened and disappeared. Subsequently, water vapor convergence weakened and no longer supported the occurrence of heavy rainfall. Therefore, the strong upward motion caused by the ULJ-LLJ intersection and the lower-level dew-point front were the key reasons for the occurrence of this late-autumn rainstorm.
      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2019 08:05:25 +000
  • Probabilistic Evaluation of Tibetan Plateau Mesoscale Vortex on 18 July

    • Abstract: Tibetan Plateau (TP) mesoscale vortex (TPMV) was regarded as one of the most important rain bearing systems in China. Previous studies focused on the mechanisms of the TPMV in the viewpoint of deterministic forecast; however, few studies investigate the predictability of the TPMV using the Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECWMF). This paper investigates the location and the intensity of the larger-scale synoptic systems that influenced the development of the TPMV and its associated heavy rainfall by correlation and composite analysis. The case study on 18 July 2013 shows that stronger Balkhash Lake ridge, weaker Baikal Lake trough, and weaker western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) are favorable to formation of TPMV over the Sichuan basin (SCB); otherwise, weaker Balkhash Lake ridge, stronger Baikal Lake trough, and stronger WPSH result in formation of TPMV to west of the SCB slightly. After the initial time, forecast for next 48 h of the geopotential height over the SCB can be viewed as a precursor of the subsequent time-averaged 90–108 h forecast of TPMV. TPMV had critical contributions to the heavy rainfall over the SCB on 18 July 2013.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 May 2019 08:05:18 +000
  • Effects of Model Horizontal Grid Resolution on Short- and Medium-Term
           Daily Temperature Forecasts for Energy Consumption Application in European

    • Abstract: A short-term forecast of energy consumption is affected by different factors related to the demand in residential, commercial, thermoelectric, and industrial sectors. This demand can be strongly constrained by weather variables, especially temperatures, whose forecast may be very useful to predict the balances between supply and demand, minimizing the risk of price volatility. Energy companies use the relationship between meteorological forecast output and energy request to provide an effective scheduling of national gas and power grids and reduce operational costs in critical periods. This work reports a comparison analysis for short- and medium-term daily temperature forecasts during the period 2013-2014 by using the weather model e-kmf™ (eni-kassandra meteo forecast), currently adopted in gas and power applications where meteorological output has a key role. This weather forecast system uses different models and initial data to develop probabilistic predictions from a perspective of eleven days ahead. In particular, a set of model runs with horizontal grid spacing of 5.5, 8, 13, and 18 km with the same domain size are undertaken to assess the sensitivity of temperature to horizontal resolutions. A nonlinear Kalman filter has been also applied to postprocess forecasted data in eight European cities (Milano, Roma, Torino, Napoli, Munich, Paris, Brussels, and London). Filtered forecasts over these cities have been compared to local observations taken from SYNOP (surface synoptic observations) and METAR (meteorological Aerodrome Report) stations. Skill scores of performance have been used to generally assess the forecast reliability up to day +11. In order to understand the sensitivity to the horizontal resolution, investigations have been carried out even during four specific periods of two weeks with stable and unstable weather conditions.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 10:05:11 +000
  • A Simulation Study of GNSS-R Polarimetric Scattering from the Bare Soil
           Surface Based on the AIEM

    • Abstract: In the past two decades, global navigation satellite system-reflectometry (GNSS-R) has emerged as a new remote sensing technique for soil moisture monitoring. Some experiments showed that the antenna of V polarization is more favorable to receive the reflected signals, and the interference pattern technique (IPT) was used for soil moisture and retrieval of other geophysical parameters. Meanwhile, the lower satellite elevation angles are most impacted by the multipath. However, electromagnetic theoretical properties are not clear for GNSS-R soil moisture retrieval. In this paper, the advanced integral equation model (AIEM) is employed using the wave-synthesis technique to simulate different polarimetric scatterings in the specular directions. Results show when the incident angles are larger than 70°, scattering at RR polarization (the transmitted signal is right-hand circular polarization (RHCP), while the received one is also RHCP) is larger than that at LR polarization (the transmitted signal is RHCP, while the received one is left-hand circular polarization (LHCP)), while scattering at LR polarization is larger than that at RR polarization for the other incident angles (1°∼70°). There is an apparent dip for VV and VR scatterings due to the Brewster angle, which will result in the notch in the final receiving power, and this phenomenon can be used for soil moisture retrieval or vegetation corrections. The volumetric soil moisture (vms) effects on their scattering are also presented. The larger soil moisture will result in lower scattering at RR polarization, and this is very different from the scattering of the other polarizations. It is interesting to note that the surface correlation function only affects the amplitudes of the scattering coefficients at much less level, but it has no effects on the angular trends of RR and LR polarizations.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 09:05:08 +000
  • Rainfall Trend Analysis in Uma Oya Basin, Sri Lanka, and Future Water
           Scarcity Problems in Perspective of Climate Variability

    • Abstract: The effect of climate variability on the rainfall pattern is canvassed on the Uma Oya river basin, Sri Lanka, consisting of 5 rainfall gauging stations. The Uma Oya basin (720 km2) is given utmost precedence due to environmental concerns seen in the ongoing Uma Oya multipurpose development project (529 million USD worth) which is expected to divert water to the southeast dry zone of the country while adding 231 GWh/year electricity to the national grid. The rainfall data for a period of 26 years (1992–2017) were analysed using Mann–Kendall’s test and Sen’s slope estimator test to identify the rainfall trends. Both of these trend analysis test results depict only one negative trend for Hilpankandura Estate for the month of June; however, the seasonal trend analysis and annual trend analysis do not support this observation. Nevertheless, Mann–Kendall’s test showed potential positive trends for the 3 rainfall gauging stations Kirklees Estate, Ledgerwatte Estate, and Welimada Group only in the 1st intermediate period (March-April), and this is well supported by the monthly trend analysis. Other than these trends, the results do not show any significant negative trends in the Uma Oya catchment. Therefore, the results vividly explain that there is no threat of water scarcity to the catchment area being resistant to changing global climate for the past 26 years.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 May 2019 07:05:03 +000
  • Numerical Studies on Forecast Error Correction of GRAPES Model with
           Variational Approach

    • Abstract: To implement deterministic short-range numerical weather forecast error correction, this study develops a novel approach using the variational method and historical data. Based on time-dependency characteristic of nonsystematic forecast error, variational approach is adopted to establish the mapping relation between nonsystematic error series and the prior period nonsystematic error series, so as to estimate nonsystematic error in the future and revise the forecast under the premise of the revision for forecast systematic forecast error. According to the hindcast daily data of geopotential height on 500 hPa generated by GRAPES model on January and July from 2002 to 2010, preliminary analysis is carried out on characteristics of forecast error in East Asia. Further estimation and forecast correction test are conducted for nonsystematic error. The result shows that the nonsystematic forecast error in the GRAPES model has obvious characteristic of state dependency. Nonsystematic forecast error changes along season and the state of weather and accounts for great proportion in total forecast error. Nonsystematic forecast error estimated by variational approach is relatively close to the real forecast error. After nonsystematic correction, the corrected 24 h and 48 h forecast of majority samples has a smaller RMSE. Further study on temperature shows a similar result, even comparing to the observational upper air MICAPS data.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 May 2019 12:05:02 +000
  • Statistical Postprocessing of Different Variables for Airports in Spain
           Using Machine Learning

    • Abstract: The results of a deterministic calibration for the nonhydrostatic convection-permitting LAM-EPS AEMET-γSREPS are shown. LAM-EPS AEMET-γSREPS is a multiboundary condition, multimodel ensemble forecast system developed for Spain. Machine learning tools are used to calibrate the members of the ensemble. Machine learning (hereafter ML) has been considerably successful in many problems, and recent research suggests that meteorology and climatology are not an exception. These machine learning tools range from classical statistical methods to contemporary successful and powerful methods such as kernels and neural networks. The calibration has been done for airports located in many regions of Spain, representing different climatic conditions. The variables to be calibrated are the 2-meter temperature, the 10-meter wind speed, and the precipitation in 24 hours. Classical statistical methods perform very well with the temperature and the wind speed; the precipitation is a subtler case: it seems there is not a general rule, and for each point, a decision has to be taken of what method (if any) improves the direct output of the model, but even recognizing this, a slight improvement can be shown with ML methods for the precipitation.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Apr 2019 16:05:10 +000
  • The Variations of Satellite-Based Ecosystem Water Use and Carbon Use
           Efficiency and Their Linkages with Climate and Human Drivers in the
           Songnen Plain, China

    • Abstract: Ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon use efficiency (CUE), as two of the most important ecological indicators of an ecosystem, represent the carbon assimilation rate of unit water consumption and the capacity of transferring carbon from the atmosphere to potential carbon sinks. Revealing WUE and CUE changes and their impact factors is vital for regional carbon-water interactions and carbon budget assessment. Climate affects carbon and water processes differently. Compared to WUE, the variations in CUE in response to climate factors and human activity remain inadequately understood. In this study, ecosystem-level WUE and CUE variations in the Songnen Plain (SNP), Northeast China, during 2001–2015, were investigated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data. The relationships between WUE, CUE, main climate factors, and human impacts were explored. The results showed that ecosystem WUE and CUE have fluctuated over time, with regional average values of 1.319 gC·kg−1H2O and 0.516, respectively. Deciduous broad-leaved forests had the highest average WUE but the lowest CUE. The multiyear average CUE of grassland ranked in first place, while the lowest WUE indicated that a lesser capacity of net productivity was generated by the use of limited water supply. WUE and CUE showed a downward trend in most areas of the SNP, indicating that the carbon sequestration capacity of the terrestrial ecosystem became weaker in the past 15 years. Annual precipitation and relative humidity had positive influences on WUE and CUE in more than 60% of the study area. The total annual sunshine duration and annual average temperature negatively affected WUE and CUE in most areas. Human activities had a positive effect on ecosystem WUE changes in the SNP but might inhibit CUE variations. Our findings aid in understanding the biological regulation mechanisms of carbon-water cycle coupling and provide a scientific basis for formulating sustainable regional development strategies and guiding water and land resources management.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Understanding the Effects of Changing Weather: A Case of Flash Flood in
           Morogoro on January 11, 2018

    • Abstract: Floods are the leading cause of hydrometeorological disasters in East Africa. Regardless of where, when, and how the event has happened, floods affect social security as well as environmental damages. Understanding floods dynamics, their impacts, and management is thus critical, especially in climate risk assessment. In the present study, a flash flood (a case of an episodic hydrological event) which happened on January 11, 2018, in Morogoro, Tanzania, is examined and synthesized. Data were courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Forecasting System (NOAA GFS) (forecast data), Tanzania Meteorological Agency (TMA), and Sokoine University of Agriculture (for the automatic weather data). With the help of ZyGRIB-grib file visualization software (version 8.01, under General Public License (GNU GPL v3)), the forecast data and patterns of the observation from the automatic weather station (temperatures, wind speed and directions, rainfall, humidity, and pressure) and the long-term rainfall data analysis in the study area made it possible. This study contributes to the knowledge of understanding the changing weather for planning and management purposes. Both forecasts and the observations captured the flash flood event. The rain was in the category of heavy rainfall (more than 50 mm per day) as per the regional guidelines. The synergy between the forecasts and the 30-minute weather observation interval captured the fundamental weather patterns that describe the event. For studying the nature and impacts of flash floods in the region, the integration of automatic weather observation into the systems of national meteorological centers is inevitable. Additionally, as part of an integrated disaster risk reduction effort, there is a need for a review on catchment management strategies.
      PubDate: Sun, 21 Apr 2019 15:05:05 +000
  • Estimation of Strong Wind Distribution on the Korean Peninsula for Various
           Recurrence Periods: Significance of Nontyphoon Conditions

    • Abstract: Long-term automated synoptic observing system (ASOS) data collected from 101 stations over a period of 50 years (1967–2016) were analyzed to investigate the distribution of strong winds on the Korean peninsula by utilizing a statistical method. The Gumbel distribution was used to estimate the wind speed for recurrence periods of 1, 10, 50, 75, and 100 years. For all recurrence periods, the coastal regions experienced higher wind speeds, which exceeded the strong wind advisory level, than the inland and metropolitan regions. The strong winds were predominantly induced by summertime typhoons, especially in the south and west coastal regions. In addition, nontyphoon factors, such as a topographical factor with atmospheric instability in a mountainous coastal region, can cause localized severe weather in the form of strong wind. By performing the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model simulation, an abrupt increase in wind speed up to 20 m·s−1 was reproduced under the condition of onshore prevailing winds heading toward a mountain ridge in a coastal region. Estimation of strong wind spatial distribution can help the region-to-region establishment of an action plan to prepare for damage caused by strong winds.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Apr 2019 13:05:17 +000
  • Divergent Response of Leaf Coloring Seasons to Temperature Change in
           Northern China over the Past 50 Years

    • Abstract: Autumn phenology plays a critical role in terrestrial ecosystem circulations. However, the changes in autumn phenology and their correlation with temperature remain uncertain because mean temperature alone was not able to determine the changes in autumn phenology at various sites. Here, the leaf coloring season (LCS) was defined as the period when the leaves of more than half of the species had recognized changes in color. We systematically studied the changes in peak, start, end, and duration of LCS and their correlations with five temperature parameters (mean temperature, accumulated cold temperature, day temperature, night temperature, and temperature difference between day and night) in four periods. Similarly to previous findings, the start date of LCS advanced and the end of LCS delayed over the past 50 years, which consequently led to a lengthened duration of LCS in Xi’an, Harbin, Minqin, and Shenyang. In general, the rise in mean temperature, day temperature, and night temperature would delay the peak, start, and end of LCS and lengthen the duration of LCS in most cases. We also proved that the changes in LCS metrics not only could completely be explained by mean temperature but also were influenced by day temperature, night temperature, temperature difference, and even other climatic factors such as precipitation, at different sites.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Apr 2019 09:05:06 +000
  • Methods to Estimate Surface Roughness Length for Offshore Wind Energy

    • Abstract: The northeastern coast of the U.S. is projected to expand its offshore wind capacity from the existing 30 MW to over 22 GW in the next decade, yet, only a few wind measurements are available in the region and none at hub height (around 100 m today); thus, extrapolations are needed to estimate wind speed as a function of height. A common method is the log-law, which is based on surface roughness length (). No reliable estimates of for the region have been presented in the literature. Here, we fill this knowledge gap using two field campaigns that were conducted in the Nantucket Sound at the Cape Wind (CW) platform: the 2003–2009 “CW Historical”, which collected wind measurements on a meteorological tower at three levels (20, 41, and 60 m AMSL) with sonic and cup/vane anemometers, and the 2013–2014 IMPOWR (Improving the Mapping and Prediction of Offshore Wind Resources), which collected high-frequency wind and flux measurements at 12 m AMSL. We tested three different methods to calculate : (1) analytical method, dependent on friction velocity and a stability function ψ; (2) the Charnock relationship between and ; and (3) a statistical method based on wind speed observed at the three levels. The first two methods are physical, whereas the statistical method is purely mathematical. Comparing mean and median of , we find that the median is a more robust statistics because the mean varies by over four orders of magnitude across the three methods and the two campaigns. In general, the median exhibits little seasonal variability and a weak dependency on atmospheric stability, which was predominantly unstable (54–67%). With the goal of providing the most accurate estimates of wind speed near the hub height of modern turbines, the statistical method, despite delivering unrealistic values at times, gives the best estimates of 60 m winds, even when the 5 m wind speed from a nearby buoy is used as the reference. The unrealistic values are caused by nonmonotonic wind speed profiles, occurring about 41% of the time, and should not be rejected because they produce realistic fits. Furthermore, the statistical method outperforms the other two even though it does not need any stability information. In summary, if wind speed data from multiple levels are available, as is the case with vertically pointing floating lidar and meteorological towers, the statistical method is recommended, regardless of the seemingly unrealistic values at times. If multilevel wind speeds are not available but advanced sonic anemometry is available at one level, the analytical method is recommended over Charnock’s. Lastly, if a single, constant value of is sought after to characterize the region, we recommend the median from the statistical method, i.e., , which is typical of rough seas.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 12:05:14 +000
  • Using CHIRPS Dataset to Assess Wet and Dry Conditions along the Semiarid
           Central-Western Argentina

    • Abstract: The Climate Hazards group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) dataset was conceived as a tool for monitoring drought and environmental change over land. Recent validation efforts along South America have assessed its suitability for reproducing the main spatial and temporal features of precipitation. Nevertheless, little has been done regarding the ability of CHIRPS for the assessment of wet and dry conditions, particularly in areas where in situ precipitation records are scarce. In this paper, we investigated the performance of CHIRPS for monitoring wet and dry events along the semiarid Central-Western Argentina. Using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), we compared the CHIRPS database with records from 49 meteorological stations along the study area for the period 1987–2016. Results indicate that the CHIRPS dataset adequately reproduced the temporal variability of SPI on multiple timescales (1 month, 3 months, and 6 months), particularly in the region dominated by warm season precipitation. The large overestimation of the seasonal precipitation in the region dominated by cold season precipitation can introduce errors that are reflected in the performance of CHIRPS over the western portion of the domain. The frequency of wet and dry classes was accurately reproduced by CHIRPS on timescales larger than 1 month (SPI1), given the existence of a wet bias that produces an underestimation of the frequency of zero values. This bias is further translated to the evaluation of the SPI1 during the spatial and temporal assessment of historical dry (1998) and wet (2016) events, especially for the classification of extreme dry/wet months. The results from the evaluation indicate that CHIRPS is a suitable tool for assessing dry and wet conditions for timescales longer than 1 month and can support decision-making process within the hydrometeorological agencies over the region.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 12:05:12 +000
  • Numerical Analysis on the Effects of Binary Interaction between Typhoons
           Tembin and Bolaven in 2012

    • Abstract: The binary interaction is one of the most challenging factors to improve the forecast accuracy of multiple tropical cyclones (TCs) in close vicinity. The effect of binary interaction usually results in anomalous track and variable intensity of TCs. A typical interaction type, one-way influence mode, has been investigated by many studies which mainly focused on the anomalous track and record-breaking precipitation, such as typhoons Morakot and Goni. In this paper, a typical case of this type, typhoons Tembin and Bolaven, occurred in the western North Pacific in August 2012, was selected to study how one typhoon impacts the track and intensity of the other one. The vortex of Tembin or Bolaven and the monsoon circulation were removed by a TC bogus scheme and a low-pass Lanczos filter, respectively, to carry out the numerical experiments. The results show that the presence of monsoon made the binary interaction more complex by affecting the tracks and the translation speeds of the TCs. The influence of Bolaven on the track of Tembin was more significant than the influence of Tembin on the track of Bolaven, and the looping track of Tembin was also affected by the external surrounding circulation associated with Bolaven. The absence of Tembin was not conducive to the development of Bolaven due to stronger vertical wind shear condition and the less kinetic energy being transported to upper troposphere. Note that the above analysis demonstrates the interacting processes between TCs and sheds some light on the prediction of binary TCs.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Apr 2019 10:05:14 +000
  • Measuring Radial and Tangential Changes in Tropical Cyclone Rain Fields
           Using Metrics of Dispersion and Closure

    • Abstract: Although tropical cyclone (TC) rain fields assume varying spatial configurations, many studies only use areal coverage to compare TCs. To provide additional spatial information, this study calculates metrics of closure, or the tangential completeness of reflectivity regions surrounding the circulation center, and dispersion, or the spread of reflectivity outwards from the storm center. Two hurricanes that encountered different conditions after landfall are compared. Humberto (2007) experienced rapid intensification (RI), stronger vertical wind shear, and more moisture than Jeanne (2004), which was more intense, weakened gradually, and became extratropical. A GIS framework was used to convert radar reflectivity regions into polygons and measure their area, closure, and dispersion. Closure corresponded most closely to storm intensity, as the eye became exposed when both TCs weakened to tropical storm intensity. Dispersion increased by 10 km·hr−1 as both TCs developed precipitation along frontal boundaries. As closure tended to change earlier than dispersion and area, closure may be most sensitive to subtle changes in environmental conditions, particularly as the storm’s core experiences the entrainment of dry air and erodes. Displacement provided a combined radial and tangential component to the location of the rainfall regions to confirm placement along the frontal boundaries. Examining area alone cannot reveal these patterns. The spatial metrics reveal changes in TC structure, such as the lag between onset of RI and maximum closure, which should be generalizable to TCs experiencing similar conditions. Future work will calculate these metrics for additional TCs to quantify structural changes in response to their surrounding environment.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 11:05:19 +000
  • Vertical Profile of Wind Diurnal Cycle in the Surface Boundary Layer over
           the Coast of Cotonou, Benin, under a Convective Atmosphere

    • Abstract: The characteristics of the wind vertical profile over the coast of Cotonou during wind convective diurnal cycle were explored in this study. Wind data at 10 m above the ground and the radiosonde data in the lower 60 m of the surface boundary layer were used over the period from January 2013 to December 2016. Based on Monin–Obukhov theory, the logarithmic and power laws have allowed characterizing the wind profile. The error estimators of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) were, respectively, evaluated at 0.025; 0.016 (RMSE; MAE) and 0.018; 0.015. At the site of Cotonou, the atmosphere is generally unstable from 09:00 to 18:00 MST and stable for the remainder of the time. The annual mean value of the wind shear coefficient is estimated at 0.20 and that of the ground surface roughness length and friction velocity are, respectively, of 0.007 m, 0.38 m·s−1. A comparative study between the wind extrapolation models and the data was carried out in order to test their reliability on our study site. The result of this is that whatever the time of the year is, only the models proposed (best fitting equation) are always in good agreement with the data unlike the other models evaluated. Finally, from the models suitable for our site, the profile of wind convective diurnal cycle was obtained by extrapolation of the wind data measured at 10 m from the ground. The average wind speed during this cycle is therefore evaluated to 8.07 m·s−1 for August which is the windiest month and to 4.98 m·s−1 for the least windy month (November) at 60 m of the ground. Considering these results, we can so consider that the site of Cotonou coastal could be suitable for the installation of wind turbines.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 03:05:21 +000
  • Fusion of Simulated and Observational Temperature Data in the
           Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based on High-Accuracy Surface Modeling

    • Abstract: Temperature changes have a major impact on all aspects of human society and have attracted global attention. The scarcity of observation data and the inaccuracy of the models make obtaining accurate temperature distributions a challenge. This study introduces high-accuracy surface modeling (HASM) combined with temperature simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and temperature records from observation stations to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of temperature in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region during the period of 1956–2005. Leave-one-out cross-validation is applied to verify the temperature fields before and after the fusion of the models. The results indicate that the WRF model has a limited ability to simulate temperature conditions, but the overall deviation across the region is relatively large. The fusion results of the HASM decrease the mean absolute error (MAE) and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) by half in most instances, and the correlation between the fusion data and observation data is approximately 0.01–0.03 higher than that with the WRF simulation data. Based on the fusion data, obvious warming trends are observed during 1976–2005. In general, temperatures in spring, summer, and autumn increase rapidly from 1996 to 2005 but from 1976 to 1995 in winter. The substantial fluctuations in the interannual temperature during 1996–2005 in summer, autumn, and winter may be related to the frequent occurrence of extreme weather. The spatial distribution of temperature change differs in each season during 1956–1995. A dramatic increase in temperature occurs in the western part of the study area during 1996–2005 but with no seasonal difference.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Mar 2019 13:30:07 +000
  • A Review on Managing Agroecosystems for Improved Water Use Efficiency in
           the Face of Changing Climate in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Agroecosystems are important for food production and conservation of biodiversity while continuing to provide several ecosystem services within the landscape. Despite their economic and ecological benefits, most agroecosystems in Tanzania are degraded at alarming rates. Rapid increase of human population and unprecedented impacts of climate change have influenced depletion of natural resource base within agroecosystem in recent decades compared to what communities have experienced before. Increased food demands owing to population increase have increased pressure on exploitation of land resources including water. Cultivation area and irrigation water demands have increased steadily in the last six decades. Nevertheless, approaches used for water supply have not been improved; thus, water use efficiency in most irrigation schemes is quite poor. Conversely, climate smart agricultural practices are practiced less in Tanzania. There is poor adoption of recommended adaptation among smallholder farmers due to several socioeconomic reasons. One of the key objectives of climate smart agriculture is to improve bio-geochemical interactions within landscape and decrease competition of natural resources between humans and other component of agroecosystems. This underscores the assumptions that most cropping systems in Tanzania are not managed sustainably. Moreover, comprehensive assessment of hydrological dynamics within smallholder farming in Tanzania is highly lacking. Therefore, actual causes and extent of water resources depletion are largely unknown among stakeholders. In most tropical landscapes, water resources degradation is influenced by interaction of both anthropogenic and biophysical factors operating at different times and space scales. As the capacity of water-supplying sources continues to decline, Tanzania needs profound changes in agricultural production systems in order to nourish the growing human population. This calls for strategic approaches that have wider adaptability. A literature survey study with the following objectives was conducted (i) to assess current state of agricultural water use and irrigation activities in Tanzania and (ii) to determine major constraints for sustainable water management and identify appropriate adaptation measures for their improvement across diverse cropping systems.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2019 18:05:08 +000
  • Comparison of Oceansat-2 Scatterometer Wind Data with Global Moored Buoys
           and ASCAT Observation

    • Abstract: The Oceansat-2 satellite was launched on 23 September 2009 by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In this study, the historic archived OSCAT wind vectors are compared with the global moored buoys’ wind observations, including the U.S. National Data Buoy Center (NDBC), the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO), the Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA), the Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction (RAMA), and Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) wind data in the same period of OSCAT by calculating the statistical parameters, namely, the root mean square error (RMSE), bias (mean of residuals), and correlation coefficient (R) between the collocated data. The comparisons with the global moored buoys show that the OSCAT wind vectors are consistent with buoys’ wind measurements. The average errors of the OSCAT wind vectors are 1.20 m/s and 17.7°. The analysis of the OSCAT wind vector errors at different buoy wind speeds in bins of 1 m/s indicates that the accuracy of the OSCAT wind speed first increases and then decreases with the increasing wind speed. The comparisons of OSCAT wind vectors and ASCAT wind vectors show that the average RMSEs of their differences are 1.27 m/s and 20.17°. In general, the accuracies of the OSCAT wind vectors satisfy the general scatterometer’s mission requirement and are consistent with ASCAT wind data. OSCAT wind vectors can be used in the global change study by the combination with other scatterometer data.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Mar 2019 13:05:09 +000
  • Research of Spatial and Temporal Evolution Mechanism and Countermeasures
           of Haze Spatial Pattern in China: Visual Field Based on Dynamic Evolution
           and Spatial Agglomeration

    • Abstract: In this paper, spatial domain verification of the haze of dependence and the dynamic evolution process of the spatial panel data model was based on the estimation of different factors that influence on the horizon haze effect and spillover effect from the perspective of spatial economics. The study found that the provincial space is dependent on Chinese haze; the influence of haze on neighboring provinces of the spatial spillover effect factors is obvious during the period of 2000∼2015; the effect of elastic coefficient of industrial structures on the haze near the space overflow area energy is high; thus the industrial structure has a significant inhibitory effect on the haze; the role of regional industrial transfer haze governance has been very fruitful; population, economic growth, financial development, and fiscal decentralization to reduce haze inhibiting the spillover effect of regional haze were increasing. In the formulation of haze-related policies and development planning, the government departments must take into account the spatial mechanism of regional haze and influencing factors and realize the overall reduction of haze amount in time dimension and spatial dimension in China.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Mar 2019 12:05:18 +000
  • Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective
           Systems Producing Short-Duration Heavy Rainfall over the Tianshan Mountain

    • Abstract: Based on hourly precipitation data and FY-2 satellite infrared (IR) digital satellite imagery collected during the warm season from 2005 to 2015 in the Tianshan Mountains and the adjacent areas in Xinjiang, China, the definition of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) was revised based on short-duration heavy precipitation processes. The spatiotemporal development of MCSs in terms of the initiation, maturation, dissipation, duration, and movement was statistically analyzed. Most mesoscale systems in the area were dominated by meso-β convective systems (MβCSs), which was in line with the annual heavy precipitation frequency. In meso-α convective systems (MαCSs), persistent elongated convective systems (PECSs) occurred more commonly than mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs). MCSs were common in summer, with the peak frequency of MαCS occurrence in June and the peak frequency of MβCS occurrence mainly in July and August. From the perspective of diurnal variations, MCSs initiated in the late afternoon, developed during the evening, and dissipated before midnight. MCSs in general lasted 6∼9 h between June and July and 9∼11 h in August. The MαCSs lasted approximately 14 h, and the MβCSs lasted from 7 h to 12 h. The development and termination stages of MCSs lasted 3∼6 h and 2∼7 h, respectively. In low-elevation areas and on the windward slope of the mountains, MCSs initiated more easily and more frequently over the northern and western slopes than that over the southern and eastern slopes. The central area of the Junggar basin hosted the development of MCSs, but the distribution of the convective systems at different scales varied. During the termination stage, these mesoscale systems were mainly located at the basin edges. In terms of tracks, most MCSs moved eastward under the influence of the westerlies and the MαCSs moved faster but in a more scattered manner than the MβCSs. Additionally, some unusual tracks appeared because of the effects of the underlying surface topography and environmental wind.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Mar 2019 12:05:16 +000
  • Corrigendum #2 to “Mesoscale and Local Scale Evaluations of Quantitative
           Precipitation Estimates by Weather Radar Products during a Heavy Rainfall

    • PubDate: Mon, 11 Mar 2019 12:05:07 +000
  • Investigation into the Effects of Climatic Change on Temperature,
           Rainfall, and Runoff of the Doroudzan Catchment, Iran, Using the Ensemble
           Approach of CMIP3 Climate Models

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effects of climatic changes on temperature, rainfall, and runoff in the Doroudzan catchment in the northeast of Fars province, Iran. Temperature and rainfall changes in three periods including 2011–2030, 2046–2065, and 2080–2099 were downscaled and studied using 15 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 3 (CMIP3) climatic models, under three scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions A2, B1, and A1B, from the database of the LARS-WG model. The difference in the amount of changes in temperature and rainfall in these three periods and the observational amounts under the 15 models indicated the uncertainty of the changes values. To reduce this uncertainty and limit the results to the management and planning of water resources, ensemble approach was considered. For the preparation of the ensemble approach, the parameters from the files of the 15-model scenarios were averaged so that a climatic ensemble model could be obtained for each period. Then, the runoffs of the next three periods, under the second approach and three emission scenarios, were produced using the feedforwad neural network. The results indicated an increase in the average monthly maximum temperature and the minimum temperature in all three periods under the three scenarios. The results also showed a decrease in the rainfall in the early months of the year as well as an increase in the rainfall in the spring in most scenarios. Generally, the average annual rainfall in all these three periods under the climatic ensemble model, and three emission scenarios showed a reduction in the average annual rainfall in the three periods. The maximum amount of reduction was in 2080–2099 (101 mm) under the scenario B1. Besides, a reduction occurred in the average runoff of the catchment under three ensemble models and the emission scenario in all three periods, as compared to the average of the long-term observational values in most years.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Mar 2019 12:05:06 +000
  • Cloud Features of Tibetan Plateau Vortex Category Cloud Cluster over
           Different Regions along the Eastward-Moving Path in Summer

    • Abstract: Using the data of CloudSat satellite, FY series satellite, CMORPH hourly precipitation, and ERA-interim reanalysis products, this paper aims to reveal the cloud features of Tibetan Plateau Vortex (TPV) category cloud clusters over its eastward-moving regions. 107 cases of eastward-moving TPV category that occurred in the summer half-year (April to September) are picked out, and then the cloud features of them are further analyzed by statistics. The results show that the eastward-moving TPV category occurs mostly in May and June, but leastly in July and September. With consecutive enhancement of precipitation intensity and convection intensity, an increasing trend is found in the proportions of deep convection clouds and multiple layer clouds during the TPV category eastward movement. In order to reveal the inner connection among the precipitation intensity, the convection intensity, and the microphysical characteristics of TPV category cloud clusters, the TPV category cloud clusters are classified into different categories by the criteria of the precipitation intensity and the convection intensity separately. Consequently, the two different criteria share the commonality that the number concentration of both ice crystal and cloud droplets increases obviously with the enhancement of precipitation intensity or convection intensity. However, the discrepancy of conclusions also exists between the two classification criteria. A notable stretching upward trend is found in the number concentration distribution of the ice crystal and downward trend in the number concentration distribution of the cloud droplet. The same increasing trend is also discovered in the effective average radius of the ice crystal and cloud droplet. But the TPV category cloud clusters with severe convection do not present the similar variation trend both in the number concentration and the effective average radius. Hence, although the above findings confirm that the precipitation intensity, the convection intensity, and the distribution of cloud hydrometers are associated and interacting mutually, the closed function relationship among them cannot be established, and other meteorology factors related to the ambient conditions should also be taken into consideration as a complete cloud microphysical system.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Mar 2019 11:05:03 +000
  • A Comprehensive Analysis of the Changes in Precipitation Patterns over
           Beijing during 1960–2012

    • Abstract: Precipitation pattern has changed over many regions in recent decades, which may cause the risk of flood or drought. In this study, the main objective is to evaluate the spatiotemporal variability of precipitation in Beijing from 1960 to 2012. First, the mean monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation series were used to analyze the temporal variation using regression, Mann–Kendall (M-K) test, Sen’s slope, and Pettitt tests. The results showed that the annual mean precipitation had a clear decreasing trend, with the statistically significant decrease in summer (especially in July and August) and significant increase in spring (especially in May). Although the decreasing trend is shown in the precipitation concentration indicators, the temporal uneven distribution of precipitation has unchanged. Subsequently, the precipitation time series at 30 stations over Beijing were used to evaluate the changes in precipitation pattern. The results showed that the annual series for the most rain gauges had decreasing trends with gradual changes. The spatial distribution of precipitation and other indices is geographically consistent, reflecting the principal physiographic and climatic conditions. At the same time, the effects of the terrain and urban development on the precipitation spatial distribution were detected. Generally, the large and heavy precipitations frequently occur in the plain areas, while the precipitation in the mountain areas is dominated by the small and medium precipitation. As a whole, the total precipitation in the plain areas (558.8 mm) was slightly higher than that in the mountainous areas (533.0 mm), while the precipitation in the urban areas (575.9 mm) was much higher than in the surrounding suburb areas (538.9 mm) during 1960–2012. The differences between the plain and mountainous areas during the period of 1960–1979, 1980–1999, and 2000–2012 were 24.2 mm, 32.6 mm, and 17.7 mm, respectively. The differences in precipitation between the urban and suburb areas for the three periods were 32.9 mm, 45.2 mm, and 31.0 mm, respectively, with the amount accounting for 5.51%, 7.66%, and 5.94% of the mean precipitation in the urban areas for the corresponding periods.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Mar 2019 13:05:04 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Attenuation Correction of Weather Radar Reflectivity
           with Arbitrary Oriented Microwave Link”

    • PubDate: Mon, 04 Mar 2019 07:05:10 +000
  • A Robust Skewed Boxplot for Detecting Outliers in Rainfall Observations in
           Real-Time Flood Forecasting

    • Abstract: The standard boxplot is one of the most popular nonparametric tools for detecting outliers in univariate datasets. For Gaussian or symmetric distributions, the chance of data occurring outside of the standard boxplot fence is only 0.7%. However, for skewed data, such as telemetric rain observations in a real-time flood forecasting system, the probability is significantly higher. To overcome this problem, a medcouple (MC) that is robust to resisting outliers and sensitive to detecting skewness was introduced to construct a new robust skewed boxplot fence. Three types of boxplot fences related to MC were analyzed and compared, and the exponential function boxplot fence was selected. Operating on uncontaminated as well as simulated contaminated data, the results showed that the proposed method could produce a lower swamping rate and higher accuracy than the standard boxplot and semi-interquartile range boxplot. The outcomes of this study demonstrated that it is reasonable to use the new robust skewed boxplot method to detect outliers in skewed rain distributions.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Feb 2019 11:05:07 +000
  • Diurnal Variations in Summer Precipitation over the Yellow River Basin

    • Abstract: The diurnal variations in summer precipitation over the Yellow River Basin (YRB) are investigated based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis dataset and hourly precipitation data from 481 gauge stations over the YRB during the time period 1981–2013. Three stair steps are identified to represent the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the YRB due to complex topography elevations over the different subregions of the YRB. The summer diurnal precipitation over the YRB shows significant spatial and temporal variations. The diurnal peaks in precipitation over the upper and middle reaches of the YRB occur in the evening and late afternoon, respectively. By contrast, double peaks in diurnal precipitation occur in the early morning and late afternoon over the lower reaches of the YRB. The diurnal peaks in summer precipitation along the YRB have an eastward transition, suggested to be associated with the westerlies transporting water vapor. Differing from the increasing tendency of summer hourly precipitation from west to east across the YRB with topography elevations decreased, a distinct reduction in hourly precipitation is observed over the transition region between the first and second stair steps in the YRB. Further analysis attributes this phenomenon to the regional descending airflow induced by the steep terrain along the slope of the Tibetan Plateau (TP).
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Feb 2019 15:05:06 +000
  • Monitoring the Interannual Spatiotemporal Changes in the Land Surface
           Thermal Environment in Both Urban and Rural Regions from 2003 to 2013 in
           China Based on Remote Sensing

    • Abstract: The thermal environment is closely related to human well-being. Diurnal and seasonal variations in surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) have been extensively studied. Nevertheless, interannual changes in SUHIs as well as in land surface temperatures (LSTs) in cities and their corresponding villages remain poorly understood, particularly using data from several continuous years to analyse change rates and corresponding significance levels. Using Aqua/Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for 2003–2013, we explored not only the interannual changes in annual and seasonal mean LSTs in rural and urban regions which were identified based on modified criteria, but also the SUHI intensities (SUHIIs) for these cities. The results showed that most of LSTs and SUHIIs did not change significantly (). Their changes exhibited clear spatiotemporal agglomeration and variation laws. The rural region LST change rates, which exhibited significant changes, were generally highest in the summer, with most of values of 0.1–0.5°C (yr−1) during the daytime across China, except for the Xinjiang autonomous regions, and 0.1–0.2°C (yr−1) during the night-time. The rates were lowest in the winter, with most of values of −0.4 to −0.1°C (yr−1). The rates of daytime SUHIIs with significant changes were generally highest in the summer, with most of values of 0.1–0.3°C (yr−1), and lowest in the winter, even with most of values of −0.4 to −0.1°C (yr−1) in northern central China. During the night-time, most of rates were 0.0–0.1°C (yr−1). In China, most of the changes in the surface thermal environment were harmful to humans at both large national and local urban scales. The changes could lower thermal comfort levels, harm human health, affect human reproduction rates and lives, and increase the energy consumed for refrigeration or heating, thereby increase emissions of greenhouse gases.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Feb 2019 12:05:12 +000
  • Numerical Simulation of the Effect of Cloud Condensation Nuclei
           Concentration on the Microphysical Processes in Typhoon Usagi

    • Abstract: The Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3.2.1 with the Lin microphysics scheme was used herein to simulate super typhoon Usagi, which occurred in 2013. To investigate the effect of the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) on the development of typhoon Usagi, a control simulation was performed with a CCN concentration of 100 cm−3, together with two sensitivity tests: C10 and C1000, having CCN concentrations of 10 cm−3 and 1000 cm−3, respectively. The path, intensity, precipitation, microphysical processes, and the release of latent heat resulting from the typhoon in all three simulations were analyzed to show that an increase in CCN concentration leads to decreases in intensity and precipitation, an increase of the cloudless area in the eye of the typhoon, a more disordered cloud system, and less latent heat released through microphysical processes, especially the automatic conversion of cloud water into rainwater. Overall, an increase in CCN concentration reduces the total latent heat released during the typhoon suggesting that typhoon modification by aerosol injection may be optimized using numerical simulations to ensure the strongest release of latent heat within the typhoon.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 18:05:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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