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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 56)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 89)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 35, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 206)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.662
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Effect of Ethanol-Derived Clove Leaf Extract on the Oxidative Stress
           Response in Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    • Abstract: Compared to the widely explored antioxidant activity from the clove bud extract, less data are available regarding the potential pharmacological use of clove leaves. Our study aimed to explore the antioxidant activity of clove leaves extract in the cellular level. Thus, we used the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as model organisms. Our data indicate that, following extract treatment (100 ppm), the viability of the stationary phase cells of S. pombe was higher than without extract and that of calorie restriction treatments. 100 ppm extract treatment also increased cell viability against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Those data indicate that the extract could promote oxidative stress tolerance response in yeast cells, which occurred either during the stationary phase or due to exogenous exposure. Higher dose of extract (500 ppm) showed opposite effects, as cell viability was lower than that without treatment. Analysis toward the mitochondrial activity revealed that the extract did not induce mitochondrial activity unlike the calorie restriction treatment. Based on our data, clove leaf extract promotes oxidative stress tolerance response in the yeast S. pombe, independent to that mitochondrial adaptive ROS signaling which commonly occurs in calorie restriction-induced oxidative stress tolerance response.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Aug 2019 15:05:02 +000
  • Analysis of Bacterial and Fungal Infections after Cytoreduction Surgery
           and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy: An Observational
           Single-Centre Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. While hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) after cytoreduction surgery (CRS) has been shown to improve patient survival and disease-free progression in peritoneal carcinoma (PC) patients, the procedure relates to a high postoperative infection rate. Herein, we report the bacterial and fungal infections after CRS and HIPEC from a single institution in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted on 38 patients with PC selected for CRS/HIPEC procedure between 2012 and 2015 in our centre. Results. Postoperative bacterial and fungal infection within 100 days was 42.2%, bacterial infection was reported always, and fungal infection was reported in 5 (13.2%) cases. Infections from the surgical site were considered the most common infection site. Multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolate, followed by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lower preoperative albumin and a prolonged preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) are associated with postoperative infections, while a prolonged preoperative hospital stay (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.064; confidence interval (CI) = 1.002–1.112; ) and more intraoperative blood loss (>10%) (HR = 3.919; 95% CI = 1.024–14.995; ) were independent risk factors for postoperative infections. Three cases died during the follow-up period; all were due to infection. Discussion. The infection rate in our centre compared to previous studies of comparable patients was matching. Effective management of postoperative infections should be considered, and identified risk factors in this study can help to focus on effective prevention and treatment strategies.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2019 01:05:47 +000
  • Antibiotic Use and Resistance Pattern in Ethiopia: Systematic Review and

    • Abstract: Background. In the last decades, medicines have had an unprecedented positive effect on health, leading to reduced mortality and disease burden and consequently to an improved quality of life. The rapid and ongoing spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms threatens our ability to successfully treat a growing number of infectious diseases. In the absence of the development of new generations of antibiotic drugs, appropriate use of existing antibiotics is needed to ensure the long-term availability of effective treatment for bacterial infections. Irrational use of antibiotics is an ongoing global public health problem that deserves more attention. This review is conducted to evaluate the prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic utilization and resistance to antibiotics in Ethiopia. Methods. Electronic search in PubMed/MEDLINE and Google was used to find published literature with reference lists of relevant articles searched manually. Titles and abstracts were initially screened for eligibility. The full texts of articles judged to be eligible were reviewed if they meet the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on important variables like the sample size, region of the study, the inappropriate antibiotic use, bacterial detection rate, multidrug resistance pattern, and more other variables. Microsoft Excel was used for data extraction. Quantitative analysis was performed using STATA version 11. Results. The electronic searches identified 193 articles of which 33 were found eligible. The random-effects model was used to provide point estimates (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) of bacterial detection rate, inappropriate antibiotic use, and multidrug resistance rate to account for heterogeneity. The pooled bacteria detection rate was 29.1 with 95% CI (16.6–41.7). The pooled prevalence of multidrug resistant strains identified was 59.7% (95% CI: 43.5–75.9). The pooled estimate of inappropriate antibiotic use was 49.2% (95% CI: 32.2–66.2). The pooled proportion of self-antibiotic prescription was 43.3% (95% CI: 15.7–70.9). Other reasons for inappropriate antibiotic use included a wrong indication, wrong duration, improper route of administration, use of leftover antibiotics from a family member, and immature discontinuation of antibiotics. Conclusion and Recommendations. Inappropriate antibiotic use is a huge problem in Ethiopia, and many bacteria were resistant to commonly used antibiotics and similarly, multidrug-resistant bacterial strains are numerous. Appropriate antibiotic use should be ensured by prohibiting over-the-counter sale of antibiotics and strengthening antimicrobial stewardship.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2019 01:05:46 +000
  • Effect of Prebiotics-Enhanced Probiotics on the Growth of Streptococcus

    • Abstract: Streptococcus mutans predominantly creates an acidic environment in an oral cavity. This results in dental demineralization and carious lesions. The probiotics are beneficial microorganisms that modulate the bacterial balance in the digestive system. Prebiotics are defined as nondigestible oligosaccharides that are utilized for the selective stimulation of the beneficial microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the prebiotics, galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), for enhancing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, for inhibiting Streptococcus mutans (A32-2) for the prevention of dental caries. The growth rate of the S. mutans significantly decreased when cocultured with L. acidophilus in the GOS-supplemented medium at 3%, 4%, and 5%. In the FOS-supplemented medium, the growth rate of S. mutans significantly decreased in all concentrations when cocultured with L. acidophilus. There was no significant difference in the growth rate of L. acidophilus in all concentrations of either GOS or FOS. It can be concluded that the growth rate of S. mutans was significantly retarded when cocultured with L. acidophilus and the proper concentration of prebiotics. These prebiotics have potential for a clinical application to activate the function of the naturally intraoral L. acidophilus to inhibit S. mutans.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2019 01:05:44 +000
  • Heterologous Ectoine Production in Escherichia coli: Optimization Using
           Response Surface Methodology

    • Abstract: Introduction. A halophilic bacterium of the Halomonas elongata BK-AG25 has successfully produced ectoine with high productivity. To overcome the drawbacks of high levels of salt in the production process, a nonhalophilic bacteria of Escherichia coli (E. coli) was used to express the ectoine gene cluster of the halophilic bacteria, and the production of ectoine by the recombinant cell was optimized. Methods. The ectoine gene cluster from the halophilic bacterium was isolated and inserted into an expression plasmid of pET30(a) and subsequently transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Production of ectoine from the recombinant E. coli was investigated and then maximized by optimizing the level of nutrients in the medium, as well as the bioprocess conditions using response surface methodology. The experimental designs were performed using a central composite design. Results. The recombinant E. coli successfully expressed the ectoine gene cluster of Halomonas elongata BK-AG25 under the control of the T7 promoter. The recombinant cell was able to produce ectoine, of which most were excreted into the medium. The optimization of ectoine production with the response surface methodology showed that the level of salt in the medium, the incubation temperature, the optical density of the bacteria before induction, and the final concentration of the inducer gave a significant effect on ectoine production by the recombinant E. coli. Interestingly, the level of salt in the medium and the incubation temperature showed an inverse effect on the production of intracellular and extracellular ectoine by the recombinant cell. At the optimum conditions, the production yield was about 418 mg ectoine/g cdw (cell dry weight) after 12 hours of incubation. Conclusion. This study is the first report on the expression of an ectoine gene cluster of Halomonas elongata BK-AG25 in E. coli BL21, under the control of the T7 promoter. Optimization of the level of nutrients in the medium, as well as the bioprocess condition using response surface methodology, has successfully increased the production of ectoine by the recombinant bacteria.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 08:05:57 +000
  • Extreme Environment Streptomyces: Potential Sources for New Antibacterial
           and Anticancer Drug Leads'

    • Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is recognized as one of the greatest threats to public health and in global concern. Consequently, the increased morbidity and mortality, which are associated with multidrug resistance bacteria, urgently require the discovery of novel and more efficient drugs. Conversely, cancer is a growing complex human disease that demands new drugs with no or fewer side effects. Most of the drugs currently used in the health care systems were of Streptomyces origin or their synthetic forms. Natural product researches from Streptomyces have been genuinely spectacular over the recent years from extreme environments. It is because of technical advances in isolation, fermentation, spectroscopy, and genomic studies which led to the efficient recovering of Streptomyces and their new chemical compounds with distinct activities. Expanding the use of the last line of antibiotics and demand for new drugs will continue to play an essential role for the potent Streptomyces from previously unexplored environmental sources. In this context, deep-sea, desert, cryo, and volcanic environments have proven to be a unique habitat of more extreme, and of their adaptation to extreme living, environments attribute to novel antibiotics. Extreme Streptomyces have been an excellent source of a new class of compounds which include alkaloids, angucycline, macrolide, and peptides. This review covers novel drug leads with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities isolated from deep-sea, desert, cryo, and volcanic environment Streptomyces from 2009 to 2019. The structure and chemical classes of the compounds, their relevant bioactivities, and the sources of organisms are presented.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 07:06:19 +000
  • Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of Medicinal
           Plants’ (Impatiens balsamina and Lantana camara) Fresh Leaves and
           Analysis of Antimicrobial Activity

    • Abstract: Plant-mediated synthesis of nanomaterials has been increasingly gaining popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and cost-effectiveness. In the present study, we synthesized silver (Ag) nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Impatiens balsamina and Lantana camara medicinal plants as bioreducing agents. This method allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles, which was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV-Vis spectra and visual observation showed that the color of the fresh leaf extracts of L. camara and I. balsamina turned into grayish brown and brownish yellow, respectively, after treatment with Ag precursors. In addition, TEM analysis confirmed that AgNO3 solutions for all concentrations produced Ag nanoparticles and their average size was less than 24 nm. Moreover, aqueous leaf extracts of I. balsamina and L. camara were separately tested for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria. The results showed that the bacterial growth was inhibited by the extracts containing Ag nanoparticles. Statistical calculation performed using the Tukey test showed that zones of inhibition for the two bacteria produced by the aqueous leaf extracts of L. camara containing 3 mM and 5 mM Ag precursors were not significantly different from that by ciprofloxacin as positive control. On the contrary, there was significant difference between the zone of inhibition for E. coli by ciprofloxacin and that by the extracts of I. balsamina leaves containing 3 mM and 5 mM Ag precursors. A similar result was observed on the zone of inhibition for S. aureus by the extracts of I. balsamina leaves containing 3 mM Ag precursor. It was shown that the aqueous extracts of fresh L. camara leaves containing Ag nanoparticles were comparable to ciprofloxacin in inhibiting bacterial growth.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 07:06:18 +000
  • Efficacy of Routine Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treatment of
           Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) constitute an increasing treatment problem. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown promising results of treating recurrent CDI, where treatment with antibiotics fails repeatedly. Our study describes retrospective cohort treated with FMT at two major hospitals in Stockholm. Methods. Medical records of all patients with recurrent CDI treated with FMT during the period 2013–2017 were reviewed. We evaluated cure of CDI-related diarrhea without relapse 10 weeks after FMT. Results. 47 patients were included. One treatment cured 25 patients (53%), and more than one treatment cured 32 patients (68%). Treatment outcome did not vary significantly with treatment with fresh donor feces or frozen fecal culture, days of use of antibiotics or days of hospitalization prior to CDI, and renal function or time from the first CDI to therapy. Treatment failure was associated with a significantly lower Karnofsky performance status score (70 points vs 90, ).Conclusion. Fecal instillation, for the treatment of relapsing CDI, is a promising approach, with 68% success rate reported in this study. The success rate of FMT is high, regardless of multiple comorbidities, extended use of antibiotics, or long time hospitalization. Although generally FMT is performed with fresh donor feces, our data show that the usage of frozen fecal culture could be an effective treatment alternative in recurrent CDI.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 01:05:19 +000
  • Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Enterococci with Special
           Reference to Glycopeptide Susceptibility at a Tertiary Care Center of
           Eastern Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. Enterococci, once considered as a harmless commensal of intestine, have now emerged as medically important pathogens and are associated with both community-acquired and nosocomial infections. They bear the potential to exhibit resistance against all commonly used antibiotics either by inherent or acquired mechanism, posing a therapeutic challenge. Objectives. This study aimed to characterize enterococci up to the species level and study their antibiogram with special regard to vancomycin. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, from February to May 2017. A total of 91 enterococcal isolates recovered from clinical specimens were investigated in this study. Their identification and speciation were done according to standard microbiological guidelines. Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to study antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, whereas minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was determined by the agar dilution method, with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results. Seven different species of enterococci were isolated, E. faecalis and E. faecium accounting about 45% each. The other species encountered were E. avium, E. cecorum, E. dispar, E. durans, and E. raffinosus. Highest proportion of antimicrobial susceptibility was recorded for linezolid (97.8%), followed by teicoplanin (95.6%) and high-level gentamicin (81.3%). Sensitivity to vancomycin was seen in 79.1% isolates. Likewise, 82.1% of urinary strains were susceptible to nitrofurantoin. A total of 4 disparities were observed between the disc diffusion technique and agar dilution method in determining vancomycin resistance. Multidrug resistance was observed in 31.9% isolates. The overall prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci based on the standard minimum inhibitory concentration method was 25.3%. Conclusions. Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium were the predominant species in causing enterococcal infections. The alarming rise in prevalence of vancomycin and multidrug resistance strains warrants immediate, adequate, and efficient surveillance program to prevent and control its spread.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jul 2019 01:05:18 +000
  • Effectiveness of BOX-PCR in Differentiating Genetic Relatedness among
           Salmonella enterica Serotype 4,[5],12:i:- Isolates from Hospitalized
           Patients and Minced Pork Samples in Northern Thailand

    • Abstract: Salmonella enterica Serotype 4,[5],12:i:-, a monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium, with high virulence and multidrug resistance is distributed globally causing pathogenicity to both humans and domesticated animals. BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (BOX)-PCR proved to be superior to three other repetitive element-based PCR typing methods, namely, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-, poly-trinucleotide (GTG)5-, and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR (carried out under a single optimized amplification condition), in differentiating genetic relatedness among S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates from feces of hospitalized patients () and isolates from minced pork samples of S. 4,[5],12:i:- (),S. Typhimurium (), and Salmonella Serogroup B () collected from different regions of northern Thailand. Construction of phylogenetic trees from amplicon size patterns allowed allocation of Salmonella isolates into clusters of similar genetic relatedness, with BOX-PCR generating more unique clusters for each serotype than the other three typing methods. BOX-, (GTG)5-, and REP-PCR indicated significant genetic relatedness between S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates 1 and 9 from hospitalized patients and S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolate en 29 from minced pork, suggesting a possible route of transmission. Thus, BOX-PCR provides a suitable molecular typing method for discriminating genetic relatedness among Salmonella spp. of the same and different serotypes and should be suitable for application in typing and tracking route of transmission in Salmonella outbreaks.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Jun 2019 12:05:21 +000
  • Sensitivity of Heterotrophic Bacteria in the Low-Salinity Water Areas and
           Estuary in Siak District toward Pathogenic Bacteria in Fish

    • Abstract: The high rate of bacterial diseases in fishes and shrimps has lead scientists seek for natural antibiotic products that would act as a solution. An example of this product is the secondary metabolic products from heterotrophic bacteria. These bacteria could easily be found in many water regions and estuaries, including the Siak District, Riau, Indonesia. Therefore, this study aims at determining the ability of bacterial isolates in inhibiting the growth of pathogens (Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas sp.). The research was conducted from June to September 2018. It actuates the type of heterotrophic bacteria in the sampling area using the PCR technique. The phylogenetic structure of bacterial isolates obtained during this study was assessed by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The antagonism test showed that bacteria had the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogens (Vibrio alginolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas sp.). The results showed that 25 pure bacterial isolates were obtained, in which 10 of those were carried out by DNA sequencing; hence, it could be used as antimicrobes. Based on the analysis of 16S rDNA, 10 isolates were identified: 6 were Bacillus cereus and 2 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa with homology levels ranging from 97 to 99%, while the remaining two were suspected as the new species of isolates. From the result, it could be concluded that heterotrophic bacteria are found to be better used as antipathogens against Vibrio alginolitycus than hydrophila and Pseudomonas sp.
      PubDate: Mon, 10 Jun 2019 10:05:24 +000
  • Mycobacterium bovis BCG Surface Antigens Expressed under the
           Granuloma-Like Conditions as Potential Inducers of the Protective Immunity

    • Abstract: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a highly transmissible infection and remains of great concern as a zoonosis. The worldwide incidence of bTB is in rise, creating potential reservoir and increased infection risk for humans and animals. In attempts to identify novel surface antigens of Mycobacterium bovis as a proof-of-concept for potential inducers of protective immunity, we investigated surface proteome of M. bovis BCG strain that was cultured under the granuloma-like condition. We also demonstrated that the pathogen exposed to the biologically relevant environment has greater binding and invasion abilities to host cells than those of bacteria incubated under regular laboratory conditions. A total of 957 surface-exposed proteins were identified for BCG cultured under laboratory condition, whereas 1,097 proteins were expressed under the granuloma-like condition. The overexpression of Mb1524, Mb01_03198, Mb1595_p3681 (PhoU1 same as phoY1_1), and Mb1595_p0530 (HbhA) surface proteins in Mycobacterium smegmatis leads to increased binding and invasion to mucosal cells. We also examined the immunogenicity of purified recombinant proteins and tested M. smegmatis overexpressing these surface antigens for the induction of protective immunity in mice. Significantly high levels of specific IgA and IgG antibodies were observed in recombinant protein immunized groups by both inhalation and intraperitoneal (IP) routes, but only IP delivery induced high total IgA and IgG levels. We did not detect major differences in antibody levels in the M. smegmatis group that overexpressed surface antigens. In addition, the bacterial load was significantly reduced in the lungs of mice immunized with the combination of inhaled recombinant proteins. Our findings suggest that the activation of the mucosal immunity can lead to increased ability to confer protection upon M. bovis BCG infection.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jun 2019 08:05:13 +000
  • Accumulation of and inside Biofilms of Natural Microbial Consortia:
           Implication on Nutrients Seasonal Dynamic in Aquatic Ecosystems

    • Abstract: Microbial biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems. Inside the biofilm is the nutrient-rich microenvironment promoted by the accumulation of the nutrient ions such as and from surrounding water. The present study investigated the characteristics of and accumulation into the biofilm of natural microbial consortia collected from Lake Biwa, Japan. The results showed the following: (1) the concentrations of and inside the biofilm were much higher than those in the surrounding water; (2) the nutrient ion concentration inside the biofilm changed in synchrony with those in the surrounding water; (3) biofilm polymers have both positively and negatively charged sites; (4) electrostatic attractive interactions between the charged sites on biofilm polymers and oppositely charged ions outside the biofilm seem to play important roles in the accumulation of nutrient ions into the biofilm from the surrounding water; (5) the bacterial community structure differs between the biofilm and surrounding water. The present study revealed that the accumulation of nutrient ions into the biofilm indicates the removal of these ions from water outside the biofilm. According to the result of this study, accumulation of ions such as and into the biofilm of natural microbial consortia may have implications on nutrients seasonal dynamic in aquatic ecosystems.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 10:05:24 +000
  • Antibacterial Potency of Honey

    • Abstract: Despite the developments in controlling infectious disease around the world, they are still the second biggest cause of morbidity and mortality due in part to the increase in drug resistance among large numbers of the bacterial strains. This means that new strategies are needed to prevent and treat infectious disease. As a result, several ancient methods have been re-evaluated and the substances/procedures employed historically to cure diseases are now attracting renewed scientific attention. Honey is one such product that used to be widely used to combat bacteria. This review covers the antibacterial activity of honey, its use in the treatment of infection and diseases, and the features that are relevant to its activity.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 07:05:48 +000
  • Partial Characterization of Novel Bacteriocin SF1 Produced by Shigella
           flexneri and Their Lethal Activity on Members of Gut Microbiota

    • Abstract: A strain of Shigella flexneri producing bacteriocin was isolated from a patient with diarrhea. The main objective of this study was to isolate and partially characterize the bacteriocin. The producing microorganism was identified using biochemical, serological, and molecular methods. The lethal activity of the S. flexneri strain was studied using the drop method. This bacterial strain showed activity against different strains of E. coli and B. fragilis. Using immunological techniques, it was determined that S. flexneri belongs to serotype 2a, and by PCR, the presence of the ipaH plasmid was determined. By chromatographic techniques, it was determined that the bacteriocin is a peptide of high purity with a molecular weight of 66294.094 Da. The amino acid composition and sequence were determined by the Edman reaction, and a sequence of 619 amino acid residues was obtained. Only in five positions of this sequence, the amino acid glutamine changed to glutamic acid with respect to colicin U produced by S. boydii. From an ecological point of view, it could be assumed that SF1 bacteriocin contributes to eliminate some members of the normal microbiota of the human intestine, facilitating colonization and then producing the invasion process that characterizes the pathogenicity of Shigella.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 May 2019 12:05:12 +000
  • Determination of In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Five Sri Lankan
           Medicinal Plants against Selected Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    • Abstract: Introduction. Antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats of the 21st century. Scientists search for potential antimicrobial sources that can cope with antibiotic resistance. Plants used in traditional medicine can be identified as potential candidates for the synthesis of novel drug compounds to act against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Objective. To determine the potential antimicrobial effects of ethanol, aqueous, and hexane extracts of five Sri Lankan medicinal plants against four human pathogens. Methods. Asparagus falcatus (tubers), Asteracantha longifolia (whole plant), Vetiveria zizanioides (roots), Epaltes divaricata (whole plant), and Coriandrum sativum (seeds) were used in the study. Plant extracts were screened against four clinically important Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603). Antibacterial activity of plant extracts were monitored using the agar disc diffusion method. Eight concentrations of each positive plant extract were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by 5-fold dilution of plant extracts yielding a serial dilution of the original extract. Results. Ethanol, aqueous, and hexane extracts of E. divaricata gave the maximum zones of inhibition of 16.3 mm, 7.4 mm, and 13.7 mm and MIC values of 0.48 mg/ml, 1.2 mg/ml, and 1.6 mg/ml, respectively, against S. aureus. Ethanol and hexane extracts of V. zizanioides gave the maximum zones of inhibition of 12.1 mm and 11.4 mm and MIC values 2.4 mg/ml and 0.003 mg/ml, respectively, against S. aureus. None of the other plants were effective against any microorganism used for the study. Conclusions. It can be concluded that E. divaricata and V. zizanioides crude ethanol, aqueous, and hexane extracts exhibited significant in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus, and the active compounds isolated from them can be potential sources for the synthesis of antibacterial drugs.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 May 2019 12:05:11 +000
  • Investigation of Bacteriological Quality of Meat from Abattoir and Butcher
           Shops in Bishoftu, Central Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The study was conducted from November 2015 to November 2016 to determine bacterial load and identify pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, E. coli, and Salmonellae species) in meat from abattoir and butcher shops as well as to assess associated hygienic and sanitation practices being experienced in the selected study site. A cross-sectional study was conducted where a simple random sampling method was used to select butcher shops, and the municipal abattoir was purposively selected. A structured questionnaire survey was also used to assess hygienic status of the municipal abattoir and butcher shops. A total of 124 samples (48 swab samples from abattoir carcass, 4 samples of carcass washing water about 20 ml of each, and 36 swab samples each from butcher shop cutting table and cutting knife, respectively) were collected during the study period. The collected samples were processed for aerobic plate count, and the total mean count was found to be 4.53 log10 cfu/cm2 from abattoir carcass swab samples, 2.4 log10 cfu/ml from water samples, 6.58 log10 cfu/cm2 from butcher shops cutting table, and 6.1 log10 cfu/cm2 from cutting knife swab samples. E. coli was the dominant bacterial species isolated (35.2%), followed by S. aureus (22.5%) and Salmonellae species (9.9%). According to the questionnaire survey, 48.4% (15/31) of the abattoir workers did not receive any training regarding food safety issues. Moreover, a majority (66.67%) of the respondents of the butcher house workers were grade 1–4 (elementary) in their educational level and do not use hairnet and handle money with bare hands during serving meat to consumers. The study showed that the hygienic status of the abattoir and butcher shops in the study area is poor, and the obtained results of bacterial load are higher than the acceptable limit of the standard. Therefore, the necessary strategies towards hygiene and sanitation of meat in the town should be implemented.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:12:00 +000
  • Antimicrobial Profiling of Bacteria Isolated from Fish Sold at Informal
           Market in Mufakose, Zimbabwe

    • Abstract: The number of infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria is rising worldwide. Fish from multisource pollution waters can harbour multidrug-resistant bacteria that can be disseminated to humans through eating or contact of contaminated fish. A cross-sectional study was carried out to (i) isolate and phenotypically identify bacteria from 36 fish samples from informal market in Mufakose, Harare, and (ii) determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolated bacteria against ten available antibiotics (ampicillin 10 μg, gentamycin 30 μg, penicillin G 10 μg, erythromycin 15 μg, tetracycline 30 μg, kanamycin 30 μg, neomycin 10 μg, cloxacillin 5 μg, lincomycin 15 μg, and sulfamethoxazole 25 μg) using the Kirby–Bauer disk agar diffusion method. Eight bacterial genera were isolated and identified, and they were Escherichia, Aeromonas, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Proteus. Among the isolates, Escherichia coli was isolated most frequently (44%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (19%), Enterobacter aerogenes (7%), Aeromonas spp. (5%), Proteus mirabilis (5%), Citrobacter (5%), and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (5%) and the least frequent were Klebsiella (3%) and Pseudomonas (3%). All isolates were susceptible to gentamycin. Varying antibiotic resistance rates were observed to lincomycin (100%), ampicillin (81%), penicillin (67%), erythromycin (65%), tetracycline (63%), neomycin (61%), cloxacillin (43%), kanamycin (24%), and sulphamethoxazole (13%). All the isolates were multidrug-resistant (resistant to at 3 or more drugs tested) except Proteus mirabilis. Proteus mirabilis has multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of 0.2, and the other isolated bacteria had MAR indexes greater than 0.2 ranging from 0.3 to 0.7. Those MAR indexes above 0.2 showed that the bacteria isolates are from a high risk source where antibiotics were frequently used, possibly from sewage effluents. Isolation of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli is an indication of faecal contamination, and this poses a high risk to animal and human health. These significant findings call for effective risk assessment models and management plans that protect human, animal, and environmental health.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Encapsulation of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Strain G4 within Bovine
           Gelatin-Genipin-Sodium Alginate Combinations: Optimisation Approach Using
           Face Central Composition Design-Response Surface Methodology (FCCD-RSM)

    • Abstract: Bovine gelatin is a biopolymer which has good potential to be used in encapsulating matrices for probiotic candidate Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum strain G4 (G4) because of its amphoteric nature characteristic. Beads were prepared by the extrusion method using genipin and sodium alginate as a cross-linking agent. The optimisation of bovine gelatin-genipin-sodium alginate combinations was carried out using face central composition design (FCCD) to investigate G4 beads’ strength, before and after exposed to simulated gastric (SGF), intestinal fluids (SIF), and encapsulation yield. A result of ANOVA and the polynomial regression model revealed the combinations of all three factors have a significant effect () on the bead strength. Meanwhile, for G4 encapsulation yield, only genipin showed less significant effect on the response. However, the use of this matrix remained due to the intermolecular cross-linking ability with bovine gelatin. Optimum compositions of bovine gelatin-genipin-sodium alginate were obtained at 11.21% (w/v), 1.96 mM, and 2.60% (w/v), respectively. A model was validated for accurate prediction of the response and showed no significant difference () with experimental values.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Apr 2019 13:05:18 +000
  • Bacteriological Assessment of the Indoor Air of Different Hospitals of
           Kathmandu District

    • Abstract: Nosocomial infection is the infection that has been caught in a hospital and is potentially caused by organisms that are not susceptible to antibiotics. Nosocomial infections are transmitted directly or indirectly through air and may cause different types of infections. This study was undertaken with an objective to determine the prevalence of nosocomial bacteria present in hospital indoor environment. A total of 16 air samples were taken from general wards and emergency wards of 8 different hospitals using an impactor air sampler in nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, blood agar, cetrimide agar, and MacConkey agar. The bacteriological agents were isolated and identified by cultural characteristics, Gram staining, and biochemical tests, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined using CLSI Guideline, 2015. According to the European Union Guidelines to Good Manufacturing Practices, the hospitals were under C- and D-grade air quality. According to the European Commission, most of the hospitals were intermediately polluted. Out of 16 indoor air samples, 47.18% of Staphylococcus aureus and 1.82% Pseudomonas spp. were isolated. CoNS, Streptococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. and Gram-negative bacteria E.coli and Proteus spp. were identified. The bacterial load was found to be high in the emergency ward (55.8%) in comparison to that in the general ward (44.2%). There is statistically no significant difference between bacterial load and 2 wards (general and emergency) of different hospitals and among different hospitals. The most effective antibiotic against S. aureus was gentamicin (81.81%) and ofloxacin (81.81%). Among the antibiotics used for Pseudomonas spp., ceftriaxone (83.3%) and ofloxacin (83.3%) were effective. High prevalence of S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria was found in this study; it is therefore important to monitor air quality regularly at different hospitals to prevent HAI.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Apr 2019 13:05:10 +000
  • Antibacterial Activity of Honey against Methicillin-Resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus: A Laboratory-Based Experimental Study

    • Abstract: Background. Antimicrobial drug resistance is one of the serious issues this world is facing nowadays, and increased cost of searching for effective antimicrobial agents and the decreased rate of new drug discovery have made the situation increasingly worrisome. Objective. The aim of this study is to determine in vitro antibacterial activity of honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from wound infection. Methods. An experimental study was conducted from May to November 2017. Methicillin resistance was detected using cefoxitin (30 μg) and oxacillin (1 μg) antibiotic discs. Different concentrations of honey (25–100% v/v) were tested against each type of clinical isolates obtained from wound infection. A preliminary sensitivity test was done to all types of honey by using disk diffusion while minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined for the most potent honey by the broth dilution technique. All statistical analysis was performed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. In this study, 36 bacterial isolates were recovered from 50 specimens, showing an isolation rate of 72%. The predominant bacteria isolated from the infected wounds were Staphylococcus aureus (15, 41.7%). Among identified Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistance accounts for 10 isolates (27.8%). All isolates showed a high frequency of resistance to tetracycline. Four collected honey varieties exhibited antibacterial activity, while the strongest inhibitory activity was demonstrated by honey-2 at 75% v/v. The mean MIC and MBC of honey-2 ranged from 9.38 to 37.5% v/v. Conclusions. Tested honey has both a bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity. Among the tested honey, “honey-2” had high antibacterial potency than others.
      PubDate: Wed, 03 Apr 2019 10:05:21 +000
  • Methicillin- and Inducible Clindamycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
           among Patients with Wound Infection Attending Arba Minch Hospital, South

    • Abstract: Background. Wound infection is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections. Different bacteria cause infection, of which Staphylococcus aureus is one of the known bacteria in causing infection with increased drug-resistant isolates. Objective. To assess the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin and inducible clindamycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among patients with wound infections attending Arba Minch Hospital. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2017. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and clinical characteristics. Wound swabs were cultured and identified by standard techniques. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Methicillin resistance was detected using the cefoxitin (30 μg) antibiotic disc while inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by the D-zone test. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science, version 20. value
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 01:05:57 +000
  • Comparison of Serum Potassium, MagnEsium, and Calcium Levels between
           Kanamycin and Capreomycin-BASEd Regimen-Treated MultiDrug-Resistant
           TuBerculosis Patients in Bandung (CEASE MDR-TB): A Retrospective Cohort

    • Abstract: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) with second-line injectable drugs may result in an electrolyte imbalance. This retrospective study was performed to compare and evaluate the effect of kanamycin and capreomycin on serum potassium, calcium, and magnesium in the first and second month treatment at a tertiary, top-referral hospital in Bandung, Indonesia. Data from 84 subjects with complete medical records of at least serum potassium during either kanamycin-based or capreomycin-based treatment were retrieved from the institutional database. Among these, 53 subjects had complete serum calcium data and 53 subjects had complete serum magnesium data. After the first month of MDR-TB treatment, there was a significant decrease in mean serum potassium (4.0 ± 0.4 mEq/L to 3.7 ± 0.5 mEq/L, ) in the kanamycin-based group and (4.1 ± 0.5 mEq/L to 3.2 ± 0.6 mEq/L, ) in the capreomycin-based group. Serum potassium levels were significantly lower in the capreomycin-based group than in the kanamycin-based group (3.2 ± 0.6 mEq/L vs 3.7 ± 0.5 mEq/L, ). The incidence of hospitalization and requirement for a change in the treatment regimen due to electrolyte imbalances were higher in the capreomycin-based group. No previous longitudinal study has evaluated serum potassium, magnesium, and calcium from the first month of MDR-TB treatment with either kanamycin-based or capreomycin-based regimens. Our findings emphasize the importance of routine monitoring of serum potassium, magnesium, and calcium during MDR-TB treatment, and that more attention should be paid when treatment is given using the capreomycin-based regimen. Moreover, our study supported the 2018 World Health Organization treatment guideline recommendations for removal of kanamycin and capreomycin from the MDR-TB regimens.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Mar 2019 08:05:27 +000
  • Characterization and Synergistic Antimicrobial Evaluation of Lipopeptides
           from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Isolated from Oil-Contaminated Soil

    • Abstract: Lipopeptides show great potential for biomedical application. Several lipopeptides exhibit narrow and broad-spectrum inhibition activities. The aim of the study is to characterize the lipopeptides produced by B. amyloliquefaciens strain MD4-12 and evaluate the synergistic antimicrobial activity in combination with a conventional antibiotic against Gram-negative bacteria. B. amyloliquefaciens strain MD4-12 was isolated from oil-contaminated soil. The isolate was cultivated in McKeen medium, and the lipopeptides were isolated by precipitation and extraction with methanol. Characterization of the lipopeptides by ESI-MS gave nine mass ion peaks with m/z 994–1072, resulted from protonating of the main ions in [M + H]+ and [M + Na]+ ion form. These mass ion peaks attributed to surfactin homologs. By tandem mass spectrometry, five variants of surfactin with the same amino acid sequence in peptide moiety could be revealed. The peptide moiety contains seven amino acids identified as Glu-Leu/Ile-Leu-Val-Asp-Leu-Leu/Ile while the fatty acid moiety comprises a different length of chain from C12 to C16. Surfactin showed antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Combination surfactin with ampicillin showed a synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Mar 2019 13:30:24 +000
  • Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Prevalence and Associated Factors among
           Pregnant Women Attending Antinatal Care in North Gondar Zone Hospitals,

    • Abstract: Tuberculosis is an ancient infectious disease that remains a threat to public health around the world. It is a contagious airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. In high tuberculosis burden countries, the prevalence of tuberculosis was 10-fold higher in the HIV-infected mothers than that in those not infected with HIV. However, little is known about the burden of tuberculosis (TB) and associated factors in women of reproductive age in most resource poor countries. Therefore, this study aims to investigate prevalence of smear-positive TB and factors associated in pregnant women attending antenatal care in North West, Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three governmental hospitals of the North Gondar Zone, and a total of 1272 pregnant women attending antenatal care were included. Data were collected by trained personnel’s using a pretested and structured symptom screening questionnaire; then, spot-morning-spot sputum samples were collected from those pregnant women who had two or more weeks of cough, and sputum smear was done by using a light-emitted diode fluorescent microscope. 99% of the pregnant women visited the hospitals for antenatal care. The prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was 864/100,000 population, and HIV positivity (AOR = 7.24; 95% CI: (2.01–26.03)), urban residence (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI: (1.419–3.158)), and family history of TB (AOR = 2.12; 95% CI: (1.371–3.451)) were significantly associated with smear-positive tuberculosis. In this study, the prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was found to be higher than that in other community-based studies in the country. Therefore, health education, targeted screening of pregnant women for TB, and collaboration of TB-HIV clinic with antenatal care clinic should be implemented in the area. Further research should also be conducted for better understanding of the magnitude of tuberculosis in females of reproductive age.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 13:05:23 +000
  • Relationship of Sanitation Parameters with Microbial Diversity and Load in
           Raw Meat from the Outlets of the Metropolitan City Biratnagar, Nepal

    • Abstract: The main aim of this study is to assess the microbial load of raw meat from outlets of Biratnagar and its relationship with several sanitation parameters. Samples were taken from meat outlets, and required microbiological procedures were followed as per guidelines. Approximately 63.6% of microbes were present in meat with poor sanitation while 36.4% were present in meat with good sanitation. Fungal contamination in poorly kept mutton was one and half times greater than chicken/mutton of good sanitation. Fungi such as Penicillium (21.3%), Mucor (16.3%), Aspergillus (15%), and Trichosporon (13.8%) were most predominant. 73.8% of meat samples contained Staphylococcus spp., 61.3% contained E. coli, 48.8% of Pseudomonas spp., and 37.5% samples contained Salmonella spp. Outlets selling both types of meat showed no significant difference in microbial types. Mean of TVC of meat is 8.2 log CFU/g. Mean TVC of mutton (7.6 log CFU/g) is lower than mean TVC of chicken/meat (8.5 log CFU/g) and differed significantly. Tiled outlets showed comparatively lower bacterial contamination than cemented outlets which was statistically significant (t = −3.16, ). With the difference among microbial type and few sanitation parameters being statistically significant, it can be suggested that outlets should be tiled (), showcased (), and the meat-handling employee must wear washed apron (). Proper cleaning of water supply and use area () and drainage () maintain a good meat sanitation () which reduces microbial contamination significantly. To diminish microbiological load on meat sold in the Biratnagar city, standard operating methods should be practiced.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:08:46 +000
  • Microbiota Landscape of Gut System of Guppy Fish (Poecilia reticulata)
           Plays an Outstanding Role in Adaptation Mechanisms

    • Abstract: Microbial consortium that is present in fish gut systems works together to achieve unknown specific roles. Here, we collected guppy fish from hydrocarbon- and trace metal-contaminated wastewater to assess the relationships between gut microbiota and host fish adaptation. Targeted genes and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing have been used to identify gut bacteria of guppies. Mineral-conditioned medium contributes to identify bacteria with the ability to grow and/or to tolerate hydrocarbon and trace metals. Additionally, trace metals’ tolerance minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of microbiota was evaluated. We first isolated bacteria from the gut system, and we showed that Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Pseudomonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella enterica ssp.arizonae sp., Enterobacter spp, and Acinetobacter spp. are part of guppy gut microbiota. Some representative species are able to degrade and/or tolerate gasoline and/or diesel fuel hydrocarbons. Tolerance to trace metals was observed in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We showed that minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of some microbiota isolated from gut systems has been found including for mercury (Hg) between 2 and 4‰, cobalt (Co) Co (2 and 5‰), zinc (Zn) (9 and 18‰), and plomb (Pb) (22 and 27‰). Zn and Pb were the trace metals for which the rate of tolerance was significantly higher. Finally, we showed that cytochrome c oxidase is not interfering in presence of trace metals. The working consortium showed that bacteria should work together to achieve their best.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Feb 2019 12:05:20 +000
  • Prevalence of Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections and Associated Factors
           among Patients Attending Hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda

    • Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the major causes of morbidity and comorbidities in patients with underlying conditions, and it accounts for the majority of the reasons for hospital visit globally. Sound knowledge of factors associated with UTI may allow timely intervention that can easily bring the disease under control. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of UTI by isolating and characterizing the different bacterial etiological agents and to evaluate the factors associated with UTI. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 267, clean catch midstream urine (MSU) samples were collected aseptically and analyzed using standard microbiology methods. Data for the factors associated with UTI were obtained by use of questionnaires and standard laboratory tests for selected underlying conditions. The study revealed 86/267 (32.2%) UTI prevalence among patients attending hospitals in Bushenyi District, Uganda. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent bacterial uropathogen with 36/86 (41.9%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus 27/86 (31.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 10/86 (11.6%), Klebsiella oxytoca 6/86 (7.0%), Proteus mirabilis 3/86 (3.5%), Enterococcus faecalis 3/86 (3.5%), and Proteus vulgaris 1/86 (1.2%). This study has demonstrated that age ≤19 years, female gender, married individuals, genitourinary tract abnormalities, diabetes, hospitalization, indwelling catheter 6 days had statistically significant relationships () with UTI. Screening for UTI in hospitalized patients, female gender, married individuals, genitourinary tract abnormalities, indwelling catheter, and diabetics should be adopted.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Feb 2019 09:05:52 +000
  • Perchlorate-Reducing Bacteria from Hypersaline Soils of the Colombian

    • Abstract: Perchlorate (ClO4−) has several industrial applications and is frequently detected in environmental matrices at relevant concentrations to human health. Currently, perchlorate-degrading bacteria are promising strategies for bioremediation in polluted sites. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize halophilic bacteria with the potential for perchlorate reduction. Ten bacterial strains were isolated from soils of Galerazamba-Bolivar, Manaure-Guajira, and Salamanca Island-Magdalena, Colombia. Isolates grew at concentrations up to 30% sodium chloride. The isolates tolerated pH variations ranging from 6.5 to 12.0 and perchlorate concentrations up to 10000 mg/L. Perchlorate was degraded by these bacteria on percentages between 25 and 10. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the strains were phylogenetically related to Vibrio, Bacillus, Salinovibrio, Staphylococcus, and Nesiotobacter genera. In conclusion, halophilic-isolated bacteria from hypersaline soils of the Colombian Caribbean are promising resources for the bioremediation of perchlorate contamination.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Feb 2019 09:05:49 +000
  • Magnitude of Biofilm Formation and Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of
           Bacteria Isolated from Urinary Catheterized Inpatients of Jimma University
           Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Biofilm formation is one of the features of most bacteria. Catheterization in medicine is a source of highly resistant bacterial infections, and those bacteria respond poorly to antimicrobial therapy. Bacterial biofilm features were not described from catheterized inpatients in Ethiopia as its formation is known to afford antimicrobial resistance and challenge patient management. The aim of this study was to isolate catheter-associated urinary bacterial pathogens, their biofilm formation, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among inpatients of Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC) in Southwest Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted among urinary catheterized inpatients of JUMC from February to August 2016. A total of 143 study participants were enrolled consecutively in this study. Urine samples were collected from catheterized patients and processed using a standard bacteriological protocol for isolation and identification. Evaluation of in vitro biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of uropathogenic bacteria was done using microtiter plates and disk diffusion method, respectively. Data were cleaned, coded, and entered into SPSS version 20 for analysis. All statistical test values of were considered statistically significant. From all study participants, mean age was 44 years. Sixty bacterial strains were recovered from 57 urinary catheterized inpatients among which 54 of them were monomicrobial (94.7%). The remaining six bacterial strains were recovered from three study participants each with two bacterial isolates. The predominant bacterial isolates were Gram-negative bacteria with E. coli turning out first. About 80% of bacterial isolates were biofilm formers. The majority of the bacteria were resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents. In conclusion, the majority of bacterial uropathogen isolates were Gram-negative, biofilm formers, and resistant to commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents. Relatively ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and amikacin were highly effective against most isolated bacteria.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Feb 2019 09:05:09 +000
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