for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 298 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 298 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 66, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Allergy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Amino Acids     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomarkers     Open Access  
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.22, h-index: 5)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computational Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover International Journal of Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.006]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [298 journals]
  • Comparison of the Performance of Urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Antigens Cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) with Culture and Microscopy in
           Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    • Abstract: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) compared with culture and microscopy. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from January 2014 to October 2016. A total of 141 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli (ZN stain) and mycobacterial culture (LJ); the Mtb antigens cocktail was examined in the urine sample. The positivity rate of TB detection from the three methods was as follows: AFB 52/141 (36.9%), culture 50/141 (35.5%), and urinary Mtb antigens cocktail 95/141 (67.4%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of urinary Mtb antigens cocktail were 68.2%, 33%, 31.6%, and 69.6%, respectively. Validity of combination of both methods with culture as a gold standard yielded sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 90%, 28.6%, 40.9%, and 83.8%, respectively. Combination of urinary Mtb antigens cocktail with AFB as a screening test gives a good sensitivity, although the specificity is reduced. Urinary Mtb antigens cocktail can be used as screening test for pulmonary tuberculosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 06:54:27 +000
       
  • Isolation and Physiomorphological Characterization of Escherichia coli
           O157:H7-Infecting Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Operations

    • Abstract: Bacteriophages, recovered from beef cattle environment and specifically targeting Escherichia coli O157:H7, were examined for their physiological and morphological characteristics. Degree of bacterial lysis and host range of isolated bacteriophages was determined against 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Morphology of phages was examined under transmission electron microscope. Phage growth parameters, particularly rate of adsorption, rise period, latent period, and burst size were also determined. The stability of isolated phages was tested at acidic and alkaline pH, at high temperatures, and in cold storage. A total of 7 phages were isolated which showed lytic activity against 50 out of 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Based on the morphology, phages were classified into Myoviridae or Siphoviridae family. Phages had a rise period between 19 and 40 min, a short latent period between 12 and 30 min, and a large burst size (89–631 virions per infected cell), indicating high lytic activity. Phages remained stable for 24 h at a wide pH (1–11) and temperature range (40–60°C) and for 90 d in cold storage. Characterization of bacteriophages, with a diverse host range of E. coli O157:H7, could aid in the development of effective biocontrol strategies for this pathogen in the food industry.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot
           Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as
           Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis. This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed an ability to produce some thermostable enzymes such as amylase, protease, cellulose, gelatins, and lecithin. Moreover, the UPGMA dendrogram of the enzymatic characteristics of the ten isolates was constructed; results indicated a high phenotypic diversity, which encourages future studies to explore further industrial and environmental applications.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preinoculation of Soybean Seeds Treated with Agrichemicals up to 30 Days
           before Sowing: Technological Innovation for Large-Scale Agriculture

    • Abstract: The cultivation of soybean in Brazil experienced an expressive growth in the last decades. Soybean is highly demanding on nitrogen (N) that must come from fertilizers or from biological fixation. The N supply to the soybean crop in Brazil relies on the inoculation with elite strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. elkanii, and B. diazoefficiens, which are able to fulfill the crop’s N requirements and enrich the soil for the following crop. The effectiveness of the association between N2-fixing bacteria and soybean plants depends on the efficacy of the inoculation process. Seed treatment with pesticides, especially fungicides or micronutrients, may rapidly kill the inoculated bacteria, affecting the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis. The development of technologies that allow inoculation to become a successful component of industrial seed treatment represents a valuable tool for the seed industry, as well as for the soybean crop worldwide. In this article, we report the results of new technologies, developed by the company Total Biotecnologia Indústria e Comércio S/A of Brazil, for preinoculation of soybean seeds with bradyrhizobia, in the presence of agrichemicals. Our results demonstrate improved bacterial survival for up to 30 days after inoculation, without compromising nodulation, N2-fixation, and yield in the field.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Automated Flow Cytometry: An Alternative to Urine Culture in a Routine
           Clinical Microbiology Laboratory'

    • Abstract: The urine culture is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) but constitutes a significant workload in the routine clinical laboratory. Due to the high percentage of negative results, there is a need for an efficient screening method, with a high negative predictive value (NPV) that could reduce the number of unnecessary culture tests. With the purpose of improving the efficiency of laboratory work, several methods for screening out the culture-negative samples have been developed, but none of them has shown adequate sensitivity (SE) and high NPV. Many authors show data about the efficacy of flow cytometry in the routine clinical laboratory. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the current literature on the feasibility of urine flow cytometry (UFC) and its utility as an alternative analytical technique in urinalysis.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 09:14:51 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in
           Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian
           Hospitals”

    • PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Captive Green Turtles and In
           Vitro Sensitivity to Bacteriophages

    • Abstract: This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69.2%). More than 50% resistance was also found to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (62.5%), ceftiofur (53.8%), and erythromycin (53.3%). All the enriched phage filtrate mixtures resulted in the lysis of one or more of the multidrug resistant bacteria, including Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. These results indicate that antibiotic resistance is common in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalised sea turtles and their marine environment in North Queensland, supporting global concern over the rapid evolution of multidrug resistant genes in the environment. Using virulent bacteriophages as antibiotic alternatives would not only be beneficial to turtle health but also prevent further addition of multidrug resistant genes to coastal waters.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Predicted Cold Shock Proteins from the Extremophilic Bacterium Deinococcus
           maricopensis and Related Deinococcus Species

    • Abstract: While many studies have examined the mechanisms by which extremophilic Deinococci survive exposure to ionizing radiation, very few publications have characterized the cold shock adaptations of this group, despite many species being found in persistent cold environments and environments prone to significant daily temperature fluctuations. Bacterial cold shock proteins (Csps) are a family of conserved, RNA chaperone proteins that commonly play a role in cold temperature adaptation, including a downward shift in temperature (i.e., cold shock). The primary aim of this study was to test whether a representative, desert-dwelling Deinococcus, Deinococcus maricopensis, encodes Csps as part of its genome. Bioinformatic approaches were used to identify a Csp from D. maricopensis LB-34. The Csp, termed Dm-Csp1, contains sequence features of Csps including a conserved cold shock domain and nucleic acid binding motifs. A tertiary model of Dm-Csp1 revealed an anticipated Csp structure containing five anti-parallel beta-strands, and ligand prediction experiments identified N-terminally located residues capable of binding single-stranded nucleic acids. Putative Csps were identified from 100% of (27 of 27) Deinococci species for which genome information is available; and the Deinococci-encoded Csps identified contain a C-terminally located region that appears to be limited to members of the class Deinococci.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 08:43:46 +000
       
  • Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Identification of Aerococcus
           Infections: An Australian Tertiary Centre Perspective

    • Abstract: Aerococci uncommonly cause urinary tract (UTI) and bloodstream infections (BSI). The clinical characteristics and laboratory identification rates of Aerococcus in the Australian context are unknown. A retrospective observational cohort study of patients with positive Aerococcus cultures between 2010 and 2015 was performed. Patients were analysed according to predefined “asymptomatic bacteriuria,” “UTI,” and “BSI” groups. Forty-seven [40 (85%) for urine and 7 (15%) for blood] isolates were identified [38% male, median age of 79 (IQR 62–85) years], with corresponding identification rates of 24.2/100,000/year for urine (0.02%) and 7.3/100,000/year for blood cultures (0.007%). Since the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification rate in urine has increased from 14.7/100,000/year to 32/100,000/year (). For urine isolates, 14 (35%) met the definition for UTI whilst 26 (65%) were “asymptomatic bacteriuria.” Underlying urological abnormalities, catheterisation, and polymicrobial growth were common. Seventy percent of bacteriuria was treated regardless of colonisation or active infection status. Symptomatic patients were more likely to receive treatment (OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.4–35.3). In patients with BSI, 1 (14.2%) had endocarditis and 1 (14.2%) died. The majority of isolates were susceptible to penicillin (11/12 tested, 92%).
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 07:18:02 +000
       
  • Environmentally Friendly Production of D(−) Lactic Acid by
           Sporolactobacillus nakayamae: Investigation of Fermentation Parameters and
           Fed-Batch Strategies

    • Abstract: The interest in the production of lactic acid has increased due to its wide range of applications. In the present study, the variables that affect fermentative D(−) lactic acid production were investigated: neutralizing agents, pH, temperature, inoculum percentage, agitation, and concentration of the medium components. An experimental design was applied to determine the optimal concentrations of the medium components and fermentation was studied using different feeding strategies. High production (122.41 g/L) and productivity (3.65 g/L·h) were efficiently achieved by Sporolactobacillus nakayamae in 54 h using a multipulse fed-batch technique with an initial medium containing 35 g/L of yeast extract (byproduct of alcohol production), 60 g/L of crystallized sugar, and 7.5 mL/L of salts. The fermentation process was conducted at 35°C and pH 6.0 controlled by NaOH with a 20% volume of inoculum and agitation at 125 rpm. The production of a high optically pure concentration of D(−) lactic acid combined with an environmentally friendly NaOH-based process demonstrates that S. nakayamae is a promising strain for D(−) lactic acid production.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Multidrug Resistant Enteric Bacterial Pathogens in a Psychiatric Hospital
           in Ghana: Implications for Control of Nosocomial Infections

    • Abstract: Enteric bacteria are commonly implicated in hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections. In Ghana, these infections constitute an important public health problem but little is known about their contribution to antibiotic resistance. The aim of the study was to determine the extent and pattern of antibiotic resistance of enteric bacteria isolated from patients and environmental sources at the Accra Psychiatric Hospital. A total of 265 samples were collected from the study site including 142 stool and 82 urine samples from patients, 7 swab samples of door handle, and 3 samples of drinking water. Enteric bacteria were isolated using standard microbiological methods. Antibiograms of the isolates were determined using the disc diffusion method. Overall, 232 enteric bacteria were isolated. Escherichia coli was the most common (38.3%), followed by Proteus (19.8%), Klebsiella (17.7%), Citrobacter (14.7%), Morganella (8.2%), and Pseudomonas (1.3%). All isolates were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to cefotaxime. The resistance ranged from 15.5% to 84.5%. Multidrug resistance was most prevalent (100%) among isolates of Proteus and Morganella and least prevalent among isolates of Pseudomonas (33.3%). Multidrug resistance among enteric bacteria at the study hospital is high and hence there is a need for screening before therapy to ensure prudent use of antibiotics.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Baseline Antibody Titre against Salmonella enterica in Healthy Population
           of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline titre for the population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Method. Four hundred healthy blood donors, attending blood donation camps, were screened using a survey questionnaire. Widal tube agglutination test was performed on the diluted sera (with 0.9% normal saline) of blood donors, with final dilution ranging from 1 : 40 to 1 : 320. Results. Out of 400 individuals providing samples, 78 (19.5%) individuals showed antibody titres ≥ 1 : 40 for at least one antigen and 322 (80.5%) showed no agglutination. The baseline antibody titres against O antigen and H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Similarly, the baseline antibody titres for the H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Conclusion. Thus, it was noted that the diagnostically significant cutoff of antibody titre from acute phase sample was ≥ 1 : 80 for S. Typhi O antigen and titre of ≥ 1 : 160 for both S. Typhi H antigen and S. Paratyphi BH antigen. Antibody titre of ≥ 1 : 80 can be considered significant for S. Paratyphi AH antigen.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Feasibility of Metatranscriptome Analysis from Infant Gut Microbiota:
           Adaptation to Solid Foods Results in Increased Activity of Firmicutes at
           Six Months

    • Abstract: Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth. A breastfed baby was followed in the first six months of life during adaptation to solid food, dairy products, and formula. It was found that, in the weaning period, the total transcriptional activity of Actinobacteria, mainly represented by Bifidobacterium, decreased while that of Firmicutes increased over time. Moreover, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, including the canonical Bifidobacteria as well as Collinsella, were found to be important contributors to carbohydrate fermentation and vitamin biosynthesis in the infant intestine. Finally, the expression of Lactobacillus rhamnosus-like genes was detected, likely following transfer from the mother who consumed L. rhamnosus GG. The study indicates that metatranscriptome analysis of the infant gut microbiota is feasible on infant stool samples and can be used to provide insight into the core activities of the developing community.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 09:53:13 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women
           Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    • Abstract: Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day () and frequency of vaginal bathing (). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strains
           Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in Palestine

    • Abstract: The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes Acinetobacter baumannii as a source of global outbreaks and epidemics especially due to its increasing resistance to commercially available antibiotics. In this study, 69 single patient multidrug resistant isolates collected from all over Palestine, except Gaza, were studied. All the isolates were resistant to all the β–lactam antibiotics including the carbapenems. Of the 69 isolates, 82.6% were positive for , 14.5% were positive for , and 3% were positive for . None were positive for and . In addition, 5.8% and 0% were positive for and , respectively. Of the 69 isolates, none were positive for the aminoglycoside aphA6 gene while 93% were positive for the aphA1 gene. The acetyltransferases aacC1 and aacA4 genes tested positive in 22% and 13% of the isolates, respectively. The ompA biofilm-producing virulence gene was detected in all isolates. Finally, Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of 13 isolates revealed that more than one strain of A. baumannii was circulating in Palestinian hospitals as results revealed that 7 isolates were of ST208, 2 isolates ST218, 1 isolate ST231, 1 isolate ST348, and 2 new Sequence Types. The detection of these drug resistant pathogens is a reminder of the importance of active surveillance for resistant bacteria in order to prevent their spread in hospital settings.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Production, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mycocin
           Produced by Debaryomyces hansenii DSMZ70238

    • Abstract: The present study was conducted to estimate the antimicrobial activity and the potential biological control of the killer toxin produced by D. hansenii DSMZ70238 against several pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, the effects of NaCl, pH, and temperature, killer toxin production, and antimicrobial activity were studied. The results showed that the optimum inhibitory effect of killer toxin was at 8% NaCl, and the diameters of clear zones were 20, 22, 22, 21, 14, and 13 mm for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans, and Candida neoformans, respectively. The largest inhibition zones were observed at pH 4.5 with inhibition zone of 16, 18, 17, 18, 11, and 12 mm for the same microorganisms. The results also showed that 25°C is the optimal temperature for toxin killing activity against all targeted microorganisms. In addition, the activity of killer toxin significantly inhibited the growth of fungal mycelia for all target pathogenic fungi and the percentages of inhibition were 47.77, 48.88, 52.22, and 61.11% for Trichophyton rubrum, Alternaria alternata, Trichophyton concentricum, and Curvularia lunata, respectively. The results showed the highest growth rate of D. hansenii DSMZ70238 under condition of 8% NaCl concentration, pH 4.5, and 25°C for 72 h.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 07:50:42 +000
       
  • Gene Expression and Molecular Characterization of a Xylanase from Chicken
           Cecum Metagenome

    • Abstract: A xylanase gene xynAMG1 with a 1,116-bp open reading frame, encoding an endo-β-1,4-xylanase, was cloned from a chicken cecum metagenome. The translated protein consisted of 372 amino acids including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. The calculated molecular mass of the mature was 40,013 Da, with a theoretical pI value of 5.76. The amino acid sequence of showed 59% identity to endo-β-1,4-xylanase from Prevotella bryantii and Prevotella ruminicola and 58% identity to that from Prevotella copri. has two conserved motifs, DVVNE and TEXD, containing two active site glutamates and an invariant asparagine, characteristic of GH10 family xylanase. The xynAMG1 gene without signal peptide sequence was cloned and fused with thioredoxin protein (Trx.Tag) in pET-32a plasmid and overexpressed in Escherichia coli Tuner™(DE3)pLysS. The purified mature was highly salt-tolerant and stable and displayed higher than 96% of its catalytic activity in the reaction containing 1 to 4 M NaCl. It was only slightly affected by common organic solvents added in aqueous solution to up to 5 M. This chicken cecum metagenome-derived xylanase has potential applications in animal feed additives and industrial enzymatic processes requiring exposure to high concentrations of salt and organic solvents.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jul 2017 08:37:28 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Pathotypes of
           Escherichia coli Isolates from Water, Sediment, Fish, and Crab in Aby
           Lagoon, Côte d’Ivoire

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to characterize virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates from water, sediment, fish, and crab in Aby Lagoon. Serogrouping was performed by EPEC antisera in 113 E. coli strains. The presence of diarrhea-associated genes (eae, stx, AggR, elt, and est) was assessed by multiplex PCR using specific primers. Based on the multiplex PCR, sixty-two isolates (42 from water, 19 from sediment, and 1 from crab) were positive for virulence genes, including 34 positive for elt (ETEC), 46 positive for est (ETEC), 24 positive for both elt and est, 6 positive for stx (EHEC), 1 positive for both stx + est, and 1 positive for both stx + elt. Genes eae (EPEC) and AggR (EAEC) were not detected. Nine serogroups (O114, O127, O55, O111, O86, O119, O126, O128, and O142) were identified. This study revealed the presence of diarrheagenic and nondiarrheagenic E. coli and potential public health risks if fishery products are not appropriately cooked.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 09:03:27 +000
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Yeasts Able to Assimilate Sugarcane
           Bagasse Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate and Produce Xylitol Associated with
           Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta)

    • Abstract: Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest. Their guts were dissected and a total of 20 microbial colonies were isolated using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. They were identified as having 10 distinct biochemical profiles, and genetic analysis allowed identification as three clades in the genera Candida, Williopsis, and Geotrichum. All colonies were able to assimilate D-xylose and 18 were able to produce xylitol, especially a strain of Geotrichum, with a maximum yield of 0.502 g·g−1. These results agree with a previous prediction that the microbial community associated with xylophagous insects is a promising source of species of biotechnological interest.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Identification of Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes and
           Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae
           Clinical Isolates Recovered from Egyptian Patients

    • Abstract: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical settings is thought to have led to the global emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. All K. pneumoniae isolates were phenotypically identified using API 20E and then confirmed genotypically through amplification of the specific K. pneumoniae phoE gene. All isolates were genotyped by the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction technique (ERIC-PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by a modified Kirby-Bauer method and broth microdilution. All resistant or intermediate-resistant isolates to either gentamicin or amikacin were screened for 7 different genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). In addition, all resistant or intermediate-resistant isolates to either ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin were screened for 5 genes encoding the quinolone resistance protein (Qnr), 1 gene encoding quinolone-modifying enzyme, and 3 genes encoding quinolone efflux pumps. Biotyping using API 20E revealed 13 different biotypes. Genotyping demonstrated that all isolates were related to 2 main phylogenetic groups. Susceptibility testing revealed that carbapenems and tigecycline were the most effective agents. Investigation of genes encoding AMEs revealed that acc(6′)-Ib was the most prevalent, followed by acc(3′)-II, aph(3′)-IV, and ant(3′′)-I. Examination of genes encoding Qnr proteins demonstrated that qnrB was the most prevalent, followed by qnrS, qnrD, and qnrC. It was found that 61%, 26%, and 12% of quinolone-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates harbored acc(6′)-Ib-cr, oqxAB, and qebA, respectively. The current study demonstrated a high prevalence of aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes among clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 08:33:03 +000
       
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus Recovered from Humans, Food, and Recreational
           Waters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion, MIC by agar dilution, and PCR. Erythromycin-resistance genes erm(C), msr(A), msr(B), mph(C), and lin(A) were found in 93% of isolates. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance correlated with dfrG or dfrA genes. Three cefoxitin-resistant isolates carried the mecA gene. All isolates obtained from cheese were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents. Six of 10 pregnant women with >1 isolate had monoclonal colonization. Isolates from pregnant women shared 100% similarity with UTI PFGE cluster types A and E obtained almost 10 years previously, suggesting temporal persistence of S. saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance of beach isolates reflected the profiles of human isolates. Taken together, results indicate a shared source for human and environmental isolates.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Doses of Halotolerant Gut-Indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum Reduce
           Cultivable Lactobacilli in Newborn Calves without Increasing Its Species
           Abundance

    • Abstract: To elucidate the ecological effect of high oral doses of halotolerant (resistant to table salt) indigenous-gut bacteria on other commensals early in life, we conducted a culture-based study to quantify the effect of intestinal Lactobacillus plantarum strain of bovine origin (with remarkable aerobic growth capabilities and inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and F5) on clinical health and gut lactobacilli/coliforms in newborn calves. In a double-blind placebo-randomized trial twelve colostrum-fed calves, consecutively born at a farm, were fed L. plantarum within 12 hours from birth at low ( CFU/day) or high concentrations () or placebo (q24 h, 5 d; 10 d follow-up). We developed a 2.5% NaCl-selective culture strategy to facilitate the enumeration of L. plantarum-strain-B80, and tested 384 samples (>1,152 cultures). L. plantarum-B80-like colonies were detected in a large proportion of calves (58%) even before their first 24 hours of life indicating endemic presence of the strain in the farm. In contrast to studies where human-derived Lactobacillus LGG or rhamnosus had notoriously high, but short-lived, colonization, we found that L. plantarum colonized stably with fecal shedding of  log10·g−1 (irrespective of dose, ). High doses significantly reduced other fecal lactic acid bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli, ) and slightly reduced body weight gain in calves after treatment. For the first time, a halotolerant strain of L. plantarum with inhibitory activity against a human pathogen has the ability to inhibit other lactobacilli in vivo without changing its species abundance, causing transintestinal translocation, or inducing clinical disease. The future selection of probiotics based on halotolerance may expand therapeutic product applicability.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular
           Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in
           Central Malawi

    • Abstract: Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application. The gridline intersect method was used to assess the VAM fungal colonisation levels. Results showed that all treatments that included legumes whether grown as sole crop, in legume-cereal or in legume-legume cropping systems in the previous year, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) VAM fungal colonisation of the rotational maize crop roots by a range 39% to 50% and 19% to 47% than those in maize supplied and not supplied with N fertilizer, respectively, in a maize-maize short rotation, at the Lilongwe site. A similar trend was reported for the Dowa site. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between VAM fungal colonisation and the plant P content, dry matter yield, and nodule numbers. Further studies may help to assess the diversity of VAM fungal species in Malawi soils and identify more adaptive ones for inoculation studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Study of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates for
           Metallo-β-Lactamases and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamases Genes in
           Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt

    • Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has been known as a causative pathogen of hospital acquired infections. The aim of this study is to examine the presence of A. baumannii among clinical isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) in Mansoura University Hospital (MUH), its antibiotic resistance pattern, and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) among A. baumannii isolates. A. baumannii was identified by colony morphology, API 20E, and confirmed by detecting the bla OXA-51-like carbapenemase gene by PCR. Phenotypic expression of MBLs resistance was demonstrated by Combined Disk Test (CDT) in 273 isolates (97.5%) and of ESBLs was demonstrated by double disc synergy method (DDST) in 6 isolates (2.1%). MBLs genes were positive in 266 isolates (95%) and ESBLs genes were positive in 8 isolates (2.9%). The most frequent genes of MBLs studied genes were IMP (95.7%) followed by SIM and GIM (47.1% and 42.9%; resp.). For ESBL genes, the most frequent gene was TEM (2.9%). From this study, we conclude that multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii with MBLs activity was the most common isolate. Careful monitoring for the presence of MDR A. baumannii among hospitalized patients is recommended to avoid wide dissemination of antibiotic resistance.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial Activity of a Cationic Guanidine Compound against Two
           Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex) on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L−1 (CHX 0.12%) was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability. CatDex inhibited growth of S. mutans at all concentrations and growth of P. gingivalis at all concentrations except 25 μmoL L−1. The MIC of CatDex was 50 μmoL L−1 for both S. mutans and P. gingivalis. The inhibition of bacteria exposed for 8 h at 50 μmoL L−1 of CatDex exhibited increased antimicrobial activity over time, with 91% inhibition in both bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of CatDex and CHX were similar when tested on two common bacteria. CatDex was significantly less toxic to DPSCs. CatDex toxicity depended on time and not on concentration. With regard to clinical relevance, CatDex may have potential as a novel antimicrobial agent. Further studies are in progress.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin
           Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)

    • Abstract: This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits from Solanum aculeastrum, bark from Syzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis, and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were suspended in 2 ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in both strains: UONV017 (mean =  mm) and UONV003 (mean =  mm) at 600 mg/ml. Aqueous extracts had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration at 25 mg/ml against A. flavus UONV017. All the plant extracts in combination with light reduced the viability of fungal conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further development can control toxigenic fungal spread.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2017 08:51:04 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and
           Paratyphi Isolates from a General Hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang,
           Indonesia: A Five-Year Review

    • Abstract: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Out of a total of 168 isolates 55.4% were S. Typhi and 44.6% S. Paratyphi A. Most of the isolates, 92.9%, were from children aged 6–18 years and adult population. There was low resistance of S. Typhi against ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin, similar to previous studies in Indonesia. In the 2011–2015 period, resistance rates against most antimicrobials and MDR rate of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi were low, emphasizing that there is a distinct epidemiological dynamic of the enteric fever in Indonesia.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted
           from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus
           agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya

    • Abstract: Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary () and eucalyptus (). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 08:54:33 +000
       
  • Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of
           Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University
           of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%). Of all, 81 (59.1%) were males. Seventy-seven (57%) of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43%) were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34%) followed by Klebsiella species (13%), coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%), amoxicillin (83%), penicillin (81.3%), oxacillin (74.6%), and tetracycline (59.4%), while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%), ampicillin (94.8%), tetracycline (72.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%), and chloramphenicol (54.5%). Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of
           Bacteria Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples from Children Attending a
           Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    • Abstract: In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of oxacillin. 264 (59%) samples were culture positive. The highest incidence of bacterial infections was noted in the age group of less than 1 year (76%). Out of 264 growth positive samples, Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 162 (61%) samples and Gram-negative bacteria were found in 102 (39%) samples. Staphylococcus aureus (99%) was the predominant Gram-positive bacteria isolated and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44%) was predominant Gram-negative bacteria. About 19% of S. aureus isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant MIC of oxacillin ranging from 4 μg/mL to 128 μg/mL. Among the children of Nepal, those of age less than 1 year were at higher risk of wound infections by bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common bacteria causing wound infections in children.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.158.212.93
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016