Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 233)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.662
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Prevalence, Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile, and Associated Risk Factors
           of Salmonella Isolate among Diarrheal Patients Visiting Dessie Referral
           Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Salmonellosis remains an important public health problem worldwide, particularly in the developing countries such as Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility profile, and associated risk factors of Salmonella isolate among diarrheal patients who were visiting Dessie Referral Hospital, Dessie, Northeast Ethiopia, from November 2016 to January 2017. 384 stool samples were collected using sterile stool cups. Out of these, 20 (5.21%) were found to be positive for Salmonella species. The distribution of positive samples among the three age groups indicated that Salmonella species were predominantly prevalent in the age group of three months (0.25 years) to 4 years old patients. Abdominal pain, vomiting, watery consistency of stool, and 1–5 days of diarrhea were the clinical features that were significantly associated with salmonellosis. Eating raw vegetables and fruits, consumption of street-vended foods, cohabitation of animals, using water from the unprotected source, absence of latrine, and consumption of raw products of animals such as eggs and raw milk were the risk factors that were significantly associated with the prevalence of Salmonella species. The antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the isolated Salmonella species against 5 currently recommended antibiotics. The antimicrobial sensitivity study carried out using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method showed that 100% of Salmonella isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and 80% sensitive to nalidixic acid, respectively. Among them, twenty isolated Salmonella species resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 100%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. This study revealed that Salmonella species were prevalent among diarrheal patients who were visiting Dessie Referral Hospital, and therefore, routine diagnosis of patients with diarrhea cases is required, and drugs must be prescribed after performing the sensitivity test, or checking the updated information on the local antibiotics pattern is always necessary.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Oct 2020 08:05:02 +000
  • Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Blood Culture
           among HIV/AIDS Patients at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest

    • Abstract: Background. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is recognized as a global public health problem. Bloodstream infection with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in HIV/AIDS patients makes the problem more challenging. So, regular and periodic diagnosis and use of the appropriate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern determination is the only option for decreasing the prevalence and development of drug-resistant bacteria. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 384 HIV/AIDS patients. Sociodemographic data of patients were recorded using structured questionnaires. Blood cultures were collected with BACTEC aerobic blood culture bottles. A pair of samples was collected from each patient aseptically and incubated at 37°. If samples are positive for bacterial agents, they were subcultured to solid media such as blood agar plate, chocolate agar plate, and MacConkey agar plates. Identification was performed using colony characteristics and standard biochemical techniques. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was determined by the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method. Data entry and analysis were performed while using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics were performed to calculate frequencies. Results. Altogether, 384 patients were included, and 123 blood cultures were positive, so that the yield was thus 32%. About 46 (37.4%) of Gram-negative and 77 (62.6%) of Gram-positive bacterial species were identified. Among Gram-negative bacterial isolates, K. pneumoniae was the leading pathogen, 19 (41.3%), whereas S. aureus, 38 (49.4%), was predominant among Gram-positive isolates. In his study, the majority of Gram-positive isolates showed high level of resistance to penicillin, 72 (95.5%), tetracycline, 55 (71.4%), and cotrimoxazole, 45 (58.4%). About 28 (73.6%) of S. aureus isolates were also methicillin-resistant. Gram-negative bacterial isolates also showed a high resistance to ampicillin (91.3%), tetracycline (91.3%), and gentamicin (47.8%). Overall, about 78% of multidrug resistance was observed. Conclusion. Several pathogens were resistant to greater than five antimicrobial agents, so that proper management of patients with bacteremia is needed, and a careful selection of effective antibiotics should be practiced.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 15:05:02 +000
  • Prevalence of E. coli ST131 among Uropathogenic E. coli Isolates from
           Iraqi Patients in Wasit Province, Iraq

    • Abstract: The emergence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (E. coli ST131) clone represents a major challenge to public health globally, since this clone is reported as highly virulent and multidrug-resistant, thus making it successfully disseminated worldwide. In Iraq, there is no previous study dealing with this important clone, so this project was suggested to investigate its presence within uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) from Iraqi patients in Wasit Province. A total of 112 UPEC isolates from cases of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) were analysed for phylogenetic groups by quadruplex PCR; then, these isolates were investigated for E. coli ST131 clone by both conventional and real-time PCR procedures. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method. The results revealed that, out of 112 UPEC isolates, 38 (33.9%) belonged to phylogroup B2. For conventional PCR, 92.1% (35/38) of B2 E. coli isolates were positive for E. coli ST131, of which 34 were O25b-ST131 strain and 1 was O16-ST131 strain. However, serogroups O25b and O16 represented 17.1% and 2.8%, respectively. By RT-PCR assay, 15.1% (17/112) and 44.7% (17/38) of total and B2 E. coli isolates were confirmed as being E. coli ST131, respectively. The highest resistance rates of E. coli ST131 isolates were against the β-lactams, while low resistance rates were against amikacin, nitrofurantoin, and gentamicin. Fortunately, all isolates were susceptible to carbapenems. Moreover, 52.9% (9 out of 17) of E. coli ST131 isolates were MDR. In conclusion, the presence of E. coli ST131 among UPEC isolates from Iraqi patients is confirmed with high resistance to most antimicrobials included in this study.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Oct 2020 07:50:02 +000
  • Spoligotype Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis over Two Decades from
           Tiruvallur, South India

    • Abstract: Geographically, most tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2018 were reported from India. This TB burden is compounded by MDR-TB and XDR-TB. The strategies for the management and control of TB in the community depend on an understanding of the mode of spread of the different strains of TB isolates in the community. To determine the distribution and trends of M. tb strains over the time period in the community due to treatment, we carried out the present study on changes over two decades. Design/Methods. A total of 1218  M. tb isolates (year: 2001–2018) from Tiruvallur, India, were genotyped by spoligotyping after DNA extraction and subjected to anti-TB drug susceptibility testing for the first-line anti-TB drugs. Results. On analysis with the SpolDB4 database, majority (2001–2003: 53.32% and 2015–2018: 46.3%) of the isolates belonged to East African Indian (EAI) lineage, and the orphans designated in comparison to SpolDB4 stood 33% among 2001–2003 strain collection and 46.3% among 2015–2018 strain collection. 10.2% (2001–2003) and 9.26% (2015 to 2018) of isolates were monoresistant to isoniazid (H). MDR strains were less common among EAI strains (3.2%) compared to non-EAI strains (10.32%). Conclusions. EAI is the most predominant lineage in Tiruvallur, despite the presence of highly transmissible lineages like Beijing for the last two decades. The prevalence of MDR-TB is below the national average of 2-3% among the new TB cases in the last two decades. The reason can be attributed to the well-established nature of the locally circulating strains in this region which are not associated with drug resistance.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Oct 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • Assessment of Pertussis Vaccine Protective Effectiveness in Children in
           the Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Bordetella pertussis is a human pathogen which causes pertussis, or whooping cough. The diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis immunization has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis globally. However, higher prevalence and resurgence of pertussis cases among both vaccinated and unvaccinated people has raised questions on the effectiveness of pertussis vaccine over time. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the protective effectiveness of pertussis vaccine in the Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods. A nested matched case-control study design approach was used with vaccinated individuals as cases and unvaccinated individuals as controls. The study was conducted from July 2018 to February 2019. Real-time (RT-) PCR assay was done to ascertain the presence of pertussis among clinically suspected patients. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were computed to estimate the crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), respectively. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1 − OR) × 100. Adjusted OR with 95% CI and a value
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Oct 2020 13:50:01 +000
  • Hepatitis B and C Viruses’ Infection and Associated Factors among
           Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Hospitals in the Amhara
           National Regional State, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Hepatitis virus infection is a major public health burden and silent killer disease in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses and associated factors among pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in three tertiary hospitals in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1121 pregnant women. Data on sociodemographic and associated factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) using ELISA. SPSS version 20 was used for data analysis, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between factors associated with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis virus C infection. Results. A total of 1121 pregnant women were included in the study. The mean age of study participants was 27.2 ± 4.8 yrs. The majority of pregnant women (895 (79.8%)) were from urban areas. The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody was 52 (4.6%) and 18 (1.6%), respectively. The coinfection rate of HBV/HCV was 1.4% (1/69). Ten (19.2%) of HBV positive cases were coinfected with HIV. There were no coinfections of HCV and HIV. Interestingly, pregnant women with a history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI, 1.7–7.6), blood transfusion (AOR = 7.6, 95% CI, 2.9–16.9), family history of HBV (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.7–7.6), being HIV-positive (AOR = 2.5, 95% CI, 1–5.9), and tattooing (AOR = 2, 95% CI, 1–3.8) were significant predictors of HBV infection. Similarly, young age (17–25 yrs) (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI, 1.8–8.6) and no educational background (AOR = 5, 95 CI, 1.7–14.8) were significant predictors of HCV infection. Conclusions. Hepatitis B and C viruses’ infection was intermediate among pregnant women; some risk factors were significantly associated with the majority of cases. Infants born from these infected mothers are at risk of infection. This calls for screening and integration of HBV prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) into HIV. Thus, the provision of health education on hepatitis B and C viruses’ transmission, vaccination, and screening of all pregnant women routinely are essential for the prevention of these viruses.
      PubDate: Fri, 09 Oct 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Bacterial Contaminants and Antibiogram of Ghana Paper Currency Notes in
           Circulation and Their Associated Health Risks in Asante-Mampong, Ghana

    • Abstract: Transmission of pathogens through currency notes has become very relevant in today’s world due to COVID-19 pandemic. This study profiled microbial flora and their antibiotic activities from Ghana paper currency (GH¢) notes in circulation in Mampong Municipal of Ashanti Region, Ghana. The study employed a cross-sectional design to assess bacterial contaminants and their antibiotic activities from January to May 2019. A total of 70 GH¢ notes consisting of 15 each of GH¢1, GH¢2, and GH¢5; 10 each of GH¢10 and GH¢20; and 5 of GH¢50 were randomly sampled from persons at different shops, canteens, and commercial drivers. The surfaces of each GH¢ note were gently swabbed, and tenfold serial dilutions made were inoculated on plate count agar (PCA), MacConkey agar, mannitol salt agar, and deoxycholate citrate agar. The study used appropriate laboratory and biochemical tests for bacterial identification. SPSS-IBM version 16.0 was used to analyze the data. Of the 70 GH¢ notes studied, 97.1% were contaminated with one or more bacterial isolates. Mean counts on PCA ranged between 3.2 cfu/ml × 105 and 4.7 cfu/ml × 105 on GH¢ notes. Of 124 bacteria isolated, 34 (27.4%), 30 (24.2%), 22 (17.7%), 17 (13.7%), 13 (10.5%), and 8 (6.5%) were from GH¢1, GH¢2, GH¢10, GH¢5, GH¢20, and GH¢50, respectively (). Bacterial isolates were Escherichia coli (28.23%), Staphylococcus aureus (16.94%), coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (16.13%), Klebsiella species (11.29%), Salmonella species (9.68%), Shigella species (8.87%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.65%), and Proteus species (3.23%). GH¢ notes had 25.81%, 20.16%, 19.35%, 17.74%, and 16.94% from meat shops, commercial drivers, canteens, grocery shops, and vegetable shops, respectively. All bacteria were 100% resistant to erythromycin, 87.5% to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole, 75% to vancomycin, while 87.50% sensitive to amikacin. The GH¢ notes were heavily colonized with potential pathogens, which are resistant to most commonly used antibiotics and could pose a health threat to users during commercial transactions.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Oct 2020 06:20:00 +000
  • Evaluation of Procalcitonin, C-Reactive Protein, and Interleukin-6 as
           Early Markers for Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal sepsis diagnosis is a challenge because of its nonspecific presentation together with low sensitivity of the time-consuming bacterial cultures. So, many sepsis markers, like C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are emerging to improve its diagnosis. Aim. This study was done to investigate the role of CRP, PCT, and IL-6 in promoting the early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in an attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 neonates suspected with sepsis enrolled from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt. Blood cultures for these neonates were done before starting antibiotics. Also, bacterial DNA was revealed from the blood by broad-range 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Measurements of CRP using the immunoturbidimetry method, PCT using fluorescence immunoassay quantitative method, and IL-6 using commercially available ELISA kit were done to all enrolled neonates. Results. Forty-one neonates with proved sepsis were found to be positive in blood culture and/or PCR for bacterial 16S rDNA. The most common isolated organisms were Klebsiella (61.3%), followed by E. coli (9.7%) and CONS (9.7%). We detected much significant higher levels of PCT, CRP, and IL-6 in the proved sepsis group than the suspected neonatal sepsis cases (, 0.001, and 0.004, respectively). Serum PCT levels showed the highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of 97.6%, 89%, 97%, 88.9%, and 96% than other studied sepsis markers. Conclusion. PCT has satisfactory characteristics as a good marker than IL-6 and CRP for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Oct 2020 13:35:02 +000
  • Metabarcoding Analysis of Bacterial Communities Associated with Media Grow
           Bed Zones in an Aquaponic System

    • Abstract: The development of environmentally sustainable plant and fish production in aquaponic systems requires a complete understanding of the systems’ biological components. In order to better understand the role of microorganisms in this association, we studied the bacterial communities in the dry, root, and mineralized zones of a flood-and-drain media bed aquaponic system. Bacterial communities were characterized using metabarcoding of the V3-V4 16S rRNA regions obtained from paired-end Illumina MiSeq reads. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes accounted for more than 90% of the total community in the dry zone and the effluent water. These phyla also accounted for more than 68% of the total community in the root and mineralized zones. The genera Massilia, Mucilaginibacter, Mizugakiibacter, and Rhodoluna were most dominant in the dry, root, and mineralized zones and in the effluent water, respectively. The number of shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the three zones was 241, representing 7.15% of the total observed OTUs. The number of unique OTUs in samples from dry zone, root zone, mineralized zone, and effluent water was 485, 638, 445, and 383, respectively. The samples from the root zone harbored more diverse communities than either the dry or mineralized zones. This study is the first to report on the bacterial community within the zones of a flood-and-drain media bed. Thus, this information will potentially accelerate studies on other microbial communities involved in the bioconversion of nitrogen compounds and mineralization within these types of aquaponic systems.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Oct 2020 12:35:02 +000
  • Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of the Leaf Exudate of Aloe
           megalacantha Baker

    • Abstract: Infectious diseases caused by fungi and bacteria are among the major causes of illness and death worldwide. This is mainly implicated by the antimicrobial resistance of the current treatment regimens. Since plant products are house stores of bioactive compounds, it is essential to screen plant-based antimicrobials to come up with novel medicines that counter the grave consequences of antimicrobial resistance. In the folk medicine of Ethiopia, Aloe megalacantha is used for the treatment of wound, dandruff, malaria, diabetes, impotence, colon cleansing, amoeba, ascariasis, abdominal pain, urine retention, snake bite, and evil eye. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal effects of the leaf exudate of Aloe megalacantha. Agar well diffusion was employed to determine the antibacterial and antifungal effects. Six bacterial strains, namely, S. aureus (standard), S. aureus (clinical isolate), E. coli ATCC 25922 (standard), E. coli (clinical isolate), K. pneumoniae (standard), and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (standard), and four fungal strains such as C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei were studied. The leaf exudate showed the highest activity against C. krusei with an average zone diameter of 22.49 ± 0.47 mm at 400 mg/mL. Among the bacterial species, S. aureus ATCC 29213 (standard) was the most sensitive with an average zone of diameter of 16.63 ± 0.12 mm at 200 mg/mL. Thus, the present findings support the folklore use of Aloe megalacantha for the treatment of different microbial infections.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2020 12:50:02 +000
  • Repurposing of Drugs for Antibacterial Activities on Selected ESKAPE
           Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Abstract: Increasing cases of multidrug-resistant pathogens have evolved into a global health crisis. ESKAPE group of bacteria are associated with antibiotic resistance, and infections caused by these pathogens result in high mortality and morbidity. However, de novo synthesis of antibiotics is expensive and time-consuming since the development of a new drug has to go through several clinical trials. Repurposing of old drugs for the treatment of antimicrobial resistant pathogens has been explored as an alternative strategy in the field of antimicrobial drug discovery. Ten non-antimicrobial compounds were screened for antibacterial activity on two ESKAPE organisms, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The drugs used in this study were amodiaquine an antimalarial drug, probenecid used to prevent gout, ibuprofen a painkiller, 2-amino-5-chlorobenzaxazole used as a tool for assessing hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in rodents, ellargic acid an antioxidant, quercetin an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug, N–N diacryloylpiperazine used to crosslink polyacrylamide gel in 2D-protein electrophoresis, epicatechin an antioxidant and antiviral drug, curcumin an anticancer drug, and quinine an antimalarial drug. Antibacterial susceptibility tests were carried out for the 10 compounds. Curcumin exhibited the most potent antimicrobial activity against both bacteria, with MICs of 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively. Ellargic acid was found to have an MIC of 100 μg/ml against S. aureus. Curcumin caused protein and nucleic acid leakage from the bacterial cell membrane in both bacterial species. When curcumin was combined with ciprofloxacin, it was found to enhance the antibacterial effects of ciprofloxacin. The combination with ciprofloxacin reduced the MIC for ciprofloxacin from 0.5 μg/ml to 0.0625 μg/ml on P. aeruginosa and 0.25 μg/ml to 0.0625 μg/ml on S. aureus. The results obtained show that curcumin has antibacterial activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and may enhance the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Adherence to Isoniazid Preventive Therapy among Under-Five Children in
           Contact with Adult Bacteriologically Confirmed Pulmonary Tuberculosis
           Patients: A Mixed-Method Study

    • Abstract: Background. The World Health Organization recommends that all children below the age of five who have household contact with an infectious tuberculosis case should receive isoniazid preventive treatment for at least six months after the active tuberculosis disease has been ruled out. This research aims to determine the adherence of children, eligible for isoniazid preventive treatment, to the treatment who had contact with pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods. A mixed study design was used to prospectively assess the adherence to IPT among children under the age of 5 in contact with pulmonary TB patients through the quantitative study design and barriers of adherence in view of health care professionals and the family of children through a descriptive qualitative study. The study was conducted from July 2019 to December 2019 in Addis Ababa. Data were collected by a structured datasheet from the selected health center registration book. Data were entered into Epi Data software and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistical methods were used to summarize the sociodemographic characteristics of the study participants. Result. The ratio of the total number of pulmonary tuberculosis index cases recruited into the study to the number of child contacts aged less than 5 years was 1 : 1.32. The total isoniazid preventive treatment uptake in this study was 75.2%; one-fifth (21.3%) of the children who started IPT did not complete the full course of six-month isoniazid preventive treatment. Except for HIV not to be tested (), there was no significant association of the listed risk factors in default to complete the full six months of preventive treatment. Conclusion. Enrolment of eligible children for isoniazid preventive treatment in the urban city Addis Ababa was still below the target of the World Health Organization End tuberculosis strategy by 2030. The treatment adherence rate also needs a great deal of effort to achieve the strategy. Child default after the first visit indicates a lack of understanding about the benefit and safety of preventive therapy in young children among families of TB patients, and awareness-creating efforts by health extension workers will help to improve the outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Evaluation of 16S rRNA Hypervariable Regions for Bioweapon Species
           Detection by Massively Parallel Sequencing

    • Abstract: Molecular detection and classification of the bacterial groups in a sample are relevant in several areas, including medical research and forensics. Sanger sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is considered the gold standard for microbial phylogenetic analysis. However, the development of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers enhanced sensitivity and specificity for microbiological analyses. In addition, 16S rRNA target amplification followed by MPS facilitates the combined use of multiple markers/regions, better discrimination of sample background, and higher sample throughput. We designed a novel set of 16S rRNA gene primers for detection of bacterial species associated with clinical, bioweapon, and biohazards microorganisms via alignment of 364 sequences representing 19 bacterial species and strains relevant to medical and forensics applications. In silico results indicated that the hypervariable regions (V1V2), (V4V5), and (V6V7V8) support the resolution of a selected group of bacteria. Interspecies and intraspecies comparisons showed 74.23%–85.51% and 94.48%–99.98% sequencing variation among species and strains, respectively. Sequence reads from a simulated scenario of bacterial species mapped to each of the three hypervariable regions of the respective species with different affinities. The minimum limit of detection was achieved using two different MPS platforms. This protocol can be used to detect or monitor as low as 2,000 genome equivalents of bacterial species associated with clinical, bioweapon, and biohazard microorganisms and potentially can distinguish natural outbreaks of pathogenic microorganisms from those occurring by intentional release.
      PubDate: Sat, 26 Sep 2020 12:50:00 +000
  • Characterization of Streptomyces Isolates Associated with Estuarine Fish
           Chanos chanos and Profiling of Their Antibacterial

    • Abstract: Streptomyces has been reported as an essential producer of bioactive substances, including antibiotics and other types of antimicrobials. This study investigated antibacterial-producing Streptomyces isolated from the gut of estuarine fish Chanos chanos, emphasizing screening for the producer of peptide-containing antibacterial compounds. Eighteen isolates were found during preliminary screening, in which four isolates showed the best antibacterial activities. Based on the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization, as well as 16S rRNA partial sequencing, all of the four isolates belonged to Streptomyces. Three isolates were suspected as novel isolate candidates based on homology presentations and phylogenetic tree analysis. Disk-diffusion assay of the metabolite-crude-extract from the isolates showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa InaCC B52 with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration ranging from 2.5–10 mg/mL and 5–10 mg/mL, respectively. The highest antibacterial activity with low MIC and MBC values was shown by isolate AIA-10. Qualitative HPLC profiling revealed that the metabolic-crude-extracts showed many peaks with intensive area at 210 and 214 nm, especially from SCA-11 and AIA-10, indicating the presence of peptide groups in the structure of the constituent compound. The results also suggested that crude extracts SCA-11 and AIA-10 had higher hydrophobicity properties than the other extracts. Further characterization of the active compound was needed to find out which compounds were responsible for the antibacterial activity. The results of this study indicated that some Streptomyces isolated from new environmental niches, i.e., gut of estuarine fish Chanos chanos, produce promising peptide-containing bioactive compounds.
      PubDate: Wed, 23 Sep 2020 12:50:00 +000
  • Possible Role for Bacteriophages in the Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

    • Abstract: An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019. Since then, the outbreak has grown into a global pandemic, and neither a vaccine nor a treatment for the disease, termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently available. The slow translational progress in the field of research suggests that a large number of studies are urgently required. In this context, this review explores the impact of bacteriophages on SARS-CoV-2, especially concerning phage therapy (PT). Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and kill bacterial cells. Several studies have confirmed that in addition to their antibacterial abilities, bacteriophages also show antiviral and antifungal properties. It has also been shown that PT is effective for building immunity against viral pathogens by reducing the activation of NF kappa B; additionally, phages produce the antiviral protein phagicin. The Ganges river in India, which originates from the Himalayan range, is known to harbor a large number of bacteriophages, which are released into the river gradually by the melting permafrost. Water from this river has traditionally been considered a therapeutic agent for several diseases. In this review, we hypothesize that the Ganges river may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of COVID-19.
      PubDate: Sat, 19 Sep 2020 15:35:06 +000
  • Genotypic Profiling of Bacillus cereus Recovered from Some Retail Foods in
           Ogun State, Nigeria, and Their Phylogenetic Relationship

    • Abstract: Identifying Bacillus cereus with conventional methods is neither specific nor rapid because of the close relatedness of the B. cereus group, hence the need for molecular methods. Genotypic profiling of B. cereus isolates from food was obtained by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) using OPR13 primer. A dendrogram was drawn with the Numerical Taxonomy System of Statistic (NTSYS) software. Thirty of the isolates were subjected to molecular identification by 16S rDNA sequencing. The thirty sequences were deposited in GenBank for accession number. Phylogenetic relationship of the 16S rDNA sequence obtained was carried out with the Multiple Alignment using Fast Fourier Transform (MAFFT) software version 7.0. The evolutionary tree was drawn using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA 6) software. The dendrogram generated for the RAPD profile showed that all the strains are closely related, with a similarity coefficient of 70%. The isolates were confirmed with 16S rDNA sequencing as B. cereus. The thirty sequences deposited in GenBank were given accession numbers: KX574760–KX574769, KX610811–KX610820, MT757957-MT757963, and MT772282-MT772284. By comparing the phylogenetic relationship, eleven of the strains did not cluster with the reference strains from the GenBank but form distinct clades, which means they are likely to be of different ancestors. Conventional methods rarely differentiate bacteria of the same species into clade, neither can it describe their ancestral lineage. Therefore, it is important to employ molecular methods in identifying bacteria to give detailed information about them.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Sep 2020 13:20:03 +000
  • Urinary Calculi: A Microbiological and Biochemical Analysis at a Tertiary
           Care Hospital in Eastern Nepal

    • Abstract: Background. The occurrence of urinary tract infection in presence of urolithiasis is frequently noted; however, microbial agents of urolithiasis and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns remain underinvestigated. This study aimed to identify the microorganisms isolated from urine and stone matrices to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility, to find the association between the pathogens of urine and stone matrices, and to perform the biochemical analysis of stones. Methods. A total of 88 cases of urolithiasis admitted for elective stone removal at Department of surgery, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), were enrolled. Preoperative urine culture and postoperative stone culture were performed. Isolation, identification, and AST were done by the standard microbiological technique. Further qualitative biochemical analysis of stones was also attempted. Result. Among 88 stone formers recruited, culture of urine, whole stone, and nidus yielded the growth of bacteria 44, 32, and 30, respectively. Bacteria isolated from urine culture correlated with those from stone matrices with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 79.69%, PPV of 63.64%, and NPV of 95.45%. Escherichia coli (46.7%) was the most common bacteria followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.7%) and Proteus mirabilis (13.3%) from urine and stone cultures. Almost all the uropathogens isolated were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics. Calcium oxalate (84.1%) was common biochemical constituent found in stone formers followed by calcium oxalate + phosphate (8%). Conclusions. The association of microorganism isolated from urine and nidus culture was significant that can predict the source of infective stone; however, in some cases, microorganisms and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern from urine and nidus were different. This study emphasizes the use of appropriate antimicrobial agents to prevent the regrowth of residual stones and minimize the risk of infectious complications after surgical removal of stones.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Sep 2020 04:05:02 +000
  • Bacterial Profile among Patients with Suspected Bloodstream Infections in
           Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Introduction. The burden of bloodstream infections (BSIs) has been warranted in Ethiopia. Globally, the emergency and raised resistance rate of bacterial antimicrobial resistance is becoming a prominent problem, and it is difficult to treat patients having sepsis. In this review, we aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of bacterial isolates among presumptive patients with bloodstream infections in Ethiopia. Methods. A systematic search was performed from PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, HINARI, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar electronic databases using PRISMA guidelines. The data analysis was carried out using STATATM version 14 after the records were cleaned and sorted out. Results. A total of 26 studies with 8,958 blood specimens and 2,382 culture-positive bacterial isolates were included for systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis derived a pooled culture-positive bacterial prevalence which was 25.78% (95% CI: 21.55–30.01%). The estimated pooled prevalence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial isolates was 15.50% (95% CI: 12.84–18.15%) and 10.48 % (95% CI: 8.32–12.63%), respectively. The two common Gram-positive bacteria isolated from patients suspected of BSIs were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus with a pooled prevalence of 5.75% (95% CI: 4.58–6.92%) and S. aureus 7.04 % (95% CI: 5.37–8.72%). Similarly, the common Gram-negative bacterial isolates and their estimated pooled prevalence were E. coli 1.69% (95% CI: 1.21–2.16%), Klebsiella species 7.04 % (95% CI: 5.37–8.72%), Pseudomonas species 0.39% (95% CI: 0.08–0.70%), Salmonella species 1.09% (95% CI: 0.79–1.38%), and Streptococcus pyogenes 0.88% (95% CI: 0.54–1.22%). Conclusion. The prevalence of bacterial isolates among presumptive patients suspected to BSIs in Ethiopia remains high. Furthermore, we found a remarkable variation in the pathogen distribution across the study setting.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 12:35:02 +000
  • Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Toxigenic Aspergillus
           flavus from Groundnut Kernels in Kenya

    • Abstract: Pathogenesis of Aspergillus flavus on important agricultural products is a key concern on human health due to the synthesis and secretion of the hazardous secondary metabolite, aflatoxin. This study identified and further characterized aflatoxigenic A. flavus from groundnuts sampled from sundry shops in Kenya using integrated morphological and molecular approaches. The groundnuts were plated on potato dextrose agar for isolation and morphological observation of A. flavus based on macroscopic and microscopic features. Molecular characterization was done through amplification and comparison of the partial sequence of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. The expression analysis of aflR, aflS, aflD, aflP, and aflQ genes in the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathways was conducted to confirm the positive identification of A. flavus. The gene expression also aided to delineate toxigenic isolates of A. flavus from atoxigenic ones. Morphologically, 18 isolates suspected to be A. flavus were identified. Out of these, 14 isolates successfully amplified the 500 bp ITS region of A. flavus or Aspergillus oryzae, while 4 isolates were not amplified. All the remaining 14 isolates expressed at least one of the aflatoxigenic genes but only 5 had all the genes expressed. Partial sequencing revealed that isolates 5, 11, 12, 13, and 15 had 99.2%, 97.6%, 98.4%, 97.5%, and 100% homology, respectively, to the A. flavus isolate LUOHE, ITS-5.8S-ITS2, obtained from the NCBI database. The five isolates were accurate identification of atoxigenic A. flavus. Precise identification of toxigenic strains of A. flavus will be useful in establishing control strategies of the fungus in food products.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2020 14:05:02 +000
  • Prevalence of Escherichia coli in Under-Five Children with Diarrhea in
           Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Diarrhea remains as a high health burden, especially to children in low-income countries including Ethiopia. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli have been commonly associated as bacterial pathogens causing diarrheal disease among children. This systemic review and meta-analysis was intended to determine the pooled prevalence of Escherichia coli in under-five children with diarrhea in Ethiopia. A comprehensive search in PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, and Google search engine and manual searching were done for this systematic review and meta-analysis. The eligibility criteria for selecting studies were studies involving under-five children with diarrhea in Ethiopia, published articles, cross-sectional studies, and articles reported in English. The study was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) checklist. The data analysis was done using STATA 16.0 software. Cochran’s Q-test and I2 statistics were used for the assessment of heterogeneity. The random-effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of Escherichia coli. A total of 797 articles were initially retrieved, and finally, 11 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of Escherichia coli was 25% (95% CI: 9, 41). The pooled prevalence was varied by region, detection method, and sample size. The high prevalence emphasizes that Escherichia coli is a potential pathogen in under-five children with diarrhea in Ethiopia.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2020 14:05:02 +000
  • Detection and Profiling of Antibiotic Resistance among Culturable
           Bacterial Isolates in Vended Food and Soil Samples

    • Abstract: The emergence and persistence of antibiotic resistance remain formidable health challenges. This study aimed at detecting and profiling antibiotic resistance of bacterial contaminants in vended food and the environment. Seventy antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates were isolated from fried fish, African sausages, roasted meat, smokies, samosa, chips (potato fries), vegetable salads, and soil samples collected from Embu Town and Kangaru Market in Embu County, Kenya. The antibiotic susceptibility test, morphological and biochemical characterization, antibiosis assay, polymerase chain reaction-based detection of antibiotic resistance genes, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene were done. Analysis of variance on all measured data was done, and Tukey’s honest test was used to compare and separate mean diameters of zones inhibition. Resistance of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was chloramphenicol (90%), cefotaxime (84.29%), nalidixic acid (81.43%), tetracycline (77.14%), amoxicillin (72.86%), gentamycin (48.57%), streptomycin (32.86%), and trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole (30%). Isolate KMP337, Salmonella spp., exhibited highly significant antibiosis against S. aureus recording a mean inhibition diameter and standard error (SE) of 16.33 ± 0.88 mm, respectively, at . The 70 bacterial isolates belonged to Bacillus, Paraclostridium, Lysinibacillus, Virgibacillus, and Serratia genera. The study isolated Bacillus wiedmannii (KC75) which is a risk group 2 as well as Serratia marcescens (KMP95) and Bacillus anthracis (KS606) which are risk group 3 organisms. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes Tet A, BlaTEM, StrB, Dfr A, Amp, and FloR genes was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction. Samples from Kangaru Market recorded a higher (88.57%) proportion of resistant isolates as compared to isolates from Embu Town (11.43%). The study confirmed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in vended fast food and the soil in Embu Town and Kangaru Market. This study calls for continuous monitoring of bacterial status and hygienic handling of vended food.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Sep 2020 13:35:04 +000
  • Molecular and Immunological Diagnostic Techniques of Medical Viruses

    • Abstract: Viral infections are causing serious problems in human population worldwide. The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a perfect example how viral infection could pose a great threat to global public health and economic sectors. Therefore, the first step in combating viral pathogens is to get a timely and accurate diagnosis. Early and accurate detection of the viral presence in patient sample is crucial for appropriate treatment, control, and prevention of epidemics. Here, we summarize some of the molecular and immunological diagnostic approaches available for the detection of viral infections of humans. Molecular diagnostic techniques provide rapid viral detection in patient sample. They are also relatively inexpensive and highly sensitive and specific diagnostic methods. Immunological-based techniques have been extensively utilized for the detection and epidemiological studies of human viral infections. They can detect antiviral antibodies or viral antigens in clinical samples. There are several commercially available molecular and immunological diagnostic kits that facilitate the use of these methods in the majority of clinical laboratories worldwide. In developing countries including Ethiopia where most of viral infections are endemic, exposure to improved or new methods is highly limited as these methods are very costly to use and also require technical skills. Since researchers and clinicians in all corners of the globe are working hard, it is hoped that in the near future, they will develop good quality tests that can be accessible in low-income countries.
      PubDate: Fri, 04 Sep 2020 14:05:04 +000
  • Immunoinformatic Analysis to Identify Proteins to Be Used as Potential
           Targets to Control Bovine Anaplasmosis

    • Abstract: Omics sciences and new technologies to sequence full genomes provide valuable data that are revealed only after detailed bioinformatic analysis is performed. In this work, we analyzed the genomes of seven Mexican Anaplasma marginale strains and the data from a transcriptome analysis of the tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The aim of this analysis was to identify protein sequences with predicted features to be used as potential targets to control the bacteria or tick-vector transmission. We chose three amino acid sequences different to all proteins previously reported in A. marginale that have been used as potential vaccine candidates, and also, we report, for the first time, the presence of a peroxinectin protein sequence in the transcriptome of R. microplus, a protein associated with the immune response of ticks. The bioinformatics analyses revealed the presence of B-cell epitopes in all the amino acid sequences chosen, which opens the way for their likely use as single or arranged peptides to develop new strategies for the control and prevention of bovine anaplasmosis transmitted by ticks.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:18 +000
  • Differential Expression and PAH Degradation: What Burkholderia
           vietnamiensis G4 Can Tell Us'

    • Abstract: Petroleum is the major energy matrix in the world whose refining generates chemical byproducts that may damage the environment. Among such waste, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are considered persistent pollutants. Sixteen of these are considered priority for remediation, and among them is benzo(a)pyrene. Amid remediation techniques, bioremediation stands out. The genus Burkholderia is amongst the microorganisms known for being capable of degrading persistent compounds; its strains are used as models to study such ability. High-throughput sequencing allows researchers to reach a wider knowledge about biodegradation by bacteria. Using transcripts and mRNA analysis, the genomic regions involved in this aptitude can be detected. To unravel these processes, we used the model B. vietnamiensis strain G4 in two experimental groups: one was exposed to benzo(a)pyrene and the other one (control) was not. Six transcriptomes were generated from each group aiming to compare gene expression and infer which genes are involved in degradation pathways. One hundred fifty-six genes were differentially expressed in the benzo(a)pyrene exposed group, from which 33% are involved in catalytic activity. Among these, the most significant genomic regions were phenylacetic acid degradation protein paaN, involved in the degradation of organic compounds to obtain energy; oxidoreductase FAD-binding subunit, related to the regulation of electrons within groups of dioxygenase enzymes with potential to cleave benzene rings; and dehydrogenase, described as accountable for phenol degradation. These data provide the basis for understanding the bioremediation of benzo(a)pyrene and the possible applications of this strain in polluted environments.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:17 +000
  • Molecular Identification and Antimicrobial Potential of Streptomyces
           Species from Nepalese Soil

    • Abstract: Streptomyces are widely used for the production of secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities, including antibiotics. The necessity of alternative antimicrobial agents against multidrug-resistant pathogens is indispensable. However, the production of new therapeutics is delayed in recent days. Thus, the isolation of new Streptomyces species has drawn attention. Nepal—a country rich in biodiversity—has got high possibilities for the discovery of members of actinomycetes, especially in the higher altitudes. However, in vain, only a few screening research works have been reported from Nepal to date. Streptomyces species were isolated on ISP4 media, and characterization was performed according to morphological similarity and 16S rRNA sequence similarity using bioinformatic tools. Ethyl acetate extracts of Streptomyces species were prepared, and the antimicrobial activity was carried out using agar well diffusion technique. In this report, 18 Streptomyces species isolated from the soil were reported based on sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Among them, 12 isolates have shown antibacterial activity against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli. Here, we have also analyzed 16S rRNA in 27 Streptomyces species whose whole-genome sequence is available, which has revealed that some species have multiple copies of the 16S gene (∼1.5 kb) with significant variation in nucleotides. In contrast, some Streptomyces species shared identical DNA sequences in multiple copies of 16S rRNA. The sequencing of numerous copies of 16S rRNA is not necessary, and the molecular sequencing of this region is not sufficient for the identification of bacterial species. The Streptomyces species-derived ethyl acetate extracts from Nepalese soil demonstrate potential activity against ESBL-producing E. coli. Thus, they are potential candidates for antibiotics manufacturing in the future.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:17 +000
  • Genetic Diversity and Virulence Factors of S. aureus Isolated from Food,
           Humans, and Animals

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal bacterium in humans and animals able to adapt to multiple environments. The aim of this study was to compare the genetic diversity and virulence profiles of strains of S. aureus isolated from food (29 strains), humans (43 strains), and animals (8 strains). 80 lipase-producing strains belonging to a biobank of 360 isolates, identified phenotypically as S. aureus, were selected. Confirmation of the species was made by amplifying the spA gene and 80% (64/80) of the strains were confirmed within this species. The virulence profile of each of the isolates was determined by PCR. The seA gene coding for enterotoxin A was found in 53.1% of the strains, the saK gene, which codes for Staphylokinase, was amplified in 57.8% of the strains, and, finally, the hlB gene coding for β-Hemolysin was amplified in 17.2%. The profile of antimicrobial resistance was determined by the Kirby Bauer method showing that the strains from food presented greater resistance to erythromycin (40.7%) and ciprofloxacin (18.5%) while in strains isolated from humans were to erythromycin (48.4%) and clindamycin (21.2%). Also, in strains from animals, a high resistance to erythromycin was observed (75%). The frequency of MRSA was 12.5% due to the presence of the mec gene and resistance to cefoxitin. Of the total strains, 68.7% were typed by PCR-RFLP of the coa gene using the AluI enzyme; derived from this restriction, 17 profiles were generated. Profile 4 (490 bp, 300 bp) was the most frequent, containing a higher number of strains with a higher number of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, which is associated with greater adaptation to different environments. In this study, a wide genetic diversity of strains of S. aureus from different foods, humans, and animals was found. This demonstrates evolution, genetic versatility, and, therefore, the adaptation of this microorganism in different environments.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:17 +000
  • Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Pleurotus spp. Cultivated on
           Different Agricultural Wastes in Chiro, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: In the present study, mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus florida, were cultivated on different agricultural wastes namely coffee straw (CS), pea straw (PS), Sorghum Grain Residue (SGR), and Wheat Grain (WG) for the evaluation of antibacterial activity. Antimicrobial activity evaluation was carried out against human pathogenic microorganisms, namely, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi by using the disc diffusion method. Methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus cultivated on a Sorghum grain residue substrate were recorded for the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli (19.8 mm) and P. aeruginosa (16.4 mm), and methanolic extracts of P. florida cultivated on a wheat grain substrate were recorded for the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli (18.6 mm) and S. faecalis (14.8 mm). Therefore, results suggested that P. ostreatus and P. florida cultivated on the coffee straw and Sorghum grain substrate were found with the highest antimicrobial activity in comparison to other substrates. The results supported that the methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus and P. florida might indeed be potential sources of antibacterial agents.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:17 +000
  • Antibacterial Potential of Jatropha sp. Latex against Multidrug-Resistant

    • Abstract: Objective. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the latex of three species members of Jatropha (J. curcas, J. gossypilofia Linn., and J. multifida) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli and ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumonia, carbapenemase-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)-E. coli, K. pneumoniae-carbapenemase (KPC), and carbapenemase-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA). Method. The antibacterial activities were calculated based on the inhibition zones using the Mueller–Hinton agar diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using Mueller–Hinton broth in a microdilution method, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using blood agar plate. Results. The latex of Jatropha showed antibacterial activities against the MRSA and CRPA. All latex of Jatropha appeared to have the antibacterial activities against MRSA and CRPA in the diffusion method (20.4–23.7 mm and 12–15 mm), MIC (0.19–6.25%, and 25%), and MBC (0.39–12.5% and 50%). Phytochemical screening of latex indicated the presence of flavonoids. Conclusions. The latex of J. curcas, J. gossypilofia Linn., and J. multifida has the potential to be developed as antibacterial agents, especially against MRSA and CRPA strain, but further in vivo research and discovery of the mode of its action are required to shed the light on the effects.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:16 +000
  • Antibiotics Resistance and Biofilm Formation Capacity of Staphylococcus
           spp. Strains Isolated from Surfaces and Medicotechnical Materials

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus spp. is most often implicated in nosocomial infections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility to antibiotics and the biofilm formation capacity of staphylococci species isolated from surfaces and medicotechnical materials at the university hospital center of Abomey-Calavi/Sô-Ava in Benin. Samples were collected according to ISO/DIS14698-1 standard from the surfaces and medicotechnical materials by the dry swab method. The isolation of Staphylococcus strains was performed on Chapman agar, and their identification was performed using microscopic and biochemical methods. The susceptibility of Staphylococcus isolates to antibiotics was evaluated by the disc diffusion method according to EUCAST and CLSI recommendations. The biofilm formation was qualitatively assessed using microplates. Of the 128 surfaces and medicotechnical material samples analyzed, 77% were contaminated with Staphylococcus spp. Thirteen species of Staphylococcus were isolated in different proportions but the pediatric department was the most contaminated (33%) by S. aureus. Resistance to antibiotics considerably varies according to the species of Staphylococcus. However, antibiotics such as chloramphenicol and vancomycin are the most effective on S. aureus, whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci developed less resistance to gentamycin and ciprofloxacin. The biofilm test reveals that 37% of our isolated strains were biofilm formers. Although regular monitoring of hospital hygiene is crucial, the optimal use of antibiotics is a cornerstone of reducing antimicrobial resistance.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:35:16 +000
  • Molecular Detection of Panton Valentine Leukocidin Toxin in Clinical
           Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from Kiambu County, Kenya

    • Abstract: Panton–Valentine leukocidin gene is produced by Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates as a pore-forming toxin is largely responsible for skin and soft tissue illnesses. MRSA produces PVL toxins through lukS and lukF proteins causing tissue necrosis by damaging membrane of the defense cells. Presence of PVL toxin was tested from the 54 S. aureus clinical isolates obtained from Thika and Kiambu Level 5 Hospitals, in Kiambu County, Kenya, by Geno Type® MRSA assay (Hain Life Science, Nehren, Germany). DNA was isolated from freshly harvested bacterial cultures by spin column using Geno Type DNA isolation kit. The detection of PVL toxins was performed by amplification of genomic DNA and by reverse hybridization that identifies PVL genes using Geno Type MRSA kit. Out of 138 samples that were collected from patients in Kiambu County, 54 S. aureus isolates were obtained, of which 14 (25.9%; 95% CI = 11.9–38.9) samples had PVL toxins. The isolates that were obtained from the female patients had a higher PVL toxin prevalence of 35.7%, while the isolates collected from the male patients had a lower prevalence of 15.4% (). The pediatrics department had the highest PVL gene prevalence compared to outpatient department and surgical units (). However, the age groups of patients and the hospital attended by patients showed no significant difference in terms of PVL gene prevalence (). Therefore, the patients' gender and hospital units were not significantly associated with PVL gene prevalence (). This study shows that PVL positive isolates occur in the sampled hospitals in the county and female as well as children must be taken into consideration among patients with wound infections when isolating S. aureus.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Aug 2020 15:20:22 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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