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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.006]   [H-I: 18]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Milk in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk can be transmitted from animals to humans, and in Tanzania raw milk is sold in local markets and consumed as purchased. This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S. aureus identification and the presence of mecA gene for methicillin-resistant strains. Coagulase-negative (CN) S. aureus were reconfirmed using tube coagulase, DNase, and API Staph tests. MRSA isolates were spa typed whereas antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Forty-six coagulase positives (CP) and two CN S. aureus were identified. Most strains were resistant to penicillin (72%), and 3 isolates: 2 CN S. aureus and 1 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin and were confirmed to carry mecA. Resistance to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline was 23.9%, 30.4%, and 41.3%, respectively. Twelve isolates exhibited multidrug resistance; however, only one mecA positive strain among the three was typeable and belonged to spa type t2603. This study reports for the first time the presence of CN variant of MRSA, which was assigned the spa type t2603, and the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from bovine milk in Morogoro, Tanzania.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Association with Risk Factors
           among Nonpregnant Women: A Hospital Based Study

    • Abstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological imbalance of the vaginal microbiota affecting mostly women of reproductive age group. This study was carried out among 160 nonpregnant women registered at the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology/Obstetrics of KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal, from November 2014 to May 2015. The aim of the study was to assess the association of the risk factors with BV and analyze the type of bacteria associated with BV. Nugent’s scoring method was used for diagnosis of BV in this study. The overall prevalence of BV was 24.4% among symptomatic patients. Douching was statistically related to BV . Also, BV was significantly associated with consistency , odor , and amount of abnormal vaginal discharge . Contraceptives users on anatomical sites were found more prone to BV than those who did not use contraceptives on anatomical sites. Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), and Streptococcus agalactiae were associated with BV and out of those Lactobacillus spp. was the predominant organism. The higher prevalence of BV among symptomatic patients indicates interventions should be applied to reduce the incidence of stillbirth, abortion, and sterility.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 06:08:32 +000
  • Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of
           Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya

    • Abstract: Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, “pepper spots,” and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s) of the disease. A total of 80 fungal isolates were collected from diseased avocado fruits in Murang’a County, the main avocado growing region in Kenya. Forty-six isolates were morphologically identified as Colletotrichum spp. based on their cultural characteristics, mainly whitish, greyish, and creamish colour and cottony/velvety mycelia on the top side of the culture and greyish cream with concentric zonation on the reverse side. Their spores were straight with rounded end and nonseptate. Thirty-four isolates were identified as Pestalotiopsis spp. based on their cultural characteristics: whitish grey mycelium with black fruiting structure on the upper side and greyish black one on the lower side and septate spores with 3-4 septa and 2 or 3 appendages at one end. Further molecular studies using ITS indicated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum boninense, and Pestalotiopsis microspora as the causal agents of anthracnose disease in avocado. However, with this being the first report, there is a need to conduct further studies to establish whether there is coinfection or any interaction thereof.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 09:08:17 +000
  • Bacterial Profile, Antibacterial Resistance Pattern, and Associated
           Factors from Women Attending Postnatal Health Service at University of
           Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Surgical site infection is a vital cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance bacterial infection poses a big threat to this vulnerable population. However, there is lack of studies around the study area. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify bacterial profile, antibacterial resistance pattern, and associated factors among mothers attending postnatal care health service. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 107 study participants at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from 1 January 2016 to 30 May 2016. Wound swab, aspirate, and biopsy were collected and performed for culture and drug resistance testing. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to determine the associated factors for bacterial infection. Odds ratio (95% CI) was calculated to determine the strength of statistically significant associated factors. Result. Bacterial growth was confirmed in 90 (84.1%) of 107 study participants suspected to have surgical site infection. The predominant bacterial isolates were S. aureus (41.6%), E. coli (19.8%), K. pneumoniae (13.9%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (12.9%), and Enterobacter spp. (4%). The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline but susceptible to ceftriaxone and amikacin. Multidrug-resistant bacteria species were isolated. Using a procedure such as cesarean section and episiotomy for delivery and premature rapture of membrane had strong association with bacterial infection. Conclusion. The high prevalence of bacterial profile and isolation of multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a big threat to postnatal mothers and their children. Factors such as cesarean section, episiotomy for delivery, and premature rapture of membrane were predictors for bacterial infection. Therefore, there should be done a continuous surveillance as well as rational use of antibiotics and a longitudinal study using phenotypic and genotypic methods will be done.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Bile Acids and Nisin on the Production of Enterotoxin by
           Clostridium perfringens in a Nutrient-Rich Medium

    • Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, with nearly a million cases each year. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), produced during sporulation, damages intestinal epithelial cells by pore formation, which results in watery diarrhea. The effects of low concentrations of nisin and bile acids on sporulation and toxin production were investigated in C. perfringens SM101, which carries an enterotoxin gene on the chromosome, in a nutrient-rich medium. Bile acids and nisin increased production of enterotoxin in cultures; bile acids had the highest effect. Both compounds stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes and production of spores during the early growth phase. They also delayed spore outgrowth and nisin was more inhibitory. Bile acids and nisin enhanced enterotoxin production in some but not all other C. perfringens isolates tested. Low concentrations of bile acids and nisin may act as a stress signal for the initiation of sporulation and the early transcription of sporulation-related genes in some strains of C. perfringens, which may result in increased strain-specific production of enterotoxin in those strains. This is the first report showing that nisin and bile acids stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes in a nutrient-rich bacterial culture medium.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2018 09:53:40 +000
  • Assessment of Two Years’ Sputum Smear Results among Tuberculosis
           Suspected Patients in Gambella Regional Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Determining burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTb) may be associated with success of directly observed theraphy (DOT) services in high PTb areas, such as Gambella, Ethiopia. Objective. To assess burden of sputum smear positive SSP-PTb reports in Gambella Regional Hospital, in two consecutive years: mid 2013 to 2015. Methods. From March 2013 to February 2015, PTb suspected patients’ sputum Acid Fast Bacilli test results were collected from laboratory registration book of Gambella Regional Hospital, western Ethiopia. Results. Of the total 3064 results, the proportions of males and individuals whose age is between 16 and 25 years were 1823 (59.5%) and 1046 (34.1%), respectively. Majority of samples were coming from newly PTb suspected patients (2587, or 84.4%); and of them, SSP-PTb cases were 9.9%. The overall SSP-PTb cases decreased by 2.1% in March 2014 to February 2015 as compared to March 2013 to Feburary 2014. Meanwhile, AFB smear negative cases were significantly associated with being male [1.384 (1.064–1.801)] and being of age group 16–25 years [1.517 (1.007–2.287)]. Conclusion. In Gambella region, although the distribution of AFB smear results had no significant yearly variations and the overall burden of SSP cases was decreased, still a lot of work needs to be undertaken on the PTb prevention and control program.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Bacterial Community of the Rice Floodwater Using Cultivation-Independent

    • Abstract: In agricultural systems, interactions between plants and microorganisms are important to maintaining production and profitability. In this study, bacterial communities in floodwaters of rice fields were monitored during the vegetative and reproductive stages of rice plant development using 16S amplicon sequencing. The study was conducted in the south of Brazil, during the crop years 2011/12 and 2012/13. Comparative analyses showed strong differences between the communities of floodwaters associated with the two developmental stages. During the vegetative stage, 1551 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, while less than half that number (603) were identified in the reproductive stage. The higher bacterial richness observed in floodwater collected during the vegetative stage may have been favored by the higher concentration of nutrients, such as potassium, due to rhizodeposition and fertilizer application. Eighteen bacterial phyla were identified in both samples. Both communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. In the vegetative stage, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were more abundant and, in contrast, Bacilli and Clostridia were the more dominant classes in the reproductive stage. The major bacterial taxa identified have been previously identified as important colonizers of rice fields. The richness and composition of bacterial communities over cultivation time may contribute to the sustainability of the crop.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 06:16:29 +000
  • Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella and
           Shigella Species among Diarrheal Patients Attending Nekemte Referral
           Hospital, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The main objective of this study was determining the prevalence and antibiotics resistance pattern of Salmonella and Shigella sp. from diarrheal patients attending Nekemte Referral Hospital. A total of 422 patients were included in the study and their sociodemographic and clinical information was collected using questionnaire. Stool samples of the patients were collected and processed following standard bacteriological protocols. Presumptive colonies of Salmonella and Shigella species were identified and subcultured to their respective genera by standard biochemical tests. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was tested using disk diffusion assay. The prevalences of Salmonella and Shigella sp. among the patients were 7.1% and 2.1%, respectively. The antimicrobial susceptibility test results of the isolates showed that they are highly resistant to amoxicillin (30 μg). In contrast, the isolates showed relatively lower resistance level to ceftriaxone (30 μg), nalidixic acid (30 μg), norfloxacin (10 μg), and ciprofloxacin (5 μg). This study revealed 9.2% prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella sp. which were resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Thus, intervention measures such as health education, provision of safe drinking water, improvement of waste disposal systems, and surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility of the pathogens should be done regularly.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 09:45:20 +000
  • Morphological and Genetic Diversity of Rhizobia Nodulating Cowpea (Vigna
           unguiculata L.) from Agricultural Soils of Lower Eastern Kenya

    • Abstract: Limited nitrogen (N) content in the soil is a major challenge to sustainable and high crop production in many developing countries. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia plays an important role in supplying sufficient N for legumes and subsequent nonleguminous crops. To identify rhizobia strains which are suitable for bioinoculant production, characterization of rhizobia is a prerequisite. The objective of this study was to assess the morphological and genetic diversity of rhizobia that nodulates cowpea in agricultural soils of lower eastern Kenya. Twenty-eight rhizobia isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from farmers’ fields in Machakos, Makueni, and Kitui counties in lower eastern Kenya and characterized based on morphological characteristics. Thirteen representative isolates were selected and characterized using BOX repetitive element PCR fingerprinting. Based on the dendrogram generated from morphological characteristics, the test isolates were distributed into two major clusters at a similarity of 75%. Phylogenetic tree, based on BOX repetitive element PCR, grouped the isolates into two clusters at 90% similarity level. The clustering of the isolates did not show a relationship to the origin of soil samples, although the isolates were genetically diverse. This study is a prerequisite to the selection of suitable cowpea rhizobia to develop bioinoculants for sustainable crop production in Kenya.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 08:16:35 +000
  • Epidemiological Features of Clostridium difficile Colonizing the Intestine
           of Jordanian Infants

    • Abstract: Clostridium difficile is commonly found in the intestine of infants without causing any disease. This study investigated the most important epidemiological features of C. difficile strains colonizing intestine of Jordanian infants. A total of 287 fecal samples were collected from infants admitted to the Jordan University Hospital (JUH) over the period of 2015. Samples were cultured for C. difficile and their growth was identified using microbiological culture and PCR. The overall C. difficile colonization rate among hospitalized and nonhospitalized infants was 37/287 (12.9%). Neonates were less colonized than other infants (8.7% verses 19.5%). Colonization of the infants with C. difficile toxigenic strains (TcdA and TcdB) was observed in 54% of the isolates, whereas those colonized with nontoxigenic strains were 46% and only one isolate was positive for binary toxin. Breast feeding of infants is a significant factor associated with decreased colonization with C. difficile. All C. difficile strains were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, while high resistance rate to ciprofloxacin (78.4%) and less resistance rate to erythromycin (29.7%) were detected among the isolates. The results showed that 40.5% of the isolates carried mutated gyrA and gyrB genes which have cross-resistance to ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. This study represents useful epidemiological features about C. difficile colonizing intestine of infants living in a developing country.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 08:23:48 +000
  • Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in Curd Cheese Sold in the
           Northeastern Region of South America

    • Abstract: The present study evaluated the microbiological and sanitary quality of curd cheese sold on the beaches of the Itaparica Island, Brazil, and verified whether a correlation exists between the commercialization conditions and the microbiological data. The research was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Sixty samples of rennet-containing cheese were collected to estimate the populations of mesophylls, psychrotrophic microorganisms, mold and yeast, Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli. An observational analysis was performed during the collection, using a checklist to verify the sellers’ sanitary conditions and cheese marketing. A high nonconformity index was registered regarding aspects in the checklist. In the microbiological analyses, the number of mesophylls in raw and roasted samples ranged from 7,88 to 14,82 log CFU/mL, and those of psychrotrophs ranged from 2,80 to 3,84 log CFU/mL. Meanwhile, mold and yeast levels in the samples ranged from 8,06 to 5,54 log CFU/mL, S. aureus was detected at levels from 3,24 to 4,94 log CFU/mL, and the total coliform counts ranged from 4,48 to 7,18 log CFU/mL. The number of E. coli specimens ranged from 2,96 to 5,75 log CFU/mL. Microbial insecurity was noted for commercialized curd cheese, and the need for intervention was indicated.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Persistence of Toxic Activity of Fermentation Extracts from Bacillus
           thuringiensis var. israelensis after More Than Three Decades of Storage

    • Abstract: This study was carried out to determine the persistence of toxicity of fermentation extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis after more than three decades of storage. For this purpose, a population of Aedes aegypti was established. The mortality rate of 20 spore-crystal extracts purified using the acetone-lactose coprecipitation method was measured and evaluated by bioassays according to a modified WHO protocol. The extracts with the highest mortality rate were determined in triplicate by their LD50 and LD98. All extracts showed toxicity at the highest tested dose (1000 ppm) and some, such as strains 3260 and 3501, still killed larvae at doses as low as 0.01 ppm. These data are surprising because no study on the activity of B. thuringiensis toxic proteins after such a long storage time has been reported.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Qualitative Analysis of Microbial Dynamics during Anaerobic Digestion of
           Microalgal Biomass in a UASB Reactor

    • Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbiologically coordinated process with dynamic relationships between bacterial players. Current understanding of dynamic changes in the bacterial composition during the AD process is incomplete. The objective of this research was to assess changes in bacterial community composition that coordinates with anaerobic codigestion of microalgal biomass cultivated on municipal wastewater. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was used to achieve high rates of microalgae decomposition and biogas production. Samples of the sludge were collected throughout AD and extracted DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing using methanogen mcrA gene specific and universal bacterial primers. Analysis of the data revealed that samples taken at different stages of AD had varying bacterial composition. A group consisting of Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, and Enterobacteriales was identified to be putatively responsible for the hydrolysis of microalgal biomass. The methanogenesis phase was dominated by Methanosarcina mazei. Results of observed changes in the composition of microbial communities during AD can be used as a road map to stimulate key bacterial species identified at each phase of AD to increase yield of biogas and rate of substrate decomposition. This research demonstrates a successful exploitation of methane production from microalgae without any biomass pretreatment.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 07:45:52 +000
  • Differential Microbial Diversity in Drosophila melanogaster: Are Fruit
           Flies Potential Vectors of Opportunistic Pathogens'

    • Abstract: Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies. The most abundant microorganisms identified were the yeast Candida inconspicua and the bacterium Klebsiella sp. The yeast Issatchenkia hanoiensis was significantly more common internally than externally in flies. Species richness was higher in fungi than in bacteria, but diversity was lower in fungi than in bacteria. The microbial composition of flies was similar internally and externally. We identified a variety of opportunistic human and plant pathogens in flies such as Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Fusarium equiseti/oxysporum, Geotrichum candidum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Microbacterium oxydans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Despite its utility as a model system, D. melanogaster can be a vector of microorganisms that represent a potential risk to plant and public health.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2017 08:42:12 +000
  • Enteric Fever Caused by Salmonella enterica Serovars with Reduced
           Susceptibility of Fluoroquinolones at a Community Based Teaching Hospital
           of Nepal

    • Abstract: Enteric fever continues to be an important public health problem especially in developing countries of the tropical region including Nepal. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of enteric fever associated with Salmonella enterica and determine its antimicrobial susceptibilities to therapeutic antimicrobials in a community based teaching hospital of Nepal. A total of 2,304 blood samples from suspected enteric fever patients attending Manmohan Memorial Teaching Hospital were processed with standard microbiological methods for the isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens. The Salmonella enterica clinical strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method, and the results were interpreted according to the criteria suggested by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). A total of 245 (10.6%) cases of enteric fever associated with Salmonella enterica were confirmed by blood culture. Out of them, 162 (66.1%) were caused by Salmonella Typhi and 83 (33.9%) by Salmonella Paratyphi. On Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Salmonella isolates were highly susceptible to cefixime (100%), ceftriaxone (100%), ampicillin (97.9%), cotrimoxazole (94.6%), azithromycin (96.7%), tetracycline (95.5%), and chloramphenicol (97.5%), respectively. Two hundred twenty-six (92.2%) of Salmonella isolates were nalidixic acid resistant with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (36.7%) and ofloxacin (54.8%), respectively. Although the rate of MDR Salmonella strains was very low (
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Nov 2017 06:28:03 +000
  • Survival of Five Strains of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in a Sausage
           Fermentation Model and Subsequent Sensitivity to Stress from Gastric Acid
           and Intestinal Fluid

    • Abstract: The ability of foodborne pathogens to exhibit adaptive responses to stressful conditions in foods may enhance their survival when passing through the gastrointestinal system. We aimed to determine whether Escherichia coli surviving stresses encountered during a model dry-fermented sausage (DFS) production process exhibit enhanced tolerance and survival in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Salami sausage batters spiked with five E. coli isolates, including enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains isolated from different DFS outbreaks, were fermented in a model DFS process (20°C, 21 days). Control batters spiked with the same strains were stored at 4°C for the same period. Samples from matured model sausages and controls were thereafter exposed to an in vitro digestion challenge. Gastric exposure (pH 3) resulted in considerably reduced survival of the E. coli strains that had undergone the model DFS process. This reduction continued after entering intestinal challenge (pH 8), but growth resumed after 120 min. When subjected to gastric challenge for 120 min, E. coli that had undergone the DFS process showed about lower survival compared with those kept in sausage batter at 4°C. Our results indicated that E. coli strains surviving a model DFS process exhibited reduced tolerance to subsequent gastric challenge at low pH.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Oct 2017 09:06:57 +000
  • Comparison of the Performance of Urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Antigens Cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) with Culture and Microscopy in
           Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    • Abstract: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem and is one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of urinary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens cocktail (ESAT6, CFP10, and MPT64) compared with culture and microscopy. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from January 2014 to October 2016. A total of 141 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Sputum samples were examined for acid-fast bacilli (ZN stain) and mycobacterial culture (LJ); the Mtb antigens cocktail was examined in the urine sample. The positivity rate of TB detection from the three methods was as follows: AFB 52/141 (36.9%), culture 50/141 (35.5%), and urinary Mtb antigens cocktail 95/141 (67.4%). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of urinary Mtb antigens cocktail were 68.2%, 33%, 31.6%, and 69.6%, respectively. Validity of combination of both methods with culture as a gold standard yielded sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 90%, 28.6%, 40.9%, and 83.8%, respectively. Combination of urinary Mtb antigens cocktail with AFB as a screening test gives a good sensitivity, although the specificity is reduced. Urinary Mtb antigens cocktail can be used as screening test for pulmonary tuberculosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Oct 2017 06:54:27 +000
  • Isolation and Physiomorphological Characterization of Escherichia coli
           O157:H7-Infecting Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Operations

    • Abstract: Bacteriophages, recovered from beef cattle environment and specifically targeting Escherichia coli O157:H7, were examined for their physiological and morphological characteristics. Degree of bacterial lysis and host range of isolated bacteriophages was determined against 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Morphology of phages was examined under transmission electron microscope. Phage growth parameters, particularly rate of adsorption, rise period, latent period, and burst size were also determined. The stability of isolated phages was tested at acidic and alkaline pH, at high temperatures, and in cold storage. A total of 7 phages were isolated which showed lytic activity against 50 out of 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Based on the morphology, phages were classified into Myoviridae or Siphoviridae family. Phages had a rise period between 19 and 40 min, a short latent period between 12 and 30 min, and a large burst size (89–631 virions per infected cell), indicating high lytic activity. Phages remained stable for 24 h at a wide pH (1–11) and temperature range (40–60°C) and for 90 d in cold storage. Characterization of bacteriophages, with a diverse host range of E. coli O157:H7, could aid in the development of effective biocontrol strategies for this pathogen in the food industry.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Bacteria from Jordanian Hot
           Springs: Bacillus licheniformis and Thermomonas hydrothermalis Isolates as
           Potential Producers of Thermostable Enzymes

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of thermophilic bacteria from hot springs in Jordan. Ten isolates were characterized by morphological, microscopic, biochemical, molecular, and physiological characteristics. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of the isolates followed by BLAST search revealed that nine strains could be identified as Bacillus licheniformis and one isolate as Thermomonas hydrothermalis. This is the first report on the isolation of Thermomonas species from Jordanian hot springs. The isolates showed an ability to produce some thermostable enzymes such as amylase, protease, cellulose, gelatins, and lecithin. Moreover, the UPGMA dendrogram of the enzymatic characteristics of the ten isolates was constructed; results indicated a high phenotypic diversity, which encourages future studies to explore further industrial and environmental applications.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Preinoculation of Soybean Seeds Treated with Agrichemicals up to 30 Days
           before Sowing: Technological Innovation for Large-Scale Agriculture

    • Abstract: The cultivation of soybean in Brazil experienced an expressive growth in the last decades. Soybean is highly demanding on nitrogen (N) that must come from fertilizers or from biological fixation. The N supply to the soybean crop in Brazil relies on the inoculation with elite strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. elkanii, and B. diazoefficiens, which are able to fulfill the crop’s N requirements and enrich the soil for the following crop. The effectiveness of the association between N2-fixing bacteria and soybean plants depends on the efficacy of the inoculation process. Seed treatment with pesticides, especially fungicides or micronutrients, may rapidly kill the inoculated bacteria, affecting the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis. The development of technologies that allow inoculation to become a successful component of industrial seed treatment represents a valuable tool for the seed industry, as well as for the soybean crop worldwide. In this article, we report the results of new technologies, developed by the company Total Biotecnologia Indústria e Comércio S/A of Brazil, for preinoculation of soybean seeds with bradyrhizobia, in the presence of agrichemicals. Our results demonstrate improved bacterial survival for up to 30 days after inoculation, without compromising nodulation, N2-fixation, and yield in the field.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Automated Flow Cytometry: An Alternative to Urine Culture in a Routine
           Clinical Microbiology Laboratory'

    • Abstract: The urine culture is the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) but constitutes a significant workload in the routine clinical laboratory. Due to the high percentage of negative results, there is a need for an efficient screening method, with a high negative predictive value (NPV) that could reduce the number of unnecessary culture tests. With the purpose of improving the efficiency of laboratory work, several methods for screening out the culture-negative samples have been developed, but none of them has shown adequate sensitivity (SE) and high NPV. Many authors show data about the efficacy of flow cytometry in the routine clinical laboratory. The aim of this article is to review and discuss the current literature on the feasibility of urine flow cytometry (UFC) and its utility as an alternative analytical technique in urinalysis.
      PubDate: Wed, 27 Sep 2017 09:14:51 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in
           Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian

    • PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Isolates from Captive Green Turtles and In
           Vitro Sensitivity to Bacteriophages

    • Abstract: This study aimed to test multidrug resistant isolates from hospitalised green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and their environment in North Queensland, Australia, for in vitro susceptibility to bacteriophages. Seventy-one Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from green turtle eye swabs and water samples. Broth microdilution tests were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility. All isolates were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with 24% being resistant to seven of the eight antibiotics. Highest resistance rates were detected to enrofloxacin (77%) and ampicillin (69.2%). More than 50% resistance was also found to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (62.5%), ceftiofur (53.8%), and erythromycin (53.3%). All the enriched phage filtrate mixtures resulted in the lysis of one or more of the multidrug resistant bacteria, including Vibrio harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus. These results indicate that antibiotic resistance is common in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from hospitalised sea turtles and their marine environment in North Queensland, supporting global concern over the rapid evolution of multidrug resistant genes in the environment. Using virulent bacteriophages as antibiotic alternatives would not only be beneficial to turtle health but also prevent further addition of multidrug resistant genes to coastal waters.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Predicted Cold Shock Proteins from the Extremophilic Bacterium Deinococcus
           maricopensis and Related Deinococcus Species

    • Abstract: While many studies have examined the mechanisms by which extremophilic Deinococci survive exposure to ionizing radiation, very few publications have characterized the cold shock adaptations of this group, despite many species being found in persistent cold environments and environments prone to significant daily temperature fluctuations. Bacterial cold shock proteins (Csps) are a family of conserved, RNA chaperone proteins that commonly play a role in cold temperature adaptation, including a downward shift in temperature (i.e., cold shock). The primary aim of this study was to test whether a representative, desert-dwelling Deinococcus, Deinococcus maricopensis, encodes Csps as part of its genome. Bioinformatic approaches were used to identify a Csp from D. maricopensis LB-34. The Csp, termed Dm-Csp1, contains sequence features of Csps including a conserved cold shock domain and nucleic acid binding motifs. A tertiary model of Dm-Csp1 revealed an anticipated Csp structure containing five anti-parallel beta-strands, and ligand prediction experiments identified N-terminally located residues capable of binding single-stranded nucleic acids. Putative Csps were identified from 100% of (27 of 27) Deinococci species for which genome information is available; and the Deinococci-encoded Csps identified contain a C-terminally located region that appears to be limited to members of the class Deinococci.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Sep 2017 08:43:46 +000
  • Clinical Characteristics and Laboratory Identification of Aerococcus
           Infections: An Australian Tertiary Centre Perspective

    • Abstract: Aerococci uncommonly cause urinary tract (UTI) and bloodstream infections (BSI). The clinical characteristics and laboratory identification rates of Aerococcus in the Australian context are unknown. A retrospective observational cohort study of patients with positive Aerococcus cultures between 2010 and 2015 was performed. Patients were analysed according to predefined “asymptomatic bacteriuria,” “UTI,” and “BSI” groups. Forty-seven [40 (85%) for urine and 7 (15%) for blood] isolates were identified [38% male, median age of 79 (IQR 62–85) years], with corresponding identification rates of 24.2/100,000/year for urine (0.02%) and 7.3/100,000/year for blood cultures (0.007%). Since the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification rate in urine has increased from 14.7/100,000/year to 32/100,000/year (). For urine isolates, 14 (35%) met the definition for UTI whilst 26 (65%) were “asymptomatic bacteriuria.” Underlying urological abnormalities, catheterisation, and polymicrobial growth were common. Seventy percent of bacteriuria was treated regardless of colonisation or active infection status. Symptomatic patients were more likely to receive treatment (OR 7.2, 95% CI 1.4–35.3). In patients with BSI, 1 (14.2%) had endocarditis and 1 (14.2%) died. The majority of isolates were susceptible to penicillin (11/12 tested, 92%).
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Sep 2017 07:18:02 +000
  • Environmentally Friendly Production of D(−) Lactic Acid by
           Sporolactobacillus nakayamae: Investigation of Fermentation Parameters and
           Fed-Batch Strategies

    • Abstract: The interest in the production of lactic acid has increased due to its wide range of applications. In the present study, the variables that affect fermentative D(−) lactic acid production were investigated: neutralizing agents, pH, temperature, inoculum percentage, agitation, and concentration of the medium components. An experimental design was applied to determine the optimal concentrations of the medium components and fermentation was studied using different feeding strategies. High production (122.41 g/L) and productivity (3.65 g/L·h) were efficiently achieved by Sporolactobacillus nakayamae in 54 h using a multipulse fed-batch technique with an initial medium containing 35 g/L of yeast extract (byproduct of alcohol production), 60 g/L of crystallized sugar, and 7.5 mL/L of salts. The fermentation process was conducted at 35°C and pH 6.0 controlled by NaOH with a 20% volume of inoculum and agitation at 125 rpm. The production of a high optically pure concentration of D(−) lactic acid combined with an environmentally friendly NaOH-based process demonstrates that S. nakayamae is a promising strain for D(−) lactic acid production.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Multidrug Resistant Enteric Bacterial Pathogens in a Psychiatric Hospital
           in Ghana: Implications for Control of Nosocomial Infections

    • Abstract: Enteric bacteria are commonly implicated in hospital-acquired or nosocomial infections. In Ghana, these infections constitute an important public health problem but little is known about their contribution to antibiotic resistance. The aim of the study was to determine the extent and pattern of antibiotic resistance of enteric bacteria isolated from patients and environmental sources at the Accra Psychiatric Hospital. A total of 265 samples were collected from the study site including 142 stool and 82 urine samples from patients, 7 swab samples of door handle, and 3 samples of drinking water. Enteric bacteria were isolated using standard microbiological methods. Antibiograms of the isolates were determined using the disc diffusion method. Overall, 232 enteric bacteria were isolated. Escherichia coli was the most common (38.3%), followed by Proteus (19.8%), Klebsiella (17.7%), Citrobacter (14.7%), Morganella (8.2%), and Pseudomonas (1.3%). All isolates were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to cefotaxime. The resistance ranged from 15.5% to 84.5%. Multidrug resistance was most prevalent (100%) among isolates of Proteus and Morganella and least prevalent among isolates of Pseudomonas (33.3%). Multidrug resistance among enteric bacteria at the study hospital is high and hence there is a need for screening before therapy to ensure prudent use of antibiotics.
      PubDate: Wed, 06 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Baseline Antibody Titre against Salmonella enterica in Healthy Population
           of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to establish a baseline titre for the population of Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Method. Four hundred healthy blood donors, attending blood donation camps, were screened using a survey questionnaire. Widal tube agglutination test was performed on the diluted sera (with 0.9% normal saline) of blood donors, with final dilution ranging from 1 : 40 to 1 : 320. Results. Out of 400 individuals providing samples, 78 (19.5%) individuals showed antibody titres ≥ 1 : 40 for at least one antigen and 322 (80.5%) showed no agglutination. The baseline antibody titres against O antigen and H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Similarly, the baseline antibody titres for the H antigen of Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A and Paratyphi B were found to be 1 : 40 and 1 : 80, respectively. Conclusion. Thus, it was noted that the diagnostically significant cutoff of antibody titre from acute phase sample was ≥ 1 : 80 for S. Typhi O antigen and titre of ≥ 1 : 160 for both S. Typhi H antigen and S. Paratyphi BH antigen. Antibody titre of ≥ 1 : 80 can be considered significant for S. Paratyphi AH antigen.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Feasibility of Metatranscriptome Analysis from Infant Gut Microbiota:
           Adaptation to Solid Foods Results in Increased Activity of Firmicutes at
           Six Months

    • Abstract: Newborns are rapidly colonized by microbes and their intestinal tracts contain highly dynamic and rapidly developing microbial communities in the first months of life. In this study, we describe the feasibility of isolating mRNA from rapidly processed faecal samples and applying deep RNA-Seq analysis to provide insight into the active contributors of the microbial community in early life. Specific attention is given to the impact of removing rRNA from the mRNA on the phylogenetic and transcriptional profiling and its analysis depth. A breastfed baby was followed in the first six months of life during adaptation to solid food, dairy products, and formula. It was found that, in the weaning period, the total transcriptional activity of Actinobacteria, mainly represented by Bifidobacterium, decreased while that of Firmicutes increased over time. Moreover, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, including the canonical Bifidobacteria as well as Collinsella, were found to be important contributors to carbohydrate fermentation and vitamin biosynthesis in the infant intestine. Finally, the expression of Lactobacillus rhamnosus-like genes was detected, likely following transfer from the mother who consumed L. rhamnosus GG. The study indicates that metatranscriptome analysis of the infant gut microbiota is feasible on infant stool samples and can be used to provide insight into the core activities of the developing community.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Aug 2017 09:53:13 +000
  • Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Associated Risk Factors among Women
           Complaining of Genital Tract Infection

    • Abstract: Background. Bacterial vaginosis is a global concern due to the increased risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 210 patients between September 2015 and July 2016 at St. Paul’s Hospital. Gram-stained vaginal swabs were examined microscopically and graded as per Nugent’s procedure. Bacteria causing aerobic vaginitis were characterized, and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined. Results. The overall prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 48.6%. Bacterial vaginosis was significantly associated with number of pants used per day () and frequency of vaginal bathing (). Of 151 bacterial isolates, 69.5% were Gram-negative and 30.5% were Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-positive bacteria was high against penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. Cefoxitin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-positive bacteria. The overall drug resistance level of Gram-negative bacteria was high against tetracycline, ampicillin, and amoxicillin. Amikacin and tobramycin were the most active drugs against Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was high and was affected by individual hygiene. Routine culture of vaginal samples should be performed on patients with vaginitis and the drug susceptibility pattern of each isolate should be determined.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
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