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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 334 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 334 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 34, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedic Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.091, h-index: 14)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemotherapy Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Dataset Papers in Science     Open Access  
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Epidemiology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Epilepsy Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Indian J. of Materials Science     Open Access  
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Influenza Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 65, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Intl. J. of Bacteriology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Intl. J. of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Ecology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Evolutionary Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Family Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.416, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.167, h-index: 5)
Intl. J. of Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Proteomics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.169, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 199)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.006]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [334 journals]
  • Prevalence of Virulence Genes Associated with Diarrheagenic Pathotypes of
           Escherichia coli Isolates from Water, Sediment, Fish, and Crab in Aby
           Lagoon, Côte d’Ivoire

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to characterize virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates from water, sediment, fish, and crab in Aby Lagoon. Serogrouping was performed by EPEC antisera in 113 E. coli strains. The presence of diarrhea-associated genes (eae, stx, AggR, elt, and est) was assessed by multiplex PCR using specific primers. Based on the multiplex PCR, sixty-two isolates (42 from water, 19 from sediment, and 1 from crab) were positive for virulence genes, including 34 positive for elt (ETEC), 46 positive for est (ETEC), 24 positive for both elt and est, 6 positive for stx (EHEC), 1 positive for both stx + est, and 1 positive for both stx + elt. Genes eae (EPEC) and AggR (EAEC) were not detected. Nine serogroups (O114, O127, O55, O111, O86, O119, O126, O128, and O142) were identified. This study revealed the presence of diarrheagenic and nondiarrheagenic E. coli and potential public health risks if fishery products are not appropriately cooked.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 09:03:27 +000
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Yeasts Able to Assimilate Sugarcane
           Bagasse Hemicellulosic Hydrolysate and Produce Xylitol Associated with
           Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta)

    • Abstract: Yeasts are an important component of insect gut microbial content, playing roles such as degradation of polymers and toxic compounds, biological control, and hormone, vitamin, and digestive enzyme production. The xylophagous beetle gut is a hyperdiverse habitat and a potential source of new species with industrial abilities such as enzyme production, pentose fermentation, and biodetoxification. In this work, samples of Veturius transversus (Passalidae, Coleoptera, and Insecta) were collected from the Central Amazon Rainforest. Their guts were dissected and a total of 20 microbial colonies were isolated using sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate. They were identified as having 10 distinct biochemical profiles, and genetic analysis allowed identification as three clades in the genera Candida, Williopsis, and Geotrichum. All colonies were able to assimilate D-xylose and 18 were able to produce xylitol, especially a strain of Geotrichum, with a maximum yield of 0.502 g·g−1. These results agree with a previous prediction that the microbial community associated with xylophagous insects is a promising source of species of biotechnological interest.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Identification of Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzymes and
           Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes among Klebsiella pneumoniae
           Clinical Isolates Recovered from Egyptian Patients

    • Abstract: Inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical settings is thought to have led to the global emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding aminoglycoside resistance and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae. All K. pneumoniae isolates were phenotypically identified using API 20E and then confirmed genotypically through amplification of the specific K. pneumoniae phoE gene. All isolates were genotyped by the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction technique (ERIC-PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by a modified Kirby-Bauer method and broth microdilution. All resistant or intermediate-resistant isolates to either gentamicin or amikacin were screened for 7 different genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). In addition, all resistant or intermediate-resistant isolates to either ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin were screened for 5 genes encoding the quinolone resistance protein (Qnr), 1 gene encoding quinolone-modifying enzyme, and 3 genes encoding quinolone efflux pumps. Biotyping using API 20E revealed 13 different biotypes. Genotyping demonstrated that all isolates were related to 2 main phylogenetic groups. Susceptibility testing revealed that carbapenems and tigecycline were the most effective agents. Investigation of genes encoding AMEs revealed that acc(6′)-Ib was the most prevalent, followed by acc(3′)-II, aph(3′)-IV, and ant(3′′)-I. Examination of genes encoding Qnr proteins demonstrated that qnrB was the most prevalent, followed by qnrS, qnrD, and qnrC. It was found that 61%, 26%, and 12% of quinolone-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates harbored acc(6′)-Ib-cr, oqxAB, and qebA, respectively. The current study demonstrated a high prevalence of aminoglycoside and quinolone resistance genes among clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 08:33:03 +000
       
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus Recovered from Humans, Food, and Recreational
           Waters in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    • Abstract: Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by disk diffusion, MIC by agar dilution, and PCR. Erythromycin-resistance genes erm(C), msr(A), msr(B), mph(C), and lin(A) were found in 93% of isolates. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance correlated with dfrG or dfrA genes. Three cefoxitin-resistant isolates carried the mecA gene. All isolates obtained from cheese were susceptible to all antimicrobial agents. Six of 10 pregnant women with >1 isolate had monoclonal colonization. Isolates from pregnant women shared 100% similarity with UTI PFGE cluster types A and E obtained almost 10 years previously, suggesting temporal persistence of S. saprophyticus. Antimicrobial resistance of beach isolates reflected the profiles of human isolates. Taken together, results indicate a shared source for human and environmental isolates.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • High Doses of Halotolerant Gut-Indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum Reduce
           Cultivable Lactobacilli in Newborn Calves without Increasing Its Species
           Abundance

    • Abstract: To elucidate the ecological effect of high oral doses of halotolerant (resistant to table salt) indigenous-gut bacteria on other commensals early in life, we conducted a culture-based study to quantify the effect of intestinal Lactobacillus plantarum strain of bovine origin (with remarkable aerobic growth capabilities and inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and F5) on clinical health and gut lactobacilli/coliforms in newborn calves. In a double-blind placebo-randomized trial twelve colostrum-fed calves, consecutively born at a farm, were fed L. plantarum within 12 hours from birth at low ( CFU/day) or high concentrations () or placebo (q24 h, 5 d; 10 d follow-up). We developed a 2.5% NaCl-selective culture strategy to facilitate the enumeration of L. plantarum-strain-B80, and tested 384 samples (>1,152 cultures). L. plantarum-B80-like colonies were detected in a large proportion of calves (58%) even before their first 24 hours of life indicating endemic presence of the strain in the farm. In contrast to studies where human-derived Lactobacillus LGG or rhamnosus had notoriously high, but short-lived, colonization, we found that L. plantarum colonized stably with fecal shedding of  log10·g−1 (irrespective of dose, ). High doses significantly reduced other fecal lactic acid bacteria (e.g., lactobacilli, ) and slightly reduced body weight gain in calves after treatment. For the first time, a halotolerant strain of L. plantarum with inhibitory activity against a human pathogen has the ability to inhibit other lactobacilli in vivo without changing its species abundance, causing transintestinal translocation, or inducing clinical disease. The future selection of probiotics based on halotolerance may expand therapeutic product applicability.
      PubDate: Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pigeon Pea and Cowpea-Based Cropping Systems Improve Vesicular Arbuscular
           Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonisation of Subsequent Maize on the Alfisols in
           Central Malawi

    • Abstract: Mycorrhizal associations contribute to the sustainability of crop production systems through their roles in nutrient cycling and other benefits in the soil-plant ecosystems. A two-year study was conducted on the Alfisols of Lilongwe and Dowa districts, Central Malawi, to assess the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungal colonisation levels in pigeon pea, cowpea, and maize grown in sole cropping, legume-cereal, and legume-legume intercropping systems and in the maize grown in short rotation (year 2) as influenced by the previous cropping systems and N fertilizer application. The gridline intersect method was used to assess the VAM fungal colonisation levels. Results showed that all treatments that included legumes whether grown as sole crop, in legume-cereal or in legume-legume cropping systems in the previous year, had significantly higher (P < 0.05) VAM fungal colonisation of the rotational maize crop roots by a range 39% to 50% and 19% to 47% than those in maize supplied and not supplied with N fertilizer, respectively, in a maize-maize short rotation, at the Lilongwe site. A similar trend was reported for the Dowa site. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between VAM fungal colonisation and the plant P content, dry matter yield, and nodule numbers. Further studies may help to assess the diversity of VAM fungal species in Malawi soils and identify more adaptive ones for inoculation studies.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Study of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates for
           Metallo-β-Lactamases and Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamases Genes in
           Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt

    • Abstract: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) has been known as a causative pathogen of hospital acquired infections. The aim of this study is to examine the presence of A. baumannii among clinical isolates from intensive care unit (ICU) in Mansoura University Hospital (MUH), its antibiotic resistance pattern, and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBLs) among A. baumannii isolates. A. baumannii was identified by colony morphology, API 20E, and confirmed by detecting the bla OXA-51-like carbapenemase gene by PCR. Phenotypic expression of MBLs resistance was demonstrated by Combined Disk Test (CDT) in 273 isolates (97.5%) and of ESBLs was demonstrated by double disc synergy method (DDST) in 6 isolates (2.1%). MBLs genes were positive in 266 isolates (95%) and ESBLs genes were positive in 8 isolates (2.9%). The most frequent genes of MBLs studied genes were IMP (95.7%) followed by SIM and GIM (47.1% and 42.9%; resp.). For ESBL genes, the most frequent gene was TEM (2.9%). From this study, we conclude that multidrug resistant (MDR) A. baumannii with MBLs activity was the most common isolate. Careful monitoring for the presence of MDR A. baumannii among hospitalized patients is recommended to avoid wide dissemination of antibiotic resistance.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial Activity of a Cationic Guanidine Compound against Two
           Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

    • Abstract: This study evaluated the potential antimicrobial properties of a polyguanidine (CatDex) on two oral bacteria. Chlorhexidine gluconate 1340 μmoL L−1 (CHX 0.12%) was used as control. Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) were grown in BHI media. Bacterial sensitivity and antimicrobial activity were determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Kirby-Bauer methods. To study side effects, that is, toxicity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were used. Fluorometric cytotoxicity and confocal microscopy assays were used in order to test cell viability. CatDex inhibited growth of S. mutans at all concentrations and growth of P. gingivalis at all concentrations except 25 μmoL L−1. The MIC of CatDex was 50 μmoL L−1 for both S. mutans and P. gingivalis. The inhibition of bacteria exposed for 8 h at 50 μmoL L−1 of CatDex exhibited increased antimicrobial activity over time, with 91% inhibition in both bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of CatDex and CHX were similar when tested on two common bacteria. CatDex was significantly less toxic to DPSCs. CatDex toxicity depended on time and not on concentration. With regard to clinical relevance, CatDex may have potential as a novel antimicrobial agent. Further studies are in progress.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts and Photosensitization on Aflatoxin
           Producing Aspergillus flavus (Raper and Fennell)

    • Abstract: This study was undertaken with an aim of exploring the effectiveness of medicinal plant extracts in the control of aflatoxin production. Antifungal properties, photosensitization, and phytochemical composition of aqueous and organic extracts of fruits from Solanum aculeastrum, bark from Syzygium cordatum, and leaves from Prunus africana, Ocimum lamiifolium, Lippia kituiensis, and Spinacia oleracea were tested. Spores from four-day-old cultures of previously identified toxigenic fungi, UONV017 and UONV003, were used. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to test the antifungal activity. The spores were suspended in 2 ml of each extract separately and treated with visible light (420 nm) for varying periods. Organic extracts displayed species and concentration dependent antifungal activity. Solanum aculeastrum had the highest zones of inhibition diameters in both strains: UONV017 (mean =  mm) and UONV003 (mean =  mm) at 600 mg/ml. Aqueous extracts had no antifungal activity because all diameters were below 8 mm. Solanum aculeastrum had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration at 25 mg/ml against A. flavus UONV017. All the plant extracts in combination with light reduced the viability of fungal conidia compared with the controls without light, without extracts, and without both extracts and light. Six bioactive compounds were analyzed in the plant extracts. Medicinal plant extracts in this study can control conidia viability and hence with further development can control toxigenic fungal spread.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2017 08:51:04 +000
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and
           Paratyphi Isolates from a General Hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang,
           Indonesia: A Five-Year Review

    • Abstract: Typhoid and paratyphoid fever known as enteric fever pose important global public health problem, with 21.6 million cases and approximately 250,000 deaths annually. It is a prevalent disease in Indonesia, but data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern is limited. This study aim was to provide data on the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi bloodstream isolates in a general hospital in Karawaci, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia, during the period of January 2011 to December 2015. Susceptibility against antimicrobials was detected according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Out of a total of 168 isolates 55.4% were S. Typhi and 44.6% S. Paratyphi A. Most of the isolates, 92.9%, were from children aged 6–18 years and adult population. There was low resistance of S. Typhi against ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin, similar to previous studies in Indonesia. In the 2011–2015 period, resistance rates against most antimicrobials and MDR rate of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi were low, emphasizing that there is a distinct epidemiological dynamic of the enteric fever in Indonesia.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted
           from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus
           agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya

    • Abstract: Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary () and eucalyptus (). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Mar 2017 08:54:33 +000
       
  • Bacterial Isolates and Their Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of
           Wound Infections among Inpatients and Outpatients Attending the University
           of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. The widespread uses of antibiotics, together with the length of time over which they have been available, have led to the emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens contributing to morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from inpatients and outpatients with pus and/or wound discharge. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital from March to May, 2014. Wound swab samples were collected from each study participant and inoculated into appropriate media. The bacterial pathogens were identified using standard microbiological methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using disk diffusion technique following Kirby-Bauer method. Results. A total of 137 study subjects were included in the study with bacterial isolation rate of 115 (83.9%). Of all, 81 (59.1%) were males. Seventy-seven (57%) of the isolates were Gram-negative and 59 (43%) were Gram-positive. From the total isolates, Staphylococcus aureus was the most predominant isolate 39/115 (34%) followed by Klebsiella species (13%), coagulase negative staphylococci spp. (12%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-positive isolates were resistant to ampicillin (86.4%), amoxicillin (83%), penicillin (81.3%), oxacillin (74.6%), and tetracycline (59.4%), while Gram-negative isolates were resistant to amoxicillin (97.4%), ampicillin (94.8%), tetracycline (72.7%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (66%), and chloramphenicol (54.5%). Conclusion. High prevalence of bacterial isolates was found, Staphylococcus aureus being the most dominant. High rates of multiple drug resistance pathogens to the commonly used antimicrobial agents were isolated. Therefore, concerned bodies should properly monitor the choice of antibiotics to be used as prophylaxis and empiric treatment in the study area.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of
           Bacteria Isolated from Pus/Wound Swab Samples from Children Attending a
           Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

    • Abstract: In Nepal, little is known about the microbiological profile of wound infections in children and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Total of 450 pus/wound swab samples collected were cultured using standard microbiological techniques and the colonies grown were identified with the help of biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were detected by using cefoxitin disc and confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of oxacillin. 264 (59%) samples were culture positive. The highest incidence of bacterial infections was noted in the age group of less than 1 year (76%). Out of 264 growth positive samples, Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from 162 (61%) samples and Gram-negative bacteria were found in 102 (39%) samples. Staphylococcus aureus (99%) was the predominant Gram-positive bacteria isolated and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (44%) was predominant Gram-negative bacteria. About 19% of S. aureus isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant MIC of oxacillin ranging from 4 μg/mL to 128 μg/mL. Among the children of Nepal, those of age less than 1 year were at higher risk of wound infections by bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common bacteria causing wound infections in children.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Bacteriuria and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns among
           Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Attending at Debre Tabor Hospital,
           Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Urinary tract infection is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Information about bacterial pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns is limited in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at isolating bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Methods. A hospital based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Tabor. Urine sample was inoculated onto cysteine lysine electrolyte deficient (CLED) medium. Bacterial pathogens were identified using standard bacteriological methods. The data were cleaned and entered into SPSS version 20. value less than 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Result. A total of 384 study participants were included in the study. Of them, 21 (10.9%) were from diabetics and 9 (4.7%) of them were from nondiabetics. Large proportion of gram positive bacteria at 18 (58.1%) were isolated compared to gram negatives at 13 (41.9%). Gram positive isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole 10 (58.8%). Conclusion. The isolation rates of bacterial pathogens were higher in diabetic than nondiabetic patients. Bacteriuria was significantly associated with sex and type of diabetes. Multidrug resistance to two or more antibiotics was observed in 56.7% of bacterial isolates. Rational use of antimicrobial agent should be thought of to prevent the emergence of multidrug resistance.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 07:58:49 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases-Producing Microorganisms
           in Patients Admitted at KRRH, Southwestern Uganda

    • Abstract: The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing pathogenic bacteria at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH), located in southwestern Uganda, is of great concern: a phenomenon that worries clinicians and other healthcare workers due to the serious threat they pose to patients. This current study aimed at determining the phenotypic detection of ESBL-producing strains of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus sp. isolated from clinical specimens and their prevalence in patients admitted at KRRH. We used combined disc diffusion technique to detect and establish the presence of ESBLs-producing bacteria. Of the 100 tested bacterial isolates, 89 (89%) were identified as ESBL-producing bacteria. Klebsiella sp. predominated in the samples (46 (52%)), presenting the highest frequency of ESBLs producing followed by E. coli (39 (44%)) and Proteus mirabilis (4 (4.5%)) from the combined disk diffusion.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Urinary Tract Infections among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women in Mwanza City,
           Tanzania, Are High and Predicted by Low CD4+ Count

    • Abstract: Introduction. Urinary tract infection (UTI) among pregnant women can lead to adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. UTI has been widely studied in the general obstetric population in Tanzania; the present study evaluated the magnitude, antimicrobial resistance, and predictors of UTI among HIV-positive pregnant women. Methods. Between March and May 2016 midstream urine samples from 234 women attending prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) clinics were analyzed using standard methods. Data was analyzed by STATA version 11.0. Results. The prevalence of UTI was 21.4%, 50/234 [95% CI: 16.1–26.6]. The asymptomatically significant bacteriuria was higher than symptomatically significant bacteriuria (16.6% versus 4.7%, ). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, single marital status (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1–6.1, and ), low CD4+ counts of
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Molecular Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Klebsiella
           Isolates in Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    • Abstract: The increase in the incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Klebsiella species has become a serious problem worldwide, because of their incrimination in antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate the resistance genes responsible for ESBL-producing Klebsiella species and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella (CRE) isolated in Mthatha and to study their epidemiology. A prospective, descriptive study of 202 nonrepetitive samples from patients was obtained from Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital. The cultured Klebsiella isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction of , , , , and genes. Overall K. pneumoniae were the majority with 169 (83.7%) species isolates, followed by K. oxytoca with 29 (14.4%), while K. ozaenae and Raoultella ornithinolytica were 2 (0.9%) each. The prevalence of ESBL production in all Klebsiella species was 117 (57.9%). ESBL-genotypic resistance is driven in Mthatha by 121 (77.1%) followed by 105 (66.9%) and at 89 (56.7%). The most common ESBL genotype combination among the Klebsiella was + at 79 (50.3%). There is a steady increase in the rate of ESBL genes in the last five years.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Jan 2017 08:00:13 +000
       
  • Maize Fungal Growth Control with Scopoletin of Cassava Roots Produced in
           Benin

    • Abstract: The chemical contamination of food is among the main public health issues in developing countries. With a view to find new natural bioactive products against fungi responsible for chemical contamination of staple food such as maize, the antifungal activity tests of scopoletin extracted from different components of the cassava root produced in Benin were carried out. The dosage of scopoletin from parts of the root (first skin, second skin, whole root, and flesh) was done by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The scopoletin extract was used to assess the activity of 12 strains (11 strains of maize and a reference strain). The presence of scopoletin was revealed in all components of the cassava root. Scopoletin extracted from the first skin cassava root was the most active both as inhibition of sporulation (52.29 to 87.91%) and the mycelial growth (36.51–80.41%). Scopoletin extract from the cassava root skins showed significant inhibitory activity on the tested strains with fungicide concentration (MFC) between 0.0125 mg/mL and 0.1 mg/mL. The antifungal scopoletin extracted from the cassava root skins may be well beneficial for the fungal control of the storage of maize.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Growth on Alpha-Ketoglutarate Increases Oxidative Stress Resistance in the
           Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    • Abstract: Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is an important intermediate in cell metabolism, linking anabolic and catabolic processes. The effect of exogenous AKG on stress resistance in S. cerevisiae cells was studied. The growth on AKG increased resistance of yeast cells to stresses, but the effects depended on AKG concentration and type of stressor. Wild-type yeast cells grown on AKG were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and transition metal ions (Fe2+ and Cu2+) but not to ethanol and heat stress as compared with control ones. Deficiency in SODs or catalases abolished stress-protective effects of AKG. AKG-supplemented growth led to higher values of total metabolic activity, level of low-molecular mass thiols, and activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in wild-type cells compared with the control. The results suggest that exogenous AKG may enhance cell metabolism leading to induction of mild oxidative stress. It turn, it results in activation of antioxidant system that increases resistance of S. cerevisiae cells to H2O2 and other stresses. The presence of genes encoding SODs or catalases is required for the expression of protective effects of AKG.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:20:15 +000
       
  • Assessment of Resistance and Bioremediation Ability of Lactobacillus
           Strains to Lead and Cadmium

    • Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are heavy metals, important environmental pollutants, and potent toxicants to organism. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove Cd and Pb from solutions and therefore represent a useful tool for decontamination of food and beverages from heavy metals. Heavy metal ion binding by LAB was reported as metabolism-independent surface process. In this work ten Lactobacillus strains were investigated with respect to hydrophobicity, Lewis acid-base, and electrostatic properties of their outer cell surface in order to characterize their Cd and Pb removal capacity. Seven L. plantarum and L. fermentum strains were shown to remove Cd from culture medium. The metabolism-dependent accumulation mechanism of Cd removal was proposed based on extended character of Cd binding and lack of correlation between any of the surface characteristics and Cd removal. The results of this study should be considered when selecting probiotic strains for people at risk of Cd exposure.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jan 2017 06:46:13 +000
       
  • Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.
           against Selected Fusarium spp.

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of the EO was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The most abundant compounds identified in the EO were 1,8-cineole (16.2%), α-pinene (15.6%), α-phellandrene (10.0%), and p-cymene (8.1%). The EO produced complete mycelial growth inhibition in all the test pathogens at a concentration of 7-8 μL/mL after five days of incubation. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test fungi were in the range of 7-8 μL/mL and 8–10 μL/mL, respectively. These findings confirm the fungicidal properties of E. camaldulensis essential oils and their potential use in the management of economically important Fusarium spp. and as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Jan 2017 13:30:10 +000
       
  • The Bacteriomes of Ileal Mucosa and Cecal Content of Broiler Chickens and
           Turkeys as Revealed by Metagenomic Analysis

    • Abstract: The gastrointestinal (GI) bacteriome of poultry is important in host nutrition and health, but its diversity and composition remain poorly characterized. In this study we phylogenetically characterized the bacteriome in the cecal contents and ileal mucosa of chickens and turkeys using metagenomics empowered by pyrosequencing technique. >95% coverage of bacterial diversity was achieved except for the turkey ileal mucosa. Collectively, 3,401 and 125 operational taxonomy units (OTU, defined at a 0.03 phylogenetic distance) in chicken, and 1,687 and 16 OTUs in turkey were identified from the cecal content and the ileal mucosa, respectively. Besides those previously reported, 39 and 50 additional genera of bacteria were identified in the chicken and turkey cecal bacteriome, respectively. Although the GI bacteriomes of the same region in both species exhibited greater similarity than the bacteriomes of different regions within each species, broiler chickens and turkeys harbor a distinct intestinal bacteriome. Such difference may suggest different dietary interventions for bacteriome modulation for enhanced nutrient utilization and gut health. The results may also be useful in developing prebiotics, probiotics, and analytical tools (e.g., phylochips). We also determined the variation in the number of OTUs and variability between two independent pyrosequencing runs and two data processing pipelines.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Dec 2016 10:05:14 +000
       
  • Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Reduces Cortisol
           Levels in Human Saliva during Examination Induced Stress: A Randomized,
           Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Objective. To clarify the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the salivary cortisol and salivary IgA levels in young adults under examination stress. Design. Forty-one students with an upcoming academic exam were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The probiotic bacteria or the placebo product was administered in capsules once a day during 14 days. Saliva was collected and a perceived stress test was filled out at each sampling occasion. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLI) and salivary IgA was analysed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Abundance of lactobacilli was evaluated by cultivation of saliva on selective medium and identification of L. plantarum 299v was done on randomly selected colonies by a random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. Results. A significant difference in cortisol levels was found between the treatment group and the placebo group (), together with a significant increase in levels of lactobacilli in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (). No significant changes were found for salivary IgA. Conclusion. A probiotic bacterium with ability to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) prohibited increased levels of the stress marker cortisol during the examination period. The registration number of the study is NCT02974894, and the study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov.
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Dec 2016 06:23:13 +000
       
  • Optimization of the Medium for the Production of Extracellular Amylase by
           the Pseudomonas stutzeri ISL B5 Isolated from Municipal Solid Waste

    • Abstract: The management of municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of the present world. The use of microbial enzymes for sustainable management of the solid waste is the need of the time. In the present study, we have isolated a potent amylase producing strain (ISL B5) from municipal solid waste. The strain was identified as Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeri) both biochemically and by 16S rDNA sequencing. The optimization studies revealed that the strain ISL B5 exhibited maximum activity in the liquid media containing 2% starch (2.77 U/ml), 0.8% peptone (2.77 U/ml), and 0.001% Ca2+ ion (2.49 U/ml) under the pH 7.5 (2.59 U/ml), temperature 40°C (2.63 U/ml), and 25 h of incubation period (2.49 U/ml). The highest activity of crude enzyme has also been optimized at the pH 8 (2.49 U/ml).
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Dec 2016 14:10:44 +000
       
  • Susceptibility Profiles of Mycobacterium ulcerans Isolates to Streptomycin
           and Rifampicin in Two Districts of the Eastern Region of Ghana

    • Abstract: Background. Drug resistance is a major challenge in antibiotic chemotherapy. Assessing resistance profiles of pathogens constitutes an essential surveillance tool in the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases, including Buruli ulcer (BU) disease. With the successful definitive management of BU using rifampicin and streptomycin, little attention had been paid to monitoring emergence of resistant Mycobacterium ulcerans (M. ulcerans) isolates in endemic communities. This study investigated the susceptibility profiles of M. ulcerans isolates from two BU endemic areas in Ghana to streptomycin and rifampicin. Methods. The antibiotic susceptibility of seventy (70) M. ulcerans isolates to rifampicin and streptomycin was determined simultaneously at critical concentrations of 40 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively, by the Canetti proportion method. Results. Resistance to rifampicin was observed for 12 (17.1%) M. ulcerans isolates tested, whilst 2 (2.9%) showed resistance to streptomycin. None of the isolates tested showed dual resistance to both rifampicin and streptomycin. Conclusion. Outcomes from this study may not be reflective of all BU endemic communities; it, however, provides information on the resistance status of the isolates, which is useful for monitoring of M. ulcerans, as well as BU disease surveillance and control.
      PubDate: Wed, 14 Dec 2016 11:56:24 +000
       
  • Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of
           Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and
           Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant

    • Abstract: Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose supported the growth of the wild type but not that of the mutant. Microarray data and qRT-PCR showed that putative genes for the phosphorylation and transport of sucrose and trehalose (via phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems, PTS) and some regulatory genes were downregulated in the mutant. The wild type had greater tolerance than the mutant to salts and low pH; trehalose and sucrose further enhanced the osmotolerance of the wild type to NaCl. Expression of the trehalose-specific PTS was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 12:25:06 +000
       
  • Performance of the WHO 2011 TB Symptom Screening Algorithm for Pulmonary
           TB Diagnosis among HIV-Infected Patients in Gondar University Referral
           Hospital, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The new WHO 2011 guidelines on TB screening among HIV-infected individuals recommend screening using four TB symptoms (current cough, fever, weight loss, and night sweats). This study aimed to assess the performance of WHO 2011 TB symptom screening algorithm for diagnosing pulmonary TB in HIV patients and identify possible risk factors for TB. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2012 to November 2012. A total of 250 HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years visiting the University of Gondar Hospital, ART clinic, were enrolled. Information about WHO TB clinical symptoms and other known risk factors for TB was collected using structured questionnaire. Spot-morning-spot sputum samples were collected and direct AFB microscopy, sputum culture, and RD9 molecular typing were performed. Statistical data analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20.0 software. Of 250 study participants, fever was reported in 169 (67.6%), whereas cough and night sweats were reported in 167 (66.8%) and 152 (60.8%), respectively. A total of 11 (4.4%) TB cases were identified. Of these, 82% (9/11) TB patients reported cough, so that the negative predictive value was 98%. In addition, 66% (158/239) TB negative patients reported cough, so that positive predictive value of cough was 5%. According to the new WHOTB symptom screening algorithm, out of 250 HIV-infected persons, 83% (5/6) have been investigated by TB symptom screening and AFB smear microscopy. Therefore, the 2011 WHO TB symptom screening tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB is likely to reduce the diagnostic delay and lower TB morbidity and mortality rate particularly in HIV prevalent settings.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Dec 2016 09:09:24 +000
       
  • Detection of Anti-Leptospira IgM Antibody in Serum Samples of Suspected
           Patients Visiting National Public Health Laboratory, Teku, Kathmandu

    • Abstract: Leptospirosis is a globally distributed zoonosis with varied clinical outcomes and multiorgan involvement in humans. In this study conducted from July 2011 to December 2011, 178 serum samples from patients suspected of leptospirosis were tested by Panbio IgM ELISA at National Public Health Laboratory, Kathmandu, out of which 51 (28.65%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibody. Leptospirosis was more common in people in their 2nd and 3rd decades of their life which together comprised 56.86% of the total positive cases. Most of those tested positive were farmers followed by students and housewives. Both animal contact and water contact seemed to play significant roles in disease transmission. Symptoms were vague with the most common being fever, headache, myalgia, abdominal pain, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhoea. Life style heavily dominated by agronomical and farming activities in Nepal is conducive to leptospirosis transmission. Leptospirosis seems to be a significant public health problem in Nepal but is underestimated. In resource poor countries like Nepal where laboratories performing MAT or maintaining cultures are rarely available, serological test like ELISA could well depict the scenario of the disease prevalence.
      PubDate: Sun, 04 Dec 2016 08:42:46 +000
       
  • Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Samples
           in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Punjab, India

    • Abstract: We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%), Citrobacter spp. (3.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins. S. aureus and Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to cloxacillin and vancomycin. However, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, and Streptococcus isolates were found to be less resistant to the spectrum of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from pus infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Oct 2016 09:42:30 +000
       
  • Audit of Helicobacter pylori Testing in Microbiology Laboratories in
           England: To Inform Compliance with NICE Guidance and the Feasibility of
           Routine Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance

    • Abstract: Introduction. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends that dyspeptic patients are tested for Helicobacter pylori using a urea breath test, stool antigen test, or serology. Antibiotic resistance in H. pylori is globally increasing, but treatment in England is rarely guided by susceptibility testing or surveillance. Aims. To determine compliance of microbiology laboratories in England with NICE guidance and whether laboratories perform culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Methods. In 2015, 170 accredited English microbiology laboratories were surveyed, by email. Results. 121/170 (71%) laboratories responded; 96% provided H. pylori testing (78% on site). 94% provided H. pylori diagnosis using stool antigen; only four provided serology as their noninvasive test; 3/4 of these encouraged urea breath tests in their acute trusts. Only 22/94 (23%) of the laboratories performed H. pylori cultures from gastric biopsies on site; 9/22 performed AST, but the vast majority processed less than one specimen/week. Conclusions. Only five laboratories in England do not comply with NICE guidance; these will need the guidance reinforced. National surveillance needs to be implemented; culture-based AST would need to be centralised. Moving forward, detection of resistance in H. pylori from stool specimens using molecular methods (PCR) needs to be explored.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Oct 2016 07:13:31 +000
       
 
 
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