Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.662
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 8  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Hepatitis C Virus Infection among HIV-Infected Patients Attending Dessie
           Referral Hospital, Northeastern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Objective. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) coinfection increases the incidence of end-stage liver disease which is more severe in immune-compromised HIV-infected patients than HCV infection alone. The aim of this study was to assess HCV infection and the associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients attending Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeastern Ethiopia. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 249 HIV-infected adults selected by a systematic random sampling technique from January to March 2018. A structured questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and risk factor data. Moreover, the blood specimen was collected and tested for CD4 count and anti-HCV antibody detection according to standard operating procedures. The data obtained were entered into SPSS version 20, and descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A value ≤0.05 with a corresponding 95% confidence interval was considered as statistically significant. Result. Of a total of 249 HIV-infected study subjects, 120 (48.2%) were male and 129 (51.8%) were females, while the mean (±SD) age and CD4+ cells/mm3 were 39.10 (±11.507) years and 316.08 + 290.607 cells/mm3, respectively. Anti-HCV antibody was detected in 13 (5.2%) patients with higher prevalence rate found in males and elders>50 years of age than their counterparts. Age group of>50 years of age (AOR = 9.070, 95% CI: 1.578, 52.117, ), longer duration of HIV treatment (AOR = 5.490, 95% CI: 1.341, 34.458, ), WHO clinical stage III/IV (AOR = 12.768, 95% CI: 2.293, 71.106, ), previous history of hospitalization (AOR = 10.234, 95% CI: 2.049, 51.118, ), tooth extraction (AOR = 6.016, 95% CI: 1.137, 36.837, ), and liver disease (AOR = 11.398, 95% CI: 1.275, 101.930, ) were statistically significant predictors of HCV infection. Conclusion. The prevalence of HCV infection is still higher and causes concern. Therefore, screening of these high-risk groups should be critical to reduce mortality and to improve clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: Fri, 22 Jan 2021 15:20:01 +000
  • Identification of Coxiella burnetii in Raw Milk of Livestock Animal in

    • Abstract: Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever in humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the frequency of C. burnetii in milk samples of dairy animals (goats, sheep, and cattle) in some selected regions in Iran, where there is no information about prevalence of C. burnetii. In this study, 162 individual milk samples were collected from 43 farms in three provinces (Tehran, Hamadan, and Mazandaran). Real-time PCR was used for the detection of IS1111a element of C. burnetii. In total, 23 of 162 samples (14.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.65–20.2%) were positive for C. burnetii by real-time PCR. C. burnetii was detected in 10.17% (95% CI: 4.74–20.46) of goat milk samples. In sheep milk samples, 18.6% (95% CI: 9.74–32.62) were positive, and C. burnetii was detected in 15% (95% CI: 8.1–26.11) of cattle milk samples. Molecular evidence of the presence of C. burnetii was seen in milk samples of dairy animals in all the studied regions. These findings demonstrated that C. burnetii infection, especially in raw milk samples, deserves more attention from the health care system and veterinary organization in Iran.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jan 2021 06:05:01 +000
  • Prevalence of Cryptococcal Antigenemia and Associated Factors among
           HIV/AIDS Patients at Felege-Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest

    • Abstract: Background. Cryptococcosis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection. High morbidity and mortality are frequently observed among hospitalized HIV/AIDS patients, particularly having CD4 count ≤100 cells/μl. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia and associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 140 HIV/AIDS patients. A cryptococcal antigen test was performed for all patients along with medical chart and laboratory registration book review. Cryptococcal antigen was detected from serum by using Remel Cryptococcal Antigen Test Kit. Data related to possible associated factors were extracted from patients’ charts and laboratory registration book. Data were coded, entered, and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression analysis was done to see the association between dependent and independent variables. A value
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Jan 2021 14:05:01 +000
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Enterobacterales Bacilli Isolated from
           Bloodstream Infection in Surgical Patients of Polish Hospitals

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are one of the most frequently observed hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We sought to describe the epidemiology and drug resistance secondary Enterobacterales BSIs in surgical patients and check for any correlation with the type of hospital ward. Materials and Methods. This multicenter (13 hospitals in southern Poland) laboratory-based retrospective study evaluated adults diagnosed with BSI secondary to surgical site infection (SSI) hospitalized in 2015–2018; 121 Enterobacterales strains were collected. The drug resistance was tested according to the EUCAST recommendations. Tests confirming the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and bla resistance genes were carried out. The occurrence of possible clonal epidemics among K. pneumoniae strains was examined. Results. The prevalence of Enterobacterales in secondary BSI was 12.1%; the most common strains were E. coli (n = 74, 61.2%) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 33, 27.2%). High resistance involved ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam (92, 8–100%), fluoroquinolones (48–73%), and most cephalosporins (29–50%). Carbapenems were the antimicrobials with the susceptibility at 98%. The prevalence of ESBL strains was 37.2% (n = 45). All the ESBL strains had blaCTX-M gene, 26.7% had the blaSHV gene, and 24.4% had blaTEM gene. The diversity of Klebsiella strains was relatively high. Only 4 strains belonged to one clone. Conclusions. What is particularly worrying is the high prevalence of Enterobacterales in BSI, as well as the high resistance to antimicrobial agents often used in the empirical therapy. To improve the effectiveness of empirical treatment in surgical departments, we need to know the epidemiology of both surgical site infection and BSI, secondary to SSI. We were surprised to note high heterogeneity among K. pneumoniae strains, which was different from our previous experience.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 Jan 2021 15:05:02 +000
  • Bacterial Infection among Cancer Patients: Analysis of Isolates and
           Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern

    • Abstract: Introduction. Cancer patients being immunosuppressed are vulnerable to develop infections. Knowledge of the changing epidemiology of infections has a pivotal role in its management. Aims and Objectives. The study is undertaken to assess the types of bacterial infections in cancer patients undergoing anticancer treatment, the associated bacterial pathogens, and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns. Materials and Methods. A retrospective surveillance study was undertaken in our center. Positive culture reports and other clinical details of cancer patients diagnosed with infection during a stay in the tertiary care center from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2016 were analysed by descriptive statistical methods chi-square test and odds ratio to study the association. Results. Out of 638 cancer patients diagnosed with infections in the 2-year period, 140 patients had positive cultures, representing 272 specimens and 306 isolates. Common specimens sent for culture were blood sputum, urine, and pus. 214 isolates (69.9%) were gram-negative bacilli, and 92 (30.1%) were gram-positive cocci. The most common isolates were Klebsiella spp. (18.30%), Pseudomonas spp. (17.65%), and Escherichia coli (14.71%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (13.72%). Among the gram-negative organisms, the antibiotic resistance rates reported to fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and third-generation cephalosporins were 45.13%, 39.20%, and 48.58%, respectively. 26.92% of the organisms are resistant to all three antibiotics. 50.4% of Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli were ESBL producers. Gram-negative organisms showed 11.63% resistance to β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination, and 22.22% of gram-negative organisms are resistant to carbapenems. 50% of the Staphylococcus spp. were methicillin resistant, but all were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion. The surge in the number of gram-negative infections emphasizes the need for broad-spectrum empirical therapy targeting the same. Rate of resistance of the isolated gram-negative organisms to the routinely used empirical therapy is alarming. Prudent use of antibiotics, based on culture reports wherever possible, is of utmost importance to save the lives of infected patients and prevent further development of antibiotic resistance.
      PubDate: Fri, 08 Jan 2021 04:35:01 +000
  • Molecular Detection of Antibiotic-Resistant Genes in Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa from Nonclinical Environment: Public Health Implications in
           Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    • Abstract: Evaluation of resistant profiles and detection of antimicrobial-resistant genes of bacterial pathogens in the nonclinical milieu is imperative to assess the probable risk of dissemination of resistant genes in the environment. This paper sought to identify antibiotic-resistant genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from nonclinical sources in Mthatha, Eastern Cape, and evaluate its public health implications. Samples collected from abattoir wastewater and aquatic environment were processed by membrane filtration and cultured on CHROMagarTM Pseudomonas medium. Species identification was performed by autoSCAN-4 (Dade Behring Inc., IL). Molecular characterization of the isolates was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) and selected isolates were further screened for the possibility of harboring antimicrobial resistance genes. Fifty-one Pseudomonas species were recovered from abattoir wastewater and surface water samples, out of which thirty-six strains were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (70.6%). The P. aeruginosa isolates demonstrated resistance to aztreonam (86.1%), ceftazidime (63.9%), piperacillin (58.3%), cefepime (55.6%), imipenem (50%), piperacillin/tazobactam (47.2%), meropenem (41.7%), and levofloxacin (30.6%). Twenty out of thirty-six P. aeruginosa displayed multidrug resistance profiles and were classified as multidrug-resistant (MDR) (55.6%). Most of the bacterial isolates exhibited a high Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index ranging from 0.08 to 0.69 with a mean MAR index of 0.38. In the rPCR analysis of fifteen P. aeruginosa isolates, 14 isolates (93.3%) were detected harboring blaSHV, six isolates (40%) harbored blaTEM, and three isolates (20%) harbored blaCTX-M, being the least occurring ESBL. Results of the current study revealed that P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from nonclinical milieu are resistant to frontline clinically relevant antipseudomonal drugs. This is concerning as it poses a risk to the environment and constitutes a public health threat. Given the public health relevance, the paper recommends monitoring of multidrug-resistant pathogens in effluent environments.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jan 2021 08:05:02 +000
  • Agricultural Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Using Fecal
           Indicators: A Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Fresh-produce consumers may be at risk of pathogen infection due to fecal contamination of the agricultural environment. Indicators of fecal contamination may be used as a proxy to evaluate the potential presence of human pathogens, such as norovirus and hepatitis A, on agricultural samples. The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether the presence of human norovirus or hepatitis A was associated with microbial indicators in agricultural samples including fresh produce, equipment surfaces, and hands. Four databases (Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Agricola) were systematically searched and fifteen articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. After data extraction, individual indicator-pathogen relationships were assessed using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient. The level of agreement between norovirus with adenovirus was 0.09 (n = 16, 95% CI −0.05, 0.23), indicating poor agreement using Landis and Koch’s criterion. Similarly, the Kappa coefficient between norovirus with E. coli (κ = 0.04, n = 14, 95% CI −0.05, 0.49) or total coliforms (κ = 0.03, n = 4, 95% CI −0.01, 0.02) was also poor. The level of agreement between hepatitis A with adenovirus (κ = −0.03, n = 3, 95% CI −0.06, 0.01) or fecal coliforms (κ = 0, n = 1, 95% CI 0, 0) was also poor. There were moderate relationships between hepatitis A with E. coli (κ = 0.49, n = 3, 95% CI 0.28, 0.70) and total coliforms (κ = 0.47, n = 2, 95% CI 0.47, 0.47). Based on these limited results, common indicator organisms are not strong predictors of the presence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus in the agricultural environment.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jan 2021 07:35:02 +000
  • Rhizobacteria Communities of Phytoremediation Plant Species in Petroleum
           Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil of the Sudd Ecosystem, South Sudan

    • Abstract: The Sudd wetland is one of the oil-rich regions of South Sudan where environmental pollution resulting from oil extraction activities has been unprecedented. Although phytoremediation is the most feasible technique, its efficacy reduces at high TPH concentration in soil. This has made rhizoremediation the most preferred approach. Rhizoremediation involves use of a combination of phytoremediation and biostimulation. The process is catalyzed by the action of rhizobacteria. Therefore, the objective of this study is to characterize rhizobacteria communities prevalent in phytoremediation species growing in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils biostimulated with cattle manure. The treatments studied were plant species only (T1), plant species and hydrocarbons (T2), plant species and manure (T3), and plant species, manure, and hydrocarbons (T4). The rhizobacteria communities were determined using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA. In the treatment with phytoremediation species, hydrocarbons 75 g · kg−1soil, and cattle manure 5 g · kg−1soil (T4), there was a significant increase () in rhizobacteria abundance with the highest OTU observed in H. rufa (4980) and the lowest in S. arundinaceum (3955). In the same treatment, bacteria community diversity was high in H. rufa (Chao1, 10310) and the least in S. arundinaceum (Chao 1, 8260) with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla. Similarly, in contaminated soil treated with cattle manure, there was a significant increase () in abundance of rhizobacteria genera with Pseudomonas dominating across phytoremediation species. H. rufa was dominated by Bacillus, Fusibacter, and Rhodococcus; G. barbadense was mainly associated with Luteimonas and Mycobacterium, and T. diversifolia was inhabited by Bacillus and Luteimonas. The rhizosphere of O. longistaminata was dominated by Bacillus, Fusibacter, and Luteimonas, while S. arundinaceum was largely inhabited by Sphingomonas. These rhizobacteria genera ought to be applied in the Sudd region for bioremediation.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Dec 2020 13:35:01 +000
  • Antipseudomonal β-Lactams Resistance in Iran

    • Abstract: Over the last years, the mortality rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is one of the major reasons for severe infections, has been significantly increasing. This bacterium is highly resistant to many antibiotics, especially carbapenems, thanks to its complicated mechanism by which it can acquire exogenous genes. The purpose of this research is to have a review of empirical studies surveying the P. aeruginosa resistance to beta-lactams in Iran in order to investigate the most reliable methods by which the incidence of P. aeruginosa infections can be decreased and controlled. We performed a systematic review of all articles published from 2008 until 2018. Studies which did not address P. aeruginosa resistance to beta-lactams were excluded from the analysis. Studies with less than 10 cases were also excluded. Studies with more than ten cases, which did not have repetitive information, were taken into account for the final selection; 133 out of 893 articles were chosen. The resistance rate of P. aeruginosa among the articles was as follows: more than 72% of studies revealed >50% level of resistance to cefepime, followed by aztreonam (53.2%), ceftazidime (61%), piperacillin/tazobactam (54.5%), meropenem (48.3%), and imipenem (42.4%). The selection of empiric antipseudomonal antibiotics is absolutely uncertain and hazardous, and the risk of clinical failure may be more among cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam as well as aztreonam. The results of this study illustrate that the methods enabling clinics to identify the bacterium resistance pattern and its genetic basis and to have the opportunity of empiric therapies through access to updated local data of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern are the most effective methods. However, the widespread usage of these approaches undoubtedly needs reliable molecular and nucleic acid-based devices, which are both affordable and available.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Dec 2020 07:50:01 +000
  • Correlation of Clinical Severity and Laboratory Parameters with Various
           Serotypes in Dengue Virus: A Hospital-Based Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. Dengue fever, being hyperendemic with analogous presentations as in many other acute febrile illnesses, poses a challenge in diagnosis during the acute stage. Additionally, the coexistence of multiple serotypes further complicates the disease prognosis. The study was undertaken to determine the dengue virus serotypes, clinical, and laboratory markers as predictors in the severity of infection. Methods. A prospective study was conducted among 106 patients admitted with acute febrile illness having positive NS1 antigen/IgM ELISA. Clinical data were extracted from medical records including demographics, presence of comorbid conditions, clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, and course including length of hospital stay and outcome. Detection of dengue serotypes was done by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT_PCR). Results. Out of 106 RT-PCR-confirmed cases, DENV-3 was the most common serotype found in 56 (52.8%) patients, followed by DENV-3 and DENV-4 coinfection in 27 (25.4%) patients. Coinfection with more than one serotype was witnessed in our study. Raised liver enzymes and increased ferritin are good biomarkers in differentiating dengue from severe dengue with cutoff levels for AST (134 U/L), ALT (88 U/L), and ferritin (3670 ng/ml). Musculoskeletal, followed by gastrointestinal, manifestations were comparatively higher than respiratory and cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion. This study provides more information on the dengue serotypes. The clinical spectrum along with laboratory parameters such as ferritin, liver enzymes, platelet can be used as potential biomarkers in prediction of dengue severity. The data demonstrated will be useful in early detection and monitoring of the disease.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Dec 2020 15:05:01 +000
  • Ethiopian Indigenous Traditional Fermented Beverage: The Role of the
           Microorganisms toward Nutritional and Safety Value of Fermented Beverage

    • Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the countries where a wide variety of traditional fermented beverages are produced and consumed for a long time. Traditional fermented beverages are those which are indigenous to a particular area and have been developed by the people using age-old techniques from locally available raw materials. Some of Ethiopian indigenous traditional fermented beverages products are Cheka, Keribo, Borde, Areki, Tella, Shamita, Booka, and Korefe, in which fermentation is natural and involves mixed cultures of microbes. The most common fermenting microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria and yeast, are used as probiotics, for improvement of organoleptic properties, for provision of nutritional quality and biopreservative. The nature of beverage preparation in Ethiopia, traditional household processing, associated microorganisms with a fermented beverage, and their contribution toward improving the nutritional value and safety, the extent, and its prospect in supporting the livelihood of people in Ethiopia need concern. Therefore, in the future, to improve its quality, it is important to standardize the methods of beverage fermentation processes.
      PubDate: Sat, 12 Dec 2020 06:20:01 +000
  • Sorghum Malt Extract as a Growth Medium for Lactic Acid Bacteria Cultures:
           A Case of Lactobacillus plantarum MNC 21

    • Abstract: Cultivation of lactic acid bacteria cultures is vital for research and commercial production of fermented foods. However, the conventional growth media used are generally costly. Malt extracts from four sorghum varieties (SESO 1, SESO 3, Epuripur, and Eyera) were evaluated as alternative low-cost growth media for Lactobacillus plantarum MNC 21. Saccharified sorghum malt extracts were inoculated with 4 log cfu/mL MNC 21 and incubated at 30°C for 24 h. MRS broth was the reference medium. Microbial counts, pH, titratable acidity (TA), free amino nitrogen (FAN), and total sugars were measured. Maximum microbial counts in the extracts and MRS broth were 9 and 10 log cfu/mL, respectively. Maximum growth rate in the extracts was 0.7–0.9 log cfu/mL/h and 0.8 log cfu/mL/h in MRS broth. The final pH of the extracts was 3.5–3.6, with an overall increase in TA of 1.2% in Epuripur and 0.2% in other varieties. Final pH and TA of MRS broth were 4.1 and 1.3%, respectively. Total sugars dropped by 95.2% and FAN by 2.1% in MRS broth. In contrast, total sugars and FAN dropped by 5.6–9.1% and 24.9–32.7% respectively, in the extracts. Sorghum malt extracts can be adopted as alternative low-cost growth media for lactic acid bacteria cultures.
      PubDate: Fri, 11 Dec 2020 08:05:01 +000
  • Antibacterial and Anticancer Activity and Untargeted Secondary Metabolite
           Profiling of Crude Bacterial Endophyte Extracts from Crinum macowanii
           Baker Leaves

    • Abstract: This study isolated and identified endophytic bacteria from the leaves of Crinum macowanii and investigated the potential of the bacterial endophyte extracts as antibacterial and anticancer agents and their subsequent secondary metabolites. Ethyl acetate extracts from the endophytes and the leaves (methanol: dichloromethane (1 : 1)) were used for antibacterial activity against selected pathogenic bacterial strains by using the broth microdilution method. The anticancer activity against the U87MG glioblastoma and A549 lung carcinoma cells was determined by the MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. Bacterial endophytes that were successfully isolated from C. macowanii leaves include Raoultella ornithinolytica, Acinetobacter guillouiae, Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas palleroniana, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus safensis, Enterobacter asburiae, Pseudomonas cichorii, and Arthrobacter pascens. Pseudomonas cichorii exhibited broad antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria while Arthrobacter pascens displayed the least MIC of 0.0625 mg/mL. Bacillus safensis crude extracts were the only sample that showed notable cell reduction of 50% against A549 lung carcinoma cells at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. Metabolite profiling of Bacillus safensis, Pseudomonas cichorii, and Arthrobacter pascens crude extracts revealed the presence of known antibacterial and/or anticancer agents such as lycorine (1), angustine (2), crinamidine (3), vasicinol (4), and powelline. It can be concluded that the crude bacterial endophyte extracts obtained from C. macowanii leaves can biosynthesize bioactive compounds and can be bioprospected for medical application into antibacterial and anticancer agents.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Dec 2020 14:20:01 +000
  • Diversity, Abundance, and Some Characteristics of Bacteria Isolated from
           Earth Material Consumed by Wild Animals at Kudurs in the Sikhote-Alin
           Mountains, Russia

    • Abstract: In this work, geochemical and microbiological studies were performed at kudurs in the southeastern part of the Sikhote-Alin mountain range and in the Sikhote-Alin Nature Reserve located in Primorsky Krai, Russia. It was found that the earth material eaten by wild animals in both sites is represented by clay-zeolite tuffs of dacite-rhyolite composition. In the earth material, Na is predominant in bioavailable macronutrients and Zn, light lanthanides, and Y in trace elements. Microbiological studies of geophagic earths revealed a wide range of heterotrophic and autotrophic aerobes and anaerobes involved in the conversion of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Iron- and manganese-oxidizing bacteria and silicate bacteria were identified as well. The isolated pure cultures of heterotrophic bacteria were represented mainly by Gram-positive spore-forming large rods of Bacillus sp. and Gram-negative heterotrophic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms Burkholderia sp. and Microvirgula aerodenitrificans, which oxidize iron and reduce sulfate. The ability of the bacteria M. aerodenitrificans to reduce sulfates is shown for the first time. According to the literature, the isolated microorganisms are able to actively extract rare earth elements from earth materials, transforming them from the bioinert state to a state accessible to herbivorous mammals.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2020 08:05:03 +000
  • Isolation and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Escherichia coli
           O157 : H7 from Raw Milk of Dairy Cattle in Holeta District, Central

    • Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted in small, medium, and large-scale dairy farms of Holeta district to isolate, identify, and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 in raw milk of dairy cattle. A total of 210 lactating cows were selected for raw milk samples, and 19% (40/210) were found to be positive for E. coli whereas 5.2% (11/210) were confirmed as E. coli O157 : H7 positive using the Escherichia coli O157 latex test. Accordingly, all E. coli was highly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (100%), Gentamycin (100%), Oxytetracycline (100%), and Tetracycline (63.63%). Furthermore, the resistance of 72.73%, 54.54%, 54.54%, and 45.45% was developed to Cefoxitin, Sulphamethoxazole, Cloxacillin, and Streptomycin, respectively. Factors such as parity, age, body condition, herd size, milk yield, udder hygiene, and udder lesion showed a statistically significant () association with the occurrence of E. coli infection in dairy cattle. In conclusion, in this study, a higher prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 and its drug susceptibility profile is an alarm for the health of the public, and awareness creation to the farm owners and the community is recommended.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Dec 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • Erratum to “Assessment of Pertussis Vaccine Protective Effectiveness in
           Children in the Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia”

    • PubDate: Sat, 28 Nov 2020 14:50:01 +000
  • Molecular-Based Identification of Actinomycetes Species That Synthesize
           Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Infectious diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria lead to a considerable increase in human morbidity and mortality globally. This requires to search potential actinomycete isolates from undiscovered habitats as a source of effective bioactive metabolites and to synthesis metabolite-mediated antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The main purpose of the present study was to identify actinomycetes isolated from Thika waste dump soils that produce bioactive metabolites to synthesize antibacterial AgNPs. The synthesis of metabolite-mediated AgNP was confirmed with visual detection and a UV-vis spectrophotometer, whereas the functional groups involved in AgNP synthesis were identified using a FTIR spectrophotometer. The antibacterial activity of the metabolite-mediated AgNPs was tested by a well diffusion assay. Identification of actinomycete isolates involved in the synthesis of antibacterial AgNPs was done based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The visual detection showed that dark salmon and pale golden color change was observed due to the formation of AgNPs by KDT32 and KGT32 metabolites, respectively. The synthesis was confirmed by a characteristic UV spectra peak at 415.5 nm for KDT32-AgNP and 416 nm for KGT32-AgNP. The FTIR spectra revealed that OH, C=C, and S-S functional groups were involved in the synthesis of KDT32-AgNP, whereas OH, C=C, and C-H were involved in the formation of KGT32-AgNP. The inhibition zone results revealed that KDT32-AgNP showed 22.0 ± 1.4 mm and 19.0 ± 1.4 mm against Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi, whereas KGT32-AgNP showed 21.5 ± 0.7 mm and 17.0 ± 0.0 mm, respectively. KDT32 and KGT32 isolates were identified as genus Streptomyces and their 16S rRNA gene sequences were deposited in the GenBank database with MH301089 and MH301090 accession numbers, respectively. Due to the bactericidal activity of synthesized AgNPs, KDT32 and KGT32 isolates can be used in biomedical applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Nov 2020 16:05:01 +000
  • Molecular Typing of Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolates by

    • Abstract: Aim. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infection. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) technique is a quick, reliable, and cost-effective method for molecular typing of Enterobacteriaceae family members. This study aimed to detect genetic relatedness among K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals in Hamadan city, using ERIC-PCR technique. Materials and Methods. A total of 72 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from patients admitted to Besat and Sina hospitals. After detection and confirmation of K. pneumonia isolates by chemical and conventional microbiological methods, DNAs were extracted after 24 hours of incubation at 37°C, using the boiling method. ERIC-PCR technique was carried out, and the ERIC patterns were analyzed by online data analysis service ( ERIC profiles were compared using Dice method and clustered by UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean) program. Also, the samples were evaluated by PCR method for the detection of aerobactin gene within their genome. Finding. The genetic relatedness among K. pneumoniae isolates was studied, and results established the genetic diversity of the clinical isolates by detecting 25 different ERIC types, including 14 common types and 11 unique types. Also, none of the isolates had aerobactin gene. Discussion. The results of this study showed high genetic diversity among K. pneumoniae strains, indicating the polyclonal distribution of K. pneumoniae isolates in Hamadan hospitals. This diversity causes problems for the treatment of infections due to the circulation of diverse K. pneumoniae clones, which possibly have different antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.
      PubDate: Sat, 21 Nov 2020 08:05:01 +000
  • Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Gastrointestinal Carriage of
           Pathogenic Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria among Apparently Healthy Food
           Handlers of Public Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Foodborne diseases are major public health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Food handlers with poor personal hygiene working in hospitals could be infected with different intestinal parasites and pathogenic enteric bacteria. Therefore, they could pose a potential risk of foodborne infection to patients and the community. Methods. An institutional based cross-sectional study conducted from March to June 2017. Besides, sociodemographic data were collected using a structured questionnaire, freshly passed stool specimens for direct wet mount smear examination, and formalin ether concentration techniques performed for the detection of parasites. For bacterial identification culture, biochemical tests and antimicrobial sensitivity (Kirby-Baure disk diffusion method) have been performed. Finally, validated data were analyzed using statistical package for social science version 20 (SPSS). Results. From 368 food handlers who participated in the study, 81% were females. 119 (32.34%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most prevalent parasite was Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (13%), followed by Giardia lamblia 36 (9.78%), Taenia Species 21 (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoide 8 (2.2%), Trichuris trichiura 5 (1.4%), and Hook worm 1 (0.3%). Regarding the prevalence of enteric bacteria 17(4.6%), food handlers were positive for Salmonella 14 (3.8%) and Shigella flexneri 3 (0.8%). No E. coli O157 : H7 was isolated. All 100% (n = 14) Salmonella isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg) and erythromycin (15 µg). Similarly, 100% (n = 3) of Shigella flexneri isolates were resistant to ampicillin (10 µg) and tetracycline (30 µg). 14.3% (n = 2) Salmonella and 66.7% (n = 2) Shigella flexneri isolates were MDR. Conclusion. The study showed significant carriage of pathogenic microorganisms among food handlers. Therefore, hospital administrators and other stake holders should put measures in place to break chain of transmission routes from silent carrier to other peoples particularly patients at hospital and the community at large.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 07:05:01 +000
  • Chemical Composition and Microbial Contaminants of Poha Beer: A Local
           Nonalcoholic Beverage in the Bolgatanga Municipality, Ghana

    • Abstract: Microbial and physicochemical analysis was performed on randomly sampled Poha Beer manufactured and vended in the Bolgatanga Municipality, Ghana. Poha Beer as it is referred to in Dagbani, is a Tamarindus indica fruit extract, a local nonalcoholic beverage originally processed and sold by rural women of the Dagomba ethnic descend. Morphological examination of bacterial cultures, Gram staining, and biochemical confirmatory tests were used to detect the presence of microbial pathogens in 45 samples of Poha Beer. A refractometer, a flame photometer and an atomic absorption spectrometer were used for the elemental analysis. All Poha Beer samples obtained from the Bolgatanga Municipality were positive for yeast, E. coli, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus cereus. Pb was not detected in any of the samples. Chemical components detected include Zn2+ (average, 0.154 mg/L), Cd2+ (0.056 mg/L), Na+ (1.723 mg/L), Ca2+ (2.262 mg/L) and K+ (3.96 mg/L). All samples were acidic with an average pH value of 3.55. The Brix value of samples, however, was between 9.0 and 11.4 % per 40 mL of Poha Beer. Therefore, Poha Beer processed and sold in the Bolgatanga Municipality is acidic and contains detrimental amounts of Cd2+ and bacterial pathogens which may render it unwholesome for human consumption.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Nov 2020 06:50:02 +000
  • The Role of T Helper 17 (Th17) and Regulatory T Cells (Treg) in the
           Pathogenesis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among HIV-Infected Women

    • Abstract: Background. The study sought to describe relationships between 20 cytokines and chemokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, MIP-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) and the presence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in women, stratified by HIV status. Methods. Plasma and genital samples were obtained from 51 clinic attendees in KwaZulu-Natal between June 2011 and December 2011. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations were measured by Luminex® multiplex immunoassays. Multiple comparisons of means of cytokine/chemokine levels displaying significant differences in univariate analyses across the study groups were performed using post hoc Bonferroni pairwise tests considering a type I error rate of 0.05. A discriminant analysis (DA) was carried out to identify linear combinations of variates that would maximally discriminate group memberships. Results. Of the 51 participants, 16/26 HIV-infected and 15/25 HIV-uninfected women were diagnosed with VVC. DA identified 2 variables (MIP-1β and TGF-β3) in plasma (Box’s M (5.49), (0.57) > α (0.001); Wilks’ lambda = 0.116, ) and 1 variable (IL-13) in vaginal secretions (Box’s M (2.063), (0.37) > α (0.001); Wilks’ lambda = .677, ) as able to discriminate the HIV + VVC + group, whilst TGF-β1 in plasma discriminated the HIV + VVC − group. Mean concentrations of genital IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and TGF-β3 were significantly higher in HIV infected women coinfected with VVC. Conclusions. In HIV-infected women, VVC might be explained by a decline of Th17 cells, hence a decrease of Th17/Treg ratio.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Nov 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • Purification, Characterization, and Biocatalytic and Antibiofilm Activity
           of a Novel Dextranase from Talaromyces sp.

    • Abstract: Dextranase is a useful enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of dextran to low-molecular-weight fractions, which have many critical commercial and clinical applications. Endophytic fungi represent a source of both high heat-stable and pH-stable enzymes. In this study, from Delonix regia bark by plate assay, out of 12 isolated fungal strains, hyaline zones were detected in only one strain. By using the standard ITS rDNA sequencing analysis, the isolated strain was identified as Talaromyces sp. In the case of carbon source, in a medium containing 1% dextran T2000 as the sole carbon source, the maximum dextranase activity reached approximately 120 U/ml after incubation of 2 days where the optimum pH was 7.4. Peptone addition to the production medium as a sole nitrogen source was accompanied by a significant increase in the dextranase production. Similarly, some metal ions, such as Fe2+ and Zn2+, increased significantly enzyme production. However, there was no significant difference resulting from the addition of Cu2+. The crude dextranase was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, followed by Sephadex G100 chromatography with 28-fold purification. The produced dextranase was 45 kDa with an optimum activity at 37°C and a pH of 7. Moreover, the presence of MgSO4, FeSO4, and NH4SO4 increased the purified dextranase activity; however, SDS and EDTA decreased it. Interestingly, the produced dextranase expressed remarkable pH stability, temperature stability, and biofilm inhibition activity, reducing old-established biofilm by 86% and biofilm formation by 6%.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 13:35:01 +000
  • Microbiological Assessment of the Different Hand Drying Methods and
           Washroom Environment Cross-Contamination

    • Abstract: Proper hand drying is a fundamental part of the hand hygiene process looking at optimizing the elimination of potentially pathogenic microbes. This research compared the effectiveness of three different hand drying methods—paper towels, the use of warm air dryers in stationary hands position, and the use of air drying while hand rubbing—and their potential for cross-contamination of other users and the surrounding environment. One hundred sixty samples were collected from finger pads and palms, before and after drying. The outlet of the air dryers, air current emitted from the air dryers, and washroom environment air were also tested. The study reported that paper towels were more successful in eliminating bacteria and lead to less contamination to the washroom environment compared to the air dryers. The average number of bacteria obtained from volunteers using hand air dryer while hand rubbing was significantly higher than drying with air dryer while holding hands stationary. Plates exposed to the turned-off dryer for 5 minutes gave an average of only 25 colonies/plate, while plates exposed to the air outlet of the turned-on warm air dryers provided 292 colonies/plate. Placing Petri dishes at least one meter away from the dryer in the washroom for 30 minutes gave 72.5 colonies/plate. The current research also documented frequent contamination of public washroom environments and showed dissemination of potential pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella species, Bacillus cereus (B. cereus), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Over 70.0% of Staphylococci were resistant to at least three antibiotics and 50.0% revealed coresistance to at least four antibiotics including penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and co-trimoxazole. The method of hand drying may serve as a risk factor of cross-contamination from users to the environment and subsequent users and as reservoirs of drug-resistant bacteria in public washrooms.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 12:50:01 +000
  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections
           among Jimma University Students, Southwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Globally, one-third of new sexually transmitted infection (STI) cases occur in people under 25 years of age every year. University students are in the youth age category and are exposed to risky sexual behaviors such as unprotected sexual intercourse leading to STIs. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of STI among Jimma University students. Method. A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Jimma University students’ clinic from April 2017 to October 2017 among students with STI syndromes. Urethral, endocervical, and vaginal discharge swabs were collected by attending nurses. Standard protocol was followed to detect the etiologies of STI. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of STIs among clinically suspected university students was 14.3%. The predominant causes of STI were Neisseria gonorrhoeae (7.4%) followed by T. vaginalis (4.8%) and T. pallidum (3.7%). Having had sex after taking alcohol was significantly associated with STIs (). All N. gonorrhoeae isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of STI was relatively high. The isolated N. gonorrhoeae was resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Therefore, evidence-based treatment and proper reproductive health education for youth are highly recommended.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Nov 2020 13:35:00 +000
  • The Effects of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment and Cofermentation on
           Bioethanol Production from Elephant Grass

    • Abstract: The process of acid hydrolysis using conventional methods at high concentrations results in products having lower yields, and it needs a longer time of process; therefore, it becomes less effective. In this study, we analyzed the effects of microwave-assisted pretreatment and cofermentation on bioethanol production from elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum). We used a combination of delignification techniques and acid hydrolysis by employing a microwave-assisted pretreatment method on elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) as a lignocellulosic material. This was followed by cofermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITB-R89 and Pichia stipitis ITB-R58 to produce bioethanol. The optimal sugar mixtures (fructose and xylose) of the hydrolysis product were subsequently converted into bioethanol by cofermentation with S. cerevisiae ITB-R89 and P. stipitis ITB-R58, carried out with varying concentrations of inoculum for 5 days (48 h) at 30°C and pH 4.5. The high-power liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the optimal inoculum concentration capable of converting 76.15% of the sugar mixture substrate (glucose and xylose) to 10.79 g/L (34.74% yield) of bioethanol was 10% (v/v). The optimal rate of ethanol production was 0.45 g/L/d, corresponding to a fermentation efficiency of 69.48%.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Nov 2020 08:20:00 +000
  • Antibiotic Resistance Results of Helicobacter pylori in a University
           Hospital: Comparison of the Hybridization Test and Real-Time Polymerase
           Chain Reaction

    • Abstract: Aim. H. pylori is a bacterial pathogen in the human stomach which infects about 50% of the world population. Untreated infection can lead to various diseases leading to cancer. Some of the H. pylori strains are asymptomatic, but some of them cause more severe diseases. Standard treatment protocol used for the treatment of H. pylori infection is triple therapy, which includes omeprazole as a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and two antibiotics usually consist of amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. In the recent years, because of the increase in the rate of antibiotic resistance, the eradication rate has decreased. Materials and Methods. We evaluated 140 patients who applied to a university hospital gastroenterology department and underwent biopsy during endoscopy. In these patients, we analysed floroquinolone and clarithromycin resistance using the GenoType® HelicoDR (Hain Life Science, Germany). We also used the real-time method for clarithromycin resistance. Results. We found the number and rate of floroquinolone resistance as 20 (25.6%) and clarithromycine resistance as 31 (39.7%). With the real-time PCR method, we detected clarithromycine resistance in 26 (33.3%) patients. These results were not statistically significant. Discussion and Conclusion. Our results show similarity to the other studies held in our country. There should be more studies for the policy of eradication through our country.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 15:05:01 +000
  • Antifungal Activity of Thai Cajuput Oil and Its Effect on Efflux-Pump Gene
           Expression in Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Clinical Isolates

    • Abstract: Candidiasis caused by the fluconazole-resistant opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is an intractable clinical problem that threatens immunocompromised or normal individuals. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in C. albicans is the failure of cells to accumulate the drug due to increased expression of the efflux proteins encoded by the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes. Because the number of current antifungal drugs is limited, it is necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Thai Cajuput oil, its synergism with fluconazole, and its effect on efflux-pump gene expression in fluconazole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolates. Thus, we first detected the efflux-pump genes in fourteen resistant strains by PCR. The frequencies of the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes were 68.75%, 62.5%, and 87.5%, respectively, and these efflux-pump genes were distributed in three distinct patterns. Subsequently, the antifungal activity of Thai Cajuput oil was assessed by broth macrodilution and its synergism with fluconazole was evaluated by the checkerboard assay. The changes in the expression levels of CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 after treatment with Thai Cajuput oil were analyzed by qRT-PCR. The MICs and MFCs of Thai Cajuput oil ranged from 0.31 to 1.25 μl/ml and 0.63 to 1.25 μl/ml, respectively, and its activity was defined as fungicidal activity. The MICs of the combination of Thai Cajuput oil and fluconazole were much lower than the MICs of the individual drugs. Interestingly, sub-MICs of Thai Cajuput oil significantly reduced the MDR1 expression level in resistant strains . Our study suggests that Thai Cajuput oil can be used to create new potential combination therapies to combat the antifungal resistance of C. albicans.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 05:35:01 +000
  • Carbapenemase-Producing Non-Glucose-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli in
           Africa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Background. Studies have reported that the existence of CP bacteria in Africa, but, in general, comprehensive data about the molecular epidemiology of CP organisms are limited. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis expound the pooled prevalence of CP P. aeruginosa and CP A. baumannii clinical isolates in Africa. It also identified the diversity of carbapenemases or their encoding genes among the isolates in Africa. Lastly, the review observed the trends of these CP isolates in Africa. Methods. A comprehensive search was performed between July 2019 and October 2019 in the following databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and African Journal online. The included articles were published only in English. The screening was done by two authors independently. The data extracted on Excel spreadsheet were transferred to STATA 11 software for analysis. Results. From a total of 1,454 articles searched, 42 articles were eligible. Most of the studies were conducted in the North Africa region. But there was no report from Central Africa. The pooled prevalence of CP P. aeruginosa and CP A. baumannii among the clinical specimens in Africa was 21.36% and 56.97%, respectively. OXA-23 and VIM were the most prevailing carbapenemase among P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. The cumulative meta-analysis revealed a relative increment of the prevalence of CP P. aeruginosa over time in Africa but it showed a higher prevalence of CP A. baumannii isolates across years. Conclusion. The review revealed a high pooled prevalence of CP A. baumannii clinical isolates in Africa which needs urgent action. Moreover, the emergence of concomitant carbapenemases, especially OXA-23 +  NDM among CP A. baumannii, was also an alarming problem.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 05:05:00 +000
  • Current Applications of Bacteriocin

    • Abstract: Bacteriocins are multifunctional, ribosomally produced, proteinaceous substances with pronounced antimicrobial activity at certain concentrations. They are produced by bacteria and certain members of archaea to inhibit the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. These molecules have antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and deteriorating bacteria, which justifies their biotechnological potential. They are classified into 3 major classes based on their structural and physicochemical properties: class I bacteriocin, class II bacteriocin, and class III bacteriocin. Bacteriocins inhibit the growth of target organisms by functioning primarily on the cell envelope and by affecting gene expression and protein production within cells. The use of bacteriocins has been reported for the following: food preservation, diverse therapeutic purposes such as treatment of peptic ulcer, spermicidal agent, and woman care, anticancerous agent, veterinary use, skincare, and oral care, and also for plant growth promotion in agriculture among others.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Nov 2020 08:35:00 +000
  • The Utility of Neutrophil CD64 and Presepsin as Diagnostic, Prognostic,
           and Monitoring Biomarkers in Neonatal Sepsis

    • Abstract: Background. Neonatal septicemia is a critical medical situation; current conventional laboratory methods still have many limitations and diagnostic obstacles. For this purpose, last decades have witnessed a challenge between the battery of sepsis biomarkers including many leukocyte surface antigens, not only for early diagnostic purposes but also for better follow-up and good management of sepsis patients. Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring performance of both neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) and presepsin as sepsis biomarkers compared to each other and to the conventional laboratory sepsis parameters aiming to decide which is the best fitting for routine daily use in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Methods. 235 neonates were enrolled from three Egyptian neonatal ICUs, during the period from November 2015 till March 2018; they were classified into two main groups: the control group (n = 102) and the sepsis group (n = 133). Laboratory sepsis evaluation included highly sensitive CRP (hs-CRP), CBC, in addition to nCD64 (flow cytometry technique), and presepsin measurement (CLEIA technique combined with Magtration® technology); the diagnosis was confirmed thereafter by positive blood culture results (BacT/Alert system). Sixty-two of the enrolled sepsis neonates were subjected to follow-up assessment; they were reclassified according to their clinical improvement at the second time assessment into (group 1: sepsis group without improvement) (n = 20) and (group 2: improved sepsis group) (n = 42). Results. Significant increase in nCD64 and presepsin values was found in sepsis groups compared to the controls. At cutoff 41.6%, nCD64% could discriminate the presence of septicemia with sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 93.6 %, and AUC 0.925, while presepsin at cutoff 686 pg/ml achieves sensitivity 82.7%, specificity 95.5%, and AUC 0.887, respectively. Significant increase in nCD64 () and hs-CRP () values was observed in severe sepsis/septic shock patients compared to nonsevere sepsis patients. Delta change percentage (dC%) between initial and follow-up evaluations for both improved and nonimproved sepsis patients was dC Z value −5.904 for nCD64% followed by dC Z value −4.494 for presepsin. Conclusion. nCD64 and presepsin are valuable early diagnostic and monitoring sepsis biomarkers; the highest sensitivity could be achieved by a univariant sepsis marker in this study was recorded by the nCD64% biomarker, while the highest specificity was documented by presepsin. Combined measurement of both achieves the highest diagnostic performance in sepsis neonates. Either of CD64 or presepsin combined with hs-CRP associated with better performance than any of them alone. nCD64 carries an additional promising role in reflecting sepsis prognosis.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Nov 2020 16:05:02 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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