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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 79)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 204)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Microbiology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.662
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-918X - ISSN (Online) 1687-9198
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Various Contact Lens Solutions

    • Abstract: Soft contact lenses provide perfect conditions for the breeding of pathogens. The study is a prospective, experimental study, conducted to know the antimicrobial ability of multipurpose contact lens solution against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the stand-alone test. The test method is based on the procedures in the ISO 14729 standard primary stand-alone test. Three multipurpose contact lens care solutions commercially available in Mangalore markets, namely, Biotrue (Bausch & Lomb), Opti-Free Replenish (Alcon), and Aquasoft (Stericon Pharma), were tested for its antimicrobial effect in the microbiology lab at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. According to this study, the solutions named “Biotrue” and “Aquasoft” met the primary stand-alone and reached the 3log reduction and 5log reduction criteria in the manufacturer recommended time, respectively. No conclusion could be drawn for Opti-Free Replenish since the minimum recommended disinfection time was overnight, whereas it was noted for 6 hr only, and it should have been experimented further. The effectiveness of multipurpose solutions varies against different bacterial species. We have observed that the antimicrobial activity of different solutions varies with respect to time of incubation, and also there was a marked difference in the activity of some solutions against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. So, it is necessary for the contact lens users to store their lenses in solutions for longer duration of hours. It is also recommended to use solutions that clear the ISO 14729 standards for better health conditions of the eye.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Patterns of Change in Metabolic Capabilities of Sediment Microbial
           Communities in River and Lake Ecosystems

    • Abstract: Information on the biodegradation potential of lake and river microbial communities is essential for watershed management. The water draining into the lake ecosystems often carries a significant amount of suspended sediments, which are transported by rivers and streams from the local drainage basin. The organic carbon processing in the sediments is executed by heterotrophic microbial communities, whose activities may vary spatially and temporally. Thus, to capture and apprehend some of these variabilities in the sediments, we sampled six sites: three from the Saint Clair River (SC1, SC2, and SC3) and three from Lake Saint Clair in the spring, summer, fall, and winter of 2016. Here, we investigated the shifts in metabolic profiles of sediment microbial communities, along Saint Clair River and Lake Saint Clair using Biolog EcoPlates, which test for the oxidation of 31 carbon sources. The number of utilized substrates was generally higher in the river sediments (upstream) than in the lake sediments (downstream), suggesting a shift in metabolic activities among microbial assemblages. Seasonal and site-specific differences were also found in the numbers of utilized substrates, which were similar in the summer and fall, and spring and winter. The sediment microbial communities in the summer and fall showed more versatile substrate utilization patterns than spring and winter communities. The functional fingerprint analyses clearly distinguish the sediment microbial communities from the lake sites (downstream more polluted sites), which showed a potential capacity to use more complex carbon substrates such as polymers. This study establishes a close linkage between physical and chemical properties (temperature and organic matter content) of lake and river sediments and associated microbial functional activities.
      PubDate: Sun, 27 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Genomic Variability among Field Isolates and Laboratory-Adapted Strains of
           Leptospira borgpetersenii Serovar Hardjo

    • Abstract: Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo colonizes cattle kidneys and may occasionally infect humans and other mammals. Strains belonging to two clonal subtypes (types A and B) with marked differences in their pathogenicity in the hamster experimental model have been described for this serovar. Such differences have been attributed to point mutations in individual genes, although those genes have not yet been characterized. In order to better understand genetic variability among L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo isolates, we sequenced and compared the genomes of two laboratory-adapted strains and three abattoir-derived field isolates of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. Relatively low genetic variability was observed within isolates of the same subtype, with most of the mutations of moderate or high impact found in the laboratory-adapted isolates. In contrast, several differences regarding gene content and genetic variants were observed between the two subtypes. Putative type-specific genes appear to encode proteins associated with functions that are critical for infection. Some of these genes seem to be involved in transcriptional regulation, possibly leading to a distinct regulatory pattern in each type. These results show that changes in regulatory mechanisms, previously suggested to be critical during Leptospira speciation, may occur in L. borgpetersenii. In addition, the bioinformatics methodology used in this study for variant calling can be useful to other groups working with nonmodel prokaryotic organisms such as Leptospira species.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 May 2018 07:34:35 +000
  • Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
           Isolates, Isolated from a Burn Hospital in Southwest Iran in 2006 and 2014

    • Abstract: Objectives. Incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing every year, especially in burn patients with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Molecular and epidemiologic studies are useful practices for understanding the relatedness of isolates in a single patient or a hospital. This study aimed at determining molecular characterizations of isolates collected in 2006 and 2014 using S. aureus-specific staphylococcal protein A (Spa) typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) methods. Materials and Methods. Totally, 71 MRSA isolates were collected during the last two studies (2006 and 2014) from burn patients at Taleghani Burn Centre. After confirmation, all isolates were analysed using MLST and Spa typing methods. Results. We reported the emergence of Spa type t021, ST-30-IV MRSA isolates, which were PVL-positive in 14.6% of the cases and t12366, ST-8-IV isolates, which were PVL-negative in 9.8% of the cases. In 2014 study, Spa typing of MRSA isolates revealed five different spa types. Overall, in two studies, t037, ST-239, SCCmec III, and CC8 were predominant clones and they were reported in 63% of the cases. Conclusion. The predominance of ST-239 in this region during the last eight years is a major concern. It also has a disturbing impact on the management of staphylococcal infections. Moreover, the SCCmec type IV strain is able to disseminate rapidly in hospital environments, demanding an improvement in infection-control policy.
      PubDate: Sun, 20 May 2018 07:38:56 +000
  • Surfaces and Air Bacteriology of Selected Wards at a Referral Hospital,
           Northwest Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. The hospital environment is a source of medically important pathogens that are mostly multidrug resistant (MDR) and posing a major therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to assess the surface and air bacteriology of selected wards at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital (FHRH), Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from 15th February to 30th April 2017. A total of 356 surface and air samples were collected from selected wards using 5% sheep blood agar (Oxoid, UK) and processed at FHRH microbiology laboratory following the standard bacteriological procedures. Pure isolates were tested against the recommended antibiotics using Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion methods, and the susceptibility profile was determined based on Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 23 for Windows. Results. Of the total 356 samples processed, 274 were from surfaces and 82 were from air. Among these, 141 (39.6%) showed bacterial growth, yielding a total of 190 isolates. Gram-positive isolates were predominant at 81.6% (), while the gram negatives were at 18.4% (). The main isolates were coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNs), 44%, followed by S. aureus, 37.4%, and Klebsiella species at 11.6%. The bacterial load on surfaces and air was found beyond the standard limits. Besides, the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the isolates showed that about 75% of the identified isolates were found resistant for two and more antimicrobial agents tested. Conclusions. This study showed high degree of bacterial load that is beyond the standard limits on both surfaces and air samples of the hospital. Furthermore, some 75% of the isolates were found multidrug resistant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and strengthen the infection prevention practice of the hospital. Moreover, stakeholders should also reinforce actions to decrease the pressure of antimicrobial resistance in the studied area.
      PubDate: Sun, 13 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Epidemiological Survey of Rotaviruses Responsible for Infantile Diarrhea
           by the Immunomolecular Technique in Cotonou (Benin, West Africa)

    • Abstract: Rotavirus remains the main causative agent of gastroenteritis in young children, in countries that have not yet introduced the vaccine. Benin, in order to implement the WHO recommendations, projects to introduce the rotavirus vaccine in 2018 as part of its Expanded Program on Immunization. But before the introduction of this vaccine, epidemiological data on rotavirus infections and rotavirus genotypes circulating in Benin should be available. The aim of this study is to generate epidemiological data on infantile rotavirus diarrhea in Benin. In order to determine the epidemiological characteristics and electrophoretypes of rotavirus responsible for gastroenteritis in diarrheic children aged 0 to 5 years, 186 stool samples were collected according to the WHO Rotavirus Laboratory Manual from March 2014 to February 2015 at Suru-Lere University Hospital Center. Detection of rotavirus antigen was performed by the ELISA test, followed by molecular characterization using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 186 stool samples were analyzed for rotavirus, and seventy-three (39.2%) were found to be positive for rotavirus antigen by ELISA. Children aged 3 to 24 months were the most affected by rotavirus diarrhea in this study. Of the seventy-three children affected with rotavirus diarrhea, 27 (37%) had vomiting accompanied by dehydration and fever. Results based on electrophoresis showed that, among the 73 samples tested, 38 yielded typical rotavirus electrophoretic migration profiles.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:17:07 +000
  • Production of Biosurfactants by Soil Fungi Isolated from the Amazon Forest

    • Abstract: Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds that have sparked interest in recent years because of their environmental advantages over conventional surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of biosurfactants by soil fungi isolated from the Amazon forest. Fungi colonies were isolated from soil samples and screened for biosurfactant production in submerged fermentation. In addition, the influences of bioprocess factors (carbon source, nitrogen source, pH, and fermentation time) were investigated. Finally, the biosurfactant produced was semipurified and submitted to stability tests. One hundred fungal cultures were obtained from the soil samples, identified by micromorphology, and submitted to screening for biosurfactant production. Sixty-one strains produced biosurfactants. The strain Penicillium 8CC2 showed the highest emulsification index (54.2%). The optimized bioprocess conditions for biosurfactant production by Penicillium 8CC2 were as follows: soybean oil, 20 g/L; yeast extract, 30 g/L; pH 9; duration of 9 days. The semipurified biosurfactant showed stability after heating at 100°C for 60 min and after the addition of 30% NaCl (w/v). Tween 80 (0.2% w/v), a conventional surfactant, was used as the control.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Apr 2018 08:45:48 +000
  • Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori cagA and iceA Genes and Their
           Association with Gastrointestinal Diseases

    • Abstract: H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. It has several virulence factors such as cytotoxin-associated gene A(cagA) and the induced by contact with epithelium antigen (iceA). We aimed to explore the relationship between cagA and iceA of H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases. One hundred and eighteen patients who attended Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, were included in this study. Two gastric biopsies were collected and evaluated by rapid urease test (RUT) and PCR. cagA and iceA genes were amplified by PCR. We found that 54 patients (45.76%) were positive by both RUT and PCR. cagA and iceA genes were present in 57.4% and 46.29% of the studied patients, respectively. cagA was the most prevalent gene in gastritis (33.3%) and peptic ulcer (68.7%). iceA1/iceA2 positive genes were the most prevalent in gastric cancer (75%). iceA1 gene was present in 38.7% of cagA positive cases, but iceA2 gene was present in 45.2% of cagA positive cases. iceA1/iceA2 positive genes were present in 29% of cagA positive cases. In conclusion, cagA and iceA genes could be used as markers for severe gastrointestinal diseases. iceA gene was strongly related to cagA gene.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Brown Rot-Type Fungal Decomposition of Sorghum Bagasse: Variable Success
           and Mechanistic Implications

    • Abstract: Sweet sorghum is a promising crop for a warming, drying African climate, and basic information is lacking on conversion pathways for its lignocellulosic residues (bagasse). Brown rot wood-decomposer fungi use carbohydrate-selective pathways that, when assessed on sorghum, a grass substrate, can yield information relevant to both plant biomass conversion and fungal biology. In testing sorghum decomposition by brown rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum, Serpula lacrymans), we found that G. trabeum readily degraded sorghum, removing xylan prior to removing glucan. Serpula lacrymans, conversely, caused little decomposition. Ergosterol (fungal biomarker) and protein levels were similar for both fungi, but S. lacrymans produced nearly 4x lower polysaccharide-degrading enzyme specific activity on sorghum than G. trabeum, perhaps a symptom of starvation. Linking this information to genome comparisons including other brown rot fungi known to have a similar issue regarding decomposing grasses (Postia placenta, Fomitopsis pinicola) suggested that a lack of CE 1 feruloyl esterases as well as low xylanase activity in S. lacrymans (3x lower than in G. trabeum) may hinder S. lacrymans, P. placenta, and F. pinicola when degrading grass substrates. These results indicate variability in brown rot mechanisms, which may stem from a differing ability to degrade certain lignin-carbohydrate complexes.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Illumina MiSeq Sequencing for Preliminary Analysis of Microbiome Causing
           Primary Endodontic Infections in Egypt

    • Abstract: The use of high throughput next generation technologies has allowed more comprehensive analysis than traditional Sanger sequencing. The specific aim of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity of primary endodontic infections using Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform in Egyptian patients. Samples were collected from 19 patients in Suez Canal University Hospital (Endodontic Department) using sterile # 15K file and paper points. DNA was extracted using Mo Bio power soil DNA isolation extraction kit followed by PCR amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis. The microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V3 and V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. MOTHUR software was used in sequence filtration and analysis of sequenced data. A total of 1858 operational taxonomic units at 97% similarity were assigned to 26 phyla, 245 families, and 705 genera. Four main phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Synergistetes were predominant in all samples. At genus level, Prevotella, Bacillus, Porphyromonas, Streptococcus, and Bacteroides were the most abundant. Illumina MiSeq platform sequencing can be used to investigate oral microbiome composition of endodontic infections. Elucidating the ecology of endodontic infections is a necessary step in developing effective intracanal antimicrobials.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Molecular Typing and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant
           Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Bovine Milk in Tanzania

    • Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw milk can be transmitted from animals to humans, and in Tanzania raw milk is sold in local markets and consumed as purchased. This study was performed to determine the molecular characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of MRSA strains isolated from raw bovine milk sold at local markets in Tanzania. A total of 117 raw milk samples were cultured on Baird-Parker medium to isolate S. aureus and PCR was used for amplification of gltB gene for S. aureus identification and the presence of mecA gene for methicillin-resistant strains. Coagulase-negative (CN) S. aureus were reconfirmed using tube coagulase, DNase, and API Staph tests. MRSA isolates were spa typed whereas antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Forty-six coagulase positives (CP) and two CN S. aureus were identified. Most strains were resistant to penicillin (72%), and 3 isolates: 2 CN S. aureus and 1 coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS), were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, oxacillin, and cefoxitin and were confirmed to carry mecA. Resistance to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline was 23.9%, 30.4%, and 41.3%, respectively. Twelve isolates exhibited multidrug resistance; however, only one mecA positive strain among the three was typeable and belonged to spa type t2603. This study reports for the first time the presence of CN variant of MRSA, which was assigned the spa type t2603, and the presence of multidrug resistant S. aureus isolates from bovine milk in Morogoro, Tanzania.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prevalence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Its Association with Risk Factors
           among Nonpregnant Women: A Hospital Based Study

    • Abstract: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is an ecological imbalance of the vaginal microbiota affecting mostly women of reproductive age group. This study was carried out among 160 nonpregnant women registered at the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology/Obstetrics of KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal, from November 2014 to May 2015. The aim of the study was to assess the association of the risk factors with BV and analyze the type of bacteria associated with BV. Nugent’s scoring method was used for diagnosis of BV in this study. The overall prevalence of BV was 24.4% among symptomatic patients. Douching was statistically related to BV . Also, BV was significantly associated with consistency , odor , and amount of abnormal vaginal discharge . Contraceptives users on anatomical sites were found more prone to BV than those who did not use contraceptives on anatomical sites. Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), and Streptococcus agalactiae were associated with BV and out of those Lactobacillus spp. was the predominant organism. The higher prevalence of BV among symptomatic patients indicates interventions should be applied to reduce the incidence of stillbirth, abortion, and sterility.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Mar 2018 06:08:32 +000
  • Morphological and Molecular Identification of the Causal Agent of
           Anthracnose Disease of Avocado in Kenya

    • Abstract: Anthracnose disease of avocado contributes to a huge loss of avocado fruits due to postharvest rot in Kenya. The causal agent of this disease has not been clear but presumed to be Colletotrichum gloeosporioides as reported in other regions where avocado is grown. The fungus mainly infects fruits causing symptoms such as small blackish spots, “pepper spots,” and black spots with raised margin which coalesce as infection progresses. Due to economic losses associated with the disease and emerging information of other species of fungi as causal agents of the disease, this study was aimed at identifying causal agent(s) of the disease. A total of 80 fungal isolates were collected from diseased avocado fruits in Murang’a County, the main avocado growing region in Kenya. Forty-six isolates were morphologically identified as Colletotrichum spp. based on their cultural characteristics, mainly whitish, greyish, and creamish colour and cottony/velvety mycelia on the top side of the culture and greyish cream with concentric zonation on the reverse side. Their spores were straight with rounded end and nonseptate. Thirty-four isolates were identified as Pestalotiopsis spp. based on their cultural characteristics: whitish grey mycelium with black fruiting structure on the upper side and greyish black one on the lower side and septate spores with 3-4 septa and 2 or 3 appendages at one end. Further molecular studies using ITS indicated Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum boninense, and Pestalotiopsis microspora as the causal agents of anthracnose disease in avocado. However, with this being the first report, there is a need to conduct further studies to establish whether there is coinfection or any interaction thereof.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Feb 2018 09:08:17 +000
  • Bacterial Profile, Antibacterial Resistance Pattern, and Associated
           Factors from Women Attending Postnatal Health Service at University of
           Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Introduction. Surgical site infection is a vital cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, especially in resource-limited countries. The rise of antibiotic resistance bacterial infection poses a big threat to this vulnerable population. However, there is lack of studies around the study area. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify bacterial profile, antibacterial resistance pattern, and associated factors among mothers attending postnatal care health service. Methods. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 107 study participants at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital from 1 January 2016 to 30 May 2016. Wound swab, aspirate, and biopsy were collected and performed for culture and drug resistance testing. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to determine the associated factors for bacterial infection. Odds ratio (95% CI) was calculated to determine the strength of statistically significant associated factors. Result. Bacterial growth was confirmed in 90 (84.1%) of 107 study participants suspected to have surgical site infection. The predominant bacterial isolates were S. aureus (41.6%), E. coli (19.8%), K. pneumoniae (13.9%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus (12.9%), and Enterobacter spp. (4%). The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, and tetracycline but susceptible to ceftriaxone and amikacin. Multidrug-resistant bacteria species were isolated. Using a procedure such as cesarean section and episiotomy for delivery and premature rapture of membrane had strong association with bacterial infection. Conclusion. The high prevalence of bacterial profile and isolation of multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a big threat to postnatal mothers and their children. Factors such as cesarean section, episiotomy for delivery, and premature rapture of membrane were predictors for bacterial infection. Therefore, there should be done a continuous surveillance as well as rational use of antibiotics and a longitudinal study using phenotypic and genotypic methods will be done.
      PubDate: Sun, 25 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Bile Acids and Nisin on the Production of Enterotoxin by
           Clostridium perfringens in a Nutrient-Rich Medium

    • Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, with nearly a million cases each year. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), produced during sporulation, damages intestinal epithelial cells by pore formation, which results in watery diarrhea. The effects of low concentrations of nisin and bile acids on sporulation and toxin production were investigated in C. perfringens SM101, which carries an enterotoxin gene on the chromosome, in a nutrient-rich medium. Bile acids and nisin increased production of enterotoxin in cultures; bile acids had the highest effect. Both compounds stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes and production of spores during the early growth phase. They also delayed spore outgrowth and nisin was more inhibitory. Bile acids and nisin enhanced enterotoxin production in some but not all other C. perfringens isolates tested. Low concentrations of bile acids and nisin may act as a stress signal for the initiation of sporulation and the early transcription of sporulation-related genes in some strains of C. perfringens, which may result in increased strain-specific production of enterotoxin in those strains. This is the first report showing that nisin and bile acids stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes in a nutrient-rich bacterial culture medium.
      PubDate: Tue, 20 Feb 2018 09:53:40 +000
  • Assessment of Two Years’ Sputum Smear Results among Tuberculosis
           Suspected Patients in Gambella Regional Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Determining burden of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTb) may be associated with success of directly observed theraphy (DOT) services in high PTb areas, such as Gambella, Ethiopia. Objective. To assess burden of sputum smear positive SSP-PTb reports in Gambella Regional Hospital, in two consecutive years: mid 2013 to 2015. Methods. From March 2013 to February 2015, PTb suspected patients’ sputum Acid Fast Bacilli test results were collected from laboratory registration book of Gambella Regional Hospital, western Ethiopia. Results. Of the total 3064 results, the proportions of males and individuals whose age is between 16 and 25 years were 1823 (59.5%) and 1046 (34.1%), respectively. Majority of samples were coming from newly PTb suspected patients (2587, or 84.4%); and of them, SSP-PTb cases were 9.9%. The overall SSP-PTb cases decreased by 2.1% in March 2014 to February 2015 as compared to March 2013 to Feburary 2014. Meanwhile, AFB smear negative cases were significantly associated with being male [1.384 (1.064–1.801)] and being of age group 16–25 years [1.517 (1.007–2.287)]. Conclusion. In Gambella region, although the distribution of AFB smear results had no significant yearly variations and the overall burden of SSP cases was decreased, still a lot of work needs to be undertaken on the PTb prevention and control program.
      PubDate: Tue, 06 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Bacterial Community of the Rice Floodwater Using Cultivation-Independent

    • Abstract: In agricultural systems, interactions between plants and microorganisms are important to maintaining production and profitability. In this study, bacterial communities in floodwaters of rice fields were monitored during the vegetative and reproductive stages of rice plant development using 16S amplicon sequencing. The study was conducted in the south of Brazil, during the crop years 2011/12 and 2012/13. Comparative analyses showed strong differences between the communities of floodwaters associated with the two developmental stages. During the vegetative stage, 1551 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, while less than half that number (603) were identified in the reproductive stage. The higher bacterial richness observed in floodwater collected during the vegetative stage may have been favored by the higher concentration of nutrients, such as potassium, due to rhizodeposition and fertilizer application. Eighteen bacterial phyla were identified in both samples. Both communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. In the vegetative stage, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were more abundant and, in contrast, Bacilli and Clostridia were the more dominant classes in the reproductive stage. The major bacterial taxa identified have been previously identified as important colonizers of rice fields. The richness and composition of bacterial communities over cultivation time may contribute to the sustainability of the crop.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 06:16:29 +000
  • Prevalence and Antibiotics Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella and
           Shigella Species among Diarrheal Patients Attending Nekemte Referral
           Hospital, Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: The main objective of this study was determining the prevalence and antibiotics resistance pattern of Salmonella and Shigella sp. from diarrheal patients attending Nekemte Referral Hospital. A total of 422 patients were included in the study and their sociodemographic and clinical information was collected using questionnaire. Stool samples of the patients were collected and processed following standard bacteriological protocols. Presumptive colonies of Salmonella and Shigella species were identified and subcultured to their respective genera by standard biochemical tests. Antibiotics susceptibility of the isolates was tested using disk diffusion assay. The prevalences of Salmonella and Shigella sp. among the patients were 7.1% and 2.1%, respectively. The antimicrobial susceptibility test results of the isolates showed that they are highly resistant to amoxicillin (30 μg). In contrast, the isolates showed relatively lower resistance level to ceftriaxone (30 μg), nalidixic acid (30 μg), norfloxacin (10 μg), and ciprofloxacin (5 μg). This study revealed 9.2% prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella sp. which were resistant to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Thus, intervention measures such as health education, provision of safe drinking water, improvement of waste disposal systems, and surveillance of antibiotics susceptibility of the pathogens should be done regularly.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jan 2018 09:45:20 +000
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