for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help

Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z  

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 191)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 | Last   [Sort by number of followers]   [Restore default list]

Journal Cover
International Journal of Endocrinology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.012
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 4  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8337 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8345
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Adipokines in Semen: Physiopathology and Effects on Spermatozoas

    • Abstract: Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and could be the link between obesity and infertility. Different studies investigated the involvement of adipokines in reproductive functions but only a few have looked into the male part. This review assesses adipokine functions on male reproductive parameters. Adiponectin seems to have a positive effect on sperm parameters, whereas other adipokines such as resistin or chemerin would have a rather deleterious effect on spermatogenesis. Semen parameters seem to be impacted when resistin and chemerin are increased: indeed, there is a decrease of sperm motility. Sperm morphology is improved when adiponectin is increased. The most studied adipokine, leptin, has a dual effect with a positive effect on sperm at physiological levels and a negative one for high seminal concentrations. Many semen parameters and fertility itself are disturbed according to semen adipokine levels, even if it is not the only interfering element. Taken together, adipokines are found in human and animal semen and most of them or their receptors are expressed in male genital tract. Although the pathophysiological role of adipokines in semen is not clearly elucidated, the adipokines could influence sperm functionality and could be potential biomarkers of male fertility.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 07:08:31 +000
       
  • Pregnancy Ketonemia and Development of the Fetal Central Nervous System

    • Abstract: Glucose is the major source of energy for the human brain which in turn uses ketone bodies as a supplement for energy deficit in glucose cell deficiency conditions. Pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes is a condition associated with significantly increased risk of ketonemia development. The data available proves a changing influence of ketones on the central nervous system during fetal life and in adults as well. Ketone bodies freely pass through the placenta. They can affect fetal growth and organ damage development, especially the central nervous system. As agreed in the current recommendation of the diabetes associations, it is not obligatory for the attending doctor to conduct a routine inspection of ketone bodies during diabetes treatment in pregnancy. This article is a literature review of ketones’ effect on the central nervous system and an attempt to initiate discussion whether we should consider including ketonemia assessment into the standard care package for pregnant women with diabetes and begin some research on the explanation of its influence on fetal development.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diagnostic Values of Free Triiodothyronine and Free Thyroxine and the
           Ratio of Free Triiodothyronine to Free Thyroxine in Thyrotoxicosis

    • Abstract: Background. The results of previous studies on the usefulness of free triiodothyronine (FT3) to free thyroxine (FT4) are controversial. We investigated the usefulness of FT3, FT4, and FT3/FT4 ratio in differentiating Graves’ disease (GD) from destructive thyroiditis. Methods. A total of 126 patients with untreated GD, 36 with painless thyroiditis, 18 with painful subacute thyroiditis, and 63 healthy controls, were recruited. The levels of FT3 and FT4 and the FT3/FT4 ratios for the different etiologies of thyrotoxicosis were evaluated separately by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The expression levels of type 1 and type 2 deiodinase (DIO1 and DIO2) in thyroid tissues were also investigated. Results. The optimal cut-off values were 7.215 pmol/L for FT3, 21.71 pmol/L for FT4, and 0.4056 for the FT3/FT4 ratio. The specificity and positive predictive value of the FT3/FT4 ratio were highest for values > 0.4056. DIO1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the thyroid tissue of patients with GD (). Conclusions. We demonstrated that the FT3/FT4 ratio was useful in differentiating GD from destructive thyroiditis. In addition, a relatively high expression of type 1 deiodinase in the thyroid might be responsible for the high FT3/FT4 ratio in patients with GD.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Role of Lipotoxicity and Contribution of the Renin-Angiotensin System in
           the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    • Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and significant condition associated with hyperandrogenism, infertility, low quality of life, and metabolic comorbidities. One possible explanation of PCOS development is cellular dysfunction induced by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), that is, lipotoxicity, which could explain both the hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance that characterize women with PCOS. The literature suggests that androgen biosynthesis may be induced by overexposure of androgen-secreting tissues to NEFA and/or defective NEFA metabolism, leading to lipotoxic effects. Indeed, lipotoxicity could trigger androgenic hyperresponsiveness to insulin, LH, and ACTH. In most PCOS women, lipotoxicity also causes insulin resistance, inducing compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and may thus further increase hyperandrogenemia. Many approaches aimed at insulin sensitization also reduce lipotoxicity and have been shown to treat PCOS hyperandrogenemia. Furthermore, our group and others found that angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation is able to improve lipotoxicity. We provided evidence, using C21/M24, that AT2R activation improves adipocytes’ size and insulin sensitivity in an insulin-resistant rat model, as well as androgen levels in a PCOS obese rat model. Taken together, these findings point toward the important role of lipotoxicity in PCOS development and of the RAS system as a new target for the treatment of PCOS.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Level Correlates with Lipoprotein
           Subfractions in Obese Nondiabetic Subjects

    • Abstract: Background. The elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome and in patients with type 2 diabetes is well established. The association of plasma PAI-1 and lipid metabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between plasma PAI-1 levels and the distribution of lipoprotein subfractions in obese and lean nondiabetic individuals. Subjects and Methods. We enrolled fifty nondiabetic obese patients and thirty-two healthy volunteers. Lipoprotein subfractions were detected with Lipoprint System. Plasma PAI-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Results. The TNF-α, IL-6, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and MPO levels were found to be significantly higher, while PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were nonsignificantly lower in the obese patients. Strong significant negative correlations were found between plasma PAI-1 concentration and mean LDL size, as well as between PAI-1 concentrations and the levels of the large and intermediate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. In multiple regression analysis, PAI-1 was predicted by waist circumference and intermediate HDL subfraction. Conclusion. The significant correlations between PAI-1 levels and lipoprotein subfractions indicate the link between PAI-1 and lipid metabolism in obesity.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 May 2018 07:18:18 +000
       
  • The Role of Uron and Chlorobenzene Derivatives, as Potential Endocrine
           Disrupting Compounds, in the Secretion of ACTH and PRL

    • Abstract: Uron herbicides polluting the environment represent a serious concern for environmental health and may be regarded as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), which influence the regulation of human homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the effect of EDC urons (phenuron: PU, monuron: MU, and diuron: DU) and chlorobenzenes on the basal release of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is a part of the adenohypophysis-adrenocortical axis. Hormone secretion in the presence of EDC was studied in two cell types: normal adenohypophysis cells (AdH) and cells of prolactinomas (PRLOMA). PRLOMA was induced in female Wistar rats by subcutaneously injecting them with estrone acetate for 6 months. AdH and PRLOMA were separated from treated and untreated experimental animals, dissociated enzymatically and mechanically in order to create monolayer cell cultures, which served as an experimental in vitro model. We investigated the effects of ED agents separately and in combination on ACTH and prolactin (PRL) release through the hypophyseal-adrenal axis. Hormone determination was carried out by the luminescent immunoassay and the radioimmunoassay methods. Our results showed that (1) uron agents separately did not change ACTH and PRL release in AdH culture; (2) ACTH secretion in arginine vasopressin- (AVP-) activated AdH cells was significantly increased by EDC treatment; (3) ED agents increased the basal hormone release (ACTH, PRL) in PRLOMA cells; and (4) EDC exposure increased ACTH release in AVP-activated PRLOMA cells. We conclude that the herbicides PU, MU, and DU carry EDC effects and show human toxicity potential.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Diabetic Microvascular Complications

    • PubDate: Mon, 28 May 2018 06:56:26 +000
       
  • Clinicopathological and Survival Outcomes of Well-Differentiated Thyroid
           Carcinoma Undergoing Dedifferentiation: A Retrospective Study from FUSCC

    • Abstract: Background. Recently, several studies have reported that dedifferentiation occurs in fatal well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) cases. This study aimed at investigating the clinicopathological characteristics of WDTC undergoing dedifferentiation. Methods. A total of 63 WDTC patients harboring dedifferentiated phenotype were enrolled in the study. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to perform survival analyses. Harrell index of concordance (C-index) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were calculated to compare the predictive value for prognosis among several prognostic classification systems. Results. The median cause-specific survival (CSS) of patients was 138 months, with the CSS rate of 64.0% and 53.3% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Presence of the anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) phenotype significantly increased the risk of poor CSS (), and age was the only independent risk factor for disease progression (). The C-index and AIC of the age, grade, extent, size (AGES) prognostic classification system for the CSS were 0.723 and 59.937, respectively. Conclusions. The presence of dedifferentiated phenotypes can be responsible for the poor outcomes in WDTC patients. The AGES system demonstrates to be an optimal prognostic system for WDTC undergoing dedifferentiation.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 06:19:59 +000
       
  • Nontoxic Multinodular Goitre and Incidental Thyroid Cancer: What Is the
           Best Surgical Strategy'—A Retrospective Study of 2032 Patients

    • Abstract: Objectives. A discussion with regard to the most optimal surgical procedure in nontoxic multinodular goitre (NTMNG). We assessed and compared three main types of operations in 2032 patients with NTMNG. Methods. This is a retrospective study of 2032 patients operated on in one center due to NTMNG. The observation period was 48 to 120 months (mean and SD: 87 ± 20). Results. The early complications included uni- and bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (URLNP, BRLNP), overt tetany (OT), and postoperative bleeding (POB). We observed after TT, STT, and DO URLNP: 15 (1.73%), 3 (0.64%), and 2 (0.28%), respectively (); BRLNP: 3 (0.34%), 2 (0.43%), and 0 (0.0%), respectively (); OT: 42 (4.84%), 6 (1.29%), and 9 (1.28%), respectively (); and POB: 11 (1.26%), 4 (0.86%), and 3 (0.42%), respectively (). Persistent complications we observed after TT, STT, and DO are the following: URLNP: 9 (1.03%), 3 (0.64%), and 1 (0.14%), respectively (); BRLNP: 1 (0.11%), 1 (0.21%), and 0 (0.0%), respectively (); and OT: 11 (1.26%), 2 (0.43%), and 2 (0.28%), respectively (). Incidental thyroid cancer (ITC) was recognized after TT, STT, and DO in 18 (2.07%), 21 (4.52%), and 11 (1.56%), respectively (). Recurrent goitre (RG) was observed in 1 (0.11%) after TT, 3 (0.64%) after STT, and 2 (0.28%) after DO (). Conclusions. Performing less radical surgery in NTMNG is associated with a significantly lower risk of early and late URLNP and OT. In the case of BRLNP (early and persistent) and POB, no statistically significant differences are seen. The occurrence of ITC is higher following more radical surgeries. Less radical surgery is connected with a higher risk of RG.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • A Randomised, Controlled Study of Different Glycaemic Targets during
           Gestational Diabetes Treatment: Effect on the Level of Adipokines in Cord
           Blood and ANGPTL4 Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    • Abstract: Our aim was to study the expression of adipokine-encoding genes (leptin, adiponectin, and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4)) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and adipokine concentration in cord blood from women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) depending on glycaemic targets. GDM patients were randomised to 2 groups per target glycaemic levels: GDM1 (tight glycaemic targets, fasting blood glucose 
      PubDate: Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Potential Role of miRNAs as New Biomarkers for Osteoporosis

    • Abstract: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder affecting up to 40% of postmenopausal women, characterized by a reduction in bone mass and strength leading to bone fragility and fractures. Despite the available tools for diagnosis and stratification of a fracture risk, bone loss occurs insidiously and osteoporosis is often diagnosed after the first fracture has occurred, with important health-related outcomes. Therefore, the need of markers that could efficiently diagnose bone fragility and osteoporosis is still necessary. Over the past few years, novel studies have focused on miRNAs, small noncoding RNAs that are differentially expressed in many pathological conditions, making them attractive biomarkers. To date, the role of miRNAs in bone disorders remains in great part unclear. In particular, limited and partly conflicting information is available concerning their use as potential biomarkers for osteoporosis, due to differences in patient selection, type of samples, and analytical methods. Despite these limits, concordant information about some specific miRNAs is now arising, making likely their use as additional tools to stratify the risk of osteoporosis and possibly fractures. In this review, we summarize the most relevant studies concerning circulating miRNAs differentially expressed in osteoporotic patients along with their function in bone cells and bone turnover.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Young Adults Conceived by ICSI

    • Abstract: Background. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) conception presents the early embryo with a radically different environment, which may lead to permanent alterations to key cardiometabolic processes. Blood pressure, indicators of insulin resistance, and lipid profiles have previously been studied in offspring born after in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and ICSI, with conflicting findings. Also, results in young adults born after ICSI are lacking. Aim. We investigated if young adult men and women conceived by ICSI more frequently have metabolic syndrome and its individual features in comparison to spontaneously conceived controls. Design. Cardiometabolic and anthropometric parameters from 126 longitudinally followed young adults conceived by ICSI were compared to those of 133 controls. Results. At age 18 years, only 1 of the participants displayed the metabolic syndrome (1 control woman). Mean concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood pressure were comparable between the ICSI conceived and control participants. A higher proportion (19.6%) of men conceived by ICSI had low (
      PubDate: Thu, 03 May 2018 10:41:15 +000
       
  • Changes in Body Compositions and Basal Metabolic Rates during Treatment of
           Graves’ Disease

    • Abstract: Objectives. Because thyroid hormone is an important determinant of body weight and basal metabolic rate, we investigated the changes in the basal metabolic rate and body composition sequentially after treatment for Graves’ disease. Methods. A prospective cohort study was performed with six women newly diagnosed with Graves’ disease. During a 52-week treatment of methimazole, body composition, resting respiratory expenditure (REE), and handgrip strength were measured consecutively. Results. After methimazole treatment, body weight was initially increased (0–8 weeks), subsequently plateaued (8–24 weeks), and gradually decreased in the later period (24–52 weeks) despite the decreased food intake. The measured REE was 40% higher than the predicted REE at baseline, and it gradually decreased after treatment. REE positively correlated with thyroid hormone levels, peripheral deiodinase activity, and thyroid’s secretory capacity. Body compositional analyses showed that the fat mass increased during an earlier period (4–12 weeks), while the lean mass increased significantly during the later period (26–52 weeks). Consistent with the lean mass changes, muscle strength also significantly increased during the later period. Conclusions. Treatment of Graves’ disease increased body weight and fat mass transiently with decreased REE. However, long-term compositional changes moved in a beneficial direction increasing lean mass and reinforcing muscle strength, following decreasing fat percentages.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of
           Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Naturally Menopausal Women with Various
           Durations of Premenarche, Reproductive Periods, and Postmenopausal
           Stages”

    • PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Beta-Arrestin 1 Mediates Liver Thyrotropin Regulation of Cholesterol
           Conversion Metabolism via the Akt-Dependent Pathway

    • Abstract: After activation, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are desensitized by β-arrestins (ARRBs). Moreover, ARRBs can initiate a second wave of signaling independent of G proteins. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is one of the GPCR members. In our previous study, TSHR was identified in the liver; the major role of TSHR in cholesterol metabolism was illustrated, as TSH could regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism via cAMP/PKA/CREB/HMGCR and SREBP2/HNF4α/CYP7A1 pathways. It has been reported that ARRB2 predominates over ARRB1 in TSHR internalization. However, the significance of ARRBs in TSH-initiated cholesterol metabolism has not been illustrated. In our study, the effects of ARRBs on TSH-regulated cholesterol metabolism are investigated. ARRB1/2 was genetically inactivated in C57BL/6 mice and HepG2 cell line, respectively. Cholesterol levels in arrestin-knockout mice and arrestin-knockdown cells were measured. Molecules participating in cholesterol metabolism were analyzed. It turned out that deficiencies in ARRB1 led to decreased cholesterol levels and decreased TSH-stimulated AKT phosphorylation. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect on CYP7A1 by SREBP2 was reduced due to lowered mature SREBP2 level. Other than the failures of TSH in ARRB-knockdown cells, the AKT activator SC79 could enhance AKT phosphorylation and mature SREBP2 level. Our results demonstrate that ARRBs, especially ARRB1, are involved in TSH-regulated cholesterol metabolism through the AKT pathway.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Assessment of Bone Mineral Density in Male Patients with
           Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by DXA and Quantitative Computed
           Tomography”

    • PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Characterization of In Vivo Retinal Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy Using
           Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy

    • Abstract: Purpose. To characterize hallmark diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions utilizing adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) and to compare AOSLO findings with those on standard imaging techniques. Methods. Cross-sectional study including 35 eyes of 34 study participants. AOSLO confocal and multiply scattered light (MSL) imaging were performed in eyes with DR. Color fundus photographs (CF), infrared images of the macula (Spectralis, Heidelberg), and Spectralis spectral domain optical coherence tomography SDOCT B-scans of each lesion were obtained and registered to corresponding AOSLO images. Main Outcome Measures. Individual lesion characterization by AOSLO imaging. AOSLO appearance was compared with CF and SDOCT imaging. Results. Characterized lesions encompassed 52 microaneurysms (MA), 20 intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA), 7 neovascularization (NV), 11 hard exudates (HE), 5 dot/blot hemorrhages (HEM), 4 cotton wool spots (CWS), and 14 intraretinal cysts. AOSLO allowed assessment of perfusion in vascular lesions and enabled the identification of vascular lesions that could not be visualized on CF or SDOCT. Conclusions. AOSLO imaging provides detailed, noninvasive in vivo visualization of DR lesions enhancing the assessment of morphological characteristics. These unique AOSLO attributes may enable new insights into the pathological changes of DR in response to disease onset, development, regression, and response to therapy.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Limited Joint Mobility Progression in Type 1 Diabetes: A 15-Year Follow-Up
           Study

    • Abstract: Objective. To assess the evolution of joint mobility over a period of 15 years in type 1 diabetic patients and healthy controls and to determine whether microalbuminuria is associated with a different evolution of joint mobility. Methods. Joint mobility of hand and wrist was determined in 63 patients with type 1 diabetes and 63 healthy subjects. Fifteen years later, 37 (58.7%) diabetic patients and 16 (25.4%) healthy subjects were studied again. Joint mobility was assessed with the Prayer sign and by measuring the angle of maximal flexion of the fifth and third metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and wrist. Patients with diabetes were visited 2–4 times every year with regular assessment of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), urinary albumin excretion (UAE), and ophthalmoscopy. Results. Fifteen years after the initial exam, diabetic patients showed reduced flexion of the fifth MCP joint (82.6 ± 5.8 versus 76.0 ± 6.4 degrees, ) and wrist (75.9 ± 8.1 versus 73.2 ± 7.4 degrees, ) compared to baseline examination. Joint mobility did not change significantly in healthy subjects. Patients with microalbuminuria showed greater reduction in hand joint mobility than diabetic patients with normal UAE or than healthy subjects (). Conclusions. In type 1 diabetic patients, the severity of LJM progresses with time, and the progression is enhanced in patients with microalbuminuria.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Adiponectin: A New Regulator of Female Reproductive System

    • Abstract: Adiponectin is the hormone that belongs to the group of adipokines, chemical agents mainly derived from the white adipose tissue. The hormone plays pleiotropic roles in the organism, but the most important function of adiponectin is the control of energy metabolism. The presence of adiponectin and its receptors in the structures responsible for the regulation of female reproductive functions, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, indicates that adiponectin may be involved in the female fertility regulation. The growing body of evidence suggests also that adiponectin action is dependent on the actual and hormonal status of the animal. Present study presents the current knowledge about the presence and role of adiponectin system (adiponectin and its receptors: AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in the ovaries, oviduct, and uterus, as well as in the hypothalamus and pituitary, the higher branches of HPG axis, involved in the female fertility regulation.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Stevia Nonsweetener Fraction Displays an Insulinotropic Effect Involving
           Neurotransmission in Pancreatic Islets

    • Abstract: Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni besides being a source of noncaloric sweeteners is also an important source of bioactive molecules. Many plant extracts, mostly obtained with ethyl acetate solvent, are rich in polyphenol compounds that present insulinotropic effects. To investigate whether the nonsweetener fraction, which is rich in phenolic compounds isolated from Stevia rebaudiana with the solvent ethyl acetate (EAF), has an insulinotropic effect, including interference at the terminals of the autonomic nervous system of the pancreatic islets of rats. Pancreatic islets were isolated from Wistar rats and incubated with EAF and inhibitory or stimulatory substances of insulin secretion, including cholinergic and adrenergic agonists and antagonists. EAF potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) only in the presence of high glucose and calcium-dependent concentrations. EAF increased muscarinic insulinotropic effects in pancreatic islets, interfering with the muscarinic receptor subfamily M3. Adrenergic inhibitory effects on GSIS were attenuated in the presence of EAF, which interfered with the adrenergic α2 receptor. Results suggest that EAF isolated from stevia leaves is a potential therapy for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating insulin secretion only in high glucose concentrations, enhancing parasympathetic signal transduction and inhibiting sympathetic signal transduction in beta cells.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Akt/p27kip1 Pathway Is Not Involved in Human Insulinoma Tumorigenesis

    • Abstract: Insulinomas are pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), usually benign. Akt/p27kip1 is an intracellular pathway overexpressed in many pNET. There are no data regarding its expression in human insulinomas. We aimed to investigate the expression of Akt and p27kip1 in 24 human insulinomas and to compare them to their expression in normal surrounding islets. Staining was performed on embedded paraffin tissue using polyclonal antibodies against total Akt, p-Akt, p27kip1, and pp27kip1. p-Akt was the predominant form in insulinomas; they presented lower Akt and p-Akt expression than normal islets in 83.3% and 87.5% of tumors, respectively. p27kip1 and pp27kip1 were mainly cytoplasmic in both insulinomas and normal tissue. Cytoplasmic pp27kip1 staining was higher in insulinomas and surprisingly nearly half of the insulinomas also presented nuclear p27kip1 (). No differences were observed in the subcellular localization of p27kip1 and activation of Akt between benign and malignant insulinomas. The low expression of Akt seen in insulinomas might explain the usual benign behavior of this type of pNET. Cytoplasmic p27kip1 in both insulinomas and normal islet cells could reflect the low rate of replication of beta cells, while nuclear p27kip1 would seem to indicate stabilization and nuclear anchoring of the cyclin D-Cdk4 complex. Our data seem to suggest that the Akt pathway is not involved in human insulinoma tumorigenesis.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 06:45:06 +000
       
  • Decreased Retinal Thickness in Type 1 Diabetic Children with Signs of
           Nonproliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    • Abstract: The retina functions as a neurovascular unit. How early vascular alterations affect neuronal layers remains controversial; early vascular failure could lead to edema increasing retinal thicknesses, but alternatively neuronal loss could lead to reduced retinal thickness. Objective. To evaluate retinal thickness in a cohort of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (PwT1DM) and to analyze differences according to the presence or absence of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), poor metabolic control, and diabetes duration. Patients and Methods. We performed retinographies and optical coherence tomography (OCT) (TOPCON 3D1000®) to PwT1DM followed at our center and healthy controls. Measurements of the control group served to calculate reference values. Results. 59 PwT1DM (age 12.51 ± 2.59) and 22 healthy controls (age 10.66 ± 2.51) volunteered. Only two PwT1DM, both adolescents with poor metabolic control, presented NPRD. Both showed decreased thicknesses and retinal volumes. The odds ratio of having decreased retinal thickness when signs of NPDR were present was 11.72 (95% IC 1.16–118.28; ). Conclusions. PwT1DM with NPDR have increased odds of decreased retinal thicknesses and volumes. Whether these changes are reversible by improving metabolic control or not remains to be elucidated.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Its Risk Factors among Individuals
           Aged 15 Years and Above in Mizan-Aman Town, Southwest Ethiopia, 2016: A
           Cross Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Diabetes mellitus (DM), which is related to cardiovascular disease, is one of the main global health problems. In Ethiopia, information about this disease is known to be scarce. Objective. To assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors among individuals aged 15 years and above. Methods. A community-based cross sectional study was carried out from January 01 to March 30, 2016 in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was used to select study participants. The World Health Organization (WHO) stepwise approach for noncommunicable disease surveillance was deployed to collect data. Total cholesterol and triglyceride level measurements were done using the HumaStar 80 chemistry analyzer. Glucose meter was used to check fasting venous blood glucose level. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Results. A total of 402 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of DM was found to be 6.5% (26 out of 402). Of which, the proportion of previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was 88.5%. The prevalence of prediabetes was also found to be 15.9%. The waist circumference (WC), body mass index, smoking habit, hypertension, and total cholesterol level were significantly associated with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion. In this study, higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus was observed than the IDFA-projected estimate of DM for Ethiopia. Modifiable associated risk factors were also identified. Therefore, targeting the prevention strategy to such modifiable risk factors might reduce the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and screening of DM particularly in those individuals having high WC, history of smoking habit, and hypertension needs attention.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Impact of Long-Acting Somatostatin Analogues on Glucose Metabolism in
           Acromegaly: A Hospital-Based Study

    • Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate the change in glucose tolerance in treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly after administration of SSA and to identify predictive factors of glucose impairment during SSA therapy. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) was performed on 64 newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve patients with acromegaly both at pretreatment and 3 months after initiation of treatment with long-acting SSA. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by homeostatic model assessment- (HOMA-) IR and ISOGTT. Insulin secretion was assessed by HOMA-β, INS0/BG0, IGI (insulinogenic index), IGI/IR, ISSI2, and AUCINS/AUCBG. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the optimal cutoffs to predict the impact of SSA on glucose metabolism. Results. Pretreatment, 19, 24, and 21 patients were categorized as having normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM), respectively. Posttreatment, IR, represented by ISOGTT, was significantly improved in all 3 groups. Insulin secretion, represented by HOMA-β, declined in the NGT and IGT groups, but was unaltered in the DM group. The glucose tolerance status deteriorated in 18 (28.1%) patients, including 13 patients in the NGT group and 5 patients in the IGT group. Deterioration was associated with lower baseline BG120 (plasma glucose 120 min post-OGTT), less reduction of growth hormone (GH), and greater reduction of insulin secretion after SSA therapy. BG120 greater than 8.1 mmol/l provided the greatest sensitivity and specificity in predicting the stabilization and/or improvement of glucose tolerance status after SSA treatment (PPV 90.7%, NPV 66.7%, ). Conclusions. The deterioration of glucose metabolism induced by SSA treatment is caused by the less reduction of GH and the more inhibition of insulin secretion, which can be predicted by the baseline BG120 during OGTT.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Nonthionamide Drugs for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism: From Present to
           Future

    • Abstract: Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disease. Although thionamide antithyroid drugs are the cornerstone of hyperthyroidism treatment, some patients cannot tolerate this drug class because of its serious side effects including agranulocytosis, hepatotoxicity, and vasculitis. Therefore, nonthionamide antithyroid drugs (NTADs) still have an important role in controlling hyperthyroidism in clinical practice. Furthermore, some situations such as thyroid storm or preoperative preparation require a rapid decrease in thyroid hormone by combination treatment with multiple classes of antithyroid drugs. NTADs include iodine-containing compounds, lithium carbonate, perchlorate, glucocorticoid, and cholestyramine. In this narrative review, we summarize the mechanisms of action, indications, dosages, and side effects of currently used NTADs for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. In addition, we also describe the state-of-the-art in future drugs under development including rituximab, small-molecule ligands (SMLs), and monoclonal antibodies with a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) antagonist effect.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Evaluation of the HbA1c Reduction Cut Point for a Nonglycemic Effect on
           Cardiovascular Benefit of Hypoglycemic Agents in Patients with Type 2
           Diabetes Based on Endpoint Events

    • Abstract: Background. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a major cause of death among patients with diabetes but can be improved by certain hypoglycemic agents. However, adjudicating criteria on whether improvements are a glycemic or nonglycemic effect of these agents remain unclear. Methods. Hypoglycemic agents that produce a cardiovascular benefit in nondiabetic patients are considered to do so via a nonglycemic effect. We performed a subgroup analysis for primary and secondary prevention or very high risk of ASCVD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Where glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was reduced to the same extent in a head-to-head comparison, cardiovascular benefits were judged as a nonglycemic effect. Furthermore, by analyzing the endpoints of four important randomized controlled intensive glucose control studies, UKPDS33, ADVANCE, ACCORD, and VADT, we calculated the cut point of HbA1c reduction for a nonglycemic effect on cardiovascular benefit by hypoglycemic agents in ASCVD groups of different severities. Results. For the ASCVD primary prevention group of T2DM, UKPDS33 indicated a reduction in HbA1c 
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 08:43:55 +000
       
  • Synergistic Effects of Dantrolene and Nimodipine on the
           Phenylephrine-Induced Contraction and ACh-Induced Relaxation in Aortic
           Rings from Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Diabetics have a higher risk of developing cerebral vasospasms (CVSP) than nondiabetics. The addition of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) blocker dantrolene to standard therapies reduces vasospasms in nondiabetics. Whether diabetics with CVSP also benefit from this drug, however, is unknown. We evaluated the effects of a 30 min incubation with dantrolene (50 μM), nimodipine (50 nM), and both drugs in combination, on phenylephrine- (PHE-) induced contraction and on acetylcholine- (ACh-) induced relaxation in aortic rings from streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Age-matched, nondiabetic rats served as controls. The oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenal (4-HAE) were also evaluated in the presence and absence of dantrolene and nimodipine. The combination of these two drugs acted synergistically to reduce the PHE-induced contraction by 80% in both diabetics and controls. In contrast, it increased the max value for ACh-induced relaxation (from 56.46 ± 5.14% to 96.21 ± 7.50%; , ), and it decreased MDA + 4-HAE values in diabetic rats only. These results suggest that the combination of dantrolene and nimodipine benefits both diabetics and nondiabetics by decreasing arterial tone synergistically.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Magnesium and Human Health: Perspectives and Research Directions

    • Abstract: Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body. It has several functions in the human body including its role as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions. Several studies have shown that hypomagnesemia is a common electrolyte derangement in clinical setting especially in patients admitted to intensive care unit where it has been found to be associated with increase mortality and hospital stay. Hypomagnesemia can be caused by a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. It can also be a side effect of several medications. Many studies have reported that reduced levels of magnesium are associated with a wide range of chronic diseases. Magnesium can play important therapeutic and preventive role in several conditions such as diabetes, osteoporosis, bronchial asthma, preeclampsia, migraine, and cardiovascular diseases. This review is aimed at comprehensively collating the current available published evidence and clinical correlates of magnesium disorders.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Circulating MicroRNAs as Biomarkers of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus:
           Updates and Perspectives

    • Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of carbohydrate intolerance, with onset or first recognition during second or third trimester of gestation. It is estimated that approximately 7% of all pregnancies are complicated by GDM and that its prevalence is rising all over the world. Thus, the screening for abnormal glucose levels is generally recommended as a routine component of care for pregnant women. However, additional biomarkers are needed in order to predict the onset or accurately monitor the status of gestational diabetes. Recently, microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs demonstrated to modulate gene expression, have been proven to be secreted by cells of origin and can be found in many biological fluids such as serum or plasma. Such feature renders microRNAs as optimal biomarkers and sensors of in situ tissue alterations. Furthermore, secretion of microRNAs via exosomes has been reported to contribute to tissue cross talk, thus potentially represents, if disrupted, a mechanistic cause of tissue/cell dysfunction in a specific disease. In this review, we summarized the recent findings on circulating microRNAs and gestational diabetes mellitus with particular focus on the potential use of microRNAs as putative biomarkers of disease as well as a potential cause of GDM complications and β cell dysfunction.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Circulating MicroRNAs in Elderly Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    • Abstract: The circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly patients are still being defined. To identify novel miRNA biomarker candidates for monitoring responses to sitagliptin in such patients, we prospectively studied 40 T2D patients (age > 65) with HbA1c levels of 7.5–9.0% on metformin. After collection of baseline blood samples (t0), the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor (DPP-IVi) sitagliptin was added to the metformin regimen, and patients were followed for 15 months. Patients with HbA1c  0.5% after 3 and 15 months of therapy were classified as “responders” (group R, ); all others were classified as “nonresponders” (group NR, ). Circulating miRNA profiling was performed on plasma collected in each group before and after 15 months of therapy (t0 and t15). Intra- and intergroup comparison of miRNA profiles pinpointed three miRNAs that correlated with responses to sitagliptin: miR-378, which is a candidate biomarker of resistance to this DPP-IVi, and miR-126-3p and miR-223, which are associated with positive responses to the drug. The translational implications are as immediate as evident, with the possibility to develop noninvasive diagnostic tools to predict drug response and development of chronic complications.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-