International Journal of Endocrinology
[SJR: 0.961] [H-I: 24] [3 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8337 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8345
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Crosstalk between Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Glucocorticoid Receptor in
Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
Abstract: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is known to mediate the cellular reaction involved in processing environmental contaminants and, ultimately, preventing accumulation of unfavorable extra lipids and proteins. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediates the expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory properties. Because AHR and GR are closely related in lipid metabolic dysregulation and inflammation, we speculate that AHR and GR may play a crucial role in AMD pathogenesis and focus on their crosstalk in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19). However, how AHR and GR regulate each other’s signaling pathways is still poorly understood. In this research, we demonstrate that GR attenuates AHR-mediated gene expression by inhibition of nuclear translocation of AHR mediated by TCDD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that GR repress AHR recruitment and chromatin accessibility response to TCDD + Dex treatment leading to repression of AHR target genes. In contrast, AHR facilitates GR-mediated expression in ARPE-19. AHR increases GR recruitment on GRE of GR target genes. Coimmunoprecipitation assay revealed that AHR is associated with GR in ARPE-19 cells and the interaction is enhanced by the addition of TCDD and Dex. Taken together, these studies provide a molecular mechanism of crosstalk between AHR and GR in target gene expression in ARPE-19 cells.
PubDate: Wed, 22 Mar 2017 02:26:35 +000
- Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose to Assess Dawn Phenomenon in Chinese
People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract: Aims. We investigated whether self-monitoring of blood glucose could be used to assess dawn phenomenon in Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A total of 306 people with T2DM underwent continuous glucose monitoring and self-monitoring of blood glucose for 72 h. A linear model was used to fit the optimal linear formula of the magnitude of dawn phenomenon (ΔDawn) and self-monitoring of blood glucose values. Results. The prevalence of dawn phenomenon was similar within different oral antidiabetic drug groups (42.5%, 31.5%, and 40.9%, ). Multiple variable linear regression showed that prebreakfast, prelunch, and predinner glucose measurements were independently and significantly correlated with ΔDawn. The linear formula between ΔDawn and blood glucose was as follows: (adjusted , ). Conclusions. Dawn phenomenon could be partly assessed by blood glucose self-monitoring in Chinese people with T2DM using the abovementioned formula. The incidence of dawn phenomenon was similar among patients in different oral antidiabetic drug groups.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 09:04:51 +000
- Chronic Hyperinsulinaemic Hypoglycaemia in Rats Is Accompanied by
Increased Body Weight, Hyperleptinaemia, and Decreased Neuronal Glucose
Transporter Levels in the Brain
Abstract: The brain is vulnerable to hypoglycaemia due to a continuous need of energy substrates to meet its high metabolic demands. Studies have shown that severe acute insulin-induced hypoglycaemia results in oxidative stress in the rat brain, when neuroglycopenia cannot be evaded despite increased levels of cerebral glucose transporters. Compensatory measures in the brain during chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia are less well understood. The present study investigated how the brain of nondiabetic rats copes with chronic insulin-induced hypoglycaemia for up to eight weeks. Brain level of different substrate transporters and redox homeostasis was evaluated. Hyperinsulinaemia for 8 weeks consistently lowered blood glucose levels by 30–50% (4–6 mM versus 7–9 mM in controls). The animals had increased food consumption, body weights, and hyperleptinaemia. During infusion, protein levels of the brain neuronal glucose transporter were decreased, whereas levels of lipid peroxidation products were unchanged. Discontinued infusion was followed by transient systemic hyperglycaemia and decreased food consumption and body weight. After 4 weeks, plasma levels of lipid peroxidation products were increased, possibly as a consequence of hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress. The present data suggests that chronic moderate hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia causes increased body weight and hyperleptinaemia. This is accompanied by decreased neuronal glucose transporter levels, which may be leptin-induced.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- XRCC5 VNTR, XRCC6 -61C>G, and XRCC7 6721G>T Gene Polymorphisms Associated
with Male Infertility Risk: Evidences from Case-Control and In Silico
Abstract: We evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of XRCC5 VNTR, XRCC6 -61C>G, and XRCC7 6721G>T with male infertility susceptibility. A total of 392 men including 178 infertile males (102 idiopathic azoospermia and 76 severe oligozoospermia) and 214 healthy controls were recruited. XRCC6 -61C>G and XRCC7 6721G>T genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP whereas XRCC5 VNTR was performed by PCR. The 2R allele and 2R allele carriers of XRCC5 VNTR polymorphism significantly decreased risk of male infertility. The mutant GG genotypes and carriers of the CG and GG genotypes of XRCC6 -61C>G showed increased risk for the male infertility. Furthermore, the G allele of the XRCC6 -61C>G was correlated with increased susceptibility to male infertility. Likewise, the T allele of the XRCC7 6721G>T polymorphism was associated with increased susceptibility to male infertility in azoospermia. In silico analysis predicted that the presence of tandem repeats in XRCC5 gene prompter can be sequence to bind to more nuclear factors. Also, rs2267437 (C>G) variant was located in a well-conserved region in XRCC6 promoter and this variation might lead to differential allelic expression. The XRCC7 6721G>T gene polymorphism occurred in an acceptor-splicing site, but this polymorphism has no severe modification on XRCC7 mRNA splicing. Our results indicate the association of XRCC5 VNTR, XRCC6 -61C>G, and XRCC7 6721G>T gene polymorphisms with male infertility in Iranian men.
PubDate: Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Combination Therapy with a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Additively Suppresses Macrophage Foam
Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis in Diabetic Mice
Abstract: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), in addition to their antihyperglycemic roles, have antiatherosclerotic effects. We reported that sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) suppress atherosclerosis in a glucose-dependent manner in diabetic mice. Here, we investigated the effects of combination therapy with SGLT2i and DPP-4i on atherosclerosis in diabetic mice. SGLT2i (ipragliflozin, 1.0 mg/kg/day) and DPP-4i (alogliptin, 8.0 mg/kg/day), either alone or in combination, were administered to db/db mice or streptozotocin-induced diabetic apolipoprotein E-null (Apoe−/−) mice. Ipragliflozin and alogliptin monotherapies improved glucose intolerance; however, combination therapy did not show further improvement. The foam cell formation of peritoneal macrophages was suppressed by both the ipragliflozin and alogliptin monotherapies and was further enhanced by combination therapy. Although foam cell formation was closely associated with HbA1c levels in all groups, DPP-4i alone or the combination group showed further suppression of foam cell formation compared with the control or SGLT2i group at corresponding HbA1c levels. Both ipragliflozin and alogliptin monotherapies decreased scavenger receptors and increased cholesterol efflux regulatory genes in peritoneal macrophages, and combination therapy showed additive changes. In diabetic Apoe−/− mice, combination therapy showed the greatest suppression of plaque volume in the aortic root. In conclusion, combination therapy with SGLT2i and DPP4i synergistically suppresses macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerosis in diabetic mice.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Activities of Amphioxus GH-Like Protein in Osmoregulation: Insight into
Origin of Vertebrate GH Family
Abstract: GH is known to play an important role in both growth promotion and osmoregulation in vertebrates. We have shown that amphioxus possesses a single GH-like hormone (GHl) gene encoding a functional protein capable of promoting growth. However, if GHl can mediate osmoregulation remains open. Here, we demonstrated clearly that GHl increased not only the survival rate of amphioxus but also the muscle moisture under high salinity. Moreover, GHl induced the expression of both the ion transporter Na+-K+-ATPase (NKA) and Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter (NKCC) in the gill as well as the mediator of GH action IGFl in the hepatic caecum, indicating that GHl fulfills this osmoregulatory activity through the same mechanisms of vertebrate GH. These results together suggest that the osmoregulatory activities of GH had emerged in the basal chordate amphioxus. We also proposed a new model depicting the origin of pituitary hormone family in vertebrates.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Male Hypogonadism and Osteoporosis: The Effects, Clinical Consequences,
and Treatment of Testosterone Deficiency in Bone Health
Abstract: It is well recognized that bone loss accelerates in hypogonadal states, with female menopause being the classic example of sex hormones affecting the regulation of bone metabolism. Underrepresented is our knowledge of the clinical and metabolic consequences of overt male hypogonadism, as well as the more subtle age-related decline in testosterone on bone quality. While menopause and estrogen deficiency are well-known risk factors for osteoporosis in women, the effects of age-related testosterone decline in men on bone health are less well known. Much of our knowledge comes from observational studies and retrospective analysis on small groups of men with variable causes of primary or secondary hypogonadism and mild to overt testosterone deficiencies. This review aims to present the current knowledge of the consequences of adult male hypogonadism on bone metabolism. The direct and indirect effects of testosterone on bone cells will be explored as well as the important differences in male osteoporosis and assessment as compared to that in females. The clinical consequence of both primary and secondary hypogonadism, as well as testosterone decline in older males, on bone density and fracture risk in men will be summarized. Finally, the therapeutic options and their efficacy in male osteoporosis and hypogonadism will be discussed.
PubDate: Thu, 16 Mar 2017 05:32:53 +000
- Associations of Two Obesity-Related Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms with
Adiponectin in Chinese Children
Abstract: Purpose. Genome-wide association studies have found two obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs17782313 near the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene and rs6265 near the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, but the associations of both SNPs with other obesity-related traits are not fully described, especially in children. The aim of the present study is to investigate the associations between the SNPs and adiponectin that has a regulatory role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods. We examined the associations of the SNPs with adiponectin in Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS) study. A total of 3503 children participated in the study. Results. The SNP rs6265 was significantly associated with adiponectin under an additive model ( and 0.024, resp.) after adjustment for age, gender, and BMI or obesity statuses. The SNP rs17782313 was significantly associated with low adiponectin under a recessive model. No statistical significance was found between the two SNPs and low adiponectin after correction for multiple testing. Conclusion. We demonstrate for the first time that the SNP rs17782313 near MC4R and the SNP rs6265 near BDNF are associated with adiponectin in Chinese children. These novel findings provide important evidence that adiponectin possibly mediates MC4R and BDNF involved in obesity.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 05:04:17 +000
- Expression of Somatostatin Receptor 2 in Somatotropinoma Correlated with
the Short-Term Efficacy of Somatostatin Analogues
Abstract: The expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (SSTRs) in pituitary growth hormone- (GH-) secreting adenomas may predict the response to somatostatin analogues (SSA). Our aim was to evaluate the value of the immunohistochemical (IHC) scores of 2 subtypes, SSTR2 and SSTR5, in predicting the short-term efficacy of SSA therapy in patients with active acromegaly. Ninety-three newly diagnosed acromegalic patients were included in our study. These patients were categorized into either a SSA-pretreated group (SA, ) or a direct-surgery group (DS, ), depending on whether or not presurgical SSA treatment was received. IHC analysis, using a 12-grade scoring system, with rabbit monoclonal antibodies against SSTR2 and SSTR5, was performed on all adenoma tissues. The reduction of GH, IGF-1, and tumor size after treatment with SSA for 3 months was measured. Compared with that in the DS group, SSTR2 expression was lower in the SA group. Additionally, in the SA group, SSTR2 expression was positively correlated with the reduction of IGF-1 and tumor volume. However, there was no correlation between the SSTR5 score and the efficacy of SSA. In conclusion, the protein expression of SSTR2, but not of SSTR5, is a valuable indicator in predicting biochemical and tumor size response to short-term SSA treatment in acromegalic patients.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Muscarinic Receptors Types 1 and 2 in the Preoptic-Anterior Hypothalamic
Areas Regulate Ovulation Unequally in the Rat Oestrous Cycle
Abstract: Muscarinic receptors types 1 (m1AChR) and 2 (m2AChR) in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus areas (POA-AHA) were counted, and the effects of blocking these receptors on spontaneous ovulation were analysed throughout the rat oestrous cycle. Rats in each phase of the oestrous cycle were assigned to the following experiments: (1) an immunohistochemical study of the number of cells expressing m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA and (2) analysis of the effects of the unilateral blockade of the m1AChR (pirenzepine, PZP) or m2AChR (methoctramine, MTC) on either side of the POA-AHA on the ovulation rate. The number of m2AChR-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher at 09:00 h on each day of the oestrous cycle in the POA-AHA region, while no changes in the expression profile of m1AChR protein were observed. The ovulation rate in rats treated with PZP on the oestrous day was lower than that in the vehicle group. Animals treated on dioestrous-1 with PZP or MTC had a higher ovulation rate than those in the vehicle group. In contrast, on dioestrous-2, the MTC treatment decreased the ovulation rate. These results suggest that m1AChR or m2AChR in the POA-AHA could participate in the regulation of spontaneous ovulation in rats.
PubDate: Wed, 15 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Metabolic Syndrome in People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: An
Assessment of the Prevalence and the Agreement between Diagnostic Criteria
Abstract: Objectives. We determined metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence and assessed the agreement between different diagnostic criteria in HIV-infected South Africans. Method. A random sample included 748 HIV-infected adult patients (79% women) across 17 HIV healthcare facilities in the Western Cape Province. MetS was defined using the Joint Interim Statement (JIS 2009), International Diabetes Federation (IDF 2005), and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII 2005) criteria. Results. Median values were 38 years (age), 5 years (diagnosed HIV duration), and 392 cells/mm3 (CD4 count), and 93% of the participants were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). MetS prevalence was 28.2% (95%CI: 25–31.4), 26.5% (23.3–29.6), and 24.1% (21–27.1) by the JIS, IDF, and ATPIII 2005 criteria, respectively. Prevalence was always higher in women than in men (all ), in participants with longer duration of diagnosed HIV (all ), and in ART users not receiving 1st-line regimens (all ). The agreement among the three criteria was very good overall and in most subgroups (all ). Conclusions. The three most popular diagnostic criteria yielded similarly high MetS prevalence in this relatively young population receiving care for HIV infection. Very good levels of agreement between criteria are unaffected by some HIV-specific features highlighting the likely comparable diagnostic utility of those criteria in routine HIV care settings.
PubDate: Tue, 14 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Cholesterol Synthesis Increased in the MMI-Induced Subclinical
Hypothyroidism Mice Model
Abstract: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is defined as increased serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations and normal serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels as well as an increased serum cholesterol level, which is an important cause of secondary hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular diseases. Some studies have demonstrated a direct effect of TSH on cholesterol metabolism via in vivo and in vitro experiments. However, because no suitable SCH model has been established until now, the changes in cholesterol synthesis that occur in SCH patients remain unknown. Here, we establish an SCH mouse model by using long-term low-dose MMI administered in drinking water. Compared with the control group, the MMI-treated mice had elevated circulating TSH levels, but the serum FT3 levels in these mice did not change. Additionally, the TC levels increased in both the serum and liver of the experimental mice. Both the protein expression and activity of hepatic HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis in the liver, increased in these mice. We also found that the SCH mice had decreased phospho-HMGCR and phospho-AMPK expression, while the expression of AMPK showed no change. In conclusion, we established a suitable SCH model in which cholesterol synthesis is increased.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 10:02:58 +000
- Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor/Prokineticin-1
in Cancer Development and Tumor Angiogenesis
Abstract: A lot of data suggests endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) to be restricted to endocrine glands and to some endocrine-dependent organs. Many evidences show that EG-VEGF stimulates angiogenesis and cell proliferation, although it is not a member of the VEGF family. At the time, a lot of data regarding the role of this growth factor in normal development are available. However, controversial results have been published in the case of pathological conditions and particularly in malignant tumors. Thus, our present paper has been focused on the role of EG-VEGF in normal tissues and various malignant tumors and their angiogenic processes.
PubDate: Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Increased Chromosomal and Oxidative DNA Damage in Patients with
Multinodular Goiter and Their Association with Cancer
Abstract: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem worldwide. Although thyroid cancer accounts for a small percentage of thyroid nodules, the majority are benign. 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels are a marker of oxidative stress and play a key role in the initiation and development of a range of diseases and cancer types. This study evaluates cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-cyt) assay parameters and plasma 8-OHdG levels and their association with thyroid nodule size and thyroid hormones in patients with multinodular goiter. The study included 32 patients with multinodular goiter and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. CBMN-cyt assay parameters in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with multinodular goiter and controls were evaluated, and plasma 8-OHdG levels were measured. The micronucleus (MN) frequency (chromosomal DNA damage), apoptotic and necrotic cells (cytotoxicity), and plasma 8-OHdG levels (oxidative DNA damage) were significantly higher among patients with multinodular goiter. Our study is the first report of increased chromosomal and oxidative DNA damage in patients with multinodular goiter, which may predict an increased risk of thyroid cancer in these patients. MN frequency and plasma 8-OHdG levels may be markers of the carcinogenic potential of multinodular goiters and could be used for early detection of different cancer types, including thyroid cancer.
PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 08:35:05 +000
- The Associations of Serum Uric Acid with Obesity-Related Acanthosis
nigricans and Related Metabolic Indices
Abstract: Objective. Recent studies have shown that hyperuricemia (HUA) is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to examine the relationship of serum UA with Acanthosis nigricans (AN) and related metabolic indices in obese patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 411 obese patients recruited from our department was analyzed in this study. Weight, body mass index (BMI), UA, lipid profile, liver function, and renal function were measured in all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and serum glucose, insulin, and C peptide were measured at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. Results. AN group had higher serum UA levels than OB group. Circulating UA levels were associated with BMI, dyslipidemia, hypertension, IR, and AN. In logistic regression analyses (multivariable‐adjusted), a high serum UA level was associated with high odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AN in females (ORs = 3.00 and 95% CI [1.02–8.84]) and males (ORs = 6.07 and 95% CI [2.16–17.06]) in the highest quartile (Q4) of serum UA. Conclusions. Serum UA levels were positively associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and AN and may be an important risk factor in the development of AN; further evidences in vitro and in vivo are needed to investigate the direct or indirect relationship.
PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 06:35:12 +000
- Clinicopathological Characteristics and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid
Carcinoma in Naturally Menopausal Women with Various Durations of
Premenarche, Reproductive Periods, and Postmenopausal Stages
Abstract: Background. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) exhibits a higher incidence in women. Due to various ages at menarche and menopause, estrogen levels vary, which may account for the differences in the occurrence, development, and prognosis of female patients with PTC. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between various durations in different estrogen levels and PTC and to provide important information to guide clinical management and treatment of this disease. Methods. First, we selected naturally menopausal female study subjects diagnosed with PTC at Zhejiang Cancer Hospital from 2007 to 2012 and then compared the differences in clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis among subjects with various lengths of premenarche, reproductive periods, and postmenopausal stages. Results. We found that all patients showed a significantly higher incidence of tumor multicentricity and intrathyroidal dissemination as the time after menopause increased. Additionally, women with shorter (38) reproductive lives had increased recurrence rates of PTC. Conclusions. In this study, we did not find any relationship of self-reported menarche and menopausal ages with the prognosis of PTC patients. More importantly, natural postmenopausal PTC patients with shorter or longer reproductive life, compared to the normal groups, had a higher rate of cancer recurrence and the patients with these characteristics could be recommended a more aggressive surgical treatment.
PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Factors Associated with the Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Goiter in
Middle-Aged Euthyroid Subjects
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to determine associations of thyroid hormone levels and different metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with volume of nodular and nonnodular thyroid as well as with prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules in middle-aged euthyroid subjects. Methods. The study consisted of 317 euthyroid subjects aged 48-49 from the Kaunas Cardiovascular Risk Cohort study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (ATPO) levels, as well as anthropometric and metabolic parameters and smoking information, were evaluated. Results. In subjects with and without thyroid nodules, thyroid volume correlated with components of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and TSH levels. In the nonnodular thyroid group, thyroid volume was also positively related to serum insulin and HOMA-IR, whereas a negative correlation between thyroid volume and leptin was identified in the nodular thyroid group. The goiter was identified in 12.3% of subjects. Female gender, thyroid nodules, smoking, BMI, and levels of TSH were independent predictors for goiter. Thyroid nodules were found in 31.2% of participants. Female gender, higher TSH levels, and thyroid volume were independent risk factors for thyroid nodules. Conclusions. Female gender, thyroid nodules, smoking, BMI, and TSH levels were identified as potential predictors of goiter. Female gender, TSH levels, and thyroid volume predicted the presence of thyroid nodules.
PubDate: Sun, 05 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Thyroid-Related Protein Expression in the Human Thymus
Abstract: Radioiodine whole body scan (WBS), related to sodium iodide symporter (NIS) function, is widely used to detect recurrence/metastasis in postoperative patients with thyroid cancer. However, the normal thymic uptake of radioiodine has occasionally been observed in young patients. We evaluated the expression of thyroid-related genes and proteins in the human thymus. Thymic tissues were obtained from 22 patients with thyroid cancer patients of all ages. The expression of NIS, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), thyroperoxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) was investigated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR. NIS and TSHR were expressed in 18 (81.8%) and 19 samples (86.4%), respectively, whereas TPO was expressed in five samples (22.7%). Three thyroid-related proteins were localized to Hassall’s corpuscles and thymocytes. In contrast, Tg was detected in a single patient (4.5%) localized to vascular endothelial cells. The expression of thyroid-related proteins was not increased in young thymic tissues compared to that in old thymic tissues. In conclusion, the expression of NIS and TSHR was detected in the majority of normal thymus samples, whereas that of TPO was detected less frequently, and that of Tg was detected rarely. The increased thymic uptake of radioiodine in young patients is not due to the increased expression of NIS.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 08:46:13 +000
- Serum ZAG Levels Were Associated with eGFR Mild Decrease in T2DM Patients
with Diabetic Nephropathy
Abstract: Objective. To investigate the changes of serum zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with eGFR mild decrease. Subjects and Methods. A total of 438 T2DM patients (61.3 ± 4.0 y) were recruited and the demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical parameters were all collected. Serum ZAG levels were determined by commercially available ELISA kits. Results. The proportion of T2DM patients with the high tertile ZAG levels was 11.9% higher in patients with mildly decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 05:34:24 +000
- Poor Sleep Quality Is Associated with Dawn Phenomenon and Impaired
Abstract: Aims. We investigated whether poor sleep quality is associated with both dawn phenomenon and impaired circadian clock gene expression in subjects with diabetes. Methods. 81 subjects with diabetes on continuous glucose monitoring were divided into two groups according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The magnitude of dawn phenomenon was quantified by its increment from nocturnal nadir to prebreakfast. Peripheral leucocytes were sampled from 81 subjects with diabetes and 28 normal controls at 09:00. Transcript levels of circadian clock genes (BMAL1, PER1, PER2, and PER3) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results. The levels of HbA1c and fasting glucose and the magnitude of dawn phenomenon were significantly higher in the diabetes group with poor sleep quality than that with good sleep quality. Peripheral leucocytes from subjects with poor sleep quality expressed significantly lower transcript levels of BMAL1 and PER1 compared with those with good sleep quality. Poor sleep quality was significantly correlated with magnitude of dawn phenomenon. Multiple linear regression showed that sleep quality and PER1 were significantly independently correlated with dawn phenomenon. Conclusions. Dawn phenomenon is associated with sleep quality. Furthermore, mRNA expression of circadian clock genes is dampened in peripheral leucocytes of subjects with poor sleep quality.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Vitamin D Deficiency and Its Determinants in Adults: A Sample from
Community-Based Settings in the United Arab Emirates
Abstract: Background. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a public health concern in adults worldwide. This study aims to explore the extent of VDD and its associated factors among adults in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Subjects and Methods. Quantitative, cross-sectional research was used to assess VDD and its associated factors in 216 adults recruited from randomly selected community-based healthcare settings over a six-month period. Recent values of vitamin D and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were abstracted from medical records, followed by interviews with participants to obtain information on factors related to VDD and other covariates and to measure their heights and weights. Results. A total of 74% of participants demonstrated VDD (vitamin D serum nmol/L). Emirati participants had higher odds of having VDD compared to non-Emiratis (OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.58–5.52), with also significantly increased odds of the condition appearing in older, less educated, and employed adults. Diabetes type 2 (), depression, and obesity were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of VDD after accounting for other covariates. Conclusion. VDD is a significant problem for UAE adults and requires attention by public health policy makers. Diabetes, obesity, and depression need to be considered when screening for vitamin D.
PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- The Determinants of Leptin Levels in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Saudi Males
Abstract: Objective. This study aimed to identify the main determinants of serum leptin levels. Methods. A sample of 113 Saudi adult males (55 diabetic and 58 nondiabetic) was selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria identified below. Blood samples were taken from participants after fasting for 12 hours. For diabetic patients, the insulin dose was given 12 hours before. In general, the study instrument consisted of blood biochemical tests. Metabolic parameters, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG), and adipokines, leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin, were measured. Multivariate model was utilized to identify the relationship between leptin levels and the independent variables. Results. When adjusted for resistin in the diabetic group, the results demonstrated a significant relationship between visfatin, LDL and TG, and leptin levels (). However, when controlled for resistin, the effect of LDL and TG disappeared while that of visfatin stayed in the model. For the nondiabetic group, the results indicated a significant relationship between insulin, BMI, and leptin levels when adjusted for resistin (). However, the effect of insulin disappeared when the model was controlled for resistin. The study results found no relationship between leptin and adiponectin levels in either the diabetic or nondiabetic group and whether adjusted or controlled for resistin. Conclusion. This study provided better understanding of the metabolism of leptin and unveiled the major determinants of leptin levels in diabetic and nondiabetic males. In conclusion, these results show that the association between leptin and metabolic parameters decreases with the progress of disease.
PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 08:36:54 +000
- Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System Score Combined with the New
Italian Classification for Thyroid Cytology Improves the Clinical
Management of Indeterminate Nodules
Abstract: The new Italian cytological classification (2014) of thyroid nodules replaced the TIR3 category of the old classification (2007) with two subclasses, TIR3A and TIR3B, with the aim of reducing the rate of surgery for benign diseases. Moreover, thyroid imaging reporting and data system (TI-RADS) score appears to ameliorate the stratification of the malignancy risk. We evaluated whether the new Italian classification has improved diagnostic accuracy and whether its association with TI-RADS score could improve malignancy prediction. We retrospectively analyzed 70 nodules from 70 patients classified as TIR3 according to the old Italian classification who underwent surgery for histological diagnosis. Of these, 51 were available for cytological revision according to the new Italian cytological classification. Risk of malignancy was determined for TIR3A and TIR3B, TI-RADS score, and their combination. A different rate of malignancy () between TIR3A (13.04%) and TIR3B (44.44%) was observed. Also TI-RADS score is significantly () associated with malignancy. By combining cytology and TI-RADS score, patients could be divided into three groups with low (8.3%), intermediate (21.4%), and high (80%) risk of malignancy. In conclusion, the new Italian cytological classification has an improved diagnostic accuracy. Interestingly, the combination of cytology and TI-RADS score offers a better stratification of the malignancy risk.
PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 08:34:33 +000
- Metabolomic Signature of Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes
Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This case-control study was done to identify metabolites with different concentrations between T2D patients with and without CAD and to characterise implicated metabolic mechanisms relating to CAD. Fasting serum samples of 57 T2D subjects, 26 with (cases) and 31 without CAD (controls), were targeted for metabolite profiling of 163 metabolites. To assess the association between metabolite levels and CAD, partial least squares (PLS) analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis with adjustment for CAD risk factors and medications were performed. We observed a separation of cases and controls with two classes of metabolites being significantly associated with CAD, including phosphatidylcholines, and serine. Four metabolites being independent from the common CAD risk factors displaying best separation between cases and controls were further selected. Addition of the metabolite concentrations to risk factor analysis raised the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve from 0.72 to 0.88 (), providing improved sensitivity and specificity for CAD classification. Serum phospholipid and serine levels independently discriminate T2D patients with and without CAD. Oxidative stress and reduced antioxidative capacity lead to lower metabolite concentrations probably due to changes in membrane composition and accelerated phospholipid degradation.
PubDate: Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
- Inositol and In Vitro Fertilization with Embryo Transfer
Abstract: Recently, studies on inositol supplementation during in vitro fertilization program (IVF) have gained particular importance due to the effect of this molecule on reducing insulin resistance improving ovarian function, oocyte quality, and embryo and pregnancy rates and reducing gonadotropin amount during stimulation. Inositol and its isoforms, especially myoinositol (MYO), are often used as prestimulation therapy in infertile patients undergoing IVF cycle. Inositol supplementation started three months before ovarian stimulation, resulting in significant improvements in hormonal responses, reducing the amount of FSH necessary for optimal follicle development and serum levels of 17beta-estradiol measured the day of hCG injection. As shown by growing number of trials, MYO supplementation improves oocyte quality by reducing the number of degenerated and immature oocytes, in this way increasing the quality of embryos produced. Inositol can also improve the quality of sperm parameters in those patients affected by oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.
PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 10:10:20 +000
- Thyroid Cancer in Saudi Arabia: A Histopathological and Outcome Study
Abstract: Most data on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) came from the Western world. We describe its salient characteristics and outcome from a Middle Eastern country. Patients and Methods. We studied all cases of TC seen during a 2-year period (2004-2005) seen at our institution. Results. A total of 600 consecutive cases of DTC with a median age at diagnosis of 39 years (5–85) and the female : male ratio of 459 : 141 (76.5% : 23.5%). The cases included classical papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in 77%, follicular variant PTC in 13.3%, follicular thyroid cancer in 3.2%, and other rare subtypes 6.5%. Total or near-total thyroidectomy was performed in 93%, central and/or lateral neck dissection in 64.5% of cases, and radioactive iodine ablation in 82% of cases. Additional therapies were administered to 154 patients (25.7%). At a median follow-up period of 7.63 years (0.22–13.1), 318 patients (53.3%) were in excellent response, 147 (24.5%) having an indeterminate response, 55 (9.2%) biochemically incomplete, 33 (5.5%) structurally incomplete, and 27 (4.5%) unclassifiable. Twenty cases died secondary to DTC (disease-specific mortality 3.3%). Conclusions. In Saudi Arabia, DTC is common and occurs at young age and predominantly in females. Although remission is common, persistent disease is also common but disease-specific mortality is low.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Feb 2017 07:26:43 +000
- Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana
Abstract: Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0) with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64) years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:24:00 +000
- An Approach to Macroscopic Central Lymph Nodes Detected during Surgery in
Patients with Thyroid Micropapillary Carcinoma: Should We Resort to
Abstract: Background. High-resolution ultrasonography and the ability to perform fine-needle aspiration biopsy even for nodules smaller than three millimeters have considerably increased the detection rate of thyroid micropapillary carcinoma (TMPC). Despite favorable prognosis, the prevalence of cervical lymph node metastases in patients with TMPC is approximately 30%. Aim. In this study, we aimed to determine the central lymph node metastasis rate and its relation to the characteristics of the tumor. Methods. One hundred nine patients who underwent surgery due to TMPC between December 2009 and January 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they underwent lymph node dissection and the two groups were then compared with respect to tumor size and multicentricity, age, and presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. Results. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of patients in terms of tumor size, tumor multicentricity, age, and presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis. When the patient group that received lymph node dissection was further analyzed, it was found that patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis had a significantly lower number of metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion. Central lymph node dissection in TMPC patients with macroscopic lymph node detected intraoperatively would ensure accurate staging without an increase in morbidity.
PubDate: Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:13:23 +000
- Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on
Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a
Abstract: Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having
PubDate: Tue, 21 Feb 2017 14:14:52 +000
- Sex Differences in the Effect of Type 2 Diabetes on Major Cardiovascular
Diseases: Results from a Population-Based Study in Italy
Abstract: The aim of the study is to assess sex difference in association between type 2 diabetes and incidence of major cardiovascular events, that is, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure, using information retrieved by diabetes register. The inhabitants of Reggio Emilia (Italy) aged 30–84 were followed during 2012–2014. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using multivariate Poisson model. The age- and sex-specific event rates were graphed. Subjects with type 2 diabetes had an excess risk compared to their counterparts without diabetes for all the three major cardiovascular events. The excess risk is similar in women and men for stroke (1.8 times) and heart failure (2.7 times), while for myocardial infarction, the excess risk in women is greater than the one observed in men (IRR 2.58, 95% CI 2.22–3.00 and IRR 1.78, 95% CI 1.60–2.00, resp.; of interaction ). Women had always a lesser risk than men, but in case of myocardial infarction, the women with type 2 diabetes lost part of advantage gained by women free of diabetes (IRR 0.61, 95% CI 0.53–0.72 and IRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.33–0.39, resp.). In women with type 2 diabetes, the risk of major cardiovascular events is anticipated by 20–30 years, while in men it is by 15–20.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Feb 2017 07:51:15 +000