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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 205)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Endocrinology
  [SJR: 0.961]   [H-I: 24]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-8337 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8345
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • GH, IGF-1, and Age Are Important Contributors to Thyroid Abnormalities in
           Patients with Acromegaly

    • Abstract: Purpose. To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and possible mechanisms of structural and endocrinological changes to the thyroid in acromegaly. Methods. We studied 93 acromegalic patients from PUMCH between January 2013 and December 2013. The demographic and clinical information were recorded. Specimens of pituitary adenomas and thyroid cancer were collected for BRAF mutation assessments. Results. Thyroid morphological abnormalities were found in 72 (77.4%) patients. Three (3.2%) were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. The thyroid gland volume was significantly increased in patients with higher random GH (), higher nadir GH (), and higher IGF-1 level (). Age () was an independent risk factor for thyroid morphological abnormalities in acromegaly. The GH burden was significantly higher in patients with thyroid morphological abnormalities (). The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in the PTCs of the two patients with thyroid cancer. Conclusions. Both benign and malignant thyroid abnormalities are increased in the acromegalic population compared to those in the general population. Age at diagnosis is an independent risk factor for thyroid abnormalities, and GH burden may be a partial contributor. Early diagnosis, early treatment, and monitoring of postoperational endocrine levels are important for acromegalic patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “4-Phenylbutyric Acid Attenuates Pancreatic Beta-Cell
           Injury in Rats with Experimental Severe Acute Pancreatitis”

    • PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 08:24:10 +000
  • Vitamin D and Male Sexual Function: A Transversal and Longitudinal Study

    • Abstract: Background. The effects of vitamin D on sexual function are very unclear. Therefore, we aimed at evaluating the possible association between vitamin D and sexual function and at assessing the influence of vitamin D administration on sexual function. Methods. We retrospectively studied 114 men by evaluating clinical, biochemical, and sexual parameters. A subsample () was also studied longitudinally before and after vitamin D replacement therapy. Results. In the whole sample, after performing logistic regression models, higher levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were significantly associated with high values of total testosterone and of all the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire parameters. On the other hand, higher levels of total testosterone were positively and significantly associated with high levels of erectile function and IIEF total score. After vitamin D replacement therapy, total and free testosterone increased and erectile function improved, whereas other sexual parameters did not change significantly. At logistic regression analysis, higher levels of vitamin D increase (Δ-) were significantly associated with high values of Δ-erectile function after adjustment for Δ-testosterone. Conclusions. Vitamin D is important for the wellness of male sexual function, and vitamin D administration improves sexual function.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Pre- and Postoperative Body Composition and Metabolic Characteristics in
           Patients with Acromegaly: A Prospective Study

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods. We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT), the visceral fat index (VFI), sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), and extracellular water (ECW) were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Total energy expenditure (TEE) and basal metabolism (BM) were measured with a cardiopulmonary and metabolic analyzer (CMA). Tricep skinfold thickness (TST), bicep circumference, waistline, hipline, and calf circumference were measured with a skinfold caliper and tape. These indices were measured before surgery and 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Results. Overall, AT, VFI, and TST were lower, whereas sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, TBW, ICW, ECW, TEE, and BM were higher in acromegaly patients. Postoperatively, TST rose initially and then decreased, the waistline increased, and sclerotin, skeletal muscle, TEE, and BM decreased. Changes in these indices differed with gender and age in unique patterns. Conclusions. Body composition and metabolism in acromegaly patients changed after surgery, and gender and age influenced these changes.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Exploring the Role of Estrogens in Lizard Spermatogenesis through the
           Study of Clomiphene and FSH Effects

    • Abstract: Spermatogenesis is a fascinating biological process aiming to generate haploid spermatozoa from diploid spermatogonia through a specific hormonal network between gonadotropins and steroids. Increasing evidence suggests that the primary female sex hormone estrogen plays an active role in this process. This research points out on the role of estrogen during lizard spermatogenesis by using three experimental approaches: (1) exposure to an analogue of nonsteroidal estrogen as Clomiphene citrate that acts both as estrogen agonist and antagonist; (2) exposure to the gonadotropin FSH; and (3) exposures to FSH followed by Clomiphene. Histological and immunohistochemical results demonstrate that in the lizard Podarcis sicula during the mating period, Clomiphene as well as FSH determines the breakdown of spermatogenesis and the epididymal regression, presumably through estrogens input as indirectly demonstrated by the appearance of ERα and vitellogenin in the liver. The ability of Clomiphene to restore the gonadal natural condition after FSH treatment is also demonstrated. Finally, data indicate that lizard testis and epididymis control their morphophysiology regulating the intracellular presence of ERα.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Distribution of Adiponectin Receptors 1 and 2 in the Rat Olfactory Bulb
           and the Effect of Adiponectin Injection on Insulin Receptor Expression

    • Abstract: Background. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipocyte-derived hormone that has peripheral beneficial effects. Although its receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are expressed in the brain, their function in neurons is poorly understood. The aims of this work were to describe the distribution of APN receptors in the olfactory bulb (OB) as well as the possible effects of APN injection on the insulin receptor (InsR) content and Akt kinase. Method. We performed the double immunofluorescence technique to describe the distribution of AdipoRs and the cellular type they were expressing. mRNA transcript and protein content were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. APN injection was performed to analyze its possible effect on the insulin pathway. Results. We found that AdipoRs were localized in all cell layers and in both neurons and astrocytes. We observed the presence of mRNA transcripts and immunoblot analysis confirmed the protein on the intact OB; APN injection in the OB resulted in a slight decrease of the total InsR and Akt phosphorylation and a reduction of phopho-InsR content. Conclusions. These data demonstrated that AdipoRs are expressed in OB regions, and APN injection could act as an insulin pathway modulator in the OB and thus possibly contribute to olfaction physiology.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Higher Ratio of Abdominal Subcutaneous to Visceral Adipose Tissue Related
           with Preservation of Islet β-Cell Function in Healthy Individuals

    • Abstract: Objective. To investigate the relationship between abdominal adipose tissue distribution, β-cell function, and insulin sensitivity (IS) in a Chinese population. Methods. One hundred and eighty-eight healthy subjects (healthy group), 239 with normal glucose, and 1~4 abnormal metabolic traits (metabolic dysfunction group, MD group) and 125 with hyperglycemia (hyperglycemia group) were studied. HOMA-IR, HOMA-B, Matsuda index, early- (I0–30/G0–30) and late-phase (I30–120/G30–120) insulin responses and the corresponding disposition indexes (DI) were calculated. The area of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was measured and the ratio of ASAT to VAT (SVR) was calculated. Results. SVR was correlated positively with Matsuda index in healthy, MD, and hyperglycemia groups, and inversely with HOMA-IR. SVR positively related with both early- and late-phase DI in the healthy group only. In the healthy group, the hyperbolas of I0–30/G0–30 and I30–120/G30–120 versus Matsuda index in the highest quarter of SVR were significantly right shifted compared to those in the lowest (both ). Conclusions. In healthy adults, higher SVR was a protective factor for β-cell function and IS, while in those with glucometabolic abnormality, higher SVR contributed to a relative better IS, indicating SVR is possible to be an early predicator of type 2 diabetes development.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Inositol(s) from Bench to Bedside in Endocrinology
           and Gynecology”

    • PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Empagliflozin Increases Short-Term Urinary Volume Output in Artificially
           Induced Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis

    • Abstract: Objective. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIADH) is the predominant cause of hyponatremia, but treatment options are unsatisfying. SGLT2 inhibitors increase urinary glucose excretion with concomitant osmotic diuresis. We therefore hypothesized SGLT2-inhibitors as a novel treatment for SIADH. Design. Double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover study in 14 healthy volunteers. Methods. We induced an artificial SIADH model by administration of desmopressin and overhydration. Afterwards, empagliflozin 25 mg or placebo was given in random order. The main outcomes were total urinary excretion, glucosuria, and the area under the curve (AUC) of serum sodium concentration. Outcome measures were obtained 2–8 hours after administration of study drug. Results. 14 participants (64% males), BMI 23 kg/m2 (±2.4), aged 28.6 years (±9), completed the study. Empagliflozin led to significantly increased total urinary excretion (579.3 ml (±194.8) versus 367.3 ml (±158.8); treatment effect 158 ml (CI 48.29, 267.74), ) due to glucosuria (74.18 mmol (±22.3) versus 0.12 mmol (±0.04); treatment effect (log scale) 2.85 (CI 2.75, 2.96), ). There was no difference in the AUC of serum sodium concentration (treatment effect 0.2 (CI −7.38, 6.98), ). Conclusion. In our SIADH model, empagliflozin increased urinary excretion due to osmotic diuresis. Due to the short treatment duration, serum sodium levels remained unchanged. Real-live studies are needed to further examine empagliflozin as a new treatment for SIADH.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Efficacy of Once Daily versus Divided Daily Administration of Low Daily
           Dosage (15 mg/Day) of Methimazole in the Induction of Euthyroidism in
           Graves’ Hyperthyroidism: A Randomized Controlled Study

    • Abstract: Background. Previous studies used unequal or high daily dosages of methimazole (MMI) to compare the efficacy of once daily dose regimen (OD-MMI) with that of divided daily doses regimen (DD-MMI) in inducing euthyroidism. Objectives. To compare the efficacy of OD-MMI to that of DD-MMI using low daily dosage of MMI in inducing euthyroidism. Methods. Fifty patients with clinically nonsevere Graves’ hyperthyroidism were randomized to be treated with 15 mg/day OD-MMI or 15 mg/day DD-MMI. Results. 21 cases (84%) in OD-MMI and 23 cases (92%) in DD-MMI were eligible for analyses. During the treatment, there was no difference in baseline characteristics, serum FT3 and FT4 reductions, and cumulative rate of achieving euthyroidism (4.8% versus 4.3%, 28.6% versus 34.8%, 71.4% versus 82.6%, and 85.7% versus 87.0% at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, resp.) between both regimens. Hypothyroidism developed in DD-MMI significantly more than in OD-MMI (17.4% versus 0%, ). Conclusions. Treatment with MMI at a low daily dosage of 15 mg/day OD-MMI is as effective as DD-MMI in the reduction of serum thyroid hormone levels and induction of euthyroidism. The OD-MMI regimen is preferable to the DD-MMI regimen in the treatment of clinically nonsevere Graves’ hyperthyroidism. This trial is registered with Thai Clinical Trials Registry: TCTR20170529001.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 Dec 2017 03:26:37 +000
  • Pigmented Cells in the Pineal Gland of Female Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus
           maximus): A Histochemical and Ultrastructural Study

    • Abstract: The presence of pigment has been demonstrated in different nervous structures such as those of retina, substantia nigra, and locus coeruleus. These pigments have also been described in the pineal gland of different mammal species. Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of the pineal gland of female viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus) were performed to analyze the presence of pigmented cells under natural conditions and to evaluate a probable relation between pigment content and glandular activity during pregnancy. The following techniques were applied: hematoxylin-eosin, phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin, Masson-Fontana silver, DOPA histochemistry, Schmorl’s reaction and toluidine blue. Estradiol and progesterone serum levels were determined by RIA. The ultrastructural features of the pineal pigment granules were also analyzed. Pigment granules were observed in a random distribution, but the pigmented cells were frequently found near blood vessels. The pineal pigment was histochemically identified as melanin. Differences in the amount of pigmented cells were found between pregnant and nonpregnant viscachas. The ultrastructural analysis revealed the presence of premelanosomes and melanosomes. Estradiol and progesterone levels vary during pregnancy. In conclusion, the changes in the amount of pigment content and hormone levels may indicate that the pineal gland of female viscacha is susceptible to endocrine variations during pregnancy.
      PubDate: Sun, 17 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A New Murine Model of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder

    • Abstract: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with mineral and bone disorder (MBD), which is the main cause of the extensively increased cardiovascular mortality in the CKD population. We now aimed to establish a new murine experimental CKD-MBD model. Dilute brown non-Agouti (DBA/2) mice were fed with high-phosphate diet for 4 (HPD4) or 7 (HPD7) days, then with standard chow diet (SCD) and subsequently followed until day 84. They were compared to DBA/2 mice maintained on SCD during the whole study period. Both 4 and 7 days HPD-fed mice developed phosphate nephropathy with tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and increased serum urea levels. The abdominal aorta of HPD-treated mice showed signs of media calcification. Histomorphometric analysis of HPD-treated mice showed decreased bone volume/tissue volume, low mineral apposition rate, and low bone formation rate as compared to SCD-fed mice, despite increased parathyroid hormone levels. Overall, the observed phenotype was more pronounced in the HPD7 group. In summary, we established a new, noninvasive, and therefore easy to perform reproducible CKD-MBD model, which showed media calcification, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and low-turnover bone disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Melatonin and Angelman Syndrome: Implications and Mathematical Model of
           Diurnal Secretion

    • Abstract: The main aim of the study was to compare the melatonin rhythms in subjects with Angelman syndrome () and in children with () and without () epilepsy (nonepileptic patients diagnosed with peripheral nerve palsies, myopathy, and back pain) using our mathematical model of melatonin circadian secretion. The characteristics describing the diurnal hormone secretion such as minimum melatonin concentration, release amplitude, phase shift of melatonin release, and sleep duration as well as the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) of melatonin secretion and the γ shape parameter allow analyzing the fit and deducing about how much the measured melatonin profile differs from a physiological bell-shaped secretion. The estimated sleep duration and phase shift of melatonin release as well as the DMLO offsets at 25% and 50% relative thresholds are the key characteristic of Angelman syndrome children. As revealed from the γ shape parameter, the melatonin secretion profiles are disturbed in majority of the AG subjects revealing rather a triangular course instead of the bell-like one.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • The Tissue-Selective Estrogen Complex (Bazedoxifene/Conjugated Estrogens)
           for the Treatment of Menopause

    • Abstract: The tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) pairs conjugated estrogens (CE) with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), bazedoxifene acetate (BZA). A 2-year treatment with the TSEC improved vasomotor symptoms, quality of life, and vaginal atrophy in healthy postmenopausal women. In addition, the TSEC prevented vertebral and hip bone loss without increasing mammographic density, breast tenderness, the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or venous thromboembolism. Finally, the BZA 20 mg/CE 0.45 mg dose did not increase the risk of endometrial hyperplasia. Based on these findings, the TSEC can be considered as a first-line treatment for symptomatic postmenopausal women.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 07:40:18 +000
  • Thyroid Isthmus Length and Iodine Turnover as Predictors of Successful
           Radioactive Iodine Therapy in Patients with Graves’ Disease

    • Abstract: Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is an effective treatment option for Graves’ disease. However, predicting treatment failures after RAI therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with the success rate of RAI therapy for treatment of Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Thyroid functional outcome, pre-RAI ultrasonographic features, and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively in 98 patients followed up for at least 12 months after RAI (mean RAI dose was 11.7 ± 1.8 mCi). Hypothyroidism was achieved in 59 patients (60.2%), and euthyroidism in 16 patients (16.3%), while 23 patients (23.5%) remained hyperthyroid. Age, sex, body mass index, pre-RAI thyroid function, or thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin levels were not associated with treatment outcome. Length of thyroid isthmus () and 2- to 24-hour iodine uptake ratios () were significantly associated with treatment failure, which was defined as a persistent hyperthyroid status after RAI therapy. Patients with a longer isthmus had a higher risk of remaining hyperthyroid, with a threshold for isthmus length of 5.2 mm, with a sensitivity of 69.6% and specificity of 70.3% for treatment success. Measuring the length of the thyroid isthmus can be a simple and useful way to predict RAI treatment outcome.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Testosterone: Relationships with Metabolic Disorders in Men—An
           Observational Study from SPECT-China

    • Abstract: Background. The strength of associations between total testosterone (TT) and metabolic parameters may vary in different nature of population structure; however, no study has ever given this information in Chinese population, especially those without metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to analyze the association magnitudes between TT and multiple metabolic parameters in general Chinese men. Methods. 4309 men were recruited from SPECT-China study in 2014-2015, which was performed in 22 sites in East China. TT, weight status, and various metabolic parameters were measured. Linear and logistic regressions were used to analyze the associations. Results. Men in lower TT quartiles had worse metabolic parameters including body mass index, triglycerides, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR (all for trend < 0.001). Body mass index (B −0.32, 95%CI −0.35 to −0.29) and obesity (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.35–0.45) had the largest association magnitude per one SD increment in TT, while blood pressure and hypertension (OR 0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.98) had the smallest. These associations also persisted in individuals without metabolic syndrome. Conclusions. Obesity indices had closer relationships with TT than most other metabolic measures with blood pressure the least close. These associations remained robust after adjustment for adiposity and in subjects without metabolic syndrome.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Microwave Ablation for Solid Benign Thyroid
           Nodules: Comparison of MWA versus Control Group

    • Abstract: Background. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of percutaneous ultrasound-guided microwave ablation (MWA) for benign solid thyroid nodules. Methods. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation was performed for 90 benign solid thyroid nodules in 75 patients. The volume changes of the nodules were evaluated before and after microwave ablation, and the cosmetic grading and clinical symptoms were assessed as well. Results. The volume of all the 90 benign thyroid nodules obviously decreased after microwave ablation at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups (), while that of the control group increased at the follow-up of 12 months (). The volume reduction rate (VRR) at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-ups was 55.98%, 69.31%, 76.65%, and 84.67% in the MWA group, respectively. The cosmetic problems and clinical symptoms were also improved in the MWA group. All the patients are well tolerated to the procedure. Hoarseness occurred in 2 cases (2.7%) and Horner syndrome in 1 case (1.3%), and 1 patient (1.3%) developed slight burn on cervical skin. Conclusions. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation is a practical method for treating benign solid thyroid nodules, and the complications were acceptable. The trial is registered with with the registration number NCT03057925.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 06:31:21 +000
  • Comparison of Exenatide and Metformin Monotherapy in Overweight/Obese
           Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Aims. The present study assessed the therapeutic effect of exenatide and metformin as the initial therapy on overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. The prospective, nonrandomized, interventional study enrolled a total of 230 overweight or obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D who were administrated exenatide or metformin hydrochloride for 12 weeks. Results. 224/230 patients, including 106 in the exenatide group and 118 in the metformin group, completed the 12-week treatment. Both exenatide and metformin significantly decreased the HbA1c levels in overweight/obese patients with newly diagnosed T2D (all ). The reduction in HbA1c and the proportion of patients with HbA1c 
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Response to: Comment on “Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for
           Exercise Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese

    • PubDate: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Comment on “Differences in Ventilatory Threshold for Exercise
           Prescription in Outpatient Diabetic and Sarcopenic Obese Subjects”

    • PubDate: Thu, 16 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastases in Thyroid Cancer: Characteristics,
           Predictive Factors, and Prognosis

    • Abstract: Background. Mediastinal lymph node metastases (MLNM) have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics, predictive factors, and prognosis of MLNM in thyroid cancer. Methods. This is a retrospective study based on the thyroid cancer patients with MLNM at our institution from 2008 to 2015. Results. In total, 73 thyroid cancer patients with positive MLNM were included in this study. It contained sixty patients (82.2%) with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), twelve (16.4%) with medullary thyroid carcinoma, and one (1.4%) with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Forty-eight patients had the surgery as initial treatment. Fifty-three (72.6%) patients remained disease-free, and fifteen (20.5%) developed a regional recurrence. Distant metastases occurred in four (5.5%) patients and five (6.8%) patients died. Five-year overall survival rate and disease-free survival (DFS) rate of the PTC patients for initial treatment are 95.4% and 77.2%, respectively. Extrathyroidal extension and multiple lymph nodes involved were associated with DFS in PTC patients. Conclusions. Initial therapeutic control is very important for the thyroid cancer patients. Extrathyroidal extension and multiple mediastinal lymph nodes involved were the influence factors of prognosis in the thyroid cancer patients with MLNM.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Correlation between CH2DS2-VASc Score and Serum Leptin Levels in
           Cardioembolic Stroke Patients: The Impact of Metabolic Syndrome

    • Abstract: Objective. To determine adipokines levels in patients with different etiologic subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) status. Methods. Serum adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were determined by ELISA in 99 AIS patients and 59 stroke-free control group subjects. Stroke patients were grouped based on MetS, modified TOAST classification, and CHA2DS2-VASc scale in case of cardioembolic stroke following atrial fibrillation. Results. No differences were found in all adipokine serum levels between AIS patients and appropriately matched control group. MetS-AIS patients had significantly higher leptin levels (22.71 ± 19.01 ng/ml versus 8.95 ± 9.22 ng/ml, ) and lower adiponectin levels (10.71 ± 8.59 ng/ml versus 14.93 ± 10.95 ng/ml, ) than non-MetS-AIS patients. In patients with cardioembolic stroke, leptin levels were significantly higher than in remaining stroke cases (19.57 ± 20.53 ng/ml versus 13.17 ± 12.36 ng/ml, ) and CHA2DS2-VASc score positively correlated with leptin levels only (). Analysis of individual components of CHA2DS2-VASc score showed that hypertension, female gender, and diabetes had greatest impact on elevated serum leptin level. Conclusion. This pilot study revealed that leptin could be a potential biomarker for risk stratification of cardioembolic stroke in MetS patients and that heterogeneity of stroke subtypes should be considered for more refined and precise clinical stroke studies.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 10:57:07 +000
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Macrovascular Complications

    • PubDate: Tue, 31 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Low Levels of Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Constitute an Independent Risk
           Factor for Arterial Stiffness in Korean Women

    • Abstract: The association between sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and arterial stiffness in women is not conclusive. In addition, obesity might also be involved in the relationship between SHBG and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between SHBG and arterial stiffness in association with central obesity in women. This cross-sectional study included 381 women who participated in the health checkup programs in one hospital. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured as a marker for arterial stiffness. A negative correlation was observed between SHBG levels and baPWV (rho = −0.281). The relationship was significant even after adjusting for potential confounders (beta = −0.087 in fully adjusted model). After considering the interaction between central obesity and SHBG levels, the significant association was evident only in obese women ( for interaction = 0.025). Adjustment for a 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk scores, instead of each cardiovascular risk factor individually, did not affect the significance of the relationship between SHBG levels and baPWV. Serum levels of SHBG were negatively associated with arterial stiffness independent of cardiovascular risk factors or 10-year ASCVD risk scores in Korean women. The relationship may be potentiated by central obesity.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Prevalence of Fracture Risk Factors in Postmenopausal
           Women Enrolled in the POSSIBLE US Treatment Cohort”

    • PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Comment on “Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in
           Pituitary Adenomas by Integrating Analysis of Microarray Data”

    • PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Functional Characterization of Preadipocytes Derived from Human Periaortic
           Adipose Tissue

    • Abstract: Adipose tissue can affect the metabolic control of the cardiovascular system, and its anatomic location can affect the vascular function differently. In this study, biochemical and phenotypical characteristics of adipose tissue from periaortic fat were evaluated. Periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues were obtained from areas surrounding the ascending aorta and sternotomy incision, respectively. Adipose tissues were collected from patients undergoing myocardial revascularization or mitral valve replacement surgery. Morphological studies with hematoxylin/eosin and immunohistochemical assay were performed in situ to quantify adipokine expression. To analyze adipogenic capacity, adipokine expression, and the levels of thermogenic proteins, adipocyte precursor cells were isolated from periaortic and subcutaneous adipose tissues and induced to differentiation. The precursors of adipocytes from the periaortic tissue accumulated less triglycerides than those from the subcutaneous tissue after differentiation and were smaller than those from subcutaneous adipose tissue. The levels of proteins involved in thermogenesis and energy expenditure increased significantly in periaortic adipose tissue. Additionally, the expression levels of adipokines that affect carbohydrate metabolism, such as FGF21, increased significantly in mature adipocytes induced from periaortic adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that precursors of periaortic adipose tissue in humans may affect cardiovascular events and might serve as a target for preventing vascular diseases.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Psychometric Properties of Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy in Thai Type
           2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Multicenter Study

    • Abstract: Objective. The aims of this study were to translate and psychometrically evaluate the Thai version of diabetes management self-efficacy scale (T-DMSES) and to examine its association with HbA1c control in diabetic individuals. Methods. This study recruited patients from outpatient diabetes clinics of both community and university hospitals. The first phases of this study involved translation of the existing DMSES into Thai, and in the second phase, we evaluated its psychometric properties. The construct validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Criterion validity of DMSES was subsequently evaluated by examining DMSES’s association with HbA1c control. Results. The T-DMSES contains 20 items across four factors. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the construct validity of T-DMSES (, df = 164, , CFI = 0.98, RMSEA = 0.065, TLI = 0.977, and AGFI = 0.981). The T-DMSES was also shown to be criterion valid with most subscales highly associated with HbA1c control. Conclusion. The T-DMSES was shown to have good psychometric properties. It is likely to provide valuable insights into the epidemiology of diabetes management self-efficacy and may also prove useful in evaluating interventions for raising diabetes management self-efficacy, which in turn, improve both patient self-management and blood sugar control.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Rapid Action of Aldosterone on Protein Levels of Sodium-Hydrogen
           Exchangers and Protein Kinase C Beta Isoforms in Rat Kidney

    • Abstract: Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that aldosterone rapidly activates sodium-hydrogen exchangers 1 and 3 (NHE 1 and 3). In vitro investigations revealed that protein kinase C (PKC) regulates NHE properties. We previously demonstrated that aldosterone rapidly enhances PKCα protein abundance in the rat kidney. There are no reports of renal PKCβ (I and II) protein levels related to the regulation by aldosterone. There are also no in vivo data regarding the rapid effects of aldosterone on renal protein levels of NHE (1 and 3) and PKCβ (I and II), simultaneously. In the current study, rats received normal saline solution or aldosterone (150 μg/kg BW, i.p.). After 30 minutes, abundance and immunoreactivity of these proteins were determined by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Aldosterone increased NHE1 and NHE3 protein abundance to 152% and 134%, respectively (). PKCβI protein level was enhanced by 30%, whereas PKCβII declined slightly. Aldosterone increased NHE protein expression mostly in the medulla. PKCβI immunostaining intensity was increased in the glomeruli, renal vasculature, and thin limb of the loop of Henle, while PKCβII was reduced. This is the first in vivo study to simultaneously demonstrate that aldosterone rapidly elevates PKCβI and NHE (1 and 3) protein abundance in the rat kidney. Aldosterone-induced NHE (1 and 3) protein levels may be related to PKCβI activation.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Correlation between Insulin Resistance and Thyroid Nodule in Type 2
           Diabetes Mellitus

    • Abstract: Objective. The present study explored the association between insulin resistance (IR) and the clinical characteristics of thyroid nodules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. All the patients were newly diagnosed with T2DM. 201 patients with thyroid nodule disease and 308 patients without the nodular thyroid disease. The participants were evaluated by relevant examination. Correlation analyses and regression analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the two groups. Results. HOMA-IR values, serum FT4 (free thyroxine) levels, and age were higher in the thyroid nodule group than in the control group. The proportion of women in the thyroid nodule group is greater than the proportion of women in the control group. Logistic regression analysis showed that age, sex, FT4, and HOMA-IR were positive factors for thyroid nodule. The volume and size of the thyroid nodule were positively correlated with HOMA-IR, irrespective of gender. The thyroid nodule volume and size and the TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) were greater in females than in males, whereas FT3 (free triiodothyronine) was lower in females. Conclusion. IR might be a risk factor for thyroid nodule. Whether alleviating the IR might slow the growth, or diminish the volume and size of the thyroid nodules, is yet to be elucidated.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
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