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Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 71, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 190)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)

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Journal Cover International Journal of Chemical Engineering
  [SJR: 0.361]   [H-I: 10]   [7 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-806X - ISSN (Online) 1687-8078
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [281 journals]
  • Tectona grandis Capped Silver-Nanoparticle Material Effects on Microbial
           Strains Inducing Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    • Abstract: This paper investigates Tectona grandis capped silver nanoparticle material effects on the microbial strains inducing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metals. Leaf-extract from Tectona grandis natural plant was used as a precursor for the synthesis of silver-nanoparticle material, which was characterised by a scanning electron microscopy having Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (SEM + EDS) facility. Sensitivity and resistance studies by the synthesized Tectona grandis capped silver nanoparticle material on three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative, thus totalling six, MIC inducing microbial strains were then studied and compared with what was obtained from a control antibiotic chemical. Results showed that all the microbial strains studied were sensitive to the Tectona grandis capped silver nanoparticle materials whereas two strains of microbes, a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative strain, were resistant to the commercial antibiotic chemical. These results suggest positive prospects on Tectona grandis capped silver nanoparticle usage in corrosion control/protection applications on metallic materials for the microbial corrosion environment.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Coupling Solvent Extraction Units to Cyclic Adsorption Units

    • Abstract: The possibility of regenerating the solvent of extraction units by cyclic adsorption was analyzed. This combination seems convenient when extraction is performed with a high solvent-to-impurity ratio, making other choices of solvent regeneration, typically distillation, unattractive. To our knowledge, the proposed regeneration scheme has not been considered before in the open literature. Basic relations were developed for continuous and discontinuous extraction/adsorption combinations. One example, deacidification of plant oil with alcohol, was studied in detail using separate experiments for measuring process parameters and simulation for predicting performance at different conditions. An activated carbon adsorbent was regenerated by thermal swing, making cyclic operation possible. When extracting the acid with methanol in a spray column, feed = 4 L min−1, solvent = 80 L min−1, feed impurity level 140 mmol L−1, and extract concentration 7.6 mmol L−1, the raffinate reaches a purity of 1.2 mmol L−1, the solvent being regenerated cyclically in the adsorber (364 kg) to an average of 0.7 mmol L−1. Regeneration of the solvent by cyclic adsorption had a low heat duty. Values of 174 kJ per litre of solvent compared well with the high values for vaporization of the whole extract phase (1011 kJ L−1).
      PubDate: Sun, 11 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Comparative Study on Removal of Hazardous Anions from Water by
           Adsorption: A Review

    • Abstract: This paper presents a comparative review of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), and fluoride (F−) for a better understanding of the conditions and factors during their adsorption with focus on (i) the isotherm adsorption models, (ii) effects of pH, (iii) effects of ionic strength, and (iv) effects of coexisting substances such as anions, cations, and natural organics matter. It provides an in-depth analysis of various methods of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), and fluoride (F-) removal by adsorption and the anions’ characteristics during the adsorption process. The surface area of the adsorbents does not contribute to the adsorption capacity of these anions but rather a combination of other physical and chemical properties. The adsorption capacity for the anions depends on the combination of all the factors: pH, ionic strength, coexisting substances, pore volume and particles size, surface modification, pretreatment of the adsorbents, and so forth. Extreme higher adsorption capacity can be obtained by the modification of the adsorbents. In general, pH has a greater influence on adsorption capacity at large, since it affects the ionic strength, coexisting anions such as bicarbonate, sulfate, and silica, the surface charges of the adsorbents, and the ionic species which can be present in the solution.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetic Analysis of Sediment from the
           Dianchi Lake in China

    • Abstract: Pyrolysis properties and kinetic analysis of lake sediment, as well as evolution characteristics of the gaseous products at 5°C/min, 10°C/min, and 20°C/min, were investigated by TG-FTIR. Comparison to the TG and DTG curves at different heating rates, the pyrolysis process at 10°C/min could describe the sediment pyrolysis characteristics better than at 5°C/min and 20°C/min; thus the process of sediment pyrolysis could be considered as four stages. From the kinetics analysis, the nth-order chemical reaction model was suitable to describe the sediment pyrolysis reaction well. The values of n were within 2.55–3.42 and activation energy was ranged from 15.83 KJ/mol to 57.92 KJ/mol at different heating rates. The gaseous products of H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, and SO2 and several functional groups (C-H, C=O, and C-O) could be found from the IR spectrum. From the evolution characteristics with the temperature, there were two evolution peaks for CO2 and one peak for CH4 and SO2. However, the evolution of CO always increased. Besides, the evolution peak for CO2, CH4, and SO2 all shifted to the low temperature region with the decrease of heating rate. The results could provide theoretical basis for harmless treatment and resource utilization of lake sediment.
      PubDate: Thu, 08 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Basicity Characterization of Imidazolyl Ionic Liquids and Their
           Application for Biomass Dissolution

    • Abstract: Alkalinity determination is of crucial significance for the applications of basic ionic liquids with imidazolyl. In this work, the ionization constant value and acid function values of ionic liquids synthesized were calculated by pH method and UV spectrum-Hammett method. The dissolution ratio of biomass in these ionic liquids was measured at different temperatures. Finally, the relationship between the alkalinity and structure of these ionic liquids was discussed, and the relationship between the alkalinity of ionic liquid and the dissolution mechanism biomass was also discussed. The results show that the basicity of carboxylate ionic liquids is determined mainly by their anions, whereas cations take some finely tuned roles. Furthermore, cations and anions are equally important and are involved in dissolution mechanisms.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 08:23:36 +000
  • Inexpensive Apparatus for Fabricating Microspheres for 5-Fluorouracil
           Controlled Release Systems

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive apparatus for fabricating microspheres, based on chitosan, for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) controlled release. Chitosan microspheres were prepared by precipitation method and the effects of manufacturing parameters (injection and airflow rates) on size distribution microspheres were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the manufacturing parameters, injection and airflow rates, determine the microsphere size distribution. By modulating these parameters, it was possible to produce chitosan microspheres as small as 437 ± 44 μm and as large as 993 ± 18 μm. Chitosan microspheres loaded with 5-FU were also produced using the experimental equipment. The obtained microspheres presented 5-FU controlled release, indicating that the microspheres can be used orally, since they are capable of crossing the stomach barrier and of continuing with the process of 5-FU release.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Development of Flow-Through Polymeric Membrane Reactor for Liquid Phase
           Reactions: Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modeling

    • Abstract: Incorporating metal nanoparticles into polymer membranes can endow the membranes with additional functions. This work explores the development of catalytic polymer membrane through synthesis of palladium nanoparticles based on the approaches of intermatrix synthesis (IMS) inside surface functionalized polyethersulfone (PES) membrane and its application to liquid phase reactions. Flat sheet PES membranes have been successfully modified via UV-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer. Palladium nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical reduction of palladium precursor loaded on surface modified membranes, an approach to the design of membranes modified with nanomaterials. The catalytic performances of the nanoparticle incorporated membranes have been evaluated by the liquid phase reduction of -nitrophenol using NaBH4 as a reductant in flow-through membrane reactor configuration. The nanocomposite membranes containing palladium nanoparticles were catalytically efficient in achieving a nearly 100% conversion and the conversion was found to be dependent on the flux, amount of catalyst, and initial concentration of nitrophenol. The proposed mathematical model equation represents satisfactorily the reaction and transport phenomena in flow-through catalytic membrane reactor.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Nov 2017 07:29:04 +000
  • Reactive Extrusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate Waste and Investigation
           of Its Thermal and Mechanical Properties after Treatment

    • Abstract: This study investigates treating polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste water bottles with different mass of ethylene glycol (EG) using reactive extrusion technique at a temperature of 260°C. The study puts emphases on evaluating the thermal, mechanical, and chemical characteristics of the treated polyethylene terephthalate. The properties of the treated PET from the extruder were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, DSC, and nanoindentation. The melt flow indexes (MFI) of both treated and untreated PET were also measured and compared. Thermal properties such as melting temperature () for treating PET showed an inversely proportional behavior with the EG concentrations. The FT-IR analysis was used to investigate the formation of new linkages like hydrogen bonds between PET and EG due to the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. Nanoindentation results revealed that both the mechanical characteristics, elastic modulus and hardness, decrease with increasing EG concentration. On the other hand, the melt flow index of treated PET exhibited an increase with increasing EG concentration in the PET matrix.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Efficacy of Difenoconazole Emulsifiable Concentrate with Ionic Liquids
           against Cucumbers Powdery Mildew

    • Abstract: Among eight ionic liquids (ILs) examined, 1-n-butyl-4-methyl-pyridinium bromide (BMPyBr,  5) was used in this study as an appropriate alternative to benzene homologs and derivatives to be used in 10 wt% water-insoluble difenoconazole emulsifiable concentrate (EC). Moreover, 10 wt% difenoconazole EC with BMPyBr (5) exhibited the same efficacy as 10 wt% difenoconazole wettable powder (WP) against powdery mildew on cucumbers under field conditions. The results revealed that difenoconazole EC with BMPyBr (5) had excellent stability at 268 K and 327 K after 14 days through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, ILs can be considered as promising environment-friendly adjuvants for pesticides that are commercially processed as EC formulation.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Aug 2017 06:42:13 +000
  • Determination of Optimum Conditions for the Production of Activated Carbon
           Derived from Separate Varieties of Coconut Shells

    • Abstract: Activated carbons were produced from coconut shells of tall and dwarf tree varieties. The activated carbon from the tall tree variety was initially synthesized using 1 M concentration of each of ZnCl2, H3PO4, and KOH solutions. From the adsorptive tests conducted using methylene blue solution, the activated carbon produced with H3PO4 gave the best absorbance and adsorptive performance. Coconut shells of dwarf tree variety were then obtained and treated with same mass of coconut shells of the tall tree variety using varied concentrations of the acid in order to determine whether the optimum concentration and temperature for producing carbon black from the coconut shells are distinct or similar for both varieties. The process was also modelled using the Differential Response Method (DRM) in order to determine the yields and adsorptive performances of the activated carbons by varying the carbonization temperature and concentration. The results from experiment and the developed mathematical model were both found to be in agreement giving the optimum concentration of phosphoric acid and pH for producing activated carbon to be 0.67 M and 2.07 for the tall tree variety and 1 M and 1.98 for the dwarf variety at optimum temperatures in the range of 450–575°C and 575°C, respectively.
      PubDate: Thu, 03 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Heat and Mass Transfer Effect on MHD Flow of a
           Viscoelastic Fluid through a Porous Medium Bounded by an Oscillating
           Porous Plate in Slip Flow Regime”

    • PubDate: Wed, 12 Jul 2017 06:52:44 +000
  • Multiphase Flow and Transfer Phenomenon

    • PubDate: Sun, 09 Jul 2017 07:11:39 +000
  • In Situ Bioremediation of Crude Petroleum Oil Polluted Soil Using
           Mathematical Experimentation

    • Abstract: Mathematical modelling of in situ (on site) bioremediation of crude petroleum polluted soil was investigated. An unsteady state mathematical model based on bulk flow of oil through the soil and molecular diffusion through the pores of the soil was developed. The parabolic partial differential equation developed was resolved into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by orthogonal collocation method and the necessary boundary condition was used. The resultant system of ODE was solved using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The simulated data gave a good agreement with experimental data.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Jul 2017 10:23:44 +000
  • Cefquinome Controlled Size Submicron Particles Precipitation by SEDS
           Process Using Annular Gap Nozzle

    • Abstract: An annular gap nozzle was applied in solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS) process to prepare cefquinome controlled size submicron particles so as to enhance their efficacy. Analysis results of orthogonal experiments indicated that the concentration of solution was the primary factor to affect particle sizes in SEDS process, and feeding speed of solution, precipitation pressure, and precipitation temperature ranked second to fourth. Meanwhile, the optimal operating conditions were that solution concentration was 100 mg/mL, feeding speed was 9 mL/min, precipitation pressure was 10 MPa, and precipitation temperature was 316 K. The confirmatory experiment showed that of processed cefquinome particles in optimal operating conditions was 0.73 μm. Moreover, univariate effect analysis showed that the cefquinome particle size increased with the increase of concentration of the solution or precipitation pressure but decreased with the increase of solution feeding speed. When precipitation temperature increased, the cefquinome particle size showed highest point. Moreover, characterization of processed cefquinome particles was analyzed by SEM, FT-IR, and XRD. Analysis results indicated that the surface appearance of processed cefquinome particles was flakes. The chemical structure of processed cefquinome particles was not changed, and the crystallinity of processed cefquinome particles was a little lower than that of raw cefquinome particles.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • A Three-Dimensional, Immersed Boundary, Finite Volume Method for the
           Simulation of Incompressible Heat Transfer Flows around Complex Geometries

    • Abstract: The current work focuses on the development and application of a new finite volume immersed boundary method (IBM) to simulate three-dimensional fluid flows and heat transfer around complex geometries. First, the discretization of the governing equations based on the second-order finite volume method on Cartesian, structured, staggered grid is outlined, followed by the description of modifications which have to be applied to the discretized system once a body is immersed into the grid. To validate the new approach, the heat conduction equation with a source term is solved inside a cavity with an immersed body. The approach is then tested for a natural convection flow in a square cavity with and without circular cylinder for different Rayleigh numbers. The results computed with the present approach compare very well with the benchmark solutions. As a next step in the validation procedure, the method is tested for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a turbulent flow around a surface-mounted matrix of cubes. The results computed with the present method compare very well with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements of the same case, showing that the method can be used for scale-resolving simulations of turbulence as well.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 10:30:39 +000
  • Study on Influence of Fluid Parameters on Axial Coupled Vibration of
           Pipeline Conveying Multiphase Flow

    • Abstract: Taking a slurry reservoir-pipeline-valve system as research object, axial dynamic vibrations of pipe system were induced by coupled hydraulic transient due to rapid closure of valve at the end of pipe. The influences of fluid parameters in multiphase flow, including void fraction, density ratio, and elastic modulus ratio between solid phase and liquid phase, on vibration behaviors of pipe system were analyzed. Results of this study show that wave velocities of pressure and stress can be attenuated evidently when void fraction in multiphase fluid is increased appropriately; meanwhile, the amplitudes of pressure fluctuation and pipe vibration are also weakened obviously. With the increase of density ratio between solid phase and liquid phase, the vibrational intension of pipe system becomes stronger and stronger. In this instance, the increments of vibrational energy mainly concentrate in fluid, which leads the pressure energy of fluid to rise up quickly. When elastic modulus ratio between solid phase and liquid phase increases, the total elasticity of fluid decreases gradually. At the same time, both pressure energy of fluid and vibrational intension of pipe are enhanced but the increments are very slight.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Jun 2017 07:48:12 +000
  • Prediction of a Small-Scale Pool Fire with FireFoam

    • Abstract: A computational model using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for turbulence modelling was implemented, by means of the Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) combustion model using the fireFoam solver. A small methanol pool fire experiment was simulated in order to validate and compare the numerical results, hence trying to validate the effectiveness of the solver. A detailed convergence analysis is performed showing that a mesh of approximately two million elements is sufficient to achieve satisfactory numerical results (including chemical kinetics). A good agreement was achieved with some of the experimental and previous computational results, especially in the prediction of the flame height and the average temperature contours.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Jun 2017 08:02:19 +000
  • Comment on “Heat and Mass Transfer Effect on MHD Flow of a Viscoelastic
           Fluid through a Porous Medium Bounded by an Oscillating Porous Plate in
           Slip Flow Regime”

    • Abstract: The present comment concerns some doubtful results included in the above paper.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 09:39:59 +000
  • Phytoremediation of Nitrogen as Green Chemistry for Wastewater Treatment

    • Abstract: It is noteworthy that ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater has reportedly posed a great threat to the environment. Although there are several conventional technologies being employed to remediate ammoniacal nitrogen contamination in wastewater, they are not sustainable and cost-effective. Along this line, the present study aims to highlight the significance of green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen for wastewater treatment. Notably, ammoniacal nitrogen can be found in many types of sources and it brings harmful effects to the environment. Hence, the present study also reviews the phytoremediation of nitrogen and describes its green chemistry characteristics. Additionally, the different types of wastewater contaminants and their effects on phytoremediation and the phytoremediation consideration in wastewater treatment application and sustainable waste management of harvested aquatic macrophytes were reviewed. Finally, the present study explicates the future perspectives of phytoremediation. Based on the reviews, it can be concluded that green chemistry characteristics of phytoremediation in nitrogen have proved that it is sustainable and cost-effective in relation to other existing ammoniacal nitrogen remediation technologies. Therefore, it can be deduced that a cheaper and more environmental friendly ammoniacal nitrogen technology can be achieved with the utilization of phytoremediation in wastewater treatment.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Seed Oil of Morinda citrifolia L. as a Surfactant for Deinking Flotation

    • Abstract: Surfactants are essential in the pulp recovery process for the removal of ink on paper to be recycled. In order to create a “green” surfactant, seed oil was extracted from Morinda citrifolia L. by Soxhlet extraction for 4–8 h and its composition evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total ion chromatogram (TIC) of fatty acids of Morinda citrifolia L. (FAMC) indicated that extraction yields the largest amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), specifically C19H34O2 and C21H38O2, at 6 h. All FAMC fractions were evaluated for their suitability as a surfactant for deinking flotation. FAMC isolated after 6 h of extraction yields fatty acids that are the most suitable surfactants, as the fraction consists of mostly unsaturated fatty acids that show good interactions with the structure of common ink molecules. Our results show that the performance of the FAMC taken after 6 h of extraction approaches that of a synthetic surfactant (SS). The appropriate viscous force for deinking flotation was found to be 1.5–2.0 × 10−4 mg/mm s2 when the synthetic surfactant is used compared to 1.0–1.5 × 10−4 mg/mm s2 for FAMC. The higher intermolecular bonding strength in the synthetic surfactant-ink particle system requires higher viscous force.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Retracted: Oxygen Mass Transfer in an Aerated Stirred Tank with Double
           Impellers: A Generalized Correlation Including Spacing Impact

    • PubDate: Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigation on the Transition Criterion of Smooth Stratified Flow to
           Other Flow Patterns for Gas-Hydrate Slurry Flow

    • Abstract: A stability criterion for gas-hydrate slurry stratified flow was developed. The model was based on one-dimensional gas-liquid two-fluid model and perturbation method, considering unstable factors including shear stress, gravity, and surface tension. In addition, mass transfer between gas and liquid phase caused by hydrate formation was taken into account by implementing an inward and outward natural gas hydrates growth shell model for water-in-oil emulsion. A series of gas-hydrate slurry flow experiments were carried out in a high-pressure (>10 MPa) horizontal flow loop. The transition criterion of smooth stratified flow to other flow patterns for gas-hydrate slurry flow was established and validated and combined with experimental data at different water cuts. Meanwhile, parameters of this stability criterion were defined. This stability criterion was proved to be efficient for predicting the transition from smooth to nonsmooth stratified flow for gas-hydrate slurry.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 May 2017 08:47:48 +000
  • Physicochemical Characterization of Representative Firewood Species Used
           for Cooking in Some Colombian Regions

    • Abstract: Socioeconomic conditions and the main firewood species used for cooking in three Colombian regions are studied in this work. The species collected were Cordia alliodora, Guazuma ulmifolia, Eucalyptus grandis, and Pinus patula. The used patterns of biomass and socioeconomic conditions of the selected regions were defined by means of secondary information. Firewood was physicochemically characterized and the species are compared with fossil fuels with regard to emissions of CO2, energy density, and costs. The studied regions require solutions to use firewood in eco-efficient systems, since in these rural regions people use biomass as an energy source. Studied firewood species are suitable to be gasified in fixed bed reactors due to their high volatile matter content (>80%) and low ash content (
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Surfactants on Gas Holdup in Shear-Thinning Fluids

    • Abstract: In this study, the gas holdup of bubble swarms in shear-thinning fluids was experimentally studied at superficial gas velocities ranging from 0.001 to 0.02 m·s−1. Carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions of 0.2 wt%, 0.6 wt%, and 1.0 wt% with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant were used as the power-law (liquid phase), and nitrogen was used as the gas phase. Effects of SDS concentration, rheological behavior, and physical properties of the liquid phase and superficial gas velocity on gas holdup were investigated. Results indicated that gas holdup increases with increasing superficial gas velocity and decreasing CMC concentration. Moreover, the addition of SDS in CMC solutions increased gas holdup, and the degree increased with the surfactant concentration. An empirical correlation was proposed for evaluating gas holdup as a function of liquid surface tension, density, effective viscosity, rheological property, superficial gas velocity, and geometric characteristics of bubble columns using the experimental data obtained for the different superficial gas velocities and CMC solution concentrations with different surfactant solutions. These proposed correlations reasonably fitted the experimental data obtained for gas holdup in this system.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Apr 2017 09:37:30 +000
  • Investigations of a Gas Turbine Low-Emission Combustor Operating on the
           Synthesis Gas

    • Abstract: Investigations of the working processes in a gas turbine low-emission combustor operating on the synthesis gas, in which the principle of RQL (Rich-Burn, Quick-Mix, and Lean-Burn) combustion technology is realized, have been performed. Selected concept of a gas turbine combustor can provide higher performance and lower emission of nitrogen oxides and demonstrates satisfactory major key parameters. Obtained results and recommendations can be used for the gas turbine combustor operation modes modeling, geometry optimization, and prospective power generation units design and engineering.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Apr 2017 08:48:37 +000
  • Study on Carbonyl Emissions of Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel

    • Abstract: Biodiesel is a kind of high-quality alternative fuel of diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend were used in a single cylinder diesel engine to study the carbonyl emissions. The result shows that carbonyl pollutants of biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend are mainly aldehyde and ketone compounds with 1–3 carbon atoms, and formaldehyde concentration is higher than 80% of the total carbonyl pollutants for biodiesel. The formaldehyde concentration peak is reduced with the increase of intake temperature (), intake pressure (), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and increased with the increase of compression ratio (). When excess air coefficient () is lower than 1.7, the formaldehyde concentration is increased with the increase of excess air ratio. When is higher than 1.7, the formaldehyde concentration is reduced with the increase of excess air ratio. The dilution of air can reduce formaldehyde concentration in the premixed flame of diesel effectively; however, it has less effect on biodiesel. Among the fuel pretreatment measures of adding hydrogen, CO, and methane, the addition of hydrogen shows the best effect on reducing formaldehyde of biodiesel.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Removal of Reactive Anionic Dyes from Binary Solutions by Adsorption onto
           Quaternized Kenaf Core Fiber

    • Abstract: The most challenging mission in wastewater treatment plants is the removal of anionic dyes, because they are water-soluble and produce very shining colours in the water. In this regard, kenaf core fiber (KCF) was chemically modified by the quaternized agent (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride to increase surface area and change the surface properties in order to improve the removing reactive anionic dyes from binary aqueous solution. The influencing operating factors like dye concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were examined in a batch mode. The results indicate that the percentage of removal of Reactive Red-RB (RR-RB) and Reactive Black-5 (RB-5) dyes from binary solution was increased with increasing dyes concentrations and the maximum percentage of removal reached up to 98.4% and 99.9% for RR-RB and RB-5, respectively. Studies on effect of pH showed that the adsorption was not significantly influenced by pH. The equilibrium analyses explain that, in spite of the extended Langmuir model failure to describe the data in the binary system, it is better than the Jain and Snoeyink model in describing the adsorption behavior of binary dyes onto QKCF. Also, the pseudo-second-order model was better to represent the adsorption kinetics for RR-RB and RB-5 dyes on QKCF.
      PubDate: Wed, 08 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
  • Mesoporous (Ta, Nb)3W7 Modified with Stearic Acid Used as Solid Acids for

    • Abstract: Mesoporous solid acids Ta3W7 and Nb3W7 were prepared from TaCl5 and NbCl5 with WCl6 in the presence of stearic acid (SA) via a sol-gel method, respectively. For comparison, mesoporous Ta3W7-P123 mixed oxides and mesoporous Nb3W7-P123 mixed oxides were synthesized in the same way. The catalysts were characterized through TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, and NH3-TPD. Experimental results showed that Ta3W7-SA and Nb3W7-SA exhibited several advantages such as higher activity, shorter preparation period, lower cost, stronger acid sites, and higher surface area, which had potential to be used as mesoporous heterogeneous catalysts in biodiesel production.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Mar 2017 08:40:02 +000
  • Enhancement of Methane Concentration by Removing Contaminants from Biogas
           Mixtures Using Combined Method of Absorption and Adsorption

    • Abstract: We report a laboratory scale combined absorption and adsorption chemical process to remove contaminants from anaerobically produced biogas using cafeteria (food), vegetable, fruit, and cattle manure wastes. Iron oxide (Fe2O3), zero valent iron (), and iron chloride (FeCl2) react with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to deposit colloidal sulfur. Silica gel, sodium sulfate (Na2SO4), and calcium oxide (CaO) reduce the water vapour (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). It is possible to upgrade methane (CH4) above 95% in biogas using chemical or physical absorption or adsorption process. The removal efficiency of CO2, H2S, and H2O depends on the mass of removing agent and system pH. The results showed that Ca(OH)2 solutions are capable of reducing CO2 below 6%. The H2S concentration was reduced to 89%, 90%, 86%, 85%, and 96% for treating with 10 g of FeCl2, (with pH), Fe2O3, , and activated carbon, respectively. The H2O concentration was reduced to 0.2%, 0.7%, 0.2%, 0.2%, and 0.3% for treating raw biogas with 10 g of silica gel and Na2SO4 for runs R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5, respectively. Thus, given the successful contaminant elimination, the combined absorption and adsorption process is a feasible system for biogas purification.
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Mar 2017 06:39:34 +000
  • Modelling the Evaporation Rate in an Impingement Jet Dryer with Multiple

    • Abstract: Impinging jets are often used in industry to dry, cool, or heat items. In this work, a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is created to model an impingement jet dryer with a total of 9 pairs of nozzles that dries sheets of metal. Different methods to model the evaporation rate are studied, as well as the influence of recirculating the outlet air. For the studied conditions, the simulations show that the difference in evaporation rate between single- and two-component treatment of moist air is only around 5%, hence indicating that drying can be predicted with a simplified model where vapor is included as a nonreacting scalar. Furthermore, the humidity of the inlet air, as determined from the degree of recirculating outlet air, has a strong effect on the water evaporation rate. Results show that the metal sheet is dry at the exit if 85% of the air is recirculated, while approximately only 60% of the water has evaporated at a recirculation of 92,5%.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +000
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Heriot-Watt University
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