Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 52, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 100)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 23, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 27, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 77, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 226)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
International Journal of Agronomy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.311
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-8159 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8167
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • In Vitro Control of Phytophthora infestans and Alternaria solani Using
           Crude Extracts and Essential Oils from Selected Plants

    • Abstract: Tomato production is constrained by fungal diseases especially the early and late blight caused by Alternaria solani and Phytophthora infestans, respectively. Control of the two diseases is usually by use of synthetic fungicides which have a long residue effect and also contribute to environmental pollution. Innovative use of biocontrols may offer an eco-friendly and more sustainable solution. This study tested the in vitro efficacy of crude extracts and essential oils of ginger, garlic, tick berry, and Mexican marigold in inhibition of radial growth of A. solani and P. infestans. Extraction of the crude extracts was done using distilled water, ethanol, and methanol solvents, while essential oils were extracted using the dry steam distillation method. The extracts and essential oils were used to amend the growth media of the test pathogens before introducing the precultured pathogens. Sterile distilled water and synthetic fungicide, Ridomil Gold®, were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Fungal growth inhibition was determined by measuring the radial growth of the test pathogens. Both the crude extracts and the essential oils portrayed some efficacy against the test pathogens. Garlic crude extracts were found to be the most effective, while ethanol was the most suitable extraction solvent. Essential oils were more effective in restricting the pathogen growth than crude extracts. Ginger and garlic oil was found to be as effective as the synthetic fungicide, and thus it was concluded that the two plants have strong antifungal properties with high potential of being utilized as biofungicides. However, effective utilization of these products in farmers’ fields may require industrial formulation to improve their efficiency.
      PubDate: Tue, 07 Jul 2020 15:20:01 +000
  • Timing and Application Rate for Sequential Applications of Glufosinate are
           Critical for Maximizing Control of Annual Weeds in LibertyLink┬« Soybean

    • Abstract: Preserving the utility of glufosinate in both LibertyLink soybean and other glufosinate-resistant crops is critical for managing herbicide-resistant weeds. An experiment with a two-factor factorial arrangement was conducted at the Arkansas Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville, AR, in 2015, 2016, and 2017 to evaluate the efficacy of glufosinate in single and sequential applications at various rates on 8–32 cm tall Palmer amaranth, barnyardgrass, and broadleaf signalgrass. Herbicide treatments consisted of glufosinate applied at 454, 595, 738, and 882 g ai ha−1 (Factor 1) with either no sequential application or a sequential application occurring 7, 10, 14, or 21 days after the initial application (DAI) (Factor 2). For treatments that contained a sequential application, the same rate used in the initial application (e.g., 451 g ai ha−1) was also used in the sequential. Regardless of species and rate, sequential applications were always superior to single applications. Palmer amaranth control 3 weeks after the final treatment (WAF) was 8% greater when the sequential application occurred 10 DAI compared to 21 DAI, averaged over glufosinate rates. When at least 595 g ai ha−1 glufosinate was used in a treatment, no differences between the 7-, 10-, 14-, and 21-day sequential application intervals were observed for barnyardgrass or broadleaf signalgrass control, 3 WAF. Soybean yields were greater when the glufosinate applications occurred 7 or 10 d apart compared to 21 d, averaged over glufosinate rates. When large weeds are present in the field, these data suggest that glufosinate should be applied sequentially with a 7- to 14-day interval between applications. If sequential applications of glufosinate are used in combination with a comprehensive weed control management program, the value of the LibertyLink technology should be preserved by mitigating the risk of glufosinate resistance.
      PubDate: Sat, 04 Jul 2020 14:35:02 +000
  • In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of Oil Seed Crop Sesamum indicum L. from
           Seedling Cotyledon Explant to Lay Ground for Genetic Transformation in

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to develop an efficient regeneration protocol used for sesame genetic transformation. Published regeneration methods using 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), indol-3-butyric acid (IBA), and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were used in this experiment. Cotyledon explants of 14 Ethiopian genotypes collected from Humera Agricultural Research Center (HuARC) were used. Optimized culture conditions were used to investigate the regeneration response of different genotypes. Significant interactions between hormone treatments, MS media, and genotypes for shoot and root regeneration were recorded. Results showed that culture of cotyledons were developed and used as a source of explants for shoot regeneration. The highest shoot number, leaf number, and shoot length were recorded on explants cultured on 1.00 mg·L−1 BAP + 1.00 mg·L−1 NAA in Hirhir and Aberghele, 0.75 mg·L−1 BAP + 1.00 mg·L−1 NAA in Baha Zeyit, and 1.0 mg·L−1 BAP + 1.00 mg·L−1 NAA in Humera 1, respectively. The lowest shoot number, leaf number, and shoot length were observed on explants cultured on the control in Gondar 1, Borkana, and Baha Necho, Borkana and Beha Necho, and Baha Necho, respectively. Genotypes with well-developed shoots were transferred to root induction media. Under rooting media, the best mean, root number, and root length were observed in Aberghele and ACC44 at 0.1 mg·L−1 IBA and 0.2 mg·L−1 NAA, respectively. Standardizing genotypes trait data to mean 0 and unity variance has helped to group 14 genotypes into four distinct clusters. Hirhir, Abeghele, Baha Zeyit, and Humera 1 were the best genotypes. These findings lay ground to Ethiopian sesame to do further genetic transformation aiming at improving the crop.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 09:35:04 +000
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)
           Genotypes for Pre- and Post-attachment Resistance against Witchweed
           (Striga asiatica L. Kuntze)

    • Abstract: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production in sub-Saharan Africa is seriously constrained by both biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic stresses is witchweed (Striga spp.), a noxious parasitic weed causing major damage in cereal crops, such as sorghum. However, resistance through reduced germination stimulant production or altered germination stimulant composition provides a sustainable and most effective way for managing the parasitic weeds. Laboratory and glasshouse experiments were conducted using seven (7) sorghum genotypes to evaluate their resistance or tolerance the witch weed (Striga asiatica L. Kuntze). The first experiment was a laboratory agar gel assay arranged in a completely randomized design with six (6) replications to evaluate the effects of the seven (7) sorghum genotypes on the production of strigolactones by determining the percentage germination and the furthest germination distance of the Striga seeds. The second experiment was a seven (7) (sorghum genotypes)∗two (2) (Striga treatments) factorial glasshouse experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of Striga on sorghum growth, physiological and yield components of sorghum, Striga syndrome rating, and number of Striga per plant. The genotypes showed a significant () difference in germination percentage and furthest germination of Striga seeds in the agar gel assay. Genotypes SV4, Mahube, and ICSV 111 IN showed the least germination percentage and lowest germination distance, implying that these varieties either produced low strigolactones or altered their composition. In contrast, Kuyuma, Wahi, SV2, and Macia caused high Striga seed germinations and high furthest germination distances, suggesting that these sorghum genotypes were susceptible to Striga infection. The sorghum × Striga × time interactions were significant () on sorghum height. It was found that the heights of sorghum genotypes ICSV 111 IN and Mahube were not altered by Striga infection, but the heights of Kuyuma, Macia, SV2, SV4, and Wahi were reduced by Striga infection. The interaction of sorghum∗Striga effects was significant () on chlorophyll fluorescence. Striga infection did not alter the chlorophyll content of ICSV 111 IN and SV4. The sorghum∗Striga interaction effects were significant () on head index, leaf biomass, leaf index, root biomass, root index, plant biomass, and root : shoot ratio. Assessing Striga tolerance based on sorghum heights, chlorophyll content, and root : shoot ratio parameters, it could be concluded that the sorghum genotypes Mahube, ICSV 111 IN, and SV4 tolerated Striga infection, whereas Kuyuma and SV2 could be susceptible.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 09:35:04 +000
  • Paddy Crop and Weed Discrimination: A Multiple Classifier System Approach

    • Abstract: Weeds are unwanted plants that grow among crops. These weeds can significantly reduce the yield and quality of the farm output. Unfortunately, site-specific weed management is not followed in most of the cases. That is, instead of treating a field with a specific type of herbicide, the field is treated with a broadcast herbicide application. This broadcast application of the herbicide has resulted in herbicide-resistant weeds and has many ill effects on the natural environment. This has prompted many research studies to seek the most effective weed management techniques. One such technique is computer vision-based automatic weed detection and identification. Using this technique, weeds can be detected and identified and a suitable herbicide can be recommended to the farmers. Therefore, it is important for the computer vision technique to successfully identify and classify the crops and weeds from the digital images. This paper investigates the multiple classifier systems built using support vector machines and random forest classifiers for plant classification in classifying paddy crops and weeds from digital images. Digital images of paddy crops and weeds from the paddy fields were acquired using three different cameras fixed at different heights from the ground. Texture, color, and shape features were extracted from the digital images after background subtraction and used for classification. A simple and new method was used as a decision function in the multiple classifier systems. An accuracy of 91.36% was obtained by the multiple classifier systems and was found to outperform single classifier systems.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jun 2020 09:35:04 +000
  • Assessment of Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Resistance and Genetic
           Characterization of Forty-Six Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)
           Genotypes in Ghana

    • Abstract: The parasitic weed, Striga gesnerioides, imposes physiological stress on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) resulting in significant yield loss in the regions of northern Ghana. This warranted identification of resistant cowpeas for sustainable production. The current work aim was to identify Striga-resistant cowpea genotypes and assess their genetic relatedness. Forty-six (46) cowpea genotypes were screened in pots for their reaction to Striga samples obtained from the upper east, upper west, and northern regions of Ghana and validated with C42-2B and 61R-M2 markers involving DNA amplification by PCR assay. Sixteen polymorphic SSR primer pairs were used to assess genetic relatedness among 46 cowpea genotypes. Data were analyzed with PowerMarker V. 3.25 and a dendrogram was generated with MEGA 4. On the whole, 65.2% of the cowpea genotypes had stable resistance to S. gesnerioides from the regions of northern Ghana and 34.8% were susceptible. The C42-2B marker resolved as a single DNA band of 280 bp with segregation efficiency of 80% and 61R-M2 marker as double DNA bands of 320 bp and 380 bp with segregation efficiency of 60% associated with Striga resistance. Sixteen (16) polymorphic SSR primers distinguished all 46 cowpea genotypes into three clusters. Gene diversity ranged from 0.04 to 0.49 with an average of 0.29. The average allele frequency is 0.78, with a mean genetic diversity of 0.29. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.08 to 1.00 with an average of 0.55. Therefore, cowpeas with Striga resistance and other desirable traits can be evaluated and released as varieties for farmers to cultivate.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Jun 2020 13:05:02 +000
  • Changes in Vitamin E and ╬▓-Carotene Contents in Various Edible Cassava
           Leaves (Manihot esculenta Crantz) of Different Ages across Multiple

    • Abstract: Vitamin E and carotenoids belong to a group of bioactive compounds that have an important effect on human health. The present study aims to investigate for the first time the concentration of vitamin E, α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and β-carotene in edible cassava leaves during different ages. The analysis was performed using colorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) methods. A significant difference was found among α-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol concentrations in leaves; γ- and α-tocopherol isomer contents were the predominant in amount, respectively. Among the leaves, AD variety harvested at 6 months after planting (MAP) was the highest in total vitamin E (222 μgα-TE/g). However, the highest γ-tocopherol content (2782 μg/100g) and the content of biologically active vitamin E (1244 μg/100g) were found in EN variety at 6MAP, whereas the highest value (42 μg/g) of β-carotene was found in AD variety at 12MAP. Total vitamin E and tocopherol isomers composition varied among varieties and seasons as did β-carotene. The effects of varieties and harvest ages on the biosynthesis regulation of these compounds were confirmed by principal component analysis (F1x F2: 74.34%). Edible cassava leaves can be considered as sources of vitamin E for natural dietary antioxidant during different ages, and the best time to harvest EN and AD varieties is at 6MAP on the basis of α-tocopherol equivalent or content of biologically active vitamin E content, and EN and AD varieties performed the overall best. Thus, the edible cassava leaves are among the leafy vegetables that could be helpful to suggest as a part of daily meal for health benefits and pharmaceutical purposes.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jun 2020 16:20:03 +000
  • Organic Compounds: Contents and Their Role in Improving Seed Germination
           and Protocorm Development in Orchids

    • Abstract: In nature, orchid seed germination is obligatory following infection by mycorrhizal fungi, which supplies the developing embryo with water, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals, causing the seeds to germinate relatively slowly and at a low germination rate. The nonsymbiotic germination of orchid seeds found in 1922 is applicable to in vitro propagation. The success of seed germination in vitro is influenced by supplementation with organic compounds. Here, we review the scientific literature in terms of the contents and role of organic supplements in promoting seed germination, protocorm development, and seedling growth in orchids. We systematically collected information from scientific literature databases including Scopus, Google Scholar, and ProQuest, as well as published books and conference proceedings. Various organic compounds, i.e., coconut water (CW), peptone (P), banana homogenate (BH), potato homogenate (PH), chitosan (CHT), tomato juice (TJ), and yeast extract (YE), can promote seed germination and growth and development of various orchids. They also stimulate seedling development, formation of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs), plantlet growth, and multiple shoot formation. The addition of organic compounds to culture media, individually or in combination, accelerates seed germination and seedling development. Different types and concentrations of organic nutrients are needed for the success of in vitro cultures, depending on the species and genotype.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Jun 2020 09:35:02 +000
  • Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Yield and Yield Components of
           Quality Protein Maize (Zea mays L.) Hybrids at Jimma, Western Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Maize is one of the most important staple food crops in many parts of Ethiopia. However, it is not used extensively due to its poor nutritional quality and low productivity. It lacks two essential amino acids, namely, lysine and tryptophan. Knowledge of the interrelationships of grain yield and its various causal (contributory) components is very helpful to improve the efficiency of breeding programs using appropriate selection indices. This article reports the findings of a study conducted to determine the nature of relationships of grain yield and its contributing components and to identify those components with significant effects on yield with the intention of using them as selection criteria using path coefficient analysis (PCA). Therefore, PCA has shown that yield per hectare had a significant and positive phenotypic correlation with plant height, ear height, number of kernels per row, and 100-grain weight. Moreover, PCA had a significant and positive genotypic correlation with days to 50% tasseling, plant height, ear height, and 100-grain weight. The highest direct positive effect on yield per hectare was exhibited by ear height. The findings of this study showed that most genotypes are early maturing and are suitable for areas with short rainy seasons and prone to drought.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Jun 2020 13:20:02 +000
  • Effect of Intercropping Beans with Maize and Botanical Extract on Fall
           Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) Infestation

    • Abstract: African farmers are currently grappling with potential control measures for the invasive fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda), which has recently emerged as an important economic pest that is ravaging maize fields across the continent. We evaluated the efficacy of the West African black pepper extract and beans intercropping systems as viable FAW control measures and the implication on maize yields. The experiment comprised five treatments (control-no input, dwarf beans intercrop, climbing beans intercrop, West African black pepper extract, and insecticide) with three replications each. FAW severity was assessed at three to seven weeks after planting (WAP), while maize infestation was assessed at seven WAP. FAW severity increased significantly () across WAP for the control and dwarf beans intercrop, with the highest at four and six WAP, respectively. FAW severity also differed () significantly across treatments at four to seven WAP, with the lowest recorded in the extract of West African black pepper (Piper guineense) and the highest in control treatments. Maize infestation ranged from 13 to 93%, with the lowest in the West African black pepper extract and synthetic insecticide, followed by both dwarf and climbing beans intercrops and then the control. The maize yield determined at physiological maturity ranged from 2.2 to 6.3 t ha−1 across treatments and differed significantly, with the highest in the West African black pepper extract and synthetic insecticide, followed by both the dwarf and climbing beans intercrops, as compared to the control. Overall, the West African black pepper extract and beans push cropping systems demonstrated efficacy as viable sustainable alternative control measures for the invasive fall armyworm in maize fields.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 May 2020 09:05:05 +000
  • Effectiveness of Water Management towards Soil Moisture Preservation on

    • Abstract: In this study, factorial randomized experiments were conducted in a controlled greenhouse environment to investigate an efficient and effective component of water management technology in increasing soybean yield. The soybeans were planted in polybags with 6 kg of Alfisol soil media and fertilizer. The bags were perforated with 16 holes at approximately 1 to 2 cm from the base and put into a water container. The container was immersed in water levels of 5 cm and 10 cm. The application of these immersions was carried out in four stages: 0 to 15 days after planting (DAP), 15 to 30 DAP, 30 to 45 DAP, and continued until harvest. Observations of growth were carried out on the greenness of leaves, plant height, leaf area, root length, and dry weight of plants, and soil water content was checked every two weeks. The yield measured after harvest consisted of the number of pods, the number of seeds/plants, weight of 100 seeds, and weight of seeds per plants. The water level had a significant effect on plant height, dry weight, leaf greenness, number of pods, and number of seeds/plants. The immersion stage has significant effects on plant height, harvest age, dry weight, leaf greenness, number of pods, and number of seeds/plants. Continuous immersion in a water level of 5 cm has shown the best yield on number of pods (20.81) and number of seeds per plant (162.94). This treatment increased seed yield (seed weight) approximately by 19.23% compared to the field capacity.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 May 2020 06:50:03 +000
  • Introduction to the Integrated Nutrient Management Strategies and Their
           Contribution to Yield and Soil Properties

    • Abstract: Alleviation of poverty and achievement of zero-hunger target and food security are significant challenges faced by agricultural planners worldwide. Improving many agronomic approaches, which have drastic effects on crop growth and yield, is urgently needed to report this aim. Replacement of a part of chemical fertilizers by organic manure through a simple technique of using minimum effective dose of sufficient and balanced quantities of organic and inorganic fertilizers in combination with specific microorganisms, called INM, has a bright solution in this area. Recently, several investigators reported that integrated use of chemical fertilizers with organic manure is becoming a quite promising practice not only for maintaining higher productivity but also for greater stability to crop production. In addition, INM acts as a source of energy, organic carbon, and available nitrogen for the growth of soil microbes and improvement of physical properties of soil, and also have great residual effect on subsequent crops. So, the key component of the INM goal is to reach the eco-friendly practice through the harmonious properties of both sources by making a combination that can be used for decreasing the enormous use of chemical fertilizers and accreting a balance between fertilizer inputs and crop nutrient requirement, maintaining the soil fertility, optimizing the level of yield, maximizing the profitability, and subsequently reducing the environmental pollution. Lastly, INM is a tool that can offer good options and economic choices to supply plants with a sufficient amount of nutrients in need and can also reduce total costs, create favorable soil physiochemical conditions and healthy environment, eliminate the constraints, safeguard the soil nutrient balance, and find safety methods to get rid of agriculture wastes.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 May 2020 10:35:03 +000
  • Rice Cultivar Response to Florpyrauxifen-Benzyl When Applied with
           Imazethapyr and a Cytochrome P450 Inhibitor

    • Abstract: Understanding cultivar responses to a new herbicide is crucial to determining appropriate herbicide use and management practices. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl is a new rice herbicide developed to control troublesome weeds in rice production. Little research has been conducted to characterize rice cultivar responses to florpyrauxifen-benzyl, and thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Pine Tree Research Station (PTRS) in 2017 and 2018 and at the Rice Research and Extension Center (RREC) in 2018 to determine rice cultivar tolerance to florpyrauxifen-benzyl as influenced by herbicide rate, the addition of imazethapyr, and rice growth stage. Another experiment was conducted in 2018 at PTRS and RREC to assess crop response when florpyrauxifen-benzyl at different rates is applied with and without malathion, a known cytochrome P450 inhibitor. Three cultivars were evaluated in both experiments: a long-grain variety “CL111,” a medium-grain variety “CL272,” and a long-grain hybrid “CLXL745.” Injury in the first experiment was higher when florpyrauxifen-benzyl was applied at 60 g ae ha−1 than at the labeled rate of 30 g ha−1, with the most injury being 10% when averaged over growth stage at the time of application. Generally, applications made at the 3-leaf growth stage resulted in the most injury; however, this injury was at most 14%. Additionally, there was no reduction in grain yield for any cultivar, indicating florpyrauxifen-benzyl can be used safely in conjunction with imazethapyr in imidazolinone-resistant rice. In the second experiment, there was no more than 10% injury and no reduction in grain yield, with the addition of malathion not causing an increase in rice injury. Results from these experiments indicate florpyrauxifen-benzyl can be mixed with imazethapyr and the addition of malathion will not lead to increased risk for injury to rice.
      PubDate: Wed, 29 Apr 2020 08:35:05 +000
  • Genetic Gain in Wheat Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency at Different
           Nitrogen Levels in an Irrigated Hot Environment

    • Abstract: Improved nitrogen use-efficient cultivars could be the most economically beneficial and environmentally friendly approach to reduce pollution associated with excessive N fertilization. The performance and genetic gain in grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of a historical set of 12 bread wheat cultivars released for a heat-stressed environment were investigated at four N levels (0 (N0), 43 (N43), 86 (N86), and 129 (N129) kg/ha) for two seasons. Averaged across seasons, increasing N level from N0 to N43, N86, and N129 resulted in yield increases ranging from 4−45%, 13–69%, and 34–87% at N43, N86, and N129, respectively. These yield increases were associated with increases in biomass (r = 0.86, ). Regressing grain yield of cultivars released during 1960 to 2006 against the year of release showed no trend at N0 and positive nonsignificant trends at N43;. however, significant positive trends were found at N86 and N129 with genetic gain rates of 12.65 and 15.76 kg ha−1 year−1, respectively. This gain was associated with progresses in harvest index (HI) at N43, N86, and N129 but not at N0. On the other hand, during the period from 1960 to 1990, the genetic gain in grain yield at N86 was 24.5 kg ha−1 year−1. Regressing NUE against the year of release showed significant linear trends at N86 and N129 (R2 = 0.511 and R2 = 0.477, respectively), but not at N43. The results indicate that breeders improved grain yield and NUE over 46 years under the heat-stressed environment of Sudan although the rate of increase in yield has been slowed down in recent years. Further improvement in NUE might require broadening the genetic diversity and simultaneous evaluation at low and high N levels.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 14:50:06 +000
  • The Effects of Biopesticide and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae on the
           Nutrient Content of Binucleate Rhizoctonia-Induced Vanilla Plant

    • Abstract: Binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR) fungi are essential for the germination of vanilla seeds. Chemical control of the soil-borne pathogen might adversely affect BNR. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Nicotiana tabacum extract biopesticides and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae (Fusarium) on vanilla plant nutrient content induced by BNR. Materials and Methods. The research design was completely randomized design with two factors and three replications. The first factor was biopesticide (dosage of 0, 10, 20, and 30 ml/seedling), and the second factor was the application of Fusarium. Results. The increase in the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content of vanilla was affected by biopesticides and Fusarium inoculation. Fusarium inoculation has no significant effect on nitrogen and phosphorus levels but significantly affects potassium levels. The biopesticide dosage is significant for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The interaction of biopesticides with Fusarium inoculation did not significantly affect the parameters of nitrogen and phosphorus content, but significantly affected potassium content. Conclusion. The application of biopesticides and Fusarium inoculation after induction of BNR can increase nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium content of vanilla plants.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Apr 2020 14:50:06 +000
  • Nutrient Release Pattern and Greenhouse-Grown Swiss Chard Response to
           Biochar Inoculated with Vermicast

    • Abstract: A study was performed to assess nutrient release from biochar inoculated with solid vermicast (SVB), vermicast tea (VTB), deionized water (DWB), uninoculated biochar (Bioc), and Promix-BX (Pro-BX). The growth response of Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) cv. Rhubarb chard was also assessed. Comparatively, nutrients were released slowly from treatments SVB and VTB compared to the other treatments. The rate of nutrient release determined by total dissolved solids and electric conductivity from the Pro-BX was the highest. The trend for the plant growth components, total leaf surface area and leaf fresh weight at first harvest, was Pro-BX > Bioc > DWB = SVB > VTB. The only treatment that increased total leaf area and leaf fresh weight at the second harvest by approximately 1.02- and 1.88-fold was VTB. Leaf fresh weight was significantly reduced by approximately 0.33-fold for DWB, 0.28-fold for Bioc, and 0.70-fold for Pro-BX but was not altered by SVB at the second harvest as compared to the first harvest. A 2-dimensional principal component analysis (PCA) biplot confirmed that treatment Pro-BX increased plant growth components at the first harvest only. The locations of SVB and VTB on the PCA biplot confirmed their efficacies, which led to increases in the plant growth components at the second harvest. Overall, the VTB adsorbed more nutrients onto its surface that were slowly released to enhance the Swiss chard cv. Rhubarb chard plant growth at the second harvest. Further studies should consider microbial activities.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 11:05:04 +000
  • Agro-Morphological Characterization of Kenyan Slender Leaf (Crotalaria
           brevidens and C. ochroleuca) Accessions

    • Abstract: Slender leaf (Crotalaria spp) is among the indigenous and underutilized vegetables in Kenya whose production is limited to the Western and Coastal regions of the country. For a long time, this crop has been neglected in terms of research and genetic improvement. There is therefore scanty information on its morphological diversity and agronomic performance, hence the need for this study. Field experiments were carried out for two seasons in October to December 2018 and March to May 2019. The experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 29 accessions and replicated three times. Both qualitative and quantitative data were recorded from the accessions based on the Crotalaria descriptors. Quantitative data were subjected to analysis of variance using XLSTAT Version 2019, and accession means were separated using Student’s Newman Keuls test at 95% level of confidence. Both qualitative and quantitative data were subjected to multivariate cluster analysis, and a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average. The principal component analysis was conducted to obtain information on the importance of the characters. Significant variation in agro-morphological traits was found within and between the two species. Cluster analysis grouped the accessions into seven major classes with a between-classes diversity of 75.13% and a within-classes diversity of 24.87%. This study sets the basis for genetic improvement of slender leaf in Kenya since the observed diversity can be exploited in selection for intraspecific and interspecific hybridization.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 08:50:05 +000
  • Tuber Yield and Yield Component Performance of Cassava (Manihot esculenta)
           Varieties in Fafen District, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Since there is a variety of performance in cassava varieties for different agroecologies and there was no cassava production before in Ethiopian Somali regional state, Fafen district in particular. Investigation of the performance of higher tuber yielded cassava variety is the main concern for this study. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate tuber yield performance of cassava varieties. To do so, four varieties (kello, Qulle, Hawassa-4, and Chichu) were collected from Hawassa Agricultural Research Center and planted in Fafen district where there is arid climatic condition. Thirty-centimeter-long stakes were planted with 1 m × 1 m intra- and inter-row spacing with Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). There were four rows, five plants per row and twenty plants per plot. Phenological, growth, and agronomic parameters were analyzed using SAS software; mean differences were compared using LSD at . The result revealed that days to 50% establishment of the stem cuttings of variety “Qulle” were performed within 15.6 days. Among all varieties, Chichu and Hawassa-4 had the highest number of plant stand count, 88.3 and 86.7%, respectively. The highest number of mean multiplication ratio, secondary branches per plant, and mean plant height were obtained with variety “Qulle.” With regards to tuber yield and its components, there was significant difference among understudied cassava varieties. The highest tuber yield (23.93 t/ha) was registered in variety “Hawassa-4” followed by Kello (19.90 t/ha) and Qulle (18.73 t/ha). It implies that variety “Hawassa-4” performed best in the test area and hence recommended in test area.
      PubDate: Mon, 13 Apr 2020 15:20:03 +000
  • Grain and Flour Wheat Quality Modified by Genotype, Availability of
           Nitrogen, and Growing Season

    • Abstract: The objective of the present study was to determine physical and chemical parameters that determine grain and flour quality of wheat grown in Mexico’s highlands (Toluca, Estado de Mexico) as a response of nitrogen fertilization and growing season. Experiments were carried out in winter-spring 2010 (irrigation) and summer-autumn 2011 (rainfed) season cycles. Nine wheat cultivars were tested under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (N00, N100, N200, and N300 kg N·ha−1) with a population density of 336 seeds m−2. For each growing season and N rate, three replications were performed for each experiment under a randomized complete block design. Best quality indexes were obtained in the winter-spring cycle as a result of genetic variability. Nitrogen availability modified significantly some quality parameters (grain and flour protein, test weight, and hardness) obtaining the highest values at a rate of 100 kg N·ha−1. On the other hand, volume of sedimentation showed positive effects only at a rate of 300 kg N·ha−1. This rate showed positive effects on grain and flour protein, sedimentation volume, and hardness during the summer-autumn cycle. Eneida F94, Tollocan F2005, and Urbina S2007 cultivars presented the highest grain and flour protein content of tested varieties. Finally, Eneida F94 and Tollocan F2005 presented the highest test weight and flour percentage.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Apr 2020 11:05:03 +000
  • Growth, Nodulation, and Yield Responses of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
           as Influenced by Combined Application of Rhizobium Inoculant and
           Phosphorus in the Guinea Savanna Zone of Ghana

    • Abstract: Groundnut yields obtained by farmers in northern Ghana are generally low due to low soil fertility resulting from continuous cropping coupled with low use of external inputs. There is therefore the need to use systems’ internal resources such as biological nitrogen fixation efficiently to enhance crop production. This on-station experiment investigated nodulation and pod yield responses of three groundnut varieties, namely Obolo, Oboshie and Samnut 22 to inoculation with rhizobium inoculants of exotic strains, namely Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense (BR 3267) and USDA 3456 in combination with 0 kg P ha−1, 15 kg P ha−1 and 30 kg P ha−1. Combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and BR 3267 increased the nodule numbers in Obolo, Oboshie and Samnut 22 by 144%, 188% and 56%, respectively compared to their uninoculated counterparts. Inoculation with BR 3267 produced the highest pod yield in all the three varieties with yields increasing from 13 to 40% over that of the uninoculated treatments, with BR 3267-inoculated Samnut 22 giving the highest yield of 2013 kg ha−1. P fertilizer and rhizobium inoculant also had a significant interactive influence on the pod yield of groundnut. Combined application of 30 kg P ha−1 and rhizobium inoculation increased the groundnut yield by 64 to 68%. The study observed a positive interaction between the rhizobium strains and P fertilizer.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 10:20:11 +000
  • Effect of Land Use on Organic Carbon Storage Potential of Soils with
           Contrasting Native Organic Matter Content

    • Abstract: This study aimed to determine the impact of land use on organic carbon (OC) pools of soils with contrasting native organic matter (OM) content. Surface (0–15 cm) soils of four land uses (cropland, orchard, grassland, and fallow) were collected from four agroecological zones (AEZs) of Bangladesh with different OM content (AEZ-7: very low, −3: low, −9: medium, and −5: high). Bulk soils were physically fractionated into particulate and mineral associated OM (POM and MOM:>53 and
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Mar 2020 09:05:04 +000
  • Performance Evaluation of Sesame under Regulated Deficit Irrigation
           Application in the Low Land of Western Gondar, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is the leading oil seed crop produced in Ethiopia. It is the second most important agricultural commodity for export market in the country. It is well suited as an alternative crop production system, and it has low crop water requirement with moderate resistance to soil moisture deficit. The low land of North Western Ethiopia is the major sesame producer in the country, and the entire production is from rainfed. The rainfall distribution in North Western Ethiopia is significantly varied. This significant rainfall variability hampers the productivity of sesame. Irrigation agriculture has the potential to stabilize crop production and mitigate the negative impacts of variable rainfall. This study was proposed to identify critical growth stages during which sesame is most vulnerable to soil moisture deficit and to evaluate the crop water productivity of sesame under deficit irrigation. The performance of sesame to stage-wise and uniform deficit irrigation scheduling technique was tested at Gondar Agricultural Research Center (Metema Station), Northern Western Ethiopia. Eight treatments, four stage-wise deficit, two uniform deficit, one above optimal, and one optimal irrigation applications, were evaluated during the 2017 irrigation season. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant phenological variables, grain yield and crop water productivity, were used for performance evaluation. The result showed that deficit irrigation can be applied both throughout and at selected growth stages except the midseason stage. Imposing deficit during the midseason gave the lowest yield indicating the severe effect of water deficit during flowering and capsule initiation stages. When deficit irrigation is induced throughout, a 25% uniform deficit irrigation can give the highest crop water productivity with no or little yield reduction as compared with optimal irrigation. Implementing deficit irrigation scheduling technique will be beneficial for sesame production. Imposing 75% deficit at the initial, development, late season growth stages or 25% deficit irrigation throughout whole seasons will improve sesame crop water productivity.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Mar 2020 07:20:07 +000
  • Identification of Fungal Pathogens of Mango and Soursop Fruits Using
           Morphological and Molecular Tools and Their Control Using Papaya and
           Soursop Leaf and Seed Extracts

    • Abstract: Fruit and vegetable products are susceptible to the attack of fungi during postharvest handling. Chemical fungicides are the most commonly used technique to control fungal diseases. However, an alternative product is the use of plant extracts, which have been reported in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The objective of this investigation was to identify one of the main pathogens of mango and soursop fruits using morphological and molecular tools as well as to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of papaya and soursop leaf and seed extracts. Two pathogens were isolated and identified by their morphological and molecular characteristics from mango and soursop fruits. We obtained extracts from leaves and seeds of soursop and papaya using five solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, acetone, ethanol, methanol, and water) through the ultrasound-assisted extraction technique at a frequency of 35 kHz and 160 W for 14 min. In vitro evaluations of the extracts were performed using the Kirby–Bauer technique. The extracts with the highest percentage of inhibition were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using standardized techniques of colorimetry and spectrophotometry. Furthermore, we determined the content of total phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthraquinones, coumarins, and saponins. As a result, we identified the pathogens as Colletotrichum fructicola and Nectria haematococca. Aqueous extracts (water as a solvent) showed a higher percentage of inhibition of both pathogens compared with the other extracts. Furthermore, the aqueous extract of papaya leaf was the most effective among all extracts. The aqueous papaya leaf extract exhibited a percentage of inhibition of 49.86% for C. fructicola and 47.89% for N. haematococca. The aqueous extracts of papaya leaf and seed (AqEPL and AqEPS) presented the greatest amount of metabolites (except anthraquinones and coumarins). The aqueous soursop leaf extract (AqESL) presented the greatest amount of phenols, tannins, and flavonoids (219.14 ± 8.52 mg GAE/L, 159.84 ± 10 mg GAE/g dm and 0.13 ± 1.12 × 10−4, respectively). The aqueous soursop seed extract (AqESS) had the highest saponin content with 1.2 ± 0.1 mg QSES/g dm and the papaya leaf accusative extract (AqEPL) had the highest alkaloid content (6.413 ± 1 × 10−3 mg AE/g dm) compared with the other extracts. The AqESS had a lower content of secondary metabolites (sterols, alkaloids, and saponins), while AqESL showed no presence of alkaloids and coumarins.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 04:05:03 +000
  • The Effect of Spent Mushroom Substrate and Cow Slurry on Sugar Content and
           Digestibility of Alfalfa Grass Mixtures

    • Abstract: The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effect of different doses of spent mushroom substrate and cow slurry on sugar content and digestibility of hybrid alfalfa and grass mixtures. The main factors were different doses of organic material: mushroom substrate and slurry, and the following legume grass mixtures: M1-orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and hybrid alfalfa (Medicago x varia T. Martyn); M2-orchard grass, hybrid alfalfa; M3-perennial ryegrass, hybrid alfalfa. In each growing season, the mixtures were harvested three times during three years of their full use. Sugar content and dry matter digestibility were determined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using the NIRFlex N-500 spectrometer. Of all fertilizer treatments, the application of mushroom substrate at a dose of 20 t·ha−1 in combination with 40 m3 of slurry resulted in the best forage quality with its highest digestibility. In the mixture of perennial ryegrass and hybrid alfalfa increasing doses of mushroom substrate with decreasing doses of slurry lowered soluble sugar content and digestibility.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Mar 2020 05:35:02 +000
  • Corn Response Across Plant Densities and Row Configurations for Different
           Moisture Environments

    • Abstract: Corn (Zea mays L.) production in the Southeast can be negatively impacted by erratic summer rainfall and drought-prone, coarse-textured soils, but irrigation combined with conservation tillage and cover crops may support greater plant densities arranged in different row configurations to improve yield. We examined five site-years of data across two soil types in Alabama to compare corn yields in a conservation system across three plant densities for single- and twin-row configurations in dryland and irrigated moisture regimes. Treatments were arranged with a split plot treatment restriction in a RCB design with three replications. Main plots were irrigation level (no irrigation and irrigation), and subplots were a factorial arrangement of three plant densities (5.9, 7.4, and 8.9 plants m−2) and row configurations (single and twin). A moisture environment (low and moderate) variable, defined by growing season rainfall, was used to average over site-years. In general, irrigation in the moderate-moisture environment improved each measured variable (plant height, stover yield, corn yield, and test weight) and decreased grain N concentration and aflatoxin levels compared to the low-moisture environment with no irrigation. Benefits of increased rainfall and irrigation to reduce soil moisture stress across drought-prone soils were evident. Pooled results across all site-years indicated no yield response as plant density increased, but greater yields were observed with the greatest plant densities in the moderate-moisture environments. No advantage for twin-row corn production was observed across five site-years in Alabama, which indicates either row configuration can be successfully adopted.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Mar 2020 06:05:02 +000
  • Weed Control in Dicamba-Resistant Soybean with Glyphosate/Dicamba Applied
           at Various Doses and Timings

    • Abstract: Seven field trials were completed over a three-year period (2016 to 2018) in southwestern Ontario, Canada, to assess weed control in conventional-till dicamba-resistant (DR) soybean with glyphosate/dicamba (2 : 1 ratio) applied postemergence (POST) at 3 doses (900, 1350, and 1800 g·ae·ha−1) and 3 application timings (up to 5, 15, and 25 cm weeds). There was minimal soybean injury (≤2%) from treatments evaluated. Glyphosate/dicamba applied at application timing of up to 5, 15, and 25 cm weeds, controlled Amaranthus spp. (pigweed spp.) 87–96, 94–99, and 99%; Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed) 93–99, 97–99, and 99–100%; Chenopodium album (lambsquarters) 89–99, 95–100, and 99–100%; Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass) 81–84, 94–96, and 96–97%; Setaria faberi (giant foxtail) 37–90, 77–98, and 99–100%; and Setaria viridis (green foxtail) 94–96, 99, and 99–100%, respectively. Additionally, glyphosate/dicamba applied POST at 900, 1350, and 1800 g·ae·ha−1 controlled Amaranthus spp. 90–97, 95–98, and 97–99%; A. artemisiifolia 95–98, 97–99, and 99–100%; C. album 92–99, 95–100, and 98–100%; E. crus-galli 84–88, 93-94, and 95-96%; S. faberi 74–95, 75–97, and 79–98%; and S. viridis 98, 98–99, and 98–100%, respectively. Weed interference reduced DR soybean yield as much as 51% compared to the highest yielding treatments. Results indicate that glyphosate/dicamba applied POST at the label doses can provide an adequate control of troublesome weeds in DR soybean. Weed control was generally most consistent when glyphosate/dicamba was applied at the highest registered dose in Ontario (1800 g·ae·ha−1) and when weeds were up to 25 cm tall.
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Feb 2020 15:50:04 +000
  • Effect of Integrated Technologies on Production and Productivity of Pearl
           Millet in the Dryland Areas of Wag Himira Administrative Zone, Eastern
           Amhara, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Production of pearl millet with yield improvement would have a direct impact on the drought-prone areas of Ethiopia since pearl millet is drought tolerant and early maturing with high water use efficiency. An experiment was conducted to study the performance of pearl millet under different technologies in 2013 and 2014 main cropping seasons at the main site of the research center, Aybra, with the objective of evaluating and identifying appropriate combinations of technologies that enhance the production of pearl millet in the study area. About fourteen integrated technologies were applied in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis was done by using SAS software version 9.1, and means were separated through the Duncan multiple range test. Results of analysis of variance showed that yield-related traits of pearl millet were significantly influenced by the integration of technologies in the 2013 cropping season. According to the results, the maximum yield (3084 kg ha−1) was recorded with the application of the treatment combination of recommended fertilizer application + seed primming + tie ridging, while the minimum was recorded (919 kg ha−1) in the treatment combination of microdose application of fertilizer + primed seed + intercropping of pearl millet with mung bean. In the case of the 2014 cropping season, the highest grain yield (3687 kg ha−1) was recorded with the treatment combination of microdose fertilizer application + primed seed + tie ridging + intercropping of pearl millet with mung bean, whereas the lowest grain yield (2115 kg ha−1) was recorded in the treatment combination of no fertilizer application + primed seed + flat bed. Based on the results of the current investigation, it could be recommended that using technology integration of microdose, tied ridge, primed seed, and intercropping of pearl millet with mung bean is better to attain maximum yield in the study area and similar agroecologies.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Jan 2020 02:05:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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