Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Advances in Nonlinear Optics
Number of Followers: 7  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-7276 - ISSN (Online) 1687-7284
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Analysis of the Noise Reduction Characteristics of a Diffuser with Fizeau

    • Abstract: To solve the coherent noise problem of an interference image, the method of a rotating diffuser was adopted to change the coherence of a beam to reduce the noise of the interference system. The relationship between the speed of the diffuser and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the fringe contrast system was simulated to obtain the diffuser control parameters needed for the best interference fringe state. The fringe contrast of each image and the SNR of the system were analyzed. The results showed that the increased speed of the diffuser reduced the contrast of the interference image to a certain extent, but the increased speed also effectively improved the SNR and facilitated the subsequent interference image processing. Due to the coherent noise in the interferometric system, the method of the rotated diffuser reduced the coherence of the light beam to suppress the noise of the interference image. By analyzing the coherent noise reduction characteristics of the rotated diffuser with different surface roughnesses, the relationship between the surface roughness and the noise contrast for different rotation speeds was simulated, and the effective roughness range with the noise reduction effect was selected. A noise reduction system was built based on Fizeau interference, and the noise contrast of the interference image was collected and calculated. The effective range of σh/λ was 0.2–0.5 when the rotation speed was 10 r/s, while the effective range of σh/λ was 0.4–0.6 when the rotation speed was 100 r/s. The experimental results showed that the surface roughness and wavelength ratio σh/λ of the rotated diffuser increased when the noise contrast tended toward 1, but the effective range of the surface roughness decreased with the increase of the rotational speed of the diffuser.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Feb 2021 10:50:00 +000
  • Design and Numerical Analysis of a Novel Rectangular PCF (R-PCF)-Based
           Biochemical Sensor (BCS) in the THz Regime

    • Abstract: A novel PCF-based sensor has been presented in this paper to sense different chemicals and biocomponents. The proposed biochemical sensor (BCS) comprises a simple arrangement of rectangular holes. The competence of this BCS in detecting analytes is evaluated employing the full-vector finite element method (FEM). Performance metrics prove the competence of this BCS in sensing various analytes that have a refractive index in the range of 1.33–1.48. The proposed BCS shows ultralower values for both the bulk absorption and confinement loss. This BCS attains a maximum of about 95.82% relative sensitivity at 2.5 THz. Also, the dispersion for this sensor is only 0.12 ± 0.011 ps/THz/cm at the same point of interest. These results prove that the proposed BCS will play a key role in sensing toxic chemicals, illegal drugs, biocomponents, etc. Besides, the simple rectangle-based PCF structure ensures the feasibility of fabrication by practicing the existing fabrication strategies.
      PubDate: Fri, 19 Feb 2021 10:05:01 +000
  • Design and Management of Stray Light for Compact Final Optics Assembly on
           the High Energy Laser System

    • Abstract: In this study, a model is proposed to design and manage the stray light of a compact final optics assembly (FOA) for a high energy laser system. Based on the method we proposed, the high-order stray light can be managed to optimizing the position and angle of the optical elements. A light trap is designed to manage the first-order stray light with high fluence. Applying the method, we provide an experimental demonstration to designing a compact FOA. By comparing the cleaning results with no management testing result, it proves that using the above design and management, it can achieve the great improvement of cleanliness from ISO Class 5 to Class 3, which is significant to improve the output capability of the high energy laser system. In addition, we also verify the stray light by an optical field paper. It demonstrates that the field characteristics and position calculation of stray light are reliable.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2021 08:50:00 +000
  • Intensity Distribution of Partially Coherent Array Finite Airy Beams
           Propagating in Atmospheric Turbulence

    • Abstract: Based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel integral and the Rytov phase structure function, the closed-form expression of a partially coherent array finite Airy beams (PCAFABs) cutting through the Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence is derived in the space domain under the paraxial approximation. The characteristics of the PCAFABs evoluting in the atmospheric environment are investigated in detail on the basis of the derived wave propagation formulae. We mainly illustrate the intensity profile of this beam changed with the truncation parameter, coherence length, and turbulence factor at several cross sections of the atmospheric space by means of numerical figures. It is convinced that the present concept and derived conclusions will provide useful exploration for learning the optical properties of the PCAFABs transmitting in the atmospheric turbulence, especially for free-space optical communication area.
      PubDate: Mon, 08 Feb 2021 11:50:00 +000
  • Spectral Efficient Asymmetrically Clipped Hybrid FBMC for Visible Light

    • Abstract: Filter bank multicarrier (FBMC) modulation has shown sufficient potential for wireless communication. A hybrid optical FBMC technique is proposed to improve the spectral efficiency of a visible light communication (VLC) system. In this technique, a hybrid asymmetrically clipped optical offset quadrature amplitude modulation FBMC (HACO-OQAM-FBMC) modulation technique is used. Asymmetrically clipped optical FBMC (ACO-FBMC) is used for odd subcarriers, and pulse amplitude modulation-discrete multitone (PAM-DMT) is used for the even subcarriers. The proposed hybrid scheme uses an intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) channel. It is shown that there is no interference on odd subcarriers using the proposed method and receiver demodulation is similar to that of ACO-FBMC receiver. However, clipping noise of ACO-FBMC falls on PAM-DMT subcarriers, which can be cancelled at receiver processing after estimation. The analytical performance of the proposed technique is compared using parameters, namely, bit error rate (BER), spectral efficiency, computational complexity, and peak to average power ratio (PAPR). It is found that HACO-OQAM-FBMC is more spectral efficient than ACO-FBMC and other OFDM-based techniques.
      PubDate: Sat, 23 Jan 2021 13:20:00 +000
  • An All-Solid Dispersion-Compensating Photonic Crystal Fiber Based on Mode
           Coupling Mechanism in Dual-Concentric Core

    • Abstract: An all-solid dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber based on mode coupling mechanism in dual-concentric core has been proposed. The mode coupling characteristics, dispersion, confinement loss of the fiber, and the influence on dispersion of some structure parameters are simulated by full-vector finite element method. By using the relationship between phase matching wavelengths and coupling strength with the change of fiber microstructure parameters, an all-solid dual-concentric-core dispersion-compensating photonic crystal fiber is presented. The structure parameters on dispersion characteristic are investigated. The results demonstrate that the proposed fiber has a large negative dispersion value 8465 ps/(nm·km) at 1550 nm. The effective mode area and the splicing loss to the standard single mode fiber are 12.8 μm2 and 1.89 dB at 1550 nm, respectively. At 1550 nm, the confinement loss is less than 1 × 10−3 dB/km and the bending loss with 2 cm bending diameter is less than 1 × 10−2 dB/km.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Dec 2020 16:05:01 +000
  • Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Simultaneous Temperature and Strain
           Monitoring Based on Brillouin Scattering Effect in Polyimide-Coated Fibers

    • Abstract: A unique multiparameter sensor for distributed measurement of temperature and strain based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering in polyimide-coated optical fiber is proposed, which is an excellent candidate for the cross-sensitivity problem in conventional Brillouin sensing network. In the experimental section, the discrimination of strain and temperature is successfully demonstrated by analysing the unequal sensing coefficients of the Brillouin frequency shifts generated by different acoustic modes. The Brillouin frequency shifts of the main two peaks are successfully measured to discriminate the strain and temperature with an accuracy 19.68 με and 1.02°C in 2.5 km sensing range. The proposed distributed Brillouin optical fiber sensor allows simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain, thus opening a door for practical application such as oil explorations.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Nov 2020 18:50:00 +000
  • The BER of the New FSO Receiver Manufactured by RTCVD and Solar Cell

    • Abstract: In the free-space optical (FSO) communication system, alignment and coupling are key issues. In this work, we adopt a PIN photodiode board as the new receiver to address this question. Firstly, with rapid thermochemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) and solar cell technology, the PIN photodiode board is manufactured. Then, using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the microphotographs of the PIN photodiode are taken. After that, the PIN board is arranged as a new receiver in the FSO system to do a bit error rate (BER) experiment. In total, we have carried out 4 groups of experiments. The BERs of the ordinary receiver are as follows: (10−8.5, 10−8, 10−8, and 10−7.9) and that of the new receiver is (10−9.2, 10−9.1, 10−9.1, and 10−9), respectively. It means the BER of the new receiver is lower. In other words, the new receiver performs better.
      PubDate: Sat, 07 Nov 2020 14:50:01 +000
  • High-Visibility Pseudothermal Light Source Based on a Cr4+ : YAG
           Passively Q-Switched Single-Longitudinal-Mode Laser

    • Abstract: High-visibility pseudothermal light source is required by the long-distance ghost imaging technology. In this article, the pulsed pseudothermal light based on a compact and Q-switched laser system with high peak power and intensity is reported. The passively Q-switched technique advances the performance of the pseudothermal light, where the second-order quantum correlation function value increased from 1.452 to 1.963.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Nov 2020 12:20:01 +000
  • High-Accuracy and Real-Time Indoor Positioning System Based on Visible
           Light Communication and Mobile Robot

    • Abstract: For mobile robots and location-based services, precise and real-time positioning is one of the most basic capability, and low-cost positioning solutions are increasingly in demand and have broad market potential. In this paper, we innovatively design a high-accuracy and real-time indoor localization system based on visible light positioning (VLP) and mobile robot. First of all, we design smart LED lamps with VLC and Bluetooth control functions for positioning. The design of LED lamps includes hardware design and Bluetooth control. Furthermore, founded on the loose coupling characteristics of ROS (Robot Operator System), we design a VLP-based robot system with VLP information transmitted by designed LED, dynamic tracking algorithm of high robustness, LED-ID recognition algorithm, and triple-light positioning algorithm. We implemented the VLP-based robot positioning system on ROS in an office equipped with the designed LED lamps, which can realize cm-level positioning accuracy of 3.231 cm and support the moving speed up to 20 km/h approximately. This paper pushes forward the development of VLP application in indoor robots, showing the great potential of VLP for indoor robot positioning.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Nov 2020 05:05:00 +000
  • Multispectral Polarization State Analyzer of Scanning Polarimeter ScanPol

    • Abstract: We present the results of the development of a representational model of the multispectral polarization state analyzer of the ScanPol scanning polarimeter for the space experiment Aerosol-UA. The aim of the Ukrainian space mission Aerosol-UA is to create a database based on continuous satellite measurements of the optical characteristics of aerosol and cloud particles in the Earth’s atmosphere over a long period of time. The ScanPol polarimeter is designed to acquire spatial, temporal, and spectral-polarimetric measurements simultaneously to minimize instrumental “parasitic” effects and effects of “false” polarizations due to scene movement. Simultaneity is provided by separation of the initial spatial field by a pair of conjugated telescopes and a pair of Wollaston prisms. ScanPol provides to measure the first three Stokes parameters I, Q, and U of the radiation reflected by atmospheric aerosols and the Earth’s surface for a six solar reflectance spectral bands in the near ultraviolet (NUV), visible (VIS), and near-infrared (NIR) spectral channels centered in the wavelengths 370 nm, 410 nm, 555 nm, 865 nm, 1378 nm, and 1620 nm. Stokes parameters I, Q, and U are used to determine a degree of linear polarization of radiation that will allow obtaining the phase function and polarization characteristics of aerosol particle scattering, estimate their size, and determine the aerosol type and optical thickness. The polarimeter optical layout is considered, and the spectral characteristics of the transmission of optical channels are given. Obtained signal-to-noise ratio exceeded 500 for wavelengths 370 nm and 410 nm and exceeded 1000 for other wavelengths. The design of the chosen photodetectors is based on surface mount type photodiodes: Si-photodiodes Hamamatsu S10356-01 for the optical range of 370–860 nm and InGaAs-photodiodes Hamamatsu G8941-011620 for wavelengths 1378 nm and 1620 nm. The effect of orientation of Wollaston prisms axes on polarization measurement error is considered. The errors of azimuth mount of Wollaston prisms ≤2 arcmin in ScanPol leads to error of degree of linear polarization ≤0.0012.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2020 11:50:00 +000
  • Effect of LED Lighting Illuminance and Correlated Color Temperature on
           Working Memory

    • Abstract: This study was conducted to verify how the illuminance and correlated color temperature of LED lighting affect working memory. For this study, an automatic LED lighting device based on a light sensor was developed and used, and the lighting conditions were treated with a total of six conditions (2 × 3): two illuminance conditions (dim: 400 lx, bright: 1,000 lx) and three correlated color temperature conditions (3,000 K, 5,000 K, and 7,000 K). There were 30 participants in the study, and the average age was 21.6 years (Standard deviation = 1.92). Participants were assigned to all six lighting conditions, and the placement order was randomized. For the measurement of working memory, 3-back task was used and the correct responses for 5 minutes were used as a dependent variable. As a result of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), both illuminance and correlated color temperature were found to be significant variables affecting working memory, and no interaction effect between illuminance and correlated color temperature was found. As a result of the post hoc verification conducted thereafter, the working memory performance in the bright light condition (1,000 lx) was 48.32 (Standard deviation = 15.63) on average, compared to 44.80 (Standard deviation = 15.29) in the relatively dim condition (400 lx). It was found that the condition of bright light was superior in performing working memory compared to relatively dim condition. The working memory performance in the correlated color temperature condition (5,000 K) was 48.32 (Standard deviation = 16.41) on average and higher than that of other color temperature conditions. As a result, working memory performance was the best in 1,000 lx, 5,000 K condition Mean = 53.43 (Standard deviation = 18.38), and 400 lx, 7,000 K condition Mean = 42.73 (Standard deviation = 17.68) showed the worst performance of working memory.
      PubDate: Fri, 23 Oct 2020 09:05:02 +000
  • An Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Hyperchaotic System and
           Variable-Step Josephus Problem

    • Abstract: In this paper, an image encryption algorithm based on a hyperchaotic system and variable-step Josephus problem is proposed. Based on an in-depth analysis of the classic Josephus problem, a new variable-step Josephus problem that combines the pseudorandom sequence with the Josephus problem is proposed. Firstly, the hash value of the plaintext image is calculated, which is converted to the initial value of the chaotic system. Secondly, the chaotic system is iterated to generate four pseudorandom sequences X, Y, Z, and W. The sequences X, Y, and Z are input as parameters into the variable-step Josephus function to scramble the positions of the rows, pixel bits, and columns of the image, respectively. Finally, the elements of the sequence W and the image pixels are used to perform the addition operation. According to the experiments, the information entropy of the encrypted image with size 256256 reaches 7.997 and the adjacent correlations in three directions are within ±0.01. The experimental results show that image encryption algorithm proposed in this paper has plaintext sensitivity and can resist the common attacks.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Oct 2020 13:50:01 +000
  • Image Super-Resolution Using Lightweight Multiscale Residual Dense Network

    • Abstract: The current super-resolution methods cannot fully exploit the global and local information of the original low-resolution image, resulting in loss of some information. In order to solve the problem, we propose a multiscale residual dense network (MRDN) for image super-resolution. This network is constructed based on the residual dense network. It can integrate the multiscale information of the image and avoid losing too much information in the deep level of the network, while extracting more information under different receptive fields. In addition, in order to reduce the redundancy of the network parameters of MRDN, we further develop a lightweight parameter method and deploy it at different scales. This method can not only reduce the redundancy of network parameters but also enhance the nonlinear mapping ability of the network at different scales. Thus, it can better learn and fit the feature information of the original image and recover the satisfactory super-resolution image. Extensive experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
      PubDate: Tue, 13 Oct 2020 11:50:00 +000
  • Adaptive Fringe Projection for 3D Shape Measurement with Large
           Reflectivity Variations by Using Image Fusion and Predicted Search

    • Abstract: There is always a great challenge for the structured light technique that it is difficult to deal with the surface with large reflectivity variations or specular reflection. This paper proposes a flexible and adaptive digital fringe projection method based on image fusion and interpolated prediction search algorithm. The multiple mask images are fused to obtain the required saturation threshold, and the interpolated prediction search algorithm is used to calculate the optimal projection gray-level intensity. Then, the projection intensity is reduced to achieve coordinate matching in the unsaturated condition, and the adaptive digital fringes with the optimal projection intensity are subsequently projected for phase calculation by using the heterodyne multifrequency phase-shifted method. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective for measuring the high-reflective surface and unwrapping the phase in the local overexposure region completely. Compared with the traditional structured light measurement methods, our method can decrease the number of projected and captured images with higher modulation and better contrast. In addition, the measurement process only needs two prior steps and avoids hardware complexity, which is more convenient to apply to the industry.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Sep 2020 15:35:04 +000
  • A Bright Entanglement and Squeezing Generated by an External Pumping
           Radiation in a Correlated Emission Laser

    • Abstract: The quantum and statistical properties of light generated by an external classical field in a correlated emission laser with a parametric amplifier and coupled to a squeezed vacuum reservoir are investigated using the combination of the master and stochastic differential equations. First, the solutions of the cavity-mode variables and correlation properties of noise forces associated to the normal ordering are obtained. Next, applying the resulting solutions, the mean photon number of the separate cavity modes and their crosscorrelation, smallest eigenvalue of the symplectic matrix, mean photon number, intensity difference fluctuation, photon number variance, and intensity correlation are derived for the cavity-mode radiation. The entanglement produced is studied employing the logarithmic negativity criterion. It is found that pumping atoms from the lower energy state to excited state, introducing the nonlinear crystal into the cavity and coupling the system to a biased noise fluctuation, generate a bright and strong squeezing and entanglement with enhanced statistical properties although the atoms are initially in the ground state.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 Sep 2020 12:35:02 +000
  • High-Sensitivity Biosensor-Based Enhanced SPR by ZnO/MoS2 Nanowires Array
           Layer with Graphene Oxide Nanosheet

    • Abstract: A novel SPR biosensor that can achieve a high sensitivity is proposed; therefore, a new prism coupling structure based on metal nanowires array layer is designed in this paper. The thickness of each medium layer for the structure is analyzed to obtain the optimal SPR spectrum, by the finite element method, so that the sensitivity is able to be enhanced greatly. The optimal thicknesses of each medium layer are given, and the sensitivity of the SPR biosensor can reach as high as 210.75°/RIU for the refractive index of the sensing medium, from 1.30 to 1.38.
      PubDate: Tue, 01 Sep 2020 02:20:06 +000
  • Low-Glare Freeform-Surfaced Street Light Luminaire Optimization to Meet
           Enhanced Road Lighting Standards

    • Abstract: To enhance driving safety at night, a new freeform-surface street light luminaire was proposed and evaluated in this study that meets the requirements of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) M3 class standard for road lighting. The luminaire was designed using simulations to optimize the location of the bulb according to the requirements of the standard. The light source IES file was experimentally obtained for the optimized luminaire prototype with a 150 W ceramic metal halide lamp using an imaging goniophotometer. The trial road lighting simulation results computed by the lighting software DIALux indicated that the proposed luminaire provided an average road surface brightness of 1.1 cd/m2 (compared to a minimum requirement of 1.0 cd/m2), a brightness uniformity of 0.41 (compared to a minimum requirement of 0.4), a longitudinal brightness uniformity of 0.64 (compared to a minimum requirement of 0.6), and a glare factor of 7.6% (compared to a maximum limit of 15%). The findings of the image goniophotometer tests were then confirmed by the results of a certified mirror goniophotometer test conducted by the Taiwan Accreditation Foundation (TAF). The results of this study can be used to provide improved street lighting designs to meet enhanced international standards.
      PubDate: Fri, 28 Aug 2020 10:50:16 +000
  • Image Encryption Based on High-Dimensional Manifold Computing and Block
           Dividing Algorithm

    • Abstract: The image encryption schemes developing more sensitive and more chaotic maps are used as a key sequence generator, such as cascade chaotic maps and high-dimension maps. High-dimension chaotic maps can generate sequences with little correlation after hundred times of iteration. In fact, the sequence is just a flow of the manifold of the chaotic system. A fast way to select sensitive flows of the dynamic systems is introduced in the paper. Combining with the divided blocks diffusion algorithm, the novel scheme yields the cipher image more randomly. Experimental results show that the sensitive flows of the high-dimension system can generate a series with better ergodicity and less correlation compared with the common flows of the same system. The encryption efficiency is enhanced by choosing the sensitive flows of the high-dimension system. The analysis proved that the novel image encryption scheme can resist all common kinds of attacks.
      PubDate: Tue, 11 Aug 2020 04:35:01 +000
  • Simplified Geometric Approach to Freeform Beam Shaper Design

    • Abstract: Beam of light shaping process can be considered ultimate, if both irradiance and wavefront spatial distributions are under control and both can be shaped arbitrarily. In order to keep these two quantities determined simultaneously, it is required to apply at least two powered refractive or reflective surfaces. In this paper, a fully geometric design method of double-freeform beam shapers is discussed briefly. The presented algorithm is based on two stages. First, integrable input-output ray mapping is calculated by the application of the novel GATMA (Geometric Approach to Monge–Ampere equation) method. It allows us to determine the shape of the first freeform surface. Then, according to the condition of constant optical path length between input and output plane, corrected by wavefront phases at those planes, the second surface is determined. GATMA algorithm combines advantages of Monge–Ampere (MA) equation and ray-tracing efficient apparatus. Compared to the state-of-the-art freeform design methods, GATMA does not need to solve MA equation directly but uses this equation as an error function. Such approach makes the computation algorithm simpler and more robust and convergent. The application of the proposed method in a challenging design example of a beam shaper, transforming uniform collimated beam into a beam having a triangular cross section and flat wavefront, is presented as a case study.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 02:35:11 +000
  • Block Sparse Bayesian Learning over Local Dictionary for Robust SAR Target

    • Abstract: This paper applied block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target recognition. The traditional sparse representation-based classification (SRC) operates on the global dictionary collaborated by different classes. Afterwards, the similarities between the test sample and various classes are evaluated by the reconstruction errors. This paper reconstructs the test sample based on local dictionaries formed by individual classes. Considering the azimuthal sensitivity of SAR images, the linear coefficients on the local dictionary are sparse ones with block structure. Therefore, to solve the sparse coefficients, the BSBL is employed. The proposed method can better exploit the representation capability of each class, thus benefiting the recognition performance. Based on the experimental results on the moving and stationary target acquisition and recognition (MSTAR) dataset, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is confirmed.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 01:20:16 +000
  • Microchip Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 Lasers Pumped by VHG Wavelength-Stabilized
           Laser Diode

    • Abstract: We adopted a single-mode, single-wavelength volume holographic grating (VHG) wavelength-stabilized wavelength laser diode (LD) as a pumping LD for an end-pumped microchip Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 lasers we developed during CW and pulse operations. Higher optical-optical and slope efficiencies during CW operation have been obtained than when using a VHG LD experimentally. Output laser power is insensitive to the temperature of the LD when using a wavelength-stabilized LD and can remain stable and almost constant until the temperature of LD increases up to 40°C. The improved optical-optical conversion efficiency of 58% for the Nd:YVO4 laser has been obtained and calculated the output laser power during CW operation and compared it with the experimental results. We found that the output laser power of the Nd:YVO4 laser using the VHG wavelength-stabilized LD was more than twice as high as that using an LD without VHG. When the ambient temperature increases, the difference in output laser power should be large. In the future, a low-cost end-pumped microchip laser that does not require a temperature control should be developed.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Aug 2020 00:20:21 +000
  • Improved Error Reduction and Hybrid Input Output Algorithms for Phase
           Retrieval by including a Sparse Dictionary Learning-Based Inpainting

    • Abstract: The phase retrieval (PR), reconstructing an object from its Fourier magnitudes, is equivalent to a nonlinear inverse problem. In this paper, we proposed a two-step algorithm that traditional ER/HIO iteration plays as the coarse feature reconstruction, whereas the KSVD-based inpainting technique deals with the fine feature set accordingly. Since the KSVD allows the content of oversampled dictionary with sparse representation to adaptively fit a given set of object examples, as long as the ER/HIO algorithms provide decent object estimation at early stage, the pixels violating the object constraint can be restored with superior image quality. The numerical analyses demonstrated the effectiveness of ER + KSVD and HIO + KSVD through multiple independent initial Fourier phases. With its versatility and simplicity, the proposed method can be generalized to be implemented with more PR state-of-the-arts.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Jul 2020 12:20:02 +000
  • Vector Rayleigh Diffraction of High-Power Laser Diode Beam in Optical

    • Abstract: Laser diodes (LDs) are widely used in optical wireless communication (OWC) and optical networks, and proper theoretical models are needed to precisely describe the complicated beam field of LDs. A novel mathematical model is proposed to describe the vectorial field of nonparaxial LD beams. Laser beam propagation is studied using the vector Rayleigh diffraction integrals, and the stationary phase method is used to find the asymptotic expansion of diffraction integral. The far-field distribution of the LD beam in the plane parallel and perpendicular to the junction is considered in detail, and the computed intensity distributions of the theory are compared with the corresponding measurements. This model is precise for single transverse model beam of LDs and can be applied to describe the LD beams in OWC and optical networks.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 15:05:03 +000
  • Computational Ghost Imaging with Multiplexed Time-Varying Signals

    • Abstract: This study proposes two methods of optical watermarking based on multiplexed time-varying signals for computational ghost imaging using the Hadamard matrices. The proposed methods can realize image fusion and dual optical encryption. The time-varying signal is encoded into a specific Hadamard coefficient in advance and hidden in the light source of the transmitting end as a multiplicative factor or loaded at the receiving end as an additive factor. Theory and experiments confirm the feasibility of this scheme. Moreover, the scheme is highly scalable and has potential applications in multispectral single-pixel imaging.
      PubDate: Sat, 18 Jul 2020 11:05:02 +000
  • Phase Singularities to Polarization Singularities

    • Abstract: Polarization singularities are superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in orthogonal circular polarization basis. The intrinsic OAM of light beams arises due to the helical wavefronts of phase singularities. In phase singularities, circulating phase gradients and, in polarization singularities, circulating Stokes phase gradients are present. At the phase and polarization singularities, undefined quantities are the phase and Stokes phase, respectively. Conversion of circulating phase gradient into circulating Stokes phase gradient reveals the connection between phase (scalar) and polarization (vector) singularities. We demonstrate this by theoretically and experimentally generating polarization singularities using phase singularities. Furthermore, the relation between scalar fields and Stokes fields and the singularities in each of them is discussed. This paper is written as a tutorial-cum-review-type article keeping in mind the beginners and researchers in other areas, yet many of the concepts are given novel explanations by adopting different approaches from the available literature on this subject.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Jul 2020 16:05:02 +000
  • An Augmented Reality Head-Up Display System with a Wide-View Eyebox

    • Abstract: This study proposes to apply the combination of two 90-degree prisms and a holographic optical element to an image-dividing element, divide an image into three through the virtual image projection system, and accurately project the images to 160 cm behind the windshield. In order to distinguish the left image, middle image, and right image at the horizontal direction, the 90-degree prism is first utilized for horizontally deflecting the light, a holographic optical element is then used for presenting the vertical deflection of the image, and finally, the images are horizontally arranged as a real image on the diffuser. An image-dividing element is eventually integrated to the virtual image projection system. Then, the divided images are made as a virtual image which is projected to 160 cm behind the windshield to combine with the street scene. The horizontal angle of view of an eyebox is increased from 2.51° to 7.22°, and the size of the eyebox is 31.68 cm × 12.48 cm, allowing a wide-view laser-based head-up display with the large-angle beam-splitting function being successfully designed. It would not affect the field of view on the road, and this system could reduce the space and be arranged easily in a vehicle. Therefore, this proposed system is suitable for the aftermarket.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jun 2020 14:35:04 +000
  • Motion Deblurring in Image Color Enhancement by WGAN

    • Abstract: Motion deblurring and image enhancement are active research areas over the years. Although the CNN-based model has an advanced state of the art in motion deblurring and image enhancement, it fails to produce multitask results when challenged with the images of challenging illumination conditions. The key idea of this paper is to introduce a novel multitask learning algorithm for image motion deblurring and color enhancement, which enables us to enhance the color effect of an image while eliminating motion blur. To achieve this, we explore the synchronization of processing two tasks for the first time by using the framework of generative adversarial networks (GANs). We add L1 loss to the generator loss to simulate the model to match the target image at the pixel level. To make the generated image closer to the target image at the visual level, we also integrate perceptual style loss into generator loss. After a lot of experiments, we get an effective configuration scheme. The best model trained for about one week has achieved state-of-the-art performance in both deblurring and enhancement. Also, its image processing speed is approximately 1.75 times faster than the best competitor.
      PubDate: Wed, 24 Jun 2020 05:50:07 +000
  • An Analytical Study of the Diffraction of Light by a Circular Aperture
           Using Spherical Harmonics for

    • Abstract: Based on the importance of spherical harmonics and their applicability in many physical problems, this research aimed to study the diffraction pattern of light by a circular aperture starting from the first Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction equation and to expand the polar radius of a point on the surface of the circular aperture based on spherical harmonics. We depended on this theoretical framework in our paper. We calculated the optical intensity compounds for . We studied the intensity distributions in three special cases (along the optical axis, at the geometrical focal plane, and along the boundary of the geometrical shadow). We presented numerical comparative examples to illustrate the variation of the intensity versus a ratio ( is the ratio of the distance between the circular aperture and the observation plane to a radius of the circular aperture), and we used Maple program to represent these results. We noticed that the expansion we made using spherical harmonic analysis led to an increase in the number of fringes bright enough to be visible to the naked eye. We then concluded with a brief discussion of the results.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jun 2020 14:50:05 +000
  • A Novel Statistical Feature Analysis-Based Global and Local Method for
           Face Recognition

    • Abstract: Face recognition from an image/video has been a fast-growing area in research community, and a sizeable number of face recognition techniques based on texture analysis have been developed in the past few years. Further, these techniques work well on gray-scale and colored images, but very few techniques deal with binary and low-resolution images. As the binary image is becoming the preferred format for low face resolution analysis, there is a need for further studies to provide a complete solution for the image-based face recognition system with a higher accuracy rate. To overcome the limitation of the existing methods in extracting distinctive features in low-resolution images due to the contrast between the face and background, we propose a statistical feature analysis technique to fill the gaps. To achieve this, the proposed technique integrates the binary-level occurrence matrix (BLCM) and the fuzzy local binary pattern (FLBP) named FBLCM to extract global and local features of the face from binary and low-resolution images. The purpose of FBLCM is to distinctively improve performance of edge sharpness between black and white pixels in the binary image and to extract significant data relating to the features of the face pattern. Experimental results on Yale and FEI datasets validate the superiority of the proposed technique over the other top-performing feature analysis methods. The developed technique has achieved the accuracy of 94.54% when a random forest classifier is used, hence outperforming other techniques such as the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), bag of word (BOW), and fuzzy local binary pattern (FLBP), respectively.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Jun 2020 08:05:14 +000
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