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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 339 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Advances in Nonlinear Optics
Number of Followers: 6  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-7276 - ISSN (Online) 1687-7284
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Depth Analysis of Greyscale Integral Images Using Continuous Multiview
           Wavelet Transform

    • Abstract: The wavelet analysis of the integral images can be used in extraction of the depth of the photographed/synthesized 3D objects. The result of the analysis, however, depends on the colour/texture of the object and thus can be ambiguous. In this paper, we propose to normalize the image before processing in order to avoid such an ambiguity, and to extract the depth without regard to the colour/texture. The proposed technique is verified in multiple integral/plenoptic images and can be applied to multiview and light-field displays as well.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Impact of Temperature and Relative Humidity on PMD in Directly Buried
           Optical Fibre Cables in Semi-Arid and Tropical Highlands in Kenya

    • Abstract: The telecommunication industry has implemented fibre deployment guidelines that reliably safeguard cable health during installation in the field. While installed fibre cables remain buried in the field, temperature and moisture in the locality subject them to mechanical expansions and corrosion. Directly buried fibre cables experience accelerated degradation that results from exposure to harsh environments. This increases pulse spreading and overlaps, with a mean time duration, known as Differential Group Delay (DGD), on the signal, as it propagates along the cable. DGD is stochastic; thus, Mean DGD is determined and presented as Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). This work undertook a real life assessment of how fluctuations in temperature and relative humidity influence PMD in directly buried fibre optical links, in a case study that focused on the fibre cable network owned by Liquid Telecom Kenya. The network spans across two key climatic ecosystems, namely, rift valley highlands and northern lowlands. The analysis revealed that fibre cables experience higher PMD in semi-arid areas by a factor of 2.6, compared to highland areas.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Stimulated Brillouin Review: Invented 50 Years Ago and Applied Today

    • Abstract: Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is embedded today in a variety of optical systems, such as advanced high-power lasers, sensors, microwave signal processors, scientific instrumentation, and optomechanical systems. Reduction in SBS power requirements involves use of optical fibers, integrated optics, micro-optic devices, and now nano-optics, often in high Q cavities. It has taken fifty years from its earliest invention by conceptual discovery until today for SBS to become a practical and useful technology in a variety of applications. Some of these applications are explained and it is shown how they are tied to particular attributes of SBS: phase conjugation, frequency shifts, low noise, narrow linewidth, frequency combs, optical and microwave signal processing, etc.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Study on Quantitative Phase Imaging by Dual-Wavelength Digital Holography

    • Abstract: A dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with premagnification is proposed to obtain the object surface measurements over the large gradient. The quantitative phase images of specimens are captured in high precision by the processing of filtering and phase compensation. The phase images are acquired without phase unwrapping, which is necessary in traditional digital holographic microscopy; thereby the proposed system can greatly increase the speed of reconstruction. The results of numerical simulation and optical experiments demonstrated that the reconstructed speed increased by 37.9 times, and the relative error of measurement is 4% compared with the traditional holographic microscopy system. It means that the proposed system can directly acquire the higher quality quantitative phase distribution for specimens.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Structured Light RGB-D Camera System for Accurate Depth Measurement

    • Abstract: The ability to reliably measure the depth of the object surface is very important in a range of high-value industries. With the development of 3D vision techniques, RGB-D cameras have been widely used to perform the 6D pose estimation of target objects for a robotic manipulator. Many applications require accurate shape measurements of the objects for 3D template matching. In this work, we develop an RGB-D camera based on the structured light technique with gray-code coding. The intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the camera system are determined by a calibration process. 3D reconstruction of the object surface is based on the ray triangulation principle. We construct an RGB-D sensing system with an industrial camera and a digital light projector. In the experiments, real-world objects are used to test the feasibility of the proposed technique. The evaluation carried out using planar objects has demonstrated the accuracy of our RGB-D depth measurement system.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Investigation and Suppression of Fiber Nonlinearities Using
           Injection-Locking in OFDM-WDM System

    • Abstract: The fiber nonlinearities play a major role in optical communication with respect to the system performance and transmission capacity. Here, fiber nonlinear impairments are investigated through consideration of several parameters of optical fiber system, such as fiber length and core effective area. We also demonstrate the mitigation of fiber nonlinearities by using single-stage injection-locking in 3 × 10 Gb/s OFDM-WDM system. This paper focuses on selection of appropriate bias current for slave laser to suppress the four wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk effects. These findings resemble the importance of single-stage injection-locking for FWM suppression for high-speed data communication.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Multirotor UAV-Based Photogrammetric Mapping for Road Design

    • Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used for close range mapping. In engineering survey works, the conventional survey involves huge cost, labour, and time. Low-cost UAVs are very practical in providing reliable information for many applications such as road design. UAVs can provide the output that meets the accuracy of engineering surveys and policies, especially for small-scale mapping. UAVs are also a competitive technology which is stable and rapidly developing, same as other surveying technologies. This study investigates the performance of multirotor UAV for road design. This study involves four phases which consist of preliminary study, data collection, data processing, and analysis. This study focuses on the UAV as a tool to capture data of the ground from a certain altitude. The analysis includes UAV flight planning, image acquisition, and accuracy assessment of road design. It can be concluded that UAVs can be used to provide data for road design with reliable accuracy.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Two-Step Phase Retrieval Algorithm Using Single-Intensity Measurement

    • Abstract: Aiming at the problem that the single-intensity phase retrieval method has poor reconstruction quality and low probability of successful recovery, an improved method is proposed in this paper. Our method divides the phase retrieval into two steps: firstly, the GS algorithm is used to recover the amplitude in the spatial domain from the single-spread Fourier spectrum, and then the classical GS algorithm using two intensity measurements (one is recorded and the other is estimated from the first step) measurements is used to recover the phase. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical experiments.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Measuring the Phase of an Optical Field from Two Intensity Measurements:
           Analysis of a Simple Theoretical Model

    • Abstract: Under the scalar paraxial approximation, an optical wavefield is considered to be complex function dependent on position; i.e., at a given location in space the optical field is a complex value with an intensity and phase. The optical wavefield propagates through space and can be modeled using the Fresnel transform. Lenses, apertures, and other optical elements can be used to control and manipulate the wavefield and to perform different types of signal processing operations. Often these optical systems are described theoretically in terms of linear systems theory leading to a commonly used Fourier optics framework. This is the theoretical framework that we will assume in this manuscript. The problem which we consider is how to recover the phase of an optical wavefield over a plane in space. While today it is relatively straightforward to measure the intensity of the optical wavefield over a plane using CMOS or CCD sensors, recovering the phase information is more complicated. Here we specifically examine a variant of the problem of phase retrieval using two intensity measurements. The intensity of the optical wavefield is recorded in both the image plane and the Fourier plane. To make the analysis simpler, we make a series of important theoretical assumptions and describe how in principle the phase information can be recovered. Then, a deterministic but iterative algorithm is derived and we examine the characteristics and properties of this algorithm. Finally, we examine some of the theoretical assumptions we have made and how valid these assumptions are in practice. We then conclude with a brief discussion of the results.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Efficient Tandem Organic Light Emitting Diode Using Organic Photovoltaic
           Charge Generation Layer

    • Abstract: Highly efficient tandem red OLED is proposed using planar organic heterojunction based charge generation layer (CGL) of C70 (Fullerene)/CoPc (Cobalt Phthalocyanine). The proposed charge generation layer generates charges and exhibits organic photovoltaic type (OPV) behavior in the red emitter zone which helps in slower efficiency roll-off at higher current densities. In addition an ultrathin layer of Al/LiF is used as electron injection layer (EIL) so as to enhance the injection of electrons from charge generation layer to emissive unit. It is found that the tandem red device can reach current efficiency and luminance of 26 cd/A and 26039 cd/ at 20 mA/ and 100 mA/, respectively, which is 1.663 times and 1.665 times higher than the corresponding single emitter device. Moreover, it is known that the tandem device requires double turn-on voltage than conventional devices. In this work, the turn-on voltage of red tandem device (5.85 V) is found to be less than twice the voltage of conventional device (3 V). Further with the introduction of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR), enhancement in current efficiency and brightness of tandem red device are observed due to high reflectance property of DBR. Thus, the effective charge generation and OPV function of proposed charge generation layer as well as remarkably high injection property of EIL layer lead to the high performance tandem OLED.
      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Experimental Study on the Concept of Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber

    • Abstract: An experiment is proposed to show the feasibility of using hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBF) in the fiber-optic interferometric stethoscopes to generally improve the sensitivity and overcome the problems associated with the electronic stethoscopes. In the experiment, the HC-1550 is used as a measuring arm of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and the conventional single-mode optical fiber (SMF) is used as an isolated reference arm. Detection and demodulation of the relative phase shift is performed passively using phase-generated carrier homodyne technique (PGC). The proposed results indicate the significance of using HC-PBFs in the future stethoscopes.
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Sep 2018 06:23:08 +000
  • Targeted Photodynamic Therapy: A Novel Approach to Abolition of Human
           Cancer Stem Cells

    • Abstract: Cancer is a global burden that has prompted extensive research into prevention and treatment, over many decades. Scientific studies have shown that subset of cells within a tumour, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), are responsible for tumourigenesis, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrences. CSCs have characteristic features of enhanced self-renewal, proliferation, and limited but multidirectional differentiation capacity. The discovery of CSCs has initiated extensive research into novel cancer treatment regimes. Evidence indicates that CSCs are resistant to conventional chemo- and radiation therapy leading to treatment failures, cancer metastasis, secondary cancer formation, and relapse. Because of the observed phenomena in the course of cancer prognosis, a need for treatment modalities targeting CSCs is important. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved, minimally invasive, therapeutic procedure that can exert a selective cytotoxic activity toward cancerous cells while reducing toxicity to normal cells. It uses a photosensitizer (PS) that becomes excited when subjected to light at a specific wavelength, and the PS forms reactive oxygen species (ROS) killing malignant cells. Currently, PDT is being investigated as a target specific treatment for CSCs by the addition of carrier molecules and antibody conjugates bound to the PS. Targeted PDT (TPDT) may be able to not only eradicate the tumour mass but kill CSCs as well.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 08:19:42 +000
  • Angularly Resolved Deep Brain Fluorescence Imaging Using a Single Optical

    • Abstract: In this article, we report the development of a minimally invasive fiber optic based fluorescence probe which can reach deep brain objects and measure the intensity and spatial distribution of fluorescence signals in the tissue. In this design, the brain is scanned by a single penetrating side-firing optical fiber which delivers excitation light pulses to the tissue at different depths and orientations and simultaneously collects samples of fluorescence emission signals. Signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements is improved by adapting the pulse compression technique and the theory of optimal filters. Effects of each design parameter on the overall performance of the scanner, including the spatial resolution and speed of scanning, are analyzed and experimentally measured. In vivo experiments show that the new device, despite the simplicity of the design, provides valuable information particularly useful in optogenetic stimulation experiments where the exact position of the fiber tip and the radiation orientation can change the outcome of a test.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Aug 2018 09:06:14 +000
  • Phase-Shift Keying Modulated Data Signal Using SOA-MZI-Based All-Optical
           Logic AND Gate at 80 Gb/s

    • Abstract: All-optical logic AND operation with phase-shift keying (PSK) modulated data signals based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer is numerically analyzed and investigated. By solving the rate equations of the SOA, the dependence of the quality factor on the critical parameters of the input signal and the SOA is examined, including the impact of the amplified spontaneous emission to obtain realistic results. The obtained results confirm that the all-optical logic AND scheme with PSK modulated data signals is capable of operating at a data rate of 80 Gb/s with both logical correctness and acceptable quality compared to the system using on-off-keying signal.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 09:33:27 +000
  • Solvent Effect on the Solid-Surface Fluorescence of Pyrene on Cellulose
           Diacetate Matrices

    • Abstract: The effect of the solvent nature (acetonitrile, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dioxane) and its concentration on the fluorescence intensity of pyrene sorbed on the cellulose diacetate (CDA) film from a water-organic solution was studied. Dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanol are shown to be the most effective solvent additives for pyrene solid-surface fluorescence (SSF). The maximum SSF signal of pyrene was found upon sorption of the substance from aqueous media containing 1.2-4.2 vol% DMSO. For the pyrene quantitation the concentration dependence of its SSF intensity at the maximum of the spectrum at = 394 nm and = 320 nm was plotted. The dependence has a linear character in the pyrene concentration range 2·10−6 - 2·10-8 g/L, and the limit of pyrene detection is 2·10-11 g/L. The possibility of determining benzo(a)pyrene using SSF technique with the CDA matrix is proved. The proposed method is promising for use in environmental monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jun 2018 06:46:03 +000
  • Alternative Approach of Developing Optical Binary Adder Using Reversible
           Peres Gates

    • Abstract: All-optical devices will play a very significant and crucial role in the modern all-optical network by eliminating the bottleneck of opto-electro-opto- (O-E-O-) conversion. Unfortunately, the conventional logic gates lose information at the output, and the states of the outputs cannot give any credible impressions of the states of the inputs. In this article, at first, the authors have proposed a method of designing an optical three-input-three-output reversible Peres gate.
      Authors have deployed polarization switching characteristic of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) for designing this circuit. The authors have also proposed a method of designing an optical reversible full adder, using two such Peres gates and subsequently a data recovery circuit which can recover the input data of the adder. The authors have chosen frequency encoded data for processing the operation. The proposed scheme has been verified by simulation results.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Extended Reach 10 Gb/s Transmission with an Optical I/Q Modulator Using
           VCSELs over OFDM-Based Multimode Fiber Link

    • Abstract: This paper investigates the possibilities of extending the reach of a 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing- (OFDM-) based multimode fiber (MMF) link with an optical I/Q modulation technique through vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). The proposed I/Q modulation technique comprises two VCSELs in a 90° hybrid combination to produce I/Q modulated OFDM signal. The results show the excellent performance (in terms of BER and factor) of the direct-detection optical- (DDO-) OFDM system with the proposed I/Q modulation in comparison to the direct modulation case. The proposed system is able to achieve worst-case BER of about 1.8616 × 10−3 and factor of about 10.9949 dB over a 5 km MMF link. The I/Q modulation technique in the DDO-OFDM system has further been investigated for extending the transmission reach of the MMF link using multispan configuration.
      PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Optical Bistability in a Controllable Giant Self-Kerr Nonlinear Gaseous
           Medium under Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Doppler

    • Abstract: We study optical bistability (OB) in a controllable giant self-Kerr nonlinear atomic gaseous medium placed in a unidirectional ring cavity. The medium is coherently excited by strong controlling field and a weak probe laser field under electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Doppler broadening. In a weak field limit of the probe light, an analytic OB equation for the probe light field is derived as an analytic function of parameters of the controlling field and temperature of the medium. It is shown that OB characters can be manipulated with the parameters due to the controllable properties of the self-Kerr nonlinearity. Furthermore, enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity reduces the switching intensity threshold and width of the OB.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Broadband Degenerate Femtosecond OPO around 2060 nm

    • Abstract: We demonstrate a broadband degenerate femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) around 2060 nm. Synchronically pumped by a commercially available 75.6 MHz Yb:KGW femtosecond laser, it is able to generate self-phase-locked 2 μm pulses with 82 mW output power and 3 dB bandwidth of 105 nm. The degenerate operation is naturally stable in free-running condition, with only 0.8% rms fluctuation in 3.5 hours. We also obtain broadband spectrum extending from 1600 nm to 2500 nm with the 3 dB bandwidth of 452 nm by increasing the intracavity power density.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • On the Creation of Solitons in Amplifying Optical Fibers

    • Abstract: We treat the creation of solitons in amplifying fibers. Strictly speaking, solitons are objects in an integrable setting while in real-world systems loss and gain break integrability. That case usually has been treated in the perturbation limit of low loss or gain. In a recent approach fiber-optic solitons were described beyond that limit, so that it became possible to specify how and where solitons are eventually destroyed. Here we treat the opposite case: in the presence of gain, new solitons can arise from an initially weak pulse. We find conditions for that to happen for both localized and distributed gain, with no restriction to small gain. By tracing the energy budget we show that even when another soliton is already present and copropagates, a newly created soliton takes its energy from radiation only. Our results may find applications in amplified transmission lines or in fiber lasers.
      PubDate: Wed, 07 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Continuous-Wave and Passively Q-Switched Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser at
           2.7 μm

    • Abstract: We report on a continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser in mid-infrared spectral region. In the CW regime, a maximum output power of 2.07 W is achieved at 2717.3 nm with a slope efficiency of 13.5%. Stable passive Q-switching of the Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated based on semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. Under an absorbed pump power of 12.4 W, a maximum average output power of 223 mW is generated with a pulse energy of 1.7 μJ and a pulse width of 350 ns at 2709.3 nm.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Design and Implementation Guidelines for a Modular Spectral-Domain Optical
           Coherence Tomography Scanner

    • Abstract: In the past decades, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) has transformed into a widely popular imaging technology which is used in many research and clinical applications. Despite such fast growth in the field, the technology has not been readily accessible to many research laboratories either due to the cost or inflexibility of the commercially available systems or due to the lack of essential knowledge in the field of optics to develop custom-made scanners that suit specific applications. This paper aims to provide a detailed discussion on the design and development process of a typical SD-OCT scanner. The effects of multiple design parameters, for the main optical and optomechanical components, on the overall performance of the imaging system are analyzed and discussions are provided to serve as a guideline for the development of a custom SD-OCT system. While this article can be generalized for different applications, we will demonstrate the design of a SD-OCT system and representative results for in vivo brain imaging. We explain procedures to measure the axial and transversal resolutions and field of view of the system and to understand the discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical values. The specific aim of this piece is to facilitate the process of constructing custom-made SD-OCT scanners for research groups with minimum understanding of concepts in optical design and medical imaging.
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Black Phosphorus Q-Switched Large-Mode-Area Tm-Doped Fiber Laser

    • Abstract: We report on a passively Q-switched fiber laser with black phosphorus as saturable absorber. By employing the sol-gel fabricated large-mode-area Tm-doped fiber as gain medium, a high-energy Q-switched fiber laser has been demonstrated which delivers the maximum pulse energy of 11.72 μJ with the pulse width of 660 ns at the wavelength of 1954 nm. Our experimental results indicate that BP Q-switched large-mode-area Tm-doped fiber laser is an effective and reliable approach to generate high-energy pulses at 2 μm.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Optical Spectra Properties and Continuous-Wave Laser Performance of
           Tm,Y:CaF2 Single Crystals

    • Abstract: 3 at.% Tm, at.% Y:CaF2 crystals (, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3) were grown by the vertical Bridgman method and investigated. Codoping Y3+ ions can manipulate the local structure of Tm3+ ions in the CaF2 crystal and then improve the spectroscopic properties. Compared with 3 at.% Tm:CaF2, 3 at.% Tm, 3 at.% Y:CaF2 crystal has several advantages. Firstly, the absorption cross section is improved from 0.35 × 10−20 cm−2 to 0.45 × 10−20 cm−2 at 767 nm, and the fluorescence intensity had elevated 3.4 times. Secondly, the linewidth of the fluorescence spectrum and lifetime also increased from 164 nm to 191 nm and from 6.16 ms to 8.15 ms at room temperature, respectively. Furthermore, quantum efficiency improved from 58.2% to 80.3%. The maximum laser output power of 583 mW and slope efficiency of 25.3% were achieved in 3 at.% Tm, 3 at.% Y:CaF2 crystal under 790 nm diode pumping.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Improving the Sensitivity of Humidity Sensor Based on Mach-Zehnder
           Interferometer Coated with a Methylcellulose

    • Abstract: A novel humidity sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) with the single-mode fiber (SMF) coated with methylcellulose (MC) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The MZI consists of two waist enlarged structures. Such an all-fiber MZI incorporates an intermodal interference between the core mode and cladding modes. The MC is coated on the surface of the SMF. External humidity changes the refractive index of MC, causing the intensity changes of the interference pattern. The proposed sensor is linearly responsive to refractive humidity (RH) within the range from 45% to 85% RH, with sensitivity of 0.094 dB/%RH. Moreover the insensitivity of the fiber to the temperature makes this structure more suitable for practical measurement.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Propagation Properties of Airy Beam through Periodic Slab System with
           Negative Index Materials

    • Abstract: Based on light transfer matrix and electric field vector equation, the evolution of Airy beam propagating in periodic slab system with three negative index materials (NIMs) and its transmission mechanism are investigated. The intensity profiles on emergent surface of periodic slab system and side view of Airy beam propagating in each right handed material (RHM) and double negative material (DNM) unit including lossless and losses DNMs are discussed. It is revealed that the self-recovery Airy beam can be achieved in long distance by using lossless periodic slab system as long as the negative refractive index and each unit length . As to losses slab system contained DNMs, the smaller the collision frequencies are, the better the Airy beam quality is formed. It is expected that the proposed manner of beam transmission and corresponding conclusions can be useful for extension applications of optical control, especially for optical communication and optical encryption technique.
      PubDate: Tue, 16 Jan 2018 09:05:45 +000
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