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Showing 1 - 200 of 293 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 63)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 16, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 72, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 4)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 196)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Anthropology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Composites     Open Access   (Followers: 80)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Criminology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)

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Journal Cover Advances in Civil Engineering
  [SJR: 0.338]   [H-I: 8]   [38 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-8086 - ISSN (Online) 1687-8094
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [293 journals]
  • The Way-Finding in Educational Modular Buildings: The Case of the Male
           Engineering Building at Qatar University

    • Abstract: Way-finding is the ability of people to perceive routes, flow patterns, or passageways inside and/or around a building. In other words, it is the capability of a person to know their whereabouts in a space. Modular buildings and complex spatial plan structure, in general, can be very confusing, especially from a way-finding point of view. This research attempts to measure the way-finding performance of a modular building by assessing the users’ experience in finding their way inside the Male Engineering Building at Qatar University. The study involved students, faculty, and staff members that utilize that space daily. The research focused on accessing indoor spaces as well as the walkways and spaces connected to the building. Results show that parameters as the use of colours and numbers can improve capability and swiftness in way-finding. In future research, several types of signage and visual elements will be tested, in order to understand how they can enhance way-finding efficiency and user performance within indoor spaces.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Unified Strength Theory for Plastic Limit Load Analysis of Vertical
           Shaft Lining

    • Abstract: Plastic limit analysis is a significant application for structural design and failure prediction, implying that the potential bearing capacity of material can be fully considered. Meanwhile, the failure process of structures usually occurs in the deformation of the plastic stage. Hence, it is important to investigate the mechanical properties of structures in the plastic state through proper mechanical models and principles. In this paper, the analytical stress expression and formulas for computing plastic limit load have been deduced based on the unified strength theory. Additionally, the relationships between plastic limit load of the shaft lining and the strength differential (SD) of structural material, the geometrical characteristic () and the intermediate principal shear stress () have been discussed. Finally, the method of the plastic limit load is adopted for the safety evaluation of the shaft lining through a practical case.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques for the Prediction of
           Compressive Strength of Concrete

    • Abstract: A comparative analysis for the prediction of compressive strength of concrete at the ages of 28, 56, and 91 days has been carried out using machine learning techniques via “R” software environment. R is digging out a strong foothold in the statistical realm and is becoming an indispensable tool for researchers. The dataset has been generated under controlled laboratory conditions. Using R miner, the most widely used data mining techniques decision tree (DT) model, random forest (RF) model, and neural network (NN) model have been used and compared with the help of coefficient of determination (R2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE), and it is inferred that the NN model predicts with high accuracy for compressive strength of concrete.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • An Equal-Strain Analytical Solution for the Radial Consolidation of
           Unsaturated Soils by Vertical Drains considering Drain Resistance

    • Abstract: Developing an analytical solution for the consolidation of unsaturated soils remains a challenging task due to the complexity of coupled governing equations for air and water phases. This paper presents an equal-strain model for the radial consolidation of unsaturated soils by vertical drains, and the effect of drain resistance is also considered. Simplified governing equations are established, and an analytical solution to calculate the excess pore-air and pore-water pressures is derived by using the methods of matrix analysis and eigenfunction expansion. The average degrees of consolidation for air and water phases and the ground surface settlement are also given. The solutions of the equal-strain model are verified by comparing the proposed free-strain model with the equal-strain model, and reasonably good agreement is obtained. Moreover, parametric studies regarding the drain resistance effect are graphically presented.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Monitoring and Analysis of Ground Settlement Induced by Tunnelling with
           Slurry Pressure-Balanced Tunnel Boring Machine

    • Abstract: A case study of monitoring and analysis of ground settlement caused by tunnelling of stacked twin tunnels for underground metro line construction through the densely populated area using the slurry pressure-balanced TBM is presented. Detailed ground settlement monitoring was carried out for the initial stage of down-track tunnelling in order to estimate trough width factor and volume losses including face, shield, and tail losses. In addition, using the gap model, prediction of volume loss and ground settlement was carried out with consideration of the ground condition, TBM configurations, and actual operation data. The predictions of the gap model were compared with the observed results, and adjustment factors were determined for volume loss estimation. The adjusted factors were applied to predict ground settlement of the up-track tunnel, and its results were compared with the field measurements.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Geotechnical Properties of Wood Ash-Based Composite Fine-Grained Soil

    • Abstract: It is observed in Bangladesh that there is an extensive use of wood as a solid biomass for heat and electricity production, which led to increase in the amount of combustion residues known as ash. These ashes are discarded and dumped here and there, resulting in pollution of the environment. It could be managed by using wood ash as a stabilizer of soft clay. It is found that there is an enhancement of the engineering properties of existing soil in stabilized forms particularly unconfined compressive strength (UCS), shear strength parameters, workability, and compaction and compressibility characteristics. Therefore, laboratory tests associated with these properties were performed for some selected percentage of wood ash, for example, 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 12.5%. Chemical investigation of wood ash depicts that it contains approximately 30% CaO, which directs it to behave like a pozzolanic material. Besides, the test result signifying that the soil could be made lighter with the increase of moisture content, strength, and reduction of compressibility due to the addition of ash content.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Apr 2018 07:06:54 +000
  • Reanalysis of Modified Structures by Adding or Removing Substructures

    • Abstract: This study considers structural reanalysis owing to the modification of structural elements including (1) addition of substructures, (2) removal of substructures, and (3) changes in design variables. Coupling and decoupling reanalysis methods proposed in the study are performed by using the concept of compatibility conditions at interface nodes between the substructures or between the original structure and the substructures. Subsequently, a generalized inverse method to describe constrained responses is modified to obtain the reanalysis responses. In this study, constrained equilibrium equations are modified to consider a reanalysis of a structure with the addition and removal of statically stable or unstable substructures. The proposed reanalysis method is examined by using five examples of handling coupling and decoupling reanalysis of a truss structure.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Modeling Creep Fracture in Rock by Using Kelvin Discretized Virtual
           Internal Bond

    • Abstract: Discretized virtual internal bond (DVIB) is a lattice model, which is composed of bond cells. Each bond cell has a finite number of bonds. The DVIB is used to model the creep fracture. It is done by introducing a viscous bond to the original hyperelastic DVIB. The hyperelastic bond is parallel coupled with a viscous bond together, forming a hybrid hyperelastic-Kelvin bond. The hyperelastic bond reflects the microfracture mechanism, whereas the viscous bond reflects the creep mechanism. Based on this hyperelastic-Kelvin bond, the constitutive relation of a cell is derived. The microbond parameters are calibrated based on the ideal cell approach. The simulation results suggest that this method can represent the typical features of creep and can simulate the creep fracture. The merit of this method lies in that the complicated 3D macrocreep problem is reduced to the 1D microbond creep problem. No creep law is previously derived. The macrocreep fracture behavior is the natural response of the assembly of the micro hyperelastic-Kelvin bonds.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 05:52:06 +000
  • Comparison Evaluations of VRF and RTU Systems Performance on Flexible
           Research Platform

    • Abstract: The energy performance of a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) system was evaluated using an occupancy-emulated research building in the southeastern region of the United States. Full- and part-load performance of the VRF system in heating and cooling seasons was compared with a conventional rooftop unit (RTU) variable-air-volume system with electric resistance heating. During both the heating and cooling seasons, full- and part-load conditions (i.e., 100%, 75%, and 50% thermal loads) were maintained alternately for 2 to 3 days each, and the energy use, thermal conditions, and coefficient of performance (COP) for the RTU and VRF system were measured. During the cooling season, the VRF system had an average COP of 4.2, 3.9, and 3.7 compared with 3.1, 3.0, and 2.5 for the RTU system under 100%, 75%, and 50% load conditions and resulted in estimated energy savings of 30%, 37%, and 47%, respectively. During the heating season, the VRF system had an average COP ranging from 1.2 to 2.0, substantially higher than the COPs of the RTU system, and resulted in estimated energy savings of 51%, 47%, and 27% under the three load conditions, respectively.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Pseudodynamic Bearing Capacity Analysis of Shallow Strip Footing Using the
           Advanced Optimization Technique “Hybrid Symbiosis Organisms Search
           Algorithm” with Numerical Validation

    • Abstract: The analysis of shallow foundations subjected to seismic loading has been an important area of research for civil engineers. This paper presents an upper-bound solution for bearing capacity of shallow strip footing considering composite failure mechanisms by the pseudodynamic approach. A recently developed hybrid symbiosis organisms search (HSOS) algorithm has been used to solve this problem. In the HSOS method, the exploration capability of SQI and the exploitation potential of SOS have been combined to increase the robustness of the algorithm. This combination can improve the searching capability of the algorithm for attaining the global optimum. Numerical analysis is also done using dynamic modules of PLAXIS-8.6v for the validation of this analytical solution. The results obtained from the present analysis using HSOS are thoroughly compared with the existing available literature and also with the other optimization techniques. The significance of the present methodology to analyze the bearing capacity is discussed, and the acceptability of HSOS technique is justified to solve such type of engineering problems.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Validation of the Ultrasound Wave Velocity Method to Predict Porosity of
           Dry and Saturated Cement Paste

    • Abstract: An approximate theoretical validation of the measured variation of ultrasound velocity with porosity of dry and saturated cement paste is proposed using finite element analysis of cement paste assuming as a multiphase composite. Cement paste is a multiphase composite consisting of solid cement and microscopic voids filled either with air or water. The void content in cement paste is directly related to strength and durability. Experimental tests showed that ultrasound wave velocity is decreased with the increase in porosity of cement paste, where pore sizes are similar in dimension to the wavelength of the sound enabling ultrasound to be used as a potential condition assessment technique. However, the variation of ultrasound wave velocity also depends on the fluid in the voids. Several finite element simulations using two commercially available software packages were performed for both fully saturated and dry blocks of cement paste with different porosities. Then back-calculated elastic moduli values from finite element simulations were used to compute the wave velocities of both fully saturated and dry cement paste with different porosities. The predicted ultrasound velocities with porosity for both dry and saturated cement paste are compared well with the laboratory measurements.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • An Exploration of Neighborhood Residents’ Cognition of and Participation
           in Low-Carbon Behaviors in Wuhan, China

    • Abstract: This paper analyzed neighborhood residents’ cognition of and participation in low-carbon behaviors, basing on a questionnaire survey launched in a neighborhood in Wuhan, China. Results indicate that most respondents concerned the low-carbon impact on their daily lives and expected the government to make differences in low-carbon transition. Neighborhood residents’ participation in low-carbon behaviors was mainly reflected in three aspects: home energy conservation (HEC), efficient resource consumption (ERC), and recycling habits (RH), which were extracted from the five categories out of the 15 observed variables. Many interviewees had high level of participation in low-carbon behaviors that affect their economic interests. But these neighborhood residents rarely participated in public low-carbon behaviors such as planting trees or cooperative low-carbon behaviors. Therefore, these neighborhood residents’ participation in low-carbon behaviors was still on the initial stage. Specific proposals were put forward to promote urban low-carbonization further.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Upper Bound Limit Analysis for Seismic Stability of Rock Slope with Tunnel

    • Abstract: The rock slopes with tunnels appear widely in the actual project, but there is no executable basis for the seismic stability calculation of the rock slope with tunnel. According to the upper bound theorem of plastic limit analysis and pseudostatic method, the upper bound solution of the safety factor of the rock slope with tunnel was rigorously derived under earthquake loading. This upper solution takes into account the design parameters of the slope and the tunnel, the horizontal and vertical seismic loads, and the physical and mechanical parameters of the rock mass. Comparing the calculated results with the existing results, the validity of the proposed method was verified. The sensitivity and influence of different parameters on the seismic stability of the slope were analyzed. The results show that the three factors such as the horizontal seismic force coefficient, the slope height, and the internal friction angle are the three key factors that influence the sensitivity of the safety factor and have a great effect on it.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Modeling Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
           under Bending Load

    • Abstract: The chloride diffusion coefficient is the most important parameter when predicting chloride ingress in concrete. This paper proposed a model for calculating the chloride diffusion coefficient of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC). Considering the concrete structures in service are usually subjected to external loads, the effect of bending load was discussed and expressed with a stress factor in the model. The chloride diffusion coefficient of cement paste was calculated with capillary porosity and then used to predict the chloride diffusion coefficient of SFRC. Some factors in the model were determined with experimental results. Chloride bulk diffusion tests were performed on SFRC and plain concrete (without fiber) specimens under bending load. SFRC showed slightly better chloride resistance for unstressed specimens. The compressive stress decreased the chloride diffusion coefficient of SFRC, while it caused no change in plain concrete. For the tensile zone, the chloride resistance of concrete was improved significantly by adding steel fibers. Overall, SFRC performed better chloride resistance, especially under bending load. The proposed model provides a simple approach for calculating the chloride diffusion coefficient of SFRC under bending load.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Ductility Calculation of Prefabricated Shear Wall with Rabbet-Unbond
           Horizontal Connection

    • Abstract: Considering the effect of confined end-zone and unbonded reinforcement, the yield curvature and ultimate curvature of rabbet-unbond horizontal connection (RHC) shear wall were calculated. Based on the curvature calculation result, the yield displacement and ultimate displacement were calculated using displacement superposition, which were compared with test values. The result showed that theoretical values were slightly smaller than test values; however, on the whole, both were in good agreement. The author studied the effect of unbonded reinforcement on yield displacement and ultimate displacement, and the result showed that the effect on ultimate displacement is more pronounced than yield displacement. The present work could be useful for the design of new prefabricated shear wall.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 08:50:41 +000
  • The Numerical Simulation of Hard Rocks for Tunnelling Purposes at Great
           Depths: A Comparison between the Hybrid FDEM Method and Continuous

    • Abstract: Tunnelling processes lead to stress changes surrounding an underground opening resulting in the disturbance and potential damage of the surrounding ground. Especially, when it comes to hard rocks at great depths, the rockmass is more likely to respond in a brittle manner during the excavation. Continuum numerical modelling and discontinuum techniques have been employed in order to capture the complex nature of fracture initiation and propagation at low-confinement conditions surrounding an underground opening. In the present study, the hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM) is used and compared to techniques using the finite element method (FEM), in order to investigate the efficiency of these methods in simulating brittle fracturing. The numerical models are calibrated based on data and observations from the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Test Tunnel, located in Manitoba, Canada. Following the comparison of these models, additional analyses are performed by integrating discrete fracture network (DFN) geometries in order to examine the effect of the explicit simulation of joints in brittle rockmasses. The results show that in both cases, the FDEM method is more capable of capturing the highly damaged zone (HDZ) and the excavation damaged zone (EDZ) compared to results of continuum numerical techniques in such excavations.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 08:27:18 +000
  • Study on the Interaction of Collinear Cracks and Wing Cracks and Cracking
           Behavior of Rock under Uniaxial Compression

    • Abstract: This paper investigates the crack interaction, initiation, and propagation rules of rock-like materials containing two collinear cracks. Based on the Kachanov method, the formulations for stress intensity factors (SIFs) of two collinear cracks and two winged cracks are derived, respectively. The influences of bridge ligament and crack length on the crack interaction are analyzed theoretically. The results show that the propagation of a long crack is independent of crack interaction when and the same rule applies for a short crack when . With the growth of wing cracks, the SIF of wings first remarkably decreases and then it tends toward a steady value. Subsequently, the propagation of collinear cracks and cracking processes under uniaxial compression are analyzed experimentally and numerically. Both the experimental results and simulation results demonstrate that shear cracks tend to initiate and propagate at higher inclination angle. The crack coalescence is affected by the inclination angle of bridge ligament. For increasing the inclination angle, the crack coalescence varies from wing crack failure to shear crack coalescence. As bridge ligament increases, the crack coalescence varies from shear crack coalescence to shear-wing crack coalescence and then to wing crack failure.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 05:17:21 +000
  • Study of Post-Peak Strain Softening Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Material
           Based on Hoek–Brown Criterion

    • Abstract: In order to build the post-peak strain softening model of rock, the evolution laws of rock parameters were obtained by using the evolutionary mode of piecewise linear function regarding the maximum principle stress. Based on the nonlinear Hoek–Brown criterion, the analytical relationship of the rock strength parameters , cohesion , and friction angle has been developed by theoretical derivation. According to the analysis on the four different types of rock, it is found that, within the range from 0 to , the peak hardness of the rock becomes smaller as the confining pressure increases and the degree of rock fragmentation decreases as well. The post-peak stress-strain curves obtained from the developed softening model are in good agreement with the laboratory test results under different confining pressures. In conclusion, the analytical method is reasonable, and it can predict the post-peak mechanical behaviour of rock well, which provides a new thought for the rock-softening simulation.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Optimum Design of Braced Steel Space Frames including Soil-Structure
           Interaction via Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization and Harmony Search

    • Abstract: Optimum design of braced steel space frames including soil-structure interaction is studied by using harmony search (HS) and teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithms. A three-parameter elastic foundation model is used to incorporate the soil-structure interaction effect. A 10-storey braced steel space frame example taken from literature is investigated according to four different bracing types for the cases with/without soil-structure interaction. X, V, Z, and eccentric V-shaped bracing types are considered in the study. Optimum solutions of examples are carried out by a computer program coded in MATLAB interacting with SAP2000-OAPI for two-way data exchange. The stress constraints according to AISC-ASD (American Institute of Steel Construction-Allowable Stress Design), maximum lateral displacement constraints, interstorey drift constraints, and beam-to-column connection constraints are taken into consideration in the optimum design process. The parameters of the foundation model are calculated depending on soil surface displacements by using an iterative approach. The results obtained in the study show that bracing types and soil-structure interaction play very important roles in the optimum design of steel space frames. Finally, the techniques used in the optimum design seem to be quite suitable for practical applications.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Study on Crack Depth Measurement in Steel Structures Using Image-Based
           Intensity Differences

    • Abstract: This paper seeks to propose an image-based noncontact testing method in crack depth measurement. To this end, it predicted the crack depth using the intensity values of cracks and verified its validity. To analyze the intensity values of cracks, eight stainless steel specimens with an increase in crack depths ranging from 0 to 17.5 mm at an average of 2.5 mm were fabricated, and a contrast index was attached to the center of the crack of the specimens painted with black matte spray for accurate analysis. Through various experiments, it was found that the intensity values of the cracks which decrease with the depth of the cracks were inductively formulated, and the average error was about 15% when the crack depth predicted by the empirical equation was compared with the actual crack depth. In addition, the validation of the intensity reduction equation obtained by the inductive method was verified, and it was confirmed that the crack depth can be predicted by the intensity value of the crack.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Detection of Surface Crack in Building Structures Using Image Processing
           Technique with an Improved Otsu Method for Image Thresholding

    • Abstract: The detection of cracks is a crucial task in monitoring structural health and ensuring structural safety. The manual process of crack detection is painstakingly time-consuming and suffers from subjective judgments of inspectors. This study establishes an intelligent model based on image processing techniques for automatic crack recognition and analyses. In the new model, a gray intensity adjustment method, called Min-Max Gray Level Discrimination (M2GLD), is proposed to preprocess the image thresholded by the Otsu method. The goal of this gray intensity adjustment method is to meliorate the accuracy of the crack detection results. Experimental results point out that the integration of M2GLD and the Otsu method, followed by other shape analysis algorithms, can successfully detect crack defects in digital images. Therefore, the constructed model can be a useful tool for building management agencies and construction engineers in the task of structure maintenance.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 08:37:31 +000
  • Insight into the Effect of Adhesive Interface on the Ultimate Capacity of
           the Double-Superposed Shear Wall

    • Abstract: This paper presents the results of a numerical and analytical study to investigate the effect of adhesive interface on the ultimate capacity of a new composite sandwich shear wall: double-superposed shear wall. The effect of adhesive interface on the ultimate capacity of two different wall configurations under different axial compression ratios was studied. The results indicate that, for the two different wall configurations, the bond strength of adhesive interface has a negligible effect on ultimate bearing capacity. As a result of the different intensity grades between cast-in-situ concrete wythe and precast concrete wythe, the double-superposed shear wall with precast boundary elements (wall configuration W3) yields a higher ultimate bearing capacity than that with cast-in-place boundary elements (wall configuration W2), when the axial compression ratio exceeds 0.2, which is contrary to the results under 0.1 axial compression ratio. A new calculation method for ultimate bearing capacity is proposed to take into account the different intensity grades, and the calculation results show a very good agreement with the numerical simulation results.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Solid-Gas Coupling Model for Coal-Rock Mass Deformation and Pressure
           Relief Gas Flow in Protection Layer Mining

    • Abstract: The solid-gas coupling model for mining coal-rock mass deformation and pressure relief gas flow in protection layer mining is the key to determine deformation of coal-rock mass and migration law of pressure relief gas of protection layer mining in outburst coal seams. Based on the physical coupling process between coal-rock mass deformation and pressure-relief gas migration, the coupling variable of mining coal-rock mass, a part of governing equations of gas seepage field and deformation field in mining coal-rock mass, is introduced. Then, a new solid-gas coupling mathematical model reflecting the coupling effects of gas adsorption/desorption, gas pressure, and coal-rock mass deformation on the mining coal-rock mass deformation and pressure relief gas flow is established combined with the corresponding definite conditions. It lays a theoretical foundation for the numerical calculation of the deformation of mining coal-rock mass and the migration law of gas under pressure relief in the outburst coal seam group.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Damage Features of Altered Rock Subjected to Drying-Wetting Cycles

    • Abstract: An abandoned open pit was used as a tailing pond for a concentrating mill, with the height of the water surface subject to cyclic fluctuation. The effects of drying and wetting cycles on the mechanical parameters of pit rock were tested. Interactions of the hydrochemical environment, due to the dissolution of tailings, and drying and wetting cycles caused degradation of mechanical properties in the rock. It was found that uniaxial compressive strength and elastic modulus decreased as the number of dry/wet cycles increased. The quantitative relationship between the mechanical parameters and the number of dry/wet cycles was indicated by an exponential function. In addition to uniaxial testing, cohesion and the internal friction angle were determined through triaxial testing. The shear strength index deteriorated under the drying and wetting cycles. The hydrochemical environment also negatively affected the mechanical parameters. Potential effects between drying and wetting cycles and slope displacement were analyzed by on-site monitoring. The results show that the displacement increased because of the drying and wetting cycles, which may lead to sudden failure of the slope.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Researches on Damage Evolution and Acoustic Emission Characteristics of

    • Abstract: Mechanical parameters of the rock are important for the design of geotechnical, mining engineering, and petroleum reservoir projects. Many researches have suggested that the mechanical variables of rock specimens, such as compressive strength and elastic modulus, do not have a single fixed value. Uncertainty in the basic mechanical variables of the rock material can significantly affect the structural performance and safety. In this study, a series of compression experiments with acoustic emission have been performed on rock specimens. The damage evolution characteristics of the rock in the process of loading were studied, and the macromechanical behaviors were obtained at the same time. Distribution characteristics of the strength and elastic modulus as random variables are illustrated, and the statistical damage model is presented by the authors to formulate analytical constitutive relations for deformation behavior. The comparisons between predicted results and experimental data show that the statistical damage constitutive model could well reproduce the deformation process of rock materials.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Advances in Civil Engineering Application of DICM on Similar Material
           Simulation Experiment for Rock-Like Materials

    • Abstract: The digital image correlation method (DICM) has been applied to similar material simulation experiments for rock-like materials, to overcome the weakness of traditional measurements, for example, data discontinuous. In this paper, the movement and fracturing process of the overlying strata during excavation are observed and studied, and the distributions of stress, strain, and deformation in the overlying strata are obtained based on similar material simulation. The DICM is applied to improve the testing method and to optimize the discontinuity of testing points; of course, the difference of rock deformation in the overlying strata during excavation is considered. Full-field deformation and strain are analyzed by the DICM. To verify the accuracy of the DICM, results obtained from the DICM, numerical simulation and similar material simulation, are compared. The DICM can reflect the characteristics of locality and randomness of rock-like materials more real than numerical simulation, and comparing with similar material simulation, it can directly reproduce the movement and fracturing process of the overlying strata during full-field excavation. It shows that, the DICM is entirely feasible to using in the large scale full-field deformation measurement on complex rock structure, and it is of theoretical importance for testing for rock-like materials.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Novel Crashworthy Device for Pier Protection from Barge Impact

    • Abstract: Barge impact is a potential hazard for bridge piers located in navigation waterways. Protective structures of different types, for example, dolphin structures, artificial islands, and guiding structures, have been widely used in bridge designs against barge impact. However, such structures often imply high cost and suffer from difficulties in installation as well as maintenance challenges. This paper aims to devise and investigate a new type of crashworthy device which is comprised of vertically supported impact cap connected to the bridge pier using a series of steel beams in a frame-type arrangement. This sacrificial steel structure is designed to form plastic hinges for energy dissipation whilst limiting the force transmitted to the protected pier. The dynamic analysis of the proposed crashworthy device subjected to barge impact is conducted using a simplified impact model previously developed by the authors. The parametric studies in this paper show that the proposed device has a large energy dissipation capacity and that the magnitude of impact force transmitted to the bridge pier can be dramatically reduced. In addition, an optimization model is proposed in this paper to achieve the cost-optimized design of the crashworthy device for a given impact scenario with constraints as per the prescribed design requirements.
      PubDate: Mon, 02 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • A Study on Dynamic Amplification Factor and Structure Parameter of Bridge
           Deck Pavement Based on Bridge Deck Pavement Roughness

    • Abstract: In order to study the coupled influence of deck pavement roughness and velocity on dynamic amplification factor, a 2-DOF 1/4 vehicle model is employed to establish the vehicle-bridge-coupled vibration system. The random dynamic load of running vehicle simulated by software MATLAB is applied on bridge deck pavement (BDP) through ANSYS software. Besides, the influence of BDP parameters on control stress under static load and random vibration load is analyzed. The results show that if the surface of BDP is smooth, the dynamic magnification coefficient would first increase and then decrease with increasing of vehicle velocity and reach its maximum value when  = 20 m/s; if the surface of BDP is rough, the maximal and minimum values of the dynamic amplification coefficient (DAC) occur, respectively, when the velocity reaches 10 m/s and 15 m/s. For a composite bridge deck with the cushion layer, the thickness of asphalt pavement should be not too thick or thin and better to be controlled for about 10 cm; with the increasing of cushion layer thickness, the control stress of deck pavement is all decreased and show similar change regularity under effect of different loads. In view of self-weight of structure, the thickness of the cushion layer is recommended to be controlled for about 4 cm.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Particle Size on Fault Gouge Frictional Characteristics and
           Associated Acoustic Emission

    • Abstract: Our experimental work was designed to explore the particle size effect of simulated fault gouge on slip characteristics by the conventional double-direct shear friction configuration combined with acoustic emission (AE). The following conclusions were drawn: (1) smaller particles allow for an initially higher compaction rate at a higher speed and longer duration for force chain formation and destruction. The larger the particle size is, the higher the slipping displacement rate is; (2) the smaller the particle size is, the larger the friction coefficient is, and thus the higher the fault strength is. In addition, the larger the shear velocity is, the higher the fault strength is; (3) the smaller the particle size is, the higher the shear stress drop generated by the stick-slip is, and the stronger the dynamic slip intensity for a stick-slip period is; and (4) surface defects of forcing blocks possibly help to embed foregoing “stability” and “stable sliding” into the normal stick-slip stage. Especially, the “stable sliding” is possibly related to formation of stubborn force chains. These findings may shed some insights into further clarification of slipping characteristics and discrimination of precursory signs of fault dynamic instability with different-sized gouge particles.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Experimental Study on 3D Roughness and Shear Failure Mechanism of Rock
           Mass Discontinuity

    • Abstract: A set of systematic experimental methods, including 3D accuracy scanning and identification of discontinuous surface topography, physical model construction, and laboratory direct shear experiment under different directions and normal stresses, was proposed to research the influence of discontinuity roughness on strength and deformation of discontinuity. During physical model construction of discontinuity, three types of discontinuity and rough natural rock joint surface models were constructed and moulded. Meanwhile, many influence factors of discontinuity surface topography, such as asperity inclination angle (AIA), asperity height (AH), normal stress (NS), and shear direction (SD), were considered during the direct shear experiment. On the basis of the experimental results, it can be found that there were two types of failure modes under different loading conditions, which were named “failure by shearing through the asperities” and “failure by sliding over the asperities”. The obvious stress concentration phenomenon, climbing, and cutting effects appeared in the process of the direct shear experiment. In addition, the accurate identification of surface topography of natural rough rock joint surface was carried out using three-dimensional sensing system (3DSS) and self-programming software before and after the experiment. The subsamples with the same surface topography as the original samples were moulded using a self-developed instrument. Then, the mechanical behavior of the original samples and subsamples for the natural rough rock joint surface under different shear directions and normal stresses was studied. The results show that the shear displacement under different shear directions and normal stresses is very large before it reaches the failure state. And the residual strength of the original samples is higher than that of the subsamples. In addition, failure modes of the subsamples are main failure by shearing through the asperities due to the significant difference between peak shear strength and residual strength. The failure modes for parts of the original samples are failure by sliding over the asperities. The change ratio of area for the discontinuity after the experiment depends on surface topography, strength of heave on the surface of discontinuity, and particle size of minerals on the surface of discontinuity.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
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