Abstract: Nondestructive testing methods are used to inspect and test materials and components for discontinuities or differences in mechanical characteristics. Phased array signal processing techniques have been widely used in different applications, but less research has been conducted on contactless nondestructive testing with passive arrays. This paper presents an application of beamforming techniques analysis using a passive synthetic microphone array to calculate the origin and intensity of sound waves in the ultrasonic frequency range. Acoustic cameras operating in the audible frequency range are well known. In order to conduct measurements in higher frequencies, the arrangement of microphones in an array has to be taken into consideration. This arrangement has a strong influence on the array properties, such as its beam pattern, its dynamics, and its susceptibility to spatial aliasing. Based on simulations, optimized configurations with 16, 32, and 48 microphones and 20 cm diameter were implemented in real experiments to investigate the array resolution and localize ultrasonic sources at 75 kHz signal frequency. The results show that development of an ultrasonic camera to localize ultrasonic sound sources is beneficial. PubDate: Mon, 11 Feb 2019 13:05:05 +000

Abstract: The shape of the modal duct of an acoustic wave propagating in a muffling system varies with the internal geometry. This shape can be either as a result of plane wave propagation or three-dimensional wave propagation. These shapes depict the distribution of acoustic pressure that may be used in the design or modification of mufflers to create resonance at cut-off frequencies and hence achieve noise attenuation or special effects on the output of the noise. This research compares the shapes of acoustic duct modes of two sets of four pitch configurations of a helicoid in a simple expansion chamber with and without a central tube. Models are generated using Autodesk Inventor modeling software and imported into ANSYS 18.2, where a fluid volume from the complex computer-aided-design (CAD) geometry is extracted for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Mesh is generated to capture the details of the fluid cavity for frequency range between 0 and 2000Hz. After defining acoustic properties, acoustic boundary conditions and loads were defined at inlet and outlet ports before computation. Postprocessed acoustic results of the modal shapes and transmission loss (TL) characteristics of the two configurations were obtained and compared for geometries of the same helical pitch. It was established that whereas plane wave propagation in a simple expansion chamber (SEC) resulted in a clearly defined acoustic pressure pattern across the propagation path, the distribution in the configurations with and without the central tube depicted three-dimensional acoustic wave propagation characteristics, with patterns scattering or consolidating to regions of either very low or very high acoustic pressure differentials. A difference of about 80 decibels between the highest and lowest acoustic pressure levels was observed for the modal duct of the geometry with four turns and with a central tube. On the other hand, the shape of the TL curve shifts from a sinusoidal-shaped profile with well-defined peaks and valleys in definite multiples of π for the simple expansion chamber, while that of the other two configurations depended on the variation in wavelength that affects the location of occurrence of cut-on or cut-off frequency. The geometry with four turns and a central tube had a maximum value of TL of about 90 decibels at approximately 1900Hz. PubDate: Tue, 11 Dec 2018 06:53:26 +000

Abstract: In this work we model by finite element method (FEM) the Lamb waves’ propagation and their interactions with symmetric and asymmetric delamination in sandwich skin. The simulations were carried out using ABAQUS CAE by exciting the fundamental A0 Lamb mode in the frequency 300 kHz. The delamination was then estimated by analysing the signal picked up at two sensors using two technics: Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (2D-FFT) to identify the propagating and converted modes, and wavelet transform (WT) to measure the arrival times. The results showed that the mode A0 is sensible to symmetric and asymmetric delamination. Besides, based on signal changes with the delamination edges, a localization method is proposed to estimate the position and the length of the delamination. In the last section an experimental FEM verification is provided to validate the proposed method. PubDate: Wed, 28 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: A microperforated panel (MPP) is generally defined as a perforated plate, in which the impedance of below one millimetre perforations is dominated by viscous losses. Using MPPs in duct and silencer applications, target is to maximize transmission loss (TL) by choosing proper surface impedance parameters. Additive manufacturing (AM) has recently reduced conventional design limitations and enabled fast prototyping of complex shaped structures. MPP-based model scale silencers can be printed within reasonable time, price, and accuracy. In this paper, design and validation of AM silencers with MPPs are studied. First, the theoretical background of MPP acoustics is summarized. Second, feasible parameters for a MPP absorber for a certain tuning frequency are sought numerically using acoustic finite element method (FEM). Third, several test MPPs are prototyped and their acoustic properties are measured. Finally, MPP silencers are simulated using different approaches and the results are compared against experiments. PubDate: Sun, 14 Oct 2018 09:12:58 +000

Abstract: It is well known that structures exhibit uncertainty due to various sources, such as manufacturing tolerances and variations in physical properties of individual components. Modeling and accurate representation of these uncertainties are desirable in many practical applications. In this paper, spectral-based method is employed to represent uncertainty in the natural frequencies of fiber-reinforced composite plates. For that, experimental modal analysis using noncontact method employing Laser-Vibrometer is conducted on 100 samples of plates having identical nominal topology. The random frequencies then are represented employing generalized Polynomial Chaos (gPC) expansions having unknown deterministic coefficients. This provides us with major advantage to approximate the random experimental data using closed form functions combining deterministic coefficients and random orthogonal basis. Knowing the orthogonal basis, the statistical moments of the data are used to estimate the unknown coefficients. PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Structural cables are susceptible to the effects of high stress concentrations, corrosion, and wind-induced and other vibrations. Cables are normally the most critical elements in a cable-supported structure and their well-being is very important in the health of the structure. The laser-based vibration technique discussed in this paper is a means for health monitoring of cables and therefore the entire cable-supported structure. This technique uses a noncontact remote sensing laser vibrometer for collecting cable vibration data from distances of up to several hundreds of feet and determines its dynamic characteristics including vibration frequencies and damping ratios. A formulation specifically developed for structural cables capable of accounting for important cable parameters is then used to calculate the cable force. Estimated forces in the cables are compared to previously measured forces or designer’s prediction to detect patterns associated with damage to the cable itself and/or changes to the structure elsewhere. The estimated damping ratios are also compared against predefined criteria to infer about susceptibility against wind-induced vibrations and other vibrations. The technique provides rapid, effective, and accurate means for health monitoring of cable-supported structures. It determines the locations and elements with potential damage and the need for detailed and hands on inspection. To date, the technique has been used successfully for evaluation of twenty-five major bridges in the US and abroad. Though originally devised for condition assessment of stay cables, it has been developed further to include a variety of systems and conditions among them structural hanger ropes in suspension, truss, and arch supported bridges, ungrouted stay cables, cables with cross-ties, and external posttensioning tendons in segmental bridge construction. It has also found a valuable place in construction-phase activities for verification of forces in tension elements with minimal efforts. Future endeavors for automation and aerial delivery are being considered for this technique. PubDate: Wed, 13 Jun 2018 07:03:03 +000

Abstract: The work of this paper is backgrounded by prediction or evaluation and control of mechanical self-noise in sonar array cavity. The vibratory power flow transmission analysis is applied to reveal the overall vibration level of the fluid-structural coupled system. Through modal coupling analysis on the fluid-structural vibration of the fluid-filled enclosure with elastic boundaries, an efficient computational method is deduced to determine the vibratory power flow generated by exterior excitations on the outside surface of the elastic structure, including the total power flow entering into the fluid-structural coupled system and the net power flow transmitted into the hydroacoustic field. Characteristics of the coupled natural frequencies and modals are investigated by a numerical example of a rectangular water-filled cavity with five acoustic rigid walls and one elastic panel. Influential factors of power flow transmission characteristics are further discussed with the purpose of overall evaluation and reduction of the cavity water sound energy. PubDate: Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: This paper deals with the development of a numerical model, based on the Finite Element (FE) theory for the prediction of the squeal frequency of a railway disc brake. The analytical background has been discussed and presented, as well as the most efficient methods for evaluating the system stability; the attention has been paid particularly to the complex eigenvalues method, which has been adopted within this paper to investigate the railway disc brake system. Numerical results have been compared with measurements from experimental tests in order to validate the proposed numerical approach. At the end of this work, a sensitivity analysis, aimed at understanding the effects of some physical parameters influencing the stability of the brake system and the squeal propensity, has been carried out. PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: We study the structure of the seismic radiation in the far field produced by an explosive column. Using an asymptotic solution for the far field of vibration (Heelan’s solution), we find analytical expressions to the peak particle velocity (PPV) diagrams. These results are extended to the case of a charge with finite velocity of detonation. PubDate: Thu, 29 Mar 2018 07:14:13 +000