Advances in Artificial Intelligence
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1687-7470 - ISSN (Online) 1687-7489
Published by Hindawi [333 journals]
- Selection and Configuration of Sorption Isotherm Models in Soils Using
Artificial Bees Guided by the Particle Swarm
Abstract: A precise estimation of isotherm model parameters and selection of isotherms from the measured data are essential for the fate and transport of toxic contaminants in the environment. Nonlinear least-square techniques are widely used for fitting the isotherm model on the experimental data. However, such conventional techniques pose several limitations in the parameter estimation and the choice of appropriate isotherm model as shown in this paper. It is demonstrated in the present work that the classical deterministic techniques are sensitive to the initial guess and thus the performance is impeded by the presence of local optima. A novel solver based on modified artificial bee-colony (MABC) algorithm is proposed in this work for the selection and configuration of appropriate sorption isotherms. The performance of the proposed solver is compared with the other three solvers based on swarm intelligence for model parameter estimation using measured data from 21 soils. Performance comparison of developed solvers on the measured data reveals that the proposed solver demonstrates excellent convergence capabilities due to the superior exploration-exploitation abilities. The estimated solutions by the proposed solver are almost identical to the mean fitness values obtained over 20 independent runs. The advantages of the proposed solver are presented.
PubDate: Wed, 18 Jan 2017 07:16:42 +000
- Weighted Constraint Satisfaction for Smart Home Automation and
Abstract: Automation of the smart home binds together services of hardware and software to provide support for its human inhabitants. The rise of web technologies offers applicable concepts and technologies for service composition that can be exploited for automated planning of the smart home, which can be further enhanced by implementation based on service oriented architecture (SOA). SOA supports loose coupling and late binding of devices, enabling a more declarative approach in defining services and simplifying home configurations. One such declarative approach is to represent and solve automated planning through constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), which has the advantage of handling larger domains of home states. But CSP uses hard constraints and thus cannot perform optimization and handle contradictory goals and partial goal fulfillment, which are practical issues smart environments will face if humans are involved. This paper extends this approach to Weighted Constraint Satisfaction Problem (WCSP). Branch and bound depth first search is used, where its lower bound is estimated by bacterial memetic algorithm (BMA) on a relaxed version of the original optimization problem. Experiments up to 16-step planning of home services demonstrate the applicability and practicality of the approach, with the inclusion of local search for trivial service combinations in BMA that produces performance enhancements. Besides, this work aims to set the groundwork for further research in the field.
PubDate: Wed, 23 Nov 2016 05:58:41 +000
- Twin Support Vector Machine for Multiple Instance Learning Based on Bag
Abstract: In multiple instance learning (MIL) framework, an object is represented by a set of instances referred to as bag. A positive class label is assigned to a bag if it contains at least one positive instance; otherwise a bag is labeled with negative class label. Therefore, the task of MIL is to learn a classifier at bag level rather than at instance level. Traditional supervised learning approaches cannot be applied directly in such kind of situation. In this study, we represent each bag by a vector of its dissimilarities to the other existing bags in the training dataset and propose a multiple instance learning based Twin Support Vector Machine (MIL-TWSVM) classifier. We have used different ways to represent the dissimilarity between two bags and performed a comparative analysis of them. The experimental results on ten benchmark MIL datasets demonstrate that the proposed MIL-TWSVM classifier is computationally inexpensive and competitive with state-of-the-art approaches. The significance of the experimental results has been tested by using Friedman statistic and Nemenyi post hoc tests.
PubDate: Tue, 23 Aug 2016 06:17:52 +000
- Effect of Collaborative Recommender System Parameters: Common Set
Cardinality and the Similarity Measure
Abstract: Recommender systems are widespread due to their ability to help Web users surf the Internet in a personalized way. For example, collaborative recommender system is a powerful Web personalization tool for suggesting many useful items to a given user based on opinions collected from his neighbors. Among many, similarity measure is an important factor affecting the performance of the collaborative recommender system. However, the similarity measure itself largely depends on the overlapping between the user profiles. Most of the previous systems are tested on a predefined number of common items and neighbors. However, the system performance may vary if we changed these parameters. The main aim of this paper is to examine the performance of the collaborative recommender system under many similarity measures, common set cardinalities, rating mean groups, and neighborhood set sizes. For this purpose, we propose a modified version for the mean difference weight similarity measure and a new evaluation metric called users’ coverage for measuring the recommender system ability for helping users. The experimental results show that the modified mean difference weight similarity measure outperforms other similarity measures and the collaborative recommender system performance varies by varying its parameters; hence we must specify the system parameters in advance.
PubDate: Sun, 19 Jun 2016 09:35:52 +000
- Automatic Representation and Segmentation of Video Sequences via a Novel
Framework Based on the D-EVM and Kohonen Networks
Abstract: Recently in the Computer Vision field, a subject of interest, at least in almost every video application based on scene content, is video segmentation. Some of these applications are indexing, surveillance, medical imaging, event analysis, and computer-guided surgery, for naming some of them. To achieve their goals, these applications need meaningful information about a video sequence, in order to understand the events in its corresponding scene. Therefore, we need semantic information which can be obtained from objects of interest that are present in the scene. In order to recognize objects we need to compute features which aid the finding of similarities and dissimilarities, among other characteristics. For this reason, one of the most important tasks for video and image processing is segmentation. The segmentation process consists in separating data into groups that share similar features. Based on this, in this work we propose a novel framework for video representation and segmentation. The main workflow of this framework is given by the processing of an input frame sequence in order to obtain, as output, a segmented version. For video representation we use the Extreme Vertices Model in the -Dimensional Space while we use the Discrete Compactness descriptor as feature and Kohonen Self-Organizing Maps for segmentation purposes.
PubDate: Wed, 02 Mar 2016 13:07:04 +000
- Efficacious Discriminant Analysis (Classifier) Measures for End Users
Abstract: Many problem domains utilize discriminant analysis, for example, classification, prediction, and diagnoses, by applying artificial intelligence and machine learning. However, the results are rarely perfect and errors can cause significant losses. Hence, end users are best served when they have performance information relevant to their need. Starting with the most basic questions, this study considers eight summary statistics often seen in the literature and evaluates their end user efficacy. Results lead to proposed criteria necessary for end user efficacious summary statistics. Testing the same eight summary statistics shows that none satisfy all of the criteria. Hence, two criteria-compliant summary statistics are introduced. To show how end users can benefit, measure utility is demonstrated on two problems. A key finding of this study is that researchers can make their test outcomes more relevant to end users with minor changes in their analyses and presentation.
PubDate: Sun, 31 Jan 2016 13:29:59 +000
- Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Approximation PI Controller for
Automatic Cruise Control System
Abstract: Fuzzy logic systems have been widely used for controlling nonlinear and complex dynamic systems by programming heuristic knowledge. But these systems are computationally complex and resource intensive. This paper presents a technique of development and porting of a fuzzy logic approximation PID controller (FLAC) in an automatic cruise control (ACC) system. ACC is a highly nonlinear process and its control is trivial due to the large change in parameters. Therefore, a suitable controller based on heuristic knowledge will be easy to develop and provide an effective solution. But the major problem with employing fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is its complexity. Moreover, the designing of Rulebase requires efficient heuristic knowledge about the system which is rarely found. Therefore, in this paper, a novel rule extraction process is used to derive a FLAC. This controller is then ported on a C6748 DSP hardware with timing and memory optimization. Later, it is seamlessly connected to a network to support remote reconfigurability. A performance analysis is drawn based on processor-in loop test with Simulink model of a cruise control system for vehicle.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Nov 2015 09:04:12 +000
- Wavelet Network: Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine for Nonlinear
Dynamic Systems Identification
Abstract: A single hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN) with online sequential extreme learning machine (OSELM) algorithm has been introduced and applied in many regression problems successfully. However, using SLFN with OSELM as black-box for nonlinear system identification may lead to building models for the identified plant with inconsistency responses from control perspective. The reason can refer to the random initialization procedure of the SLFN hidden node parameters with OSELM algorithm. In this paper, a single hidden layer feedforward wavelet network (WN) is introduced with OSELM for nonlinear system identification aimed at getting better generalization performances by reducing the effect of a random initialization procedure.
PubDate: Sun, 20 Sep 2015 11:15:06 +000
- Impacts of the Load Models on Optimal Planning of Distributed Generation
in Distribution System
Abstract: The optimal planning (sizing and siting) of the distributed generations (DGs) by using butterfly-PSO/BF-PSO technique to investigate the impacts of load models is presented in this work. The validity of the evaluated results is confirmed by comparing with well-known Genetic Algorithm (GA) and standard or conventional particle swarm optimization (PSO). To exhibit its compatibility in terms of load management, an impact of different load models on the size and location of DG has also been presented in this work. The fitness evolution function explored is the multiobjective function (FMO), which is based on the three significant indexes such as active power loss, reactive power loss, and voltage deviation index. The optimal solution is obtained by minimizing the multiobjective fitness function using BF-PSO, GA, and PSO technique. The comparison of the different optimization techniques is given for the different types of load models such as constant, industrial, residential, and commercial load models. The results clearly show that the BF-PSO technique presents the superior solution in terms of compatibility as well as computation time and efforts both. The algorithm has been carried out with 15-bus radial and 30-bus mesh system.
PubDate: Thu, 17 Sep 2015 13:50:19 +000
- A Dirichlet Process Mixture Based Name Origin Clustering and Alignment
Model for Transliteration
Abstract: In machine transliteration, it is common that the transliterated names in the target language come from multiple language origins. A conventional maximum likelihood based single model can not deal with this issue very well and often suffers from overfitting. In this paper, we exploit a coupled Dirichlet process mixture model (cDPMM) to address overfitting and names multiorigin cluster issues simultaneously in the transliteration sequence alignment step over the name pairs. After the alignment step, the cDPMM clusters name pairs into many groups according to their origin information automatically. In the decoding step, in order to use the learned origin information sufficiently, we use a cluster combination method (CCM) to build clustering-specific transliteration models by combining small clusters into large ones based on the perplexities of name language and transliteration model, which makes sure each origin cluster has enough data for training a transliteration model. On the three different Western-Chinese multiorigin names corpora, the cDPMM outperforms two state-of-the-art baseline models in terms of both the top-1 accuracy and mean F-score, and furthermore the CCM significantly improves the cDPMM.
PubDate: Wed, 29 Jul 2015 08:54:41 +000
- Pop-Out: A New Cognitive Model of Visual Attention That Uses Light Level
Analysis to Better Mimic the Free-Viewing Task of Static Images
Abstract: Human gaze is not directed to the same part of an image when lighting conditions change. Current saliency models do not considerlight level analysis during their bottom-up processes. In this paper, weintroduce a new saliency model which better mimics physiological andpsychological processes of our visual attention in case of free-viewing task(bottom-up process). This model analyzes lighting conditions with theaim of giving different weights to color wavelengths. The resulting saliencymeasure performs better than a lot of popular cognitive approaches.
PubDate: Wed, 10 Jun 2015 11:52:26 +000
- Study on Similarity among Indian Languages Using Language Verification
Abstract: Majority of Indian languages have originated from two language families, namely, Indo-Europeanand Dravidian. Therefore, certain kind of similarity among languages of a particular family canbe expected to exist. Also, languages spoken in neighboring regions show certain similaritysince there happens to be a lot of intermingling between population of neighboring regions. Thispaper develops a technique to measure similarity among Indian languages in a novel way, usinglanguage verification framework. Four verification systems are designed for each language. Acceptance of one language as another, which relates to false acceptance in language verificationframework, is used as a measure of similarity. If language A shows false acceptance more than apredefined threshold with language B, in at least three out of the four systems, then languages A and B are considered to be similar in this work. It is expected that the languages belonging to the same family should manifest their similarity in experimental results. Also, similaritybetween neighboring languages should be detected through experiments. Any deviation fromsuch fact should be due to specific linguistic or historical reasons. This work analyzes any suchscenario.
PubDate: Tue, 19 May 2015 11:14:47 +000
- Two Artificial Neural Networks for Modeling Discrete Survival Time of
Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) theory is emerging as an alternative to conventional statistical methods in modeling nonlinear functions. The popular Cox proportional hazard model falls short in modeling survival data with nonlinear behaviors. ANN is a good alternative to the Cox PH as the proportionality of the hazard assumption and model relaxations are not required. In addition, ANN possesses a powerful capability of handling complex nonlinear relations within the risk factors associated with survival time. In this study, we present a comprehensive comparison of two different approaches of utilizing ANN in modeling smooth conditional hazard probability function. We use real melanoma cancer data to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed ANN methods. We report some significant results in comparing the survival time of male and female melanoma patients.
PubDate: Sun, 15 Mar 2015 08:58:34 +000
- Genetic Algorithm Based PID Controller Tuning Approach for Continuous
Stirred Tank Reactor
Abstract: Genetic algorithm (GA) based PID (proportional integral derivative) controller has been proposed for tuning optimized PID parameters in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) process using a weighted combination of objective functions, namely, integral square error (ISE), integral absolute error (IAE), and integrated time absolute error (ITAE). Optimization of PID controller parameters is the key goal in chemical and biochemical industries. PID controllers have narrowed down the operating range of processes with dynamic nonlinearity. In our proposed work, globally optimized PID parameters tend to operate the CSTR process in its entire operating range to overcome the limitations of the linear PID controller. The simulation study reveals that the GA based PID controller tuned with fixed PID parameters provides satisfactory performance in terms of set point tracking and disturbance rejection.
PubDate: Tue, 23 Dec 2014 10:02:22 +000
- An Emotion Detection System Based on Multi Least Squares Twin Support
Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), bipolar manic disorder (BMD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, and suicide are some major problems existing in civilian and military life. The change in emotion is responsible for such type of diseases. So, it is essential to develop a robust and reliable emotion detection system which is suitable for real world applications. Apart from healthcare, importance of automatically recognizing emotions from human speech has grown with the increasing role of spoken language interfaces in human-computer interaction applications. Detection of emotion in speech can be applied in a variety of situations to allocate limited human resources to clients with the highest levels of distress or need, such as in automated call centers or in a nursing home. In this paper, we used a novel multi least squares twin support vector machine classifier in order to detect seven different emotions such as anger, happiness, sadness, anxiety, disgust, panic, and neutral emotions. The experimental result indicates better performance of the proposed technique over other existing approaches. The result suggests that the proposed emotion detection system may be used for screening of mental status.
PubDate: Tue, 23 Dec 2014 06:27:39 +000
- A New Evolutionary-Incremental Framework for Feature Selection
Abstract: Feature selection is an NP-hard problem from the viewpoint of algorithm design and it is one of the main open problems in pattern recognition. In this paper, we propose a new evolutionary-incremental framework for feature selection. The proposed framework can be applied on an ordinary evolutionary algorithm (EA) such as genetic algorithm (GA) or invasive weed optimization (IWO). This framework proposes some generic modifications on ordinary EAs to be compatible with the variable length of solutions. In this framework, the solutions related to the primary generations have short length. Then, the length of solutions may be increased through generations gradually. In addition, our evolutionary-incremental framework deploys two new operators called addition and deletion operators which change the length of solutions randomly. For evaluation of the proposed framework, we use that for feature selection in the application of face recognition. In this regard, we applied our feature selection method on a robust face recognition algorithm which is based on the extraction of Gabor coefficients. Experimental results show that our proposed evolutionary-incremental framework can select a few number of features from existing thousands features efficiently. Comparison result of the proposed methods with the previous methods shows that our framework is comprehensive, robust, and well-defined to apply on many EAs for feature selection.
PubDate: Tue, 25 Nov 2014 13:10:06 +000
- Estimation of Missing Rainfall Data Using GEP: Case Study of Raja River,
Alor Setar, Kedah
Abstract: Water resources and urban flood management require hydrologic and hydraulic modeling. However, incomplete precipitation data is often the issue during hydrological modeling exercise. In this study, gene expression programming (GEP) was utilised to correlate monthly precipitation data from a principal station with its neighbouring station located in Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia. GEP is an extension to genetic programming (GP), and can provide simple and efficient solution. The study illustrates the applications of GEP to determine the most suitable rainfall station to replace the principal rainfall station (station 6103047). This is to ensure that a reliable rainfall station can be made if the principal station malfunctioned. These were done by comparing principal station data with each individual neighbouring station. Result of the analysis reveals that the station 38 is the most compatible to the principal station where the value of R2 is 0.886.
PubDate: Tue, 09 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +000
- Physical Violence Detection for Preventing School Bullying
Abstract: School bullying is a serious problem among teenagers, causing depression, dropping out of school, or even suicide. It is thus important to develop antibullying methods. This paper proposes a physical bullying detection method based on activity recognition. The architecture of the physical violence detection system is described, and a Fuzzy Multithreshold classifier is developed to detect physical bullying behaviour, including pushing, hitting, and shaking. Importantly, the application has the capability of distinguishing these types of behaviour from such everyday activities as running, walking, falling, or doing push-ups. To accomplish this, the method uses acceleration and gyro signals. Experimental data were gathered by role playing school bullying scenarios and by doing daily-life activities. The simulations achieved an average classification accuracy of 92%, which is a promising result for smartphone-based detection of physical bullying.
PubDate: Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +000
- Hybrid Wavelet-Postfix-GP Model for Rainfall Prediction of Anand Region of
Abstract: An accurate prediction of rainfall is crucial for national economy and management of water resources. The variability of rainfall in both time and space makes the rainfall prediction a challenging task. The present work investigates the applicability of a hybrid wavelet-postfix-GP model for daily rainfall prediction of Anand region using meteorological variables. The wavelet analysis is used as a data preprocessing technique to remove the stochastic (noise) component from the original time series of each meteorological variable. The Postfix-GP, a GP variant, and ANN are then employed to develop models for rainfall using newly generated subseries of meteorological variables. The developed models are then used for rainfall prediction. The out-of-sample prediction performance of Postfix-GP and ANN models is compared using statistical measures. The results are comparable and suggest that Postfix-GP could be explored as an alternative tool for rainfall prediction.
PubDate: Mon, 02 Jun 2014 12:06:20 +000
- Intelligent Control for USV Based on Improved Elman Neural Network with
Abstract: In recent years, based on the rising of global personal safety demand and human resource cost considerations, development of unmanned vehicles to replace manpower requirement to perform high-risk operations is increasing. In order to acquire useful resources under the marine environment, a large boat as an unmanned surface vehicle (USV) was implemented. The USV is equipped with automatic navigation features and a complete substitute artificial manipulation. This USV system for exploring the marine environment has more carrying capacity and that measurement system can also be self-designed through a modular approach in accordance with the needs for various types of environmental conditions. The investigation work becomes more flexible. A catamaran hull is adopted as automatic navigation test with CompactRIO embedded system. Through GPS and direction sensor we not only can know the current location of the boat, but also can calculate the distance with a predetermined position and the angle difference immediately. In this paper, the design of automatic navigation is calculated in accordance with improved Elman neural network (ENN) algorithms. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy and improved ENN control are applied to adjust required power and steering, which allows the hull to move straight forward to a predetermined target position. The route will be free from outside influence and realize automatic navigation purpose.
PubDate: Sun, 18 May 2014 07:13:23 +000
- Design of a T Factor Based RBFNC for a Flight Control System
Abstract: This paper presents the design of modified radial basic function neural controller (MRBFNC) for the pitch control of an aircraft to obtain the desired pitch angel as required by the pilot while maneuvering an aircraft. In this design, the parameters of radial basis function neural controller (RBFNC) are optimized by implementing a feedback mechanism which is controlled by a tuning factor “α” (T factor). For a given input, the response of the RBFN controller is tuned by using T factor for better performance of the aircraft pitch control system. The proposed system is demonstrated under different condition (absence and presence of sensor noise). The simulation results show that MRBFNC performs better, in terms of settling time and rise time for both conditions, than the conventional RBFNC. It is also seen that, as the value of the T factor increases, the aircraft pitch control system performs better and settles quickly to its reference trajectory. A comparison between MRBFNC and conventional RBFNC is also established to discuss the superiority of the former techniques.
PubDate: Thu, 24 Apr 2014 08:38:50 +000
- Analysis of Changes in Market Shares of Commercial Banks Operating in
Turkey Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms
Abstract: This paper aims to model the change in market share of 30 domestic and foreign banks, which have been operating between the years 1990 and 2009 in Turkey by taking into consideration 20 financial ratios of those banks. Due to the fragile structure of the banking sector in Turkey, this study plays an important role for determining the changes in market share of banks and taking the necessary measures promptly. For this reason, computational intelligence methods have been used in the study. According to the research results, it is seen that it was not able to properly anticipate the data for the banking sector in the periods of financial crises (2000-2001 and 2008-2009). However, it is seen that, Simple Linear Regression is distinguished as a good algorithm among the computational intelligence algorithms for all periods between the years 1990 and 2009.
PubDate: Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:28:01 +000
- Reinforcement Learning in an Environment Synthetically Augmented with
Abstract: Reinforcement learning requires information about states, actions, and outcomes as the basis for learning. For many applications, it can be difficult to construct a representative model of the environment, either due to lack of required information or because of that the model's state space may become too large to allow a solution in a reasonable amount of time, using the experience of prior actions. An environment consisting solely of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of specific events attributable to a human actor may appear to lack the necessary structure for the positioning of responding agents in time and space using reinforcement learning. Digital pheromones can be used to synthetically augment such an environment with event sequence information to create a more persistent and measurable imprint on the environment that supports reinforcement learning. We implemented this method and combined it with the ability of agents to learn from actions not taken, a concept known as fictive learning. This approach was tested against the historical sequence of Somali maritime pirate attacks from 2005 to mid-2012, enabling a set of autonomous agents representing naval vessels to successfully respond to an average of 333 of the 899 pirate attacks, outperforming the historical record of 139 successes.
PubDate: Thu, 13 Mar 2014 17:31:21 +000