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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 73)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 192)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Sociodemographic, Clinical Variables, and Quality of Life in Patients with
           Epilepsy in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked recurrent seizure episodes. The disease has detrimental effects on social, cognitive, psychological, and physical components of life consequently quality of life of the patients. The level of the effect of the disease on quality life is influenced by different factors including the use of antiepileptic medications. Objectives. The study was aimed at assessing quality of life in patients with epilepsy and the variables affecting it in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia. Methods. 175 patients with epilepsy aging 18 years old and above attending neurologic clinics of the two governmental hospitals available in Mekelle city were interviewed using standard and validated Tigrigna version of Quality of Life in Epilepsy Scale-31 (QOLIE-31). One-way ANOVA and independent t-test and analysis of covariance were used for data analysis. Result. The mean age of the patients was 29.36 (standard deviation (SD) 12.77) years old, and 61% of them were males while 52% of the respondents were on phenobarbitone monotherapy. The mean total QOLIE-31 score was 77.97 (SD 20.78) with the highest subscale score for medication effects and the lowest for overall quality of life (QOL) functioning with a score of 86.2 (SD 22.12) and 70.97 (SD 26.43), respectively. The patients with high seizure frequency in the past month before the current visit had a significantly low quality of life 76.81 (SD 21.11). Conversely, patients with tertiary education and above had shown a significantly high quality of life 89.52 (SD 11.85). Conclusion. The overall QOL of the patients was good. Seizure frequency and level of education were found significant predictors of QOL showing the necessity of seizure control and patient education for improving quality of life in patients with epilepsy.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Sociodemographic, Electrophysiological, and Biochemical Profiles in
           Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Epilepsy

    • Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most prevalent neurobehavioral disorders affecting children worldwide. The prevalence of ADHD is higher in children with epilepsy. Despite the plethora of conducted work, the precise cause of ADHD is not identified yet. We studied here the sociodemographic, clinical, electrophysiological, and biochemical profiles of children with ADHD, epilepsy, and ADHD with epilepsy. Subjects were divided into 4 groups (25 child/group): I—control, II—ADHD, III—epilepsy, and IV—ADHD with epilepsy. Male to female ratio was significantly () higher in the ADHD (3.1) and ADHD with epilepsy (2.1) groups when compared to the control (1.08) or epilepsy (1.08) groups. Positive family history was significantly evident in patients with epilepsy and ADHD with epilepsy, but not in the control or ADHD groups. Speech development was significantly delayed in the ADHD and ADHD with epilepsy groups. EEG abnormalities were detected in patients with ADHD (12%) and ADHD with epilepsy (68%). Focal frontal activities were significantly detectable in the ADHD (100%) and ADHD with epilepsy (77.8%) groups, whereas focal temporal activity was significantly present in the epilepsy (83.3%) group. Serum ferritin was significantly lower in the ADHD group (110.27 ± 6.64 ηg/ml) when compared to the control (134.23 ± 14.82 ηg/ml), epilepsy (159.66 ± 33.17 ηg/ml), and ADHD with epilepsy (203.04 ± 50.64 ηg/ml) groups. Serum zinc was significantly higher in the ADHD, epilepsy, and ADHD with epilepsy groups (236.63 ± 20.89, 286.74 ± 43.84, and 229.95 ± 67.34 μg/dl, respectively), when compared to the control group (144.21 ± 17.40 μg/dl). Serum adenosine deaminase was insignificantly different among the groups. Our results indicate that gender and family history are significant moderators in the aetiology of ADHD and epilepsy or their comorbidity. We also demonstrated that EEG could be central in the assessment of ADHD with epilepsy cases. Serum ferritin and zinc alteration may contribute significantly in ADHD and epilepsy pathophysiology.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 06:25:29 +000
  • Practice Variability Combined with Task-Oriented Electromyographic
           Biofeedback Enhances Strength and Balance in People with Chronic Stroke

    • Abstract: Objectives. To investigate the effects of practice variability combined with task-oriented electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBFB) on strength and balance in people with chronic stroke. Methods. Thirty-three participants were randomly assigned into the constant force EMGBFB tibialis anterior (TA) exercise (constant) group, the variable force EMGBFB tibialis anterior exercise (variable) group, or the upper extremity exercise without EMGBFB (control) group. Subjects in each group received 6 weekly sessions of exercise training (18 sessions, 40 minutes each). Motor outcomes were TA strength, balance (anteroposterior sway amplitude defined by limits of stability test in dynamic posturography), walking speed, Timed Up and Go test (TUGT), and six-minute walk test (6MWT). Data were measured at baseline, 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks posttraining. Results. TA strength increased significantly in both the constant and variable groups after training. Balance significantly improved only in the variable group. All participants showed improvements in walking speed, TUGT, and 6MWT. Conclusions. Task-oriented EMGBFB-assisted TA exercise training improved muscle strength in people with chronic stroke. Practicing to reach varying force levels during EMGBFB-assisted tibialis anterior exercises facilitated improvements in the ability to sway in the anteroposterior direction while standing. Our findings highlight the importance of task-oriented and motor learning principles while using the EMGBFB as an adjunct therapy in stroke rehabilitation. This trial was registered with trial registration number NCT01962662.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Mechanisms Underlying Aggressive Behavior Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs:
           Focus on Topiramate, Levetiracetam, and Perampanel

    • Abstract: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective against seizures, but their use is often limited by adverse effects, among them psychiatric and behavioral ones including aggressive behavior (AB). Knowledge of the incidence, risk factors, and the underlying mechanisms of AB induced by AEDs may help to facilitate management and reduce the risk of such side effects. The exact incidence of AB as an adverse effect of AEDs is difficult to estimate, but frequencies up to 16% have been reported. Primarily, levetiracetam (LEV), perampanel (PER), and topiramate (TPM), which have diverse mechanisms of action, have been associated with AB. Currently, there is no evidence for a specific pharmacological mechanism solely explaining the increased incidence of AB with LEV, PER, and TPM. Serotonin (5-HT) and GABA, and particularly glutamate (via the AMPA receptor), seem to play key roles. Other mechanisms involve hormones, epigenetics, and “alternative psychosis” and related phenomena. Increased individual susceptibility due to an underlying neurological and/or a mental health disorder may further explain why people with epilepsy are at an increased risk of AB when using AEDs. Remarkably, AB may occur with a delay of weeks or months after start of treatment. Information to patients, relatives, and caregivers, as well as sufficient clinical follow-up, is crucial, and there is a need for further research to understand the complex relationship between AED mechanisms of action and the induction/worsening of AB.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Behavioural and Cognitive Changes in Lewy Body Dementias

    • PubDate: Sun, 11 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Longitudinal Screening Detects Cognitive Stability and Behavioral
           Deterioration in ALS Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods. We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes. Change in cognitive/behavioral subgroups was assessed using one-way analyses of covariance. Results. Participants with follow-up data had fewer baseline behavior problems compared to patients without follow-up data. We found significant worsening of behavior (ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS CBS) behavioral scale, ; Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS (FBI-ALS) disinhibition subscale, ). Item analysis suggested change in frustration tolerance, insight, mental rigidity, and interests (). Changes in ALSFRS-R correlated with the ALS CBS. Worsening disinhibition (FBI-ALS) did not correlate with ALSFRS-R, FVC, or disease duration. Conclusion. We did not detect cognitive change. Behavioral change was detected, and increased disinhibition was found among patients with abnormal baseline behavioral scores. Disinhibition changes did not correlate with disease duration or progression. Baseline behavioral problems were associated with advanced, rapidly progressive disease and study attrition.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Therapeutic Strategies for Poststroke Neurological Behavior: From
           Molecular to Cellular

    • PubDate: Sun, 28 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Apathy Is Correlated with Widespread Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
           Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    • Abstract: Apathy is recognized as the most common behavioral change in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder. Particularly, apathy has been reported to be associated with poor ALS prognosis. However, the brain microstructural correlates of this behavioral symptom, reported as the most common in ALS, have not been completely elucidated. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), here we aimed to quantify the correlation between brain microstructural damage and apathy scores in the early stages of ALS. Twenty-one consecutive ALS patients, in King’s clinical stage 1 or 2, and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological examination. Between-group comparisons did not show any significant difference on cognitive and behavioral variables. When compared to HCs, ALS patients exhibited a decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) [, threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) corrected] in the corpus callosum and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortices. Self-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) scores and self-rated apathy T-scores of the Frontal Systems Behavior (FrSBe) scale were found inversely correlated to FA measures (, TFCE corrected) in widespread white matter (WM) areas, including several associative fiber tracts in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. These results point towards an early microstructural degeneration of brain areas biologically involved in cognition and behavior regulation in ALS. Moreover, the significant correlations between apathy and DTI measures in several brain areas may suggest that subtle WM changes may be associated with mild behavioral symptoms in ALS even in the absence of overt cognitive and behavioral impairment.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy Administered Early after Narcolepsy
           Type 1 Onset in Three Patients Evaluated by Clinical and Polysomnographic

    • Abstract: Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare disabling sleep disorder mainly characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotion-triggered sudden loss of muscle tone. Patients have a selective degeneration of hypocretin-producing neurons in the dorsolateral posterior hypothalamus with growing evidence supporting the hypothesis of an autoimmune mechanism. Few case studies that reported intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) suggest the efficacy of IVIg when administered early after disease onset, but the results are controversial. In these retrospective case observations, IVIg cycles were initiated within one to four months after cataplexy onset in a twenty-seven-year-old man, a ten-year-old girl, and a seven-year-old boy, all three with early onset typical narcolepsy type 1. Efficacy of treatment (three IVIg cycles of 1 g/kg administered at four-week intervals) was evaluated based on clinical, polysomnographic, and multiple sleep latency test (mean latency and SOREM) follow-up. Two patients reported decreased cataplexy frequency and ameliorated daytime sleepiness, but no significant amelioration of polysomnographic parameters was observed. Given the possibility of spontaneous improvement of cataplexy frequency with self-behavioral adjustments, these observations would need to be confirmed by larger controlled studies. Based on the present study and current literature, proof of concept is still missing thus prohibiting the consideration of IVIg as an efficient treatment option.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Oct 2018 06:33:40 +000
  • Stroke Survivor and Caregiver Perspectives on Post-Stroke Visual Concerns
           and Long-Term Consequences

    • Abstract: Approximately 800,000 people in the United States have a stroke annually. Up to two thirds of stroke survivors have some visual problems, which result in disability and can affect survivors’ overall rehabilitation outcomes. Although some post-stroke visual impairments can be corrected and respond well to intervention, ocular signs can be subtle and may not be recognized or reported by the stroke survivor but rather by a vigilant caregiver. The purpose of this study was to explore the post-stroke visual concerns and consequences expressed by stroke survivors and caregivers. This study employed a qualitative design using semistructured interviews conducted with a convenience sample of stroke survivors and caregivers recruited from either a community support group or skilled nursing and long-term care facilities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Comparative content analysis was used to identify vision-related themes by two independent coders. All research team members completed quality checking of coding. Twenty participants (11 stroke survivors and 9 caregivers) expressed visual concerns or consequences following stroke: (1) eye movement problems, (2) perceptual issues, and (3) consequences of vision problems or issues, which affected their daily life/quality of life. Stroke survivors and caregivers reported receiving vision care from (1) eye doctors, (2) occupational therapists, and (3) other healthcare professionals. All vision care providers need to be observant of potential post-stroke visual concerns. Stroke survivors should have a thorough vision evaluation to optimize their independence in everyday activities and quality of life.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Crinum macowanii
           against Memory Impairment Induced by Aluminum Chloride in BALB/c Mice

    • Abstract: Crinum macowanii is a bulbous plant indigenous to many parts of Southern Africa. Extracts of C. macowanii have gained interest since the discovery of various alkaloids, few of which possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a crude hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii against aluminum chloride-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition task. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o) was administered daily for five weeks, while donepezil (3 mg/kg p.o) was used as the positive control. C. macowanii at a dosage of 40 mg/kg showed a significantly lower escape latency than the negative control () and was found to be comparable to donepezil 3 mg/kg in the Morris water maze test. C. macowanii at 40 mg/kg exhibited a significantly higher discrimination index than aluminum chloride-treated mice in the novel object recognition task. The results may support the usefulness of C. macowanii in the management of dementia and related illnesses.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparing Sensitivity and Specificity of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive
           Examination-I, III and Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination in
           Parkinson’s Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD) are one of the most troublesome problems and their diagnosis is often challenging. Methods. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of several versions of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (ACE, ACE-III, and Mini-ACE) on 552 subjects with PD. Normal cognition, mild and major NCD were judged in accordance with the respective criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition. Subsequently, we applied the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) analysis in comparison of different education levels. Results. For subjects with education level 0–8 and 9–12 years, the ACE-III had the best discriminating capabilities for mild NCD (cut-off scores: 83.5 and 85.5 points, respectively), while Mini-ACE was the best for subjects having education > 12 years (cut-off score: 25.5 points). For detecting major NCD, ACE-III had the best diagnostic accuracy in all levels of education (cut-off scores: 70.5, 77.5, and 78.5 points for subjects having education level 0–8, 9–12, and >12 years, respectively). Conclusion. ACE-III and its nested version, the Mini-ACE, had the best screening abilities for detecting mild and major NCD in PD.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Oct 2018 06:33:57 +000
  • Associations between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
           Treatment and Patient Nutritional Status and Height

    • Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to co-occur frequently with obesity, although the reasons for this association are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional profile of a Brazilian cohort of ADHD patients with that of the general population and to analyze the association between ADHD drug treatment (with methylphenidate), nutritional status, and height of these individuals. In the first phase of the study, we designed the nutritional and height profile of 93 ADHD patients (5.1 to 13.8 years old) and compared it to a control group. In the second phase, we analyzed the association of the use of methylphenidate with nutritional status and height. The results showed that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was statistically higher in the cohort of ADHD patients compared to controls (40.9% vs. 34.7%; ). After treating ADHD patients with methylphenidate, a statistically significant decrease in the BMI z-score was observed (0.695 vs. 0.305; ). On the other hand, no significant impact on height was detected after treatment (0.189 vs. 0.248; ). In conclusion, the results suggest that the use of methylphenidate in patients who have ADHD and obesity is relevant not only for controlling ADHD symptoms but also for improving the nutritional status of these individuals. Moreover, the treatment did not affect the patients’ height.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Ficus umbellata (Moraceae) Aqueous Extract and
           7-Methoxycoumarin on Scopolamine-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment in
           Ovariectomized Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: The present work was undertaken to evaluate the ability of F. umbellata aqueous extract and its major component 7-methoxycoumarin (MC) to improve scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in ovariectomized Wistar rats. For this to be done, 10 sham-operated and 30 postmenopausal-like rats were randomly distributed in eight groups () and treated with distilled water (2 mL/250 g), estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), piracetam (1.5 mg/kg BW), F. umbellata aqueous extract (50 and 200 mg/kg BW), or MC (1 mg/kg BW) for 21 consecutive days. Before and after the memory impairment with scopolamine (2 mg/kg BW), animals underwent behavioral evaluations on Y- and radial mazes. As results, age and ovariectomy did not induce significant changes in the reference memory errors. While age decreased working memory errors, ovariectomy increased it. The MC as well as F. umbellata extract significantly increased () the percentage of spontaneous alternation and decreased () working and spatial reference memory errors and anxiety parameters (rearing and grooming) in ovariectomized rats. MC significantly reduced () the MDA level, but resulted in an increase in GSH level in brain homogenates. These results suggest that MC is endowed with neuroprotective effects and could account for the neuroprotective effects of F. umbellata in rats.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Gait and Conditioned Fear Impairments in a Mouse Model of Comorbid TBI and

    • Abstract: Study Objectives. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly cooccur. Approaches to research and treatment of these disorders have been segregated, despite overlapping symptomology. We and others have hypothesized that comorbid TBI + PTSD generates worse symptoms than either condition alone. We present a mouse model of comorbid TBI + PTSD to further explore this condition. Methods. A mouse model of TBI + PTSD was generated using the single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol in combination with the controlled cortical impact (CCI) protocol. This resulted in four experimental groups: control, TBI, PTSD, and TBI + PTSD. Behavioral phenotyping included gait analysis, contextual fear conditioning, acoustic startle response, and prepulse inhibition. Results. Mice in the TBI + PTSD group showed a significantly impaired gait compared to their counterparts with TBI alone as well as control mice. Mice in the TBI + PTSD group showed significantly impaired contextual fear recall compared to controls. Prepulse inhibition testing revealed intact acoustic startle and auditory sensory gating. Conclusions. These results indicate that SPS paired with CCI in mice produces unique behavioral impairments in gait and fear recall that are not present in either condition alone. Further studies are underway to examine additional behavioral, physiological, and pathological phenotypes in this combined model of TBI + PTSD.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Sep 2018 03:41:43 +000
  • The Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Carotid Artery Stenting among the
           Elderly: A Single-Center Study in China

    • Abstract: Compared to carotid endarterectomy, carotid artery stenting (CAS) is reportedly associated with higher perioperative risks in elderly patients. To verify the long-term safety and efficacy of CAS with embolic protection in elderly patients, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with carotid stenosis treated between January 2003 and March 2010 at the Department of Neurology of a large university hospital in China. We included patients with symptomatic, moderate, or severe carotid stenosis of atherosclerotic etiology (other etiologies were excluded), with a disability score ≤ 3 on the modified Rankin Scale, and who received CAS instead of carotid endarterectomy. The clinical endpoints studied were stroke recurrence and all-cause death. The 84 patients included in this study (median follow-up, 8.08 years) were stratified according to age at surgery (
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Scoping Review: The Trajectory of Recovery of Participation Outcomes
           following Stroke

    • Abstract: Participation is a central concept in health and well-being and healthcare, yet operationalizing this concept has been difficult. Its definition, uses in healthcare, and impacts on recovery require ongoing research. Our review question goes like this: from the longitudinal evidence investigating participation among stroke survivors, what are the patterns of participation recovery in stroke survivors over time, and what interventions are used to improve participation' To fully understand these questions, we also ask, how is participation defined in the stroke literature, and what are the measures of participation used in the stroke literature' A systematic scoping review was undertaken using the search terms “stroke,” “longitudinal,” “participation,” and “outcome” in seven databases. Articles included were published until April 2017, written in English, and had at least two longitudinal assessments of participation. Fifty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was the most frequent definition of participation used (34%). There were 22 different measures of participation. Eight of ten studies demonstrated significant improvements in participation up to 12 months poststroke. Efficacy of interventions and their impact on participation varied. The various definitions, measures, and intervention efficacies of participation highlight the need for further research worldwide into achieving meaningful participation and quality of life among stroke survivors. Future practice should include participation as a main outcome measure.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Altered Small-World Networks in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients
           during Cool Executive Function Task

    • Abstract: At present, little is known about brain functional connectivity and its small-world topologic properties in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ) patients during cool executive function task. In this paper, the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) task was used to evaluate the cool executive function of first-episode SZ patients and electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 14 first-episode SZ patients and 14 healthy controls during this cool executive function task. Brain functional connectivity between all pairs of EEG channels was constructed based on mutual information (MI) analysis. The constructed brain functional networks were filtered by three thresholding schemes: absolute threshold, mean degree, and a novel data-driven scheme based on orthogonal minimal spanning trees (OMST), and graph theory was then used to study the topographical characteristics of the filtered brain graphs. Results indicated that the graph theoretical measures of the theta band showed obvious difference between SZ patients and healthy controls. In the theta band, the characteristic path length was significantly longer and the cluster coefficient was significantly smaller in the SZ patients for a wide range of absolute threshold T. However, the cluster coefficient showed no significant changes, and the characteristic path length was still significantly longer in SZ patients when calculated as a function of mean degree K. Interestingly, we also found that only the characteristic path length was significantly longer in SZ patients compared with healthy controls after using the OMST scheme. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the characteristic path length was positively correlated with executive time of TMT-B for the combined SZ patients and healthy controls (, ), but not for SZ patients alone (, ). The above results suggested a less optimal organization of the brain network and could be useful for understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying cool executive dysfunction in first-episode SZ patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Indication of Disrupted Temporal Structure in the Case of Thought Blocks
           in Schizophrenia: The Role of the Metastable Balance

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at investigating probable disruption of the metastable balance relevant to a disruption of the mental processes observed in the neurophenomenal level. This disruption was found to occur under dense auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) which are accompanied by thought blocking (TB) phenomena. The entropy that quantifies the complexity of the spontaneous coupling has been used to describe the observed transitions. According to our findings, the high synchrony-derived entropy (SE) defines a metastable state, where formations of cortical areas are able to coordinate transiently under the demands of stimulus-oriented processes or other internal cognitive associations. It was also found that the disruption of the sensitive balance to the side of oversynergy (overconnectedness) rather than the side of independence (coincidental coupling) is relevant with functional fixations under the specific symptom of schizophrenia. An introduced measure relative to the persistence of coupling indicated that the overcoupled brain areas exhibit a kind of “stiffness” in processing incoherent phasic components. Our consideration enhances the understanding of the role the metastability plays in the interpretation of deeply subjective phenomena, such as AVHs and TBs that affect the normal information routing in the brain.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Scoping Review of the Driving Behaviour of and Driver Training Programs
           for People on the Autism Spectrum

    • Abstract: Gaining a driver’s licence represents increased independence and can lead to improved quality of life for individuals and their families. Learning to drive a motor vehicle and maintaining safe on-road skills are often more difficult for people on the autism spectrum. Many countries currently have no autism-specific licencing requirements for learner drivers, and there is a general lack of ASD-specific support and training packages for individuals, their families, and driving instructors. This review synthesises the peer-reviewed literature about the driving characteristics of drivers on the spectrum and driver training available for the cohort. The evidence in this review showed that individuals on the autism spectrum drive differently from their neurotypical counterparts. There are shortcomings in tactical skills of drivers on the autism spectrum, but the extent to which this affects their own safety or the safety of other road users is unclear. Tactical skills can be improved through training programs. There are few autism spectrum-specific learner training programs available. Development of an effective training program will benefit individuals on the spectrum to learn to drive, be independent, and be safe on the road.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effect of Carotid Artery Morphological Variations on Cognitive Function

    • Abstract: Background. Carotid artery morphological variations (CAMV) are common variations on medical imaging; the effects of CAMV on cognition were still unknown. This study is aimed at investigating whether carotid artery morphological variations (CAMV) cause cognitive impairment. Methods. Hospitalized patients from March 2017 to October 2017 who underwent digital subtract angiography (DSA) were divided into non-CAMV group, T-type group, K-type group, and C-type group according to their carotid artery morphology. Cognitive function in each group was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Scale (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), and the Digital Span Test (DST). Results. A total of 96 patients were included in the study (32 in non-CAMV group, 34 in T-type group, 30 in K-type group, and none in C-group). The positive rate of MMSE in the non-CAMV group, the T-type group, and the K-type group was 15.6%, 14.7%, and 20.0%, respectively, with no statistical difference in the three groups (). The positive rate of MoCA in the K-type group was significantly higher than that in the non-CAMV and the T-type groups (), but there was no significant difference between the non-CAMV group and the T-type group (). The VFT, DST forward score, and backward score in the K-type group were significantly lower than those in the non-CAMV and the T-type groups (). Conclusions. K-type CAMV may cause cognitive impairment, and MoCA is superior to MMSE in identifying mild cognitive impairment caused by CAMV.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Scriptaid Alleviated Neurological
           Dysfunction after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    • Abstract: Objectives. To investigate the role of Scriptaid in reducing brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in mice. Methods. An ICH model was constructed by injecting autologous blood into the right basal ganglia in mice. The animals were administered 3.5 mg/kg of Scriptaid intraperitoneally after ICH. The hematoma volume and hemoglobin level were measured to examine hematoma resolution. A behavior test and brain edema and white matter injury examinations indicated brain injury after ICH. Results. Scriptaid treatment promoted hematoma resolution and reduced the hematoma volume 7 d after ICH compared with the vehicle group (). Scriptaid treatment also alleviated the brain water content in the ipsilateral basal ganglia () and cortex () 3 d after ICH. In addition, Scriptaid improved neurological function recovery and alleviated white matter injury 35 d after ICH. Conclusions. Scriptaid can protect against brain injury after ICH and may be considered a new medical therapy method for ICH.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Hypertriglyceridemia Is Associated with Reduced Leukoaraiosis Severity in
           Patients with a Small Vessel Stroke

    • Abstract: Intracranial hemorrhage or microbleeds and leukoaraiosis have an overlap in biology. Hyperlipidemia may reduce the risk of ICH or cerebral microbleeds; studies focusing on the relationship between different lipid profiles and severity of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and subcortical white matter lesions (SWMLs) in the cerebral small vessel disease are limited. Methods. Patients with recent first lacunar infarct were recruited. PVH and SWMLs were accessed on MRI with the Fazekas scale, and lipid levels were measured. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the relation between different lipid profiles and severity of PVH and SWMLs. Results. In univariate analyses, advancing age was correlated with increasing severity of leukoaraiosis (). There was an inverse relationship between hypertriglyceridemia (hyper-TG) (≥1.7 mmol/l) and severity of leukoaraiosis (). In the multivariable analysis, after controlling for age, sex, and significant risk factors in the univariate and age-adjusted analyses, hyper-TG demonstrated a protective effect on the severity of PVH and SWMLs (). Higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were not associated with leukoaraiosis. Conclusions. Hyper-TG is associated with the severity of leukoaraiosis independent of other risk factors, and it might be a protective role in cerebral small vessel disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 04:11:00 +000
  • Inhibiting of GRASP65 Phosphorylation by DL-3-N-Butylphthalide Protects
           against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via ERK Signaling

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the role of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) mice model. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was also investigated. Methods. All mice were divided into five groups: sham-operated group, CIRI group, NBP pretreatment group, NBP treatment group, and NBP pretreatment + treatment group. The CIRI mice model was established by the use of the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion method. Pretreatment mice received NBP (90 mg/kg/d) three times a day within four days before reperfusion by gavage. Treatment mice received NBP (90 mg/kg/d) three times a day within five days after reperfusion by gavage. We detected the infarction area, the neurological severity, and the superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, we observed the expressions of GRASP65, phosphorylation of GRASP65 (pGRASP65), ERK, and phosphorylation of ERK (pERK) by the use of Western blotting. Results. The result showed that the ERK pathway was activated in response to CIRI. NBP decreases the expressions of pERK and pGRASP65 following CIRI. Additionally, NBP could decrease MDA and increase SOD level in brain tissues. Decreased infarct volume was also observed in the NBP group. Thereby, NBP inhibited the activation of the ERK pathway induced by CIRI and reduced the GRASP65 phosphorylation. Conclusions. The current finding suggested that NBP protected the cerebrum from CIRI mediated by inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway and subsequently reducing GRASP65 phosphorylation.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 10:01:39 +000
  • Ceftriaxone Treatment for Neuronal Deficits: A Histological and MEMRI
           Study in a Rat Model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    • Abstract: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by neuronal deficits and α-synuclein inclusions in the brain. Ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in several neurodegenerative disorders for its abilities to counteract glutamate-mediated toxicity and to block α-synuclein polymerization. By using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) and immunohistochemistry, we measured the effects of CEF on neuronal activity and α-synuclein accumulation in the brain in a DLB rat model. The data showed that CEF corrected neuronal density and activity in the hippocampal CA1 area, suppressed hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus, and reduced α-synuclein accumulation, indicating that CEF is a potential agent in the treatment of DLB.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Exploring the Neuroplastic Effects of Biofeedback Training on Smokers

    • Abstract: Smoking and stress cooccur in different stages of a nicotine addiction cycle, affecting brain function and showing additive impact on different physiological responses. Resting-state functional connectivity has shown potential in identifying these alterations. Nicotine addiction has been associated with detrimental effects on functional integrity of the central nervous system, including the organization of resting-state networks. Prolonged stress may result in enhanced activation of the default mode network (DMN). Considering that biofeedback has shown promise in alleviating physiological manifestations of stress, we aimed to explore the possible neuroplastic effects of biofeedback training on smokers. Clinical, behavioral, and neurophysiological (resting-state EEG) data were collected from twenty-seven subjects before and after five sessions of skin temperature training. DMN functional cortical connectivity was investigated. While clinical status remained unaltered, the degree of nicotine dependence and psychiatric symptoms were significantly improved. Significant changes in DMN organization and network properties were not observed, except for a significant increase of information flow from the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole cortex towards other DMN components. Biofeedback aiming at stress alleviation in smokers could play a protective role against maladaptive plasticity of connectivity. Multiple sessions, individualized interventions and more suitable methods to promote brain plasticity, such as neurofeedback training, should be considered.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 07:52:37 +000
  • Behavioural and Cognitive Changes in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Brain

    • PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • The Pathogenesis of Necroptosis-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Cerebral
           Ischemic Disease

    • Abstract: Necroptosis is the best-described form of regulated necrosis at present, which is widely recognized as a component of caspase-independent cell death mediated by the concerted action of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) was phosphorylated by RIPK3 at the threonine 357 and serine 358 residues and then formed tetramers and translocated onto the plasma membrane, which destabilizes plasma membrane integrity leading to cell swelling and membrane rupture. Necroptosis is downstream of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, and also interaction with NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) induced inflammasome activation. Multiple inhibitors of RIPK1 and MLKL have been developed to block the cascade of signal pathways for procedural necrosis and represent potential leads for drug development. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the study of roles for necroptosis in cerebral ischemic disease and discuss how these modifications delicately control necroptosis.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Jul 2018 06:47:25 +000
  • Corrigendum to “Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function
           after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Antidepressants: A
           Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    • Abstract: Antidepressants are the most commonly and widely used medication for its effectiveness in the treatment of anxiety and depression. A few epidemiological studies have documented that antidepressant is associated with increased risk of dementia so far. Here, our aim is to assess the association between antidepressant use and risk of dementia in elderly patients. We searched articles through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar from inception to December 1, 2017, that reported on the association between antidepressant use and dementia risk. Data were collected from each study independently, and study duplication was checked by at least three senior researchers based on a standardized protocol. Summary relative risk (RR) with 95% CI was calculated by using a random-effects model. We selected 9 out of 754 unique abstracts for full-text review using our predetermined selection criteria, and 5 out of these 9 studies, comprising 53,955 participants, met all of our inclusion criteria. The overall pooled RR of dementia was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.033–2.964) for SSRIs whereas the overall pooled RR of dementia was 2.131 (95% CI: 1.427–3.184) for tricyclic use. Also, MAOIs showed a high rate of increase with significant heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that antidepressant use is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Therefore, we suggest physicians to carefully prescribe antidepressants, especially in elder patients. Additionally, treatment should be stopped if any symptoms related to dementia are to be noticed.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
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