Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 35)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 26, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 44, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 36)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 81, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 230)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Ultrarapid Endoscopic-Aided Hematoma Evacuation in Patients with Thalamic

    • Abstract: Thalamic hemorrhage bears the worst outcome among supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Minimally invasive endoscopic-aided surgery (MIS) has been proved to be safe and effective in evacuating ICH. However, the ideal timing of MIS is still a controversy. In this study, we present our experience in the treatment of patients with thalamic hemorrhage by ultrarapid MIS evacuation. This retrospective analysis enrolled seven patients treated with ultrarapid MIS evacuation of thalamic hemorrhage. Seven patients treated with EVD with similar ICH score were included as match control. Primary endpoints included rebleeding, morbidity, and mortality. Hematoma evacuation rate was evaluated by comparing the pre- and postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans. Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) and modified Rankin Score (mRS) were noted at the 6-month and 1-year postoperative follow-up. Among the seven patients, six were accompanied with intraventricular hemorrhage. All patients received surgery within 6 hours after the onset of stroke. The mean hematoma volume was 35 mL, and the mean operative time was 116.4 minutes. The median hematoma evacuation rate was 74.9%. There was no rebleeding or death reported after the surgery. The median GOSE and mRS were 3 and 5, respectively, at 6 months postoperatively. Further, 1-year postoperative median GOSE and mRS were 3 and 5, respectively. The data suggest that the ultrarapid MIS technique is a safe and effective way in the management of selected cases with thalamic hemorrhage, with favorable long-term functional outcomes. However, a large, prospective, randomized-controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Jan 2021 12:20:01 +000
  • Efficacy of a Smart Antisnore Pillow in Patients with Obstructive Sleep
           Apnea Syndrome

    • Abstract: Objective. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) increases the risk of cardiovascular, dementia, and motor vehicle accident events. However, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) which is the gold standard treatment is not acceptable for many patients with OSAS. Development of devices for the patients of nonadherence to CPAP is necessary. Materials and Methods. We evaluated the effect of the smart antisnore pillow (SAP) in patients with OSAS in a prospective, noncontrolled, nonrandomized, pilot study. According to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), they were divided into two groups: mild-to-moderate OSAS group and severe OSAS group. Single-night polysomnography (PSG) with application of a SAP was performed. Thirty patients, 15 males and 15 females, 33–82 years old (mean age, years), completed the smart antisnore pillow therapy test. Among them, 23 patients had mild-to-moderate OSAS. Results. The SAP significantly improved the snore number (), snore index (), oxygen denaturation index (), total AHI (), and supine AHI () in the mild-to-moderate OSAS group, but there was no significant improvement in the severe OSAS group. Conclusions. We concluded that the SAP is an effective positional therapy device for patients with OSAS of mild-to-moderate severity.
      PubDate: Fri, 15 Jan 2021 15:50:00 +000
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Visual Hallucinations in Patients
           with Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    • Abstract: Visual hallucinations (VHs) are striking features for dementia, especially dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We aimed to study the frequency and associated factors of VH in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and investigate the feasibility of clinically diagnosing the mixed pathology of VCI with DLB. This is a multicentre registration study. A consecutive series of VCI patients with and without dementia were enrolled. Frequency of VH and associated factors, including age, gender, education, disease severity, DLB clinical features, vascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, were compared between VCI with VH (VH+) and without VH (VH−). Among the 1281 patients analysed, 155 (12.1%) had VH. The VH+ group was older (;), was more likely to be female (;), and has a higher clinical dementia rating (;). After adjusting for age, gender, and disease severity, the VH+ group had poorer cognition and more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. The VH+ group was more associated with DLB features in fluctuating cognition (;), parkinsonism (;), rapid eye movement (REM) behavioral disorder (;), and ≧2 DLB core features (;). VCI patients with VH tend to have more severe dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and poorer cognitive function. Additionally, highly associated with clinical DLB features in VCI with VH raised the possibility of mixed pathology with DLB in this group. More than two core features in VCI might help in diagnosing a mixed pathology with DLB.
      PubDate: Mon, 11 Jan 2021 14:50:00 +000
  • Normative and Equated Data of the Original and Basic Versions of the
           Montreal Cognitive Assessment among Community Dwelling Saudi Arabians

    • Abstract: Introduction. Currently, there are standard and basic versions of the MoCA, the latter designed for those with lower educational achievements. Community-based normative data on these versions of the MoCA from Arabic populations are deficient, and there is little data demonstrating how both scales perform in comparison. We aim to obtain normative performances from both versions and equate the measures of both scales. Methods. Community-based recruitment of years of age. Participants underwent testing with both versions. Demographic data was collected with regard to age, gender, years of education, diabetes, and hypertension. Regression analysis was performed to determine significance of variables, and the circle-arc equating method was used to equate the two scores from each scale. Results. 311 participants were included in the study. The mean (sd) age was 45.8 (15.96), females were 184 (59.16%), and the duration of education was 12.7 (5.67) years. The mean scores on the MoCA-A and MoCA-B were 21.47 (4.53) and 24.37 (4.71) (), respectively. Multivariate regression showed significance of age and years of education in both versions (both variables with ). Correlation coefficient between the two scales was 0.77 (). The largest equated difference between both MoCA versions was four points in those scoring from 10-20 on the MoCA-A. Conclusion. We present normative data from a large Saudi Arabian community-based sample with two different MoCA tests, and an equating graph is presented to determine the corresponding expected performance between the two scales.
      PubDate: Thu, 07 Jan 2021 06:35:00 +000
  • Anatomical Covariance Analysis: Detection of Disrupted Correlation Network
           Related to Clinical Trait Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Background. Fatigue is one of the most distressing symptoms among persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The experience of fatigue is inherently interoceptive, yet no study to date has explicitly investigated the insular cortex (IC) as a primary goal in the experience of fatigue in PwMS. In addition, it is unknown how brain regions such as IC play a role in state or trait fatigue. Objective. Assess the involvement of the IC in trait fatigue and state fatigue in PwMS with and without clinical fatigue. Methods. Trait and state fatigue, cognitive status, and structural MRI were assessed in 27 PwMS. PwMS were stratified into nonclinical fatigue (nF-MS, ) () and clinical fatigue (F-MS, ) (). Voxel-based morphometry analysis (VBM) for the whole sample () and for the two groups was performed. Anatomical covariance analysis (ACA) analysis was conducted by selecting different volumes included in the corticostriatal network (CoStN) and analyzing interhemispheric correlations between those volumes to explore the state of the CoStN in both groups. Results. In the VBM analysis, when considering the whole sample of PwMS, higher levels of trait fatigue were negatively associated with grey matter (GM) volume in the left dorsal anterior insula (dAI) (;;). When comparing nF-MS versus F-MS, significant differences were found in the left dAI, where the F-MS group showed less GM volume in the left dAI. In the ACA analysis, the F-MS group showed fewer significant interhemispheric correlations in comparison with the Low-FSS group. Conclusions. The present results provide support to the interoceptive component of self-reported fatigue and suggest that changes in the relationship between the different anatomical regions involved in the CoStN are present even in nonclinical trait fatigue. Those changes might be responsible for the experience of trait fatigue in PwMS. Future studies with larger samples and multimodal MRI acquisitions should be considered to fully understand the changes in the CoStN and the specific role of the IC in trait fatigue.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Dec 2020 05:50:00 +000
  • Clinical and Imaging Prognosis in Patients with Delayed Encephalopathy
           after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    • Abstract: Objective. To study the clinical manifestations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and prognosis of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods. The medical records of 20 patients with DEACMP were retrospectively reviewed. All the patients received hyperbaric oxygen treatment and other treatments as necessary. Results. The patients had diverse clinical manifestations, including memory deficits, personality changes, cognitive or executive function deficits, mood disorders, Parkinsonism, dystonia or other motor impairments, and akinetic mutism. MRI revealed lesions in the bilateral cerebral white matter and/or basal ganglia. Except for the pathologically confirmed DEACMP, epileptic seizure, hemiplegia, and vegetative state, the remaining symptoms had been improved, especially the cognitive impairment, which had been decreased from 95% to 25% and psychiatric symptoms also decreased from 95% to 55% at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The prognosis of patients with DEACMP was poor, and they had a relatively severe disability. The early use of hyperbaric oxygen is of great significance to improve clinical efficacy and get a better prognosis.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 Dec 2020 05:35:00 +000
  • Hypomania, Depression, Euthymia: New Evidence in Parkinson’s

    • Abstract: The field related to mood disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) is fragmented. The aim of this cohort observational study was to evaluate whether the episodes of mood alteration could appear in different disease stages and to verify how nonmotor symptoms were led off into different stages. We enrolled 93 PD outpatients (three groups: drug naive—DN; not exhibiting motor fluctuations—n-MF; and exhibiting motor fluctuations—MF) and 50 healthy controls. Mood state was assessed through the Internal State Scale (ISS) while depressive symptoms were evaluated through the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), nonmotor symptoms by means of the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS), and the presence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) with the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease (QUIP). Clinical and pharmacological data have also been recorded. No significant differences in mood state distribution between groups were observed. Nevertheless, as regards the mood state distribution within groups, in n-MF (47.6%) and MF patients (50%), (hypo)mania presence was significantly higher than other symptoms. In DN patients, hypomania showed a prevalence of 38.1% although it was not significant. At least one ICD was reported in 29.3% of n-MF and 50% of MF patients. In the MF group, a moderate positive correlation between ISS ACTivation subscale scores and the presence of ICDs and compulsive medication use emerged. Finally, MF patients reported higher BDI-II total scores than DN. Our results show that mood alterations in PD, considering both depressive symptoms and mood elevation, are related to the advanced stages of the disease as well as the presence of ICDs, and dopaminergic therapy would not always be able to restore a normal mood condition.
      PubDate: Fri, 27 Nov 2020 07:20:00 +000
  • The Effect of Differential Attentional Focus Strategies on the Performance
           of Military Elite Shooters

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. The effect of attentional focus strategies on performance has been an interesting area of investigation, especially when the precision of performance is of significance. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of different attentional focus strategies on performance precision of elite military shooters. Methods. This study is semiexperimental with an intragroup design. A number of 10 military marksmen (30-42 years old) with at least 10 years of experience in shooting performed under four attentional focus strategies in a counterbalanced design. In each strategy, two blocks (each consisting of 20 trials) were conducted. Shooters’ performance was recorded using SCATT device and analyzed using the factorial variance analysis with repeated measure. Results. Results showed that the interactional effects of internal-external/relevant-irrelevant focuses of attention were significant on shooting record, shooting accumulation, and stability on the target center. Results suggest that the external-relevant attentional focus strategies were more effective than other focus strategies. Conclusion. The results of the study support the hypothesis that external-relevant attentional focus produced better scores, better accumulation, more stability at the target center, and less average fluctuation. Therefore, this attentional focus strategy improves performance precision of military elite shooters.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Nov 2020 03:20:00 +000
  • Basolateral Amygdala but Not Medial Prefrontal Cortex Contributes to
           Chronic Fluoxetine Treatments for PTSD Symptoms in Mice

    • Abstract: Do chronic fluoxetine treatments reduced footshock-induced posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, including fear and comorbid depression, in the situational reminder phase' Moreover, are the subareas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), including the cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), infralimbic cortex (IL), and basolateral amygdala (BLA), involved in the fluoxetine amelioration of PTSD symptoms' These two crucial issues were addressed in the present study. All mice were injected with chronic fluoxetine or normal saline treatments for the adaptation (14 days), footshock fear conditioning (1 day), and situational reminder (3 days) phases. After adaptation, the mice were subjected to footshock (2 mA, 10 seconds) or nonfootshock and stayed 2 min in a footshock box for 2 min for fear conditioning. Later, they were placed in the footshock box for 2 min in the situational reminder phase. In the final session of the situational reminder phase, a forced swimming test (FST) and immunohistochemical staining were conducted. The results indicated that footshock induced fear and comorbid depression. Meanwhile, chronic fluoxetine treatments reduced fear and depression behaviors. The Cg1, PrL, IL, and BLA were seemingly to increase c-Fos expression after footshock-induced PTSD symptoms in the situational reminder phase. The fluoxetine treatments reduced only the BLA’s c-Fos expression. The findings suggest that BLA contributes to the fluoxetine amelioration of PTSD symptoms; however, the mPFC, including the Cg1, PrL, and IL, did not mediate PTSD symptoms’ amelioration stemming from fluoxetine. The present data might help us to further understand the neural mechanism of fluoxetine treatments in PTSD symptoms.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Nov 2020 05:35:00 +000
  • Relationship between Depression Symptoms and Different Types of Measures
           of Obesity (BMI, SAD) in US Women

    • Abstract: Objective. To estimate the relationship between obesity (defined by both BMI and SAD) and various levels of depressive symptoms in women in the United States. Methods. This is a cross-sectional design. All data were collected from NHANES 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was the primary variable used to index depressive symptoms. SAD was assessed using an abdominal caliper. We stratified participates into three groups according to SAD (trisection): T1: low (11.8-18.4 cm), T2: middle (18.5-22.8 cm), and T3: high (22.9-40.1 cm). Other data were collected following the NHANES protocols. We aimed to investigate the effects of obesity on the depression in the NHANES populations. Results. A total of 4477 women were enrolled in the final study population. Participants with a high SAD had the highest risk of clinical depression symptoms (, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4), which was, in particular, the case for moderate-severe depression (, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and severe depression (, 95% CI: 1.0-1.9). We also found a significant relationship between SAD and BMI (). We did, however, not find a significant relationship between BMI and severe depression. Conclusions. SAD had a better correlation with clinical depression symptoms than BMI, especially regarding severe depression symptoms.
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Nov 2020 09:20:00 +000
  • Milestones and Timescale of Poststroke Recovery: A Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background. Progressive increase of an aging population in Western countries will result in a growth of stroke prevalence. As many stroke survivors chronically show severe disability, increase in economic, social, and medical burden could be expected in the future. Objective and subjective measures of poststroke recovery are necessary to obtain predictive information, to improve the treatments, and to better allocate resources. Aim. To explore a measure of the temporal dimension of poststroke recovery, to search for predictive association with multiple clinical variables, and to improve tailoring of poststroke treatments. Method. In this observational monocentric cohort study, 176 poststroke inpatients at their first cerebrovascular event were consecutively enrolled. A novel measure based on the time needed to reach the main milestones of motor recovery was proposed. Moreover, two commonly used outcome measures, a measure of global functioning (Functional Independence Measure (FIM™)) and a measure of neurological poststroke deficit (Fugl-Meyer scale), were collected for the investigations of possible predictors. Results. The patients showed a substantial increase in Fugl-Meyer and FIM scores during the rehabilitative treatment. The acquisition of three milestones was significantly associated with female sex (autonomous standing), length of stay and Fugl-Meyer initial score (autonomous walking), and Fugl-Meyer initial score (functional arm). These findings provided quantitative data on motor milestone reacquisition in a sample of poststroke patients. It also demonstrated the value of the Fugl-Meyer score in predicting the acquisition of two motor milestones, relevant for daily life activities. Conclusion. Systematic recording of the timescale of poststroke recovery showed that motor milestone reacquisition happens, on average and when attainable, in less than 30 days in our sample of patients. The present study underscores the importance of the Fugl-Meyer score as a possible predictor for better improvement in reacquisition times of milestone functional recovery.
      PubDate: Wed, 18 Nov 2020 14:35:01 +000
  • Collective Housing of Mice of Different Age Groups before Maturity Affects
           Mouse Behavior

    • Abstract: Background. Although population housing is recommended by many animal management and ethical guidelines, the effect of collective housing of mice of different age groups on mouse behavior has not been clarified. Since the development of the central nervous system continues to occur before sexual maturation, the stress of social ranking formation among male individuals in mixed housing conditions can affect postmaturation behavior. To assess these effects, sexually immature mice of different ages were housed in the same cage and a series of behavioral tests were performed after maturation. Results. The findings for three groups of mice—junior mice housed with older mice, senior mice housed with younger mice, and mice housed with other mice of the same age—were compared. Junior mice showed higher body weight and activity as well as lower grip strength and anxiety-like behaviors than other mice. In contrast, senior mice showed lower body temperature and increased aggression, antinociceptive effect, and home-cage activity in the dark period in comparison with other mice. Conclusions. Thus, combined housing of immature mice of different age groups affects mouse behavior after maturation. Appropriate prematuration housing conditions are crucial to eliminate the uncontrollable bias caused by age-related social stratification.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Nov 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Antipsychotic Drugs Reverse MK801-Inhibited Cell Migration and F-actin
           Condensation by Modulating the Rho Signaling Pathway in B35 Cells

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. MK801-induced psychotic symptoms and also the Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) expression and cell division control protein 42 (cdc42) mRNA modulation in the rat brain have been investigated. Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have been reported to induce Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) pathway regulation related to cytoskeleton reorganization in neuronal cells. It will be necessary to clarify the effects of APDs on MK801-induced RhoGDI signaling regulation in neuronal cells. Methods. B35 neuronal cells were treated with MK801 for 7 days then treated with MK801 in combination with haloperidol or clozapine for a further 7 days. Cell migration, F-actin condensation, and RhoGDI signaling regulation were examined to investigate the regulatory effects of MK801, haloperidol, and clozapine in B35 neuronal cells. Results. MK801 reduced B35 cell migration, whereas both haloperidol and clozapine reversed the reduction in cell migration induced by MK801. Haloperidol and clozapine restored F-actin condensation after it was diminished by MK801 in B35 cell nuclei. MK801 increased the RhoGDI1 and RhoA expression, which was diminished by the addition of haloperidol and clozapine. MK801 reduced the CDC42 expression, which was restored by haloperidol and clozapine. MK801 reduced the Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), profilin1 (PFN1), and neuronal Wiskott–Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP) expression, which was further reduced by haloperidol and clozapine. MK801 also increased the phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 (p-MLC2), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and c-jun expression, which was decreased by haloperidol and clozapine. p21 (RAC1-) activated kinase 1 (PAK1) expression was not affected by MK801.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Nov 2020 09:50:00 +000
  • AEBP1 Promotes Glioblastoma Progression and Activates the Classical
           NF-κB Pathway

    • Abstract: Objective. Our study was aimed at investigating the mechanistic consequences of the upregulation of adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1) in glioblastoma (GBM). Methods. The expression of AEBP1 in GBM was assessed by bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR; the effects of AEBP1 on GBM cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumor growth in vitro and in vivo were detected by a CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, scratch assay, Transwell assay, and subcutaneous tumor formation, respectively. The activation of related signaling pathways was monitored using western blot. Results. Tumor-related databases and bioinformatics analysis revealed that AEBP1 was highly expressed in GBM and indicated poor outcome of patients; its high expression that was also confirmed in GBM tissues and cell lines was closely related to the tumor size. The results of in vitro experiments showed that AEBP1 could significantly promote GBM cell proliferation, migration, and invasion; in vivo experiments suggested that AEBP1 could contribute to the growth of GBM tumors. AEBP1 could upregulate the level of IκBα phosphorylation, decrease IκBα expression, activate the NF-κB signaling pathway, and promote the expression of downstream oncogenes. Conclusion. Upregulated AEBP1 in GBM promotes GBM cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and facilitates tumor growth in vivo by activating the classical NF-κB pathway.
      PubDate: Fri, 06 Nov 2020 04:20:00 +000
  • Facial Emotion Recognition and Polymorphisms of Dopaminergic Pathway Genes
           in Children with ASD

    • Abstract: Background. It is inconclusive whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience a deficit in facial emotion recognition. The dopaminergic pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ASD. This study was aimed at determining facial emotion recognition and its correlation with polymorphisms in the dopaminergic pathway genes in children with ASD. Methods. Facial emotion recognition was examined in 98 children with ASD and 60 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The severity of ASD was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). DNA from blood cells was used to analyze the genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in dopaminergic pathway genes. SNPs of DBH rs1611115, DDC rs6592961, DRD1 rs251937, DRD2 rs4630328, and DRD3 rs167771 were analyzed. Results. Children with ASD took a significantly longer time to recognize all facial emotions, and their interpretations were less accurate for anger at low intensity and fear at both low and high intensities. The severity of the disease was associated with significant delays in recognition of all facial emotions and with a decrease in accuracy in recognition of happiness and anger at low intensity. Accuracy in recognizing fear at high intensity and sadness at low intensity was associated with rs251937 and rs4630328, respectively, in children with ASD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that SNP rs167771, response time for the recognition of happiness, sadness and fear, and accuracy in recognition of anger and fear were all associated with the risk of childhood ASD. Conclusions. Children with ASD experience a deficit in facial emotion recognition. Certain SNPs in the dopaminergic pathway genes are associated with accuracy in recognizing selective facial emotions in children with ASD.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Nov 2020 13:35:00 +000
  • Protective Factors Modulate the Risk of Beta Amyloid in Alzheimer’s

    • Abstract: Aim. To identify the factors protecting Abeta-positive subjects with normal cognition (NC) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from conversion to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods. Subjects with MCI in the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database, with baseline data for neuropsychological tests, brain beta amyloid (Abeta), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), APOE genotyping, and 18F-FDG-PET (FDG), were included for analysis. Results. Elevated brain amyloid was associated with a higher risk of conversion from MCI to AD (41.5%) relative to Abeta levels of
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Oct 2020 17:05:00 +000
  • Machine Learning Based on a Multiparametric and Multiregional Radiomics
           Signature Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Patients with Glioblastoma

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Although radiotherapy has become one of the main treatment methods for cancer, there is no noninvasive method to predict the radiotherapeutic response of individual glioblastoma (GBM) patients before surgery. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a machine learning-based radiomics signature to predict the radiotherapeutic response of GBM patients. Methods. The MRI images, genetic data, and clinical data of 152 patients with GBM were analyzed. 122 patients from the TCIA dataset (training set: ; validation set: ) and 30 patients from local hospitals were used as an independent test dataset. Radiomics features were extracted from multiple regions of multiparameter MRI. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to verify the ability of the imaging signature to predict the response of GBM patients to radiotherapy before an operation. Multivariate Cox regression including radiomics signature and preoperative clinical risk factors was used to further improve the ability to predict the overall survival (OS) of individual GBM patients, which was presented in the form of a nomogram. Results. The radiomics signature was built by eight selected features. The -index of the radiomics signature in the TCIA and independent test cohorts was 0.703 () and 0.757 (), respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that the radiomics signature (HR: 0.290, ), age (HR: 1.023, ), and KPS (HR: 0.968, ) were independent risk factors for OS in GBM patients before surgery. When the radiomics signature and preoperative clinical risk factors were combined, the radiomics nomogram further improved the performance of OS prediction in individual patients ( and 0.758 in the TCIA and test cohorts, respectively). Conclusion. This study developed a radiomics signature that can predict the response of individual GBM patients to radiotherapy and may be a new supplement for precise GBM radiotherapy.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Oct 2020 09:05:00 +000
  • Burnout among Nurses Working in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Burnout is a condition of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with people in some capacity. Nursing is a stressful profession that deals with human aspects of health and illness and can ultimately lead to job dissatisfaction and burnout. Although burnout among nurses has been addressed in previous research, the heterogeneous nature of the result findings highlights the need for a detailed meta-analysis in Ethiopia. Thus, this review is aimed at identifying the prevalence of burnout among nurses in Ethiopia. Methods. A search strategy was implemented using electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Africa-Wide Information, and African Index Medicus) which were systematically searched online to retrieve related articles using keywords. Studies which were included in this review were written in the English language because writing articles in other languages in Ethiopia is uncommon. The combination of key terms including “burnout”, “nurse” and “Ethiopia”, “systematic review” and protocols was used. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist guideline was followed stepwise. All published articles starting from inception to February 2020 were included, and we did not find unpublished studies. Heterogeneity across the included studies was evaluated by the inconsistency index. All statistical analysis was done using R and RStudio software for Windows, and a random-effects model was applied to estimate the overall prevalence of burnout among nurses in Ethiopia. It is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020188092). Results. The database searched produced 1060 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles with 1654 total nurses were found suitable for the review. Except for one cohort study, all studies were cross-sectional. The overall pooled prevalence of burnout among Ethiopian nurses was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 27%-50%). Conclusions. Burnout affects two out of five nurses in Ethiopia. Therefore, effective interventions and strategies are required to reduce burnout among nurses.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Oct 2020 14:35:01 +000
  • Association between Neuron-Specific Enolase Gene Polymorphism and Delayed
           Encephalopathy after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between neuron-specific enolase (NSE) gene polymorphism and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) and provide a theoretical basis for DEACMP pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis. Methods. To investigate this relationship, we screened 6 NSE single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on the results of the previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 1,201 patients, including 416 in the DEACMP group and 785 in the acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) group, were detected by the Sequenom MassARRAY® method. The genotype frequencies and alleles of the 6 NSE SNPs (rs2071074, rs2071417, rs2071419, rs11064464, rs11064465, and rs3213434) were compared using different genetic models. Results. In the SNPs rs2071419 and rs3213434, we found that the genotypes and allele frequencies in the two groups significantly correlated with the grouping of patients (,;,). The haplotypes GGTTTC and CCTTTC of ACMP and DEACMP were different (,;,). We also observed that rs2071419 and rs3213434 significantly correlated with DEACMP-increased risk in the dominant, codominant, and overdominant genetic models. In addition, we speculated that the C allele of the rs2071419 polymorphism and the T allele of the rs3213434 polymorphism in NSE may increase the DEACMP risk (,).Conclusions. The results show that rs2071419 and rs3213434 are susceptible sites of DEACMP. The NSE C allele of rs2071419 and T allele of rs3213434 and the haplotypes GGTTTC and CCTTTC may be risk factors for DEACMP.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2020 02:50:00 +000
  • Sexual Satisfaction in Fully Ambulatory People with Multiple Sclerosis:
           Does Disability Matter'

    • Abstract: Primary sexual dysfunctions (SD) are a direct result of neurological changes that affect the sexual response. Secondary SD result from the symptoms that do not directly involve nervous pathways to the genital system, such as bladder and bowel problems, fatigue, spasticity, or muscle weakness. Tertiary SD are the result of disability-related psychosocial and cultural issues that can interfere with sexual feelings and experiences. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual satisfaction (SS) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) without significant mobility impairment and to estimate the influence of SD, the score on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), lowered mood, and stress coping strategies on SS. Methods. 76 PwMS with the points were enrolled in the study. The subjects completed the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSISQ-19), and the Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ). Results. The level of SS in PwMS was not significantly lower compared to that of the general population. It correlated with the primary, secondary, and tertiary SD and lowered mood. However, it did not correlate with disability measured by the EDSS. Conclusions. The level of SS in PwMS with the EDSS score below 5.0 points was not significantly lower. SS depended on SD, lowered mood, and stress coping style, and it was not significantly related to the level of disability in patients with the EDDS score below 5.0.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Oct 2020 10:05:00 +000
  • Atypical EEG Responses to Nonverbal Emotionally Charged Stimuli in
           Children with ASD

    • Abstract: This study focused on auditory emotional perception in children with low-functioning autism and investigated the children’s response to emotionally charged nonverbal sounds which regularly induced emotional response in typically developing (TD) peers. An EEG was conducted, and emotional reactions were assessed using analog scales and images of presented sounds with additional images during the presentation of emotional stimuli. The results showed that EEG and emotional responses to the fearful sounds were similar in TD children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both groups of children showed an increase in peak alpha frequency and power of alpha2-band and a decrease in low-frequency bands. Sounds of crying and laughter induced an atypical EEG response in children with ASD, with no change in alpha-band’s power and frequency observed in them; this was contrary to the observation in TD children. The decrease in the fractal dimension detected in children with ASD only for sounds of crying and laughter correlated with the accuracy of assessment of these stimuli.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Oct 2020 10:50:02 +000
  • Corrigendum to “A Longitudinal Examination of the Hopelessness Theory of
           Depression in People Who Have Multiple Sclerosis”

    • PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2020 12:05:00 +000
  • Wild Bitter Melon Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Upregulating
           Injury-Attenuated CISD2 Expression following Spinal Cord Injury

    • Abstract: Background. Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) induce secondary neuroinflammation through astrocyte reactivation, which adversely affects neuronal survival and eventually causes long-term disability. CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2), which has been reported to be involved in mediating the anti-inflammatory responses, can serve as a target in SCI therapy. Wild bitter melon (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) contains an anti-inflammatory agent called alpha-eleostearic acid (α-ESA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β (PPAR-β) ligand. Activated PPAR-β inhibits the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway via the inhibition of IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) degradation. The role of astrocyte deactivation and CISD2 in anti-inflammatory mechanisms of WBM in acute SCIs is unknown. Materials and Methods. A mouse model of SCI was generated via spinal cord hemisection. The SCI mice were administered WBM intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg bodyweight). Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated ALT cells (astrocytes) were used as an in vitro model for studying astrocyte-mediated inflammation post-SCI. The roles of CISD2 and PPAR-β in inflammatory signaling were examined using LPS-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells transfected with si-CISD2 or scramble RNA. Results. WBM mitigated the SCI-induced downregulation of CISD2, PPAR-β, and IκB and upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; marker of astrocyte reactivation) in the spinal cord of SCI mice. Additionally, WBM (1 μg/mL) mitigated LPS-induced CISD2 downregulation. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y neural cells with CISD2 knockdown exhibited decreased PPAR-β expression and augmented NF-κB signaling. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that CISD2 is an upstream modulator of the PPAR-β/NF-κB proinflammatory signaling pathway in neural cells, and that WBM can mitigate the injury-induced downregulation of CISD2 in SCI mice and LPS-stimulated ALT astrocytes.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2020 10:50:00 +000
  • Retinal Levels of Amyloid Beta Correlate with Cerebral Levels of Amyloid
           Beta in Young APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice before Onset of Alzheimer’s

    • Abstract: Objectives. Retina abnormalities are related to cognitive disorders in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Retinal amyloid beta (Aβ) can be labeled by curcumin. We measured Aβ content in the cerebrum and retina of APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP) transgenic mice with early age to investigate the correlation between cerebrum and retina. Methods. APP mice and age-matched wild-type mice were investigated every month from age 2 months to 6 months to assess changes in Aβ content in the retina and cerebrum. At the beginning of each month, mice were fed a curcumin diet (50 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days. The Aβ levels in the retina and cerebrum were measured by ELISAs. Correlations were identified between retinal and cerebral Aβ contents using Pearson’s correlation. Results. In the absence of curcumin, there was a significant correlation between Aβ contents in the retina and cerebrum of APP mice (,). With increasing age, Aβ-mediated degenerative change in the cerebrum ( in 5 months) and retina ( in 5 months) increased significantly. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the Aβ level was significant in the cerebrum () and retina () of older APP mice in the early stage of life. Conclusion. We observed a significant correlation between the Aβ content in the retina and Aβ content in the cerebrum of APP mice. Our data suggest an appropriate time to measure retinal Aβ. Although curcumin can label Aβ in the retina, it also suppresses Aβ levels and weakens the degree of correlation between Aβ in cerebrum and retina tissues.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Sep 2020 09:35:00 +000
  • Comparison of Performance on the Clock Drawing Test Using Three Different
           Scales in Dialysis Patients

    • Abstract: Background. The clock drawing test (CDT) is frequently used to detect changes in cognition. Multiple scales of varying length have been published to assess performance. The aim of this study is to compare the CDT performance measured by three scales among a sample of nondemented patients on renal dialysis and identify the variables that affect performance. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study performed at the dialysis unit at King Saud University Medical City. Eighty-nine dialysis patients performed the CDT. The CDT was scored by the methods of Rouleau et al. (RCS 10-point), Babins et al. (BCS 18-point), and the MoCA (MCS 3-point). Regression models were used to determine influencing demographic and dialysis variables. Scores were then correlated, and a combined factor analysis of scale components was done. Results. Females represented 44.6%, the mean (SD) age was 49.99 (15.49) years, and education duration was 10.29 (5.5) years. Dialysis vintage was 55.81 (62.91) months. The scores for the MCS, RCS, and BCS were 2.18 (1.08), 6.67 (3.07), and 11.8 (5.5), respectively, with significant correlation (). In all scales, increasing age was associated with a lower score (each ). The scores increased with increasing education (each ). Diabetics had a lower score on both the BCS and MCS by 2.56 (SE 1.2) () and 0.71 () points, respectively. However, only age and years of education were significant in the multivariable analysis. In factor analysis, two shared factors appeared between the three scales: hand and number placement and the clock face. Conclusion. Age and education influence the performance on the CDT, and factors diverged into executive and visuospatial components. The MCS is likely to yield useful information but should be interpreted as part of the MoCA.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 11:20:00 +000
  • Evaluating Executive Functions in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic
           Epilepsy Using Frontal Assessment Battery

    • Abstract: Objective. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the executive profile of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as a bedside screening tool and investigate its association with seizure proximity, family history of epilepsy, and polytherapy/monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Background. JME patients have deficits in various aspects of executive functions. FAB has proved to be a useful tool for evaluating executive functions in clinical settings. Methods. Thirty-one JME patients and 110 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. The participants were assessed using six subsets of FAB, including conceptualization, mental flexibility, motor programming, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. Results. Compared to HCs, JME patients showed lower scores in conceptualization, mental flexibility, programming, sensitivity to interference, and total FAB. The number of AEDs (polytherapy versus monotherapy) and duration of time since the last seizure had no significant effect on FAB scores in JME patients. We found significant associations between disease duration and conceptualization, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and total FAB score only in JME patients with recent seizure. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed area under the curve (AUC) of 0.971 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.947–0.994) for FAB total score, 0.933 for conceptualization (95% CI: 0.973-894), and 0.836 for mental flexibility (95% CI: 0.921-751). Conclusions. In summary, JME patients had deficits in different aspects of executive functions. FAB is a useful clinical tool for evaluation of executive functions in JME patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 11:05:01 +000
  • Abnormal Homocysteine Metabolism: An Insight of Alzheimer’s Disease
           from DNA Methylation

    • Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system that has complex pathogenesis in the elderly. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD, according to the latest findings. One of the best-characterized chromatin modifications in epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation. Highly replicable data shows that AD occurrence is often accompanied by methylation level changes of the AD-related gene. Homocysteine (Hcy) is not only an intermediate product of one-carbon metabolism but also an important independent risk factor of AD; it can affect the cognitive function of the brain by changing the one-carbon metabolism and interfering with the DNA methylation process, resulting in cerebrovascular disease. In general, Hcy may be an environmental factor that affects AD via the DNA methylation pathway with a series of changes in AD-related substance. This review will concentrate on the relation between DNA methylation and Hcy and try to figure out their rule in the pathophysiology of AD.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2020 23:50:00 +000
  • A Novel Metabolic Connectome Method to Predict Progression to Mild
           Cognitive Impairment

    • Abstract: Objective. Glucose-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely used to predict the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinically. However, existing discriminant methods are unsubtle to reveal pathophysiological changes. Therefore, we present a novel metabolic connectome-based predictive modeling to predict progression from MCI to AD accurately. Methods. In this study, we acquired fluorodeoxyglucose PET images and clinical assessments from 420 MCI patients with 36 months follow-up. Individual metabolic network based on connectome analysis was constructed, and the metabolic connectivity in this network was extracted as predictive features. Three different classification strategies were implemented to interrogate the predictive performance. To verify the effectivity of selected features, specific brain regions associated with MCI conversion were identified based on these features and compared with prior knowledge. Results. As a result, 4005 connectome features were obtained, and 153 in which were selected as efficient features. Our proposed feature extraction method had achieved 85.2% accuracy for MCI conversion prediction (sensitivity: 88.1%; specificity: 81.2%; and AUC: 0.933). The discriminative brain regions associated with MCI conversion were mainly located in the precentral gyrus, precuneus, lingual, and inferior frontal gyrus. Conclusion. Overall, the results suggest that our proposed individual metabolic connectome method has great potential to predict whether MCI patients will progress to AD. The metabolic connectome may help to identify brain metabolic dysfunction and build a clinically applicable biomarker to predict the MCI progression.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Aug 2020 06:20:01 +000
  • Neuropsychological and Emotional Functioning in Patients with
           Cushing’s Syndrome

    • Abstract: Patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) frequently report impairments in cognitive and emotional functioning. Given neuroimaging research that implicates alterations in structure and function in the brain in this population, goals of this study were to investigate neuropsychological and emotional functioning, with particular emphasis on complex attention and memory. In a clinical sample of 18 adults with CS referred for neuropsychological evaluation (age , 72% Caucasian), patients’ most common subjective complaints were in attention and increased irritability. On objective testing, patients exhibited significant declines in the consistency of their sustained attention and visual-spatial functioning compared to normative peers. Patients exhibited on average significantly reduced initial learning following first exposure to visual and verbal stimuli but intact retention of information learned. Patients with CS endorsed highly elevated levels of somatization, depression, and anxiety, and 59% of them scored in the clinically elevated range for somatization and depressive symptomatology. Exploratory analyses suggested that the 11 patients with active Cushing’s exhibited lower processing speed, poorer sustained attention, naming, and cognitive flexibility compared to the 7 patients who achieved biochemical remission. Patients with active Cushing’s also reported higher levels of somatization and anxiety compared to patients in biochemical remission. Overall, this study provides new insights into complex attention and memory deficits in patients with CS and concern regarding cognitive and emotional issues despite resolution of hypercortisolism. Our study opens several avenues for further exploration.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Aug 2020 08:05:00 +000
  • Conversational Therapy through Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality Environments

    • Abstract: Aphasia is a highly disabling acquired language disorder generally caused by a left-lateralized brain damage. Even if traditional therapies have been shown to induce an adequate clinical improvement, a large percentage of patients are left with some degree of language impairments. Therefore, new approaches to common speech therapies are urgently needed in order to maximize the recovery from aphasia. The recent application of virtual reality (VR) to aphasia rehabilitation has already evidenced its usefulness in promoting a more pragmatically oriented treatment than conventional therapies (CT). In the present study, thirty-six chronic persons with aphasia (PWA) were randomly assigned to two groups. The VR group underwent conversational therapy during VR everyday life setting observation, while the control group was trained in a conventional setting without VR support. All patients were extensively tested through a neuropsychological battery which included not only measures for language skills and communication efficacy but also self-esteem and quality of life questionnairies. All patients were trained through a conversational approach by a speech therapist twice a week for six months (total 48 sessions). After the treatment, no significant differences among groups were found in the different measures. However, the amount of improvement in the different areas was distributed over far more cognitive and psychological aspects in the VR group than in the control group. Indeed, the within-group comparisons showed a significant enhancement in different language tasks (i.e., oral comprehension, repetition, and written language) only in the VR group. Significant gains, after the treatment, were also found, in the VR group, in different psychological dimensions (i.e., self-esteem and emotional and mood state). Given the importance of these aspects for aphasia recovery, we believe that our results add to previous evidence which points to the ecological validity and feasibility of VR treatment for language recovery and psychosocial well-being.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Aug 2020 13:35:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762

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