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Showing 1 - 200 of 335 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 68)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 73, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)

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Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [335 journals]
  • Corrigendum to “Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function
           after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Antidepressants: A
           Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    • Abstract: Antidepressants are the most commonly and widely used medication for its effectiveness in the treatment of anxiety and depression. A few epidemiological studies have documented that antidepressant is associated with increased risk of dementia so far. Here, our aim is to assess the association between antidepressant use and risk of dementia in elderly patients. We searched articles through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar from inception to December 1, 2017, that reported on the association between antidepressant use and dementia risk. Data were collected from each study independently, and study duplication was checked by at least three senior researchers based on a standardized protocol. Summary relative risk (RR) with 95% CI was calculated by using a random-effects model. We selected 9 out of 754 unique abstracts for full-text review using our predetermined selection criteria, and 5 out of these 9 studies, comprising 53,955 participants, met all of our inclusion criteria. The overall pooled RR of dementia was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.033–2.964) for SSRIs whereas the overall pooled RR of dementia was 2.131 (95% CI: 1.427–3.184) for tricyclic use. Also, MAOIs showed a high rate of increase with significant heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that antidepressant use is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Therefore, we suggest physicians to carefully prescribe antidepressants, especially in elder patients. Additionally, treatment should be stopped if any symptoms related to dementia are to be noticed.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • PPAR-γ Promotes Hematoma Clearance through Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin-CD163
           in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. PPAR-γ is a transcriptional factor which is associated with promoting hematoma clearance and reducing neurological dysfunction after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Haptoglobin- (Hp-) hemoglobin- (Hb-) CD163 acts as a main pathway to Hb scavenging after ICH. The effect of PPAR-γ on the Hp-Hb-CD163 signaling pathway has not been reported. We hypothesized that PPAR-γ might protect against ICH-induced neuronal injury via activating the Hp-Hb-CD163 pathway in a rat ICH model. Methods. 107 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this research. They were randomly allocated to 4 groups as follows: sham group, vehicle group, monascin-treated group, and Glivec-treated group. Animals were euthanized at 3 days after the model was established successfully. We observed the effects of PPAR-γ on the brain water content, hemoglobin levels, and the expressions of CD163 and Hp in Western blot and real-ime PCR; meanwhile, we measured hematoma volumes and edema areas by MRI scanning. Result. The results showed that PPAR-γ agonist significantly reduced hematoma volume, brain edema, and hemoglobin after ICH. It also enhanced CD163 and Hp expression while PPAR-γ antagonist had the opposite effects. Conclusions. PPAR-γ promotes hematoma clearance and plays a protective role through the Hp-Hb-CD163 pathway in a rat collagenase infusion ICH model.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Quality of Life in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    • Abstract: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a complex, multisymptom disorder. When making decisions regarding the treatment of DLB, the patient’s quality of life (QoL) should always be the main consideration. To our knowledge, this is the first review article focusing on the QoL in DLB patients. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “quality of life” and “dementia with Lewy bodies.” Previously, no specific instrument had been developed for assessing the QoL in DLB patients. Patients with DLB have a decreased QoL compared to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which is reportedly caused by several factors including level of independence in instrumental activities of daily living, whether the patient is living with the caregiver, apathy, delusion, and dysautonomia. The direct effect of visual hallucination, sleep, and movement disorders on the QoL in DLB patients has not been previously studied. The role of cognitive function on the QoL is still controversial. In a randomized controlled study, memantine may improve the QoL in PDD or DLB patients. We concluded that it is important to develop a specific instrument to assess the QoL in DLB patients. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for large clinical trials to identify factors associated with the QoL and how they can be managed.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Hand Dexterity Impairment in Patients with Cervical Myelopathy: A New
           Quantitative Assessment Using a Natural Prehension Movement

    • Abstract: Cervical myelopathy (CM) caused by spinal cord compression can lead to reduced hand dexterity. However, except for the 10 sec grip-and-release test, there is no objective assessment system for hand dexterity in patients with CM. Therefore, we evaluated the hand dexterity impairment of patients with CM objectively by asking them to perform a natural prehension movement. Twenty-three patients with CM and 30 age-matched controls were asked to reach for and grasp a small object with their right thumb and index finger and to subsequently lift and hold it. To examine the effects of tactile afferents from the fingers, objects with surface materials of differing textures (silk, suede, and sandpaper) were used. All patients also underwent the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) test. Preoperative patients showed significantly greater grip aperture during reach-to-grasp movements and weaker grip force than controls only while attempting to lift the most slippery object (silk). Patients, immediately after surgery, () tended to show improvements in the JOA score and in reaction time and movement time with respect to reaching movements. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that some parameters of the prehension task could successfully predict subjective evaluations of dexterous hand movements based on JOA scores. These results suggest that quantitative assessments using prehension movements could be useful to objectively evaluate hand dexterity impairment in patients with CM.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 06:19:16 +000
  • COGEVIS: A New Scale to Evaluate Cognition in Patients with Visual

    • Abstract: We evaluated the cognitive status of visually impaired patients referred to low vision rehabilitation (LVR) based on a standard cognitive battery and a new evaluation tool, named the COGEVIS, which can be used to assess patients with severe visual deficits. We studied patients aged 60 and above, referred to the LVR Hospital in Paris. Neurological and cognitive evaluations were performed in an expert memory center. Thirty-eight individuals, 17 women and 21 men with a mean age of 70.3 ± 1.3 years and a mean visual acuity of 0.12 ± 0.02, were recruited over a one-year period. Sixty-three percent of participants had normal cognitive status. Cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 37.5% of participants. The COGEVIS score cutoff point to screen for cognitive impairment was 24 (maximum score of 30) with a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 95%. Evaluation following 4 months of visual rehabilitation showed an improvement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (), National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (), and Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (). This study introduces a new short test to screen for cognitive impairment in visually impaired patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Neuroprotective Effect of DAHP via Antiapoptosis in Cerebral Ischemia

    • Abstract: Aberrant production of nitric oxide following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been implicated in cell death and contributes to ischemic brain injury. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of NOS activity. Herein, we evaluated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a guanosine 5-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and investigated the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Experimental groups were subjected to 1.5 h transient MCAO. T2-weighted imaging was performed to evaluate brain edema lesions in the stroke rats. Infarct volume was estimated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining after 24 h reperfusion. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect iNOS, caspase-3, Bcl-2, COX-2, and TNF-α protein expressions. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. T2 hyperintensity changes were observed in primary ischemic region. DAHP pretreatment significantly suppressed iNOS overexpression, caspase-3, and TNF-α. There was also attenuation of neuronal apoptosis with decrement in proteins Bcl-2 and COX-2 expressions. On the basis of our results, we hypothesize DAHP to have a neuroprotective function against focal cerebral ischemia and might attenuate brain injury by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subsequently inhibiting apoptosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Xiao-Xu-Ming Decoction Reduced Mitophagy Activation and Improved
           Mitochondrial Function in Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    • Abstract: We investigated whether Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction reduced mitophagy activation and kept mitochondrial function in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham, ischemia and reperfusion (IR), IR plus XXMD (60 g/kg/day) (XXMD60), IR plus cyclosporin A (10 mg/kg/day) (CsA), and IR plus vehicle (Vehicle). Focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion models were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral infarct areas were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Cerebral ischemic injury was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE) and Nissl staining. Ultrastructural features of mitochondria and mitophagy in the penumbra of the ischemic cortex were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Mitophagy was detected by immunofluorescence labeled with LC3B and VDAC1. Autophagy lysosome formation was observed by immunofluorescence labeled with LC3B and Lamp1. The expression of LC3B, Beclin1, and Lamp1 was analyzed by Western blot. The rats subjected to MCAO showed worsened neurological score and cell ischemic damage. These were all significantly reversed by XXMD or CsA. Moreover, XXMD/CsA notably downregulated mitophagy and reduced the increase in LC3, Beclin1, and Lamp1 expression induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The findings demonstrated that XXMD exerted neuroprotective effect via downregulating LC3, Beclin1, Lamp1, and mitochondrial p62 expression level, thus leading to the inhibition of mitophagy.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • MST1 Suppression Reduces Early Brain Injury by Inhibiting the NF-κB/MMP-9
           Pathway after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice

    • Abstract: Background. Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1), the key component of the Hippo-YAP pathway, exhibits an important role in the pathophysiological process of various neurological disorders, including ischemic stroke and spinal cord injury. However, during subarachnoid hemorrhage, the involvement of MST1 in the pathophysiology of early brain injury remains unknown. Methods. We employed intravascular filament perforation to establish the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) mouse model. The MST1 inhibitor XMU-MP-1 was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h after SAH, followed by daily injections. MST1 in vivo knockdown was performed 3 weeks prior to SAH via intracerebroventricular injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) packaged with MST1 shRNA. The SAH grade, behavioral deficits, TUNEL staining, Evans blue dye extravasation and fluorescence, brain water content, protein and cytokine expressions by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and proteome cytokine array were evaluated. Results. Following SAH, the phosphorylation level of MST1 was upregulated at 12 h, with a peak at 72 h after SAH. It was colocalized with the microglial marker Iba1. Both XMU-MP-1 and MST1 shRNA alleviated the neurological deficits, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, brain edema, neuroinflammation, and white matter injury, which were induced by SAH in association with nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) activation and downregulated endothelial junction protein expression. Conclusions. The current findings indicate that MST1 participates in SAH-induced BBB disruption and white matter fiber damage via the downstream NF-κB-MMP-9 signaling pathway. Therefore, MST1 antagonists may serve as a novel therapeutic target to prevent early brain injury in SAH patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

    • Abstract: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia, with abnormal dream-enacting behavior during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. RBD is either idiopathic or secondary to other neurologic disorders and medications. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the third most common cause of dementia, and the typical clinical presentation is rapidly progressive cognitive impairment. RBD is one of the core features of DLB and may occur either in advance or simultaneously with the onset of DLB. The association between RBD with DLB is widely studied. Evidences suggest that both DLB and RBD are possibly caused by the shared underlying synucleinopathy. This review article discusses history, clinical manifestations, possible pathophysiologies, and treatment of DLB and RBD and provides the latest updates.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Risk Factors for the Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Different
           Types of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    • Abstract: Objective. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and early dementia. It has a heterogeneous etiology and clinical course. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with the progression of MCI in different types of dementia disorders. Method. A retrospective, longitudinal, observational study of outpatients with MCI was conducted at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Patient medical records were reviewed, and risk factors were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results. Among 279 patients with MCI, 163 (58.4%), 68 (24.4%), and 48 (17.2%) were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, vascular cognitive impairment, and Lewy body diseases, respectively. During the observation period, 37.2% of patients progressed to dementia. Older age and a higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes were associated with the risk of progression. Hyperlipidemia was associated with a decreased risk. Converters were more likely to receive an antidementia prescription. Conclusion. Our study suggests the importance of comprehensive clinical profiling, risk factor assessment, and detailed drug history evaluations in improving our understanding and management of dementia subtypes.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 07:13:48 +000
  • Sleep Quality and Emotion Regulation Interact to Predict Anxiety in
           Veterans with PTSD

    • Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating and common consequence of military service. PTSD is associated with increased incidence of mood disturbances (e.g., anxiety). Additionally, veterans with PTSD often have poor-quality sleep and poor emotion regulation ability. We sought to assess whether such sleep and emotion regulation deficits contribute to mood disturbances. In 144 veterans, using a double moderation model, we tested the relationship between PTSD and anxiety and examined whether sleep quality and emotion regulation interact to moderate this relationship. We found that PTSD predicts higher anxiety in veterans with poor and average sleep quality who utilize maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. However, there was no relationship between PTSD and anxiety in individuals with good sleep quality, regardless of emotion regulation. Similarly, there was no relationship between PTSD and anxiety in individuals with better emotion regulation, regardless of sleep quality. Results were unchanged when controlling for history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite the fact that those with both PTSD and TBI had the poorest emotion regulation overall. Taken together, these results suggest that good-quality sleep may be protective against poor emotion regulation in veterans with PTSD. Sleep may therefore be a target for therapeutic intervention in veterans with PTSD and heightened anxiety.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 06:57:19 +000
  • Neural Basis of Depression Related to a Dominant Right Hemisphere: A
           Resting-State fMRI Study

    • Abstract: Background. In the past, studies on the lateralization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain suggested that depression is dominated by the right hemisphere of the brain, but the neural basis of this theory remains unclear. Method. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 22 depressive patients and 15 healthy controls. The differences in the mean values of the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of two groups were compared, and the low-frequency amplitudes of these differential brain regions were compared. Results. The results show that compared with healthy subjects, depressive patients had increased ReHo values in the right superior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, triangular part of the right inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part of the right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, and paracingulate gyri; reduced ReHo values were seen in the right fusiform gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, left lingual gyrus, and left inferior parietal except in the supramarginal and angular gyri. Conclusions. The results show that regional homogeneity mainly occurs in the right brain, and the overall performance of the brain is such that right hemisphere synchronization is enhanced while left hemisphere synchronization is weakened. ReHo abnormalities in the resting state can predict abnormalities in individual neurological activities that reflect changes in the structure and function of the brain; abnormalities shown with this indicator are the neuronal basis for the phenomenon that the right hemisphere of the brain has a dominant effect on depression.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 06:55:41 +000
  • Biochanin A Reduces Inflammatory Injury and Neuronal Apoptosis following
           Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Suppression of the TLRs/TIRAP/MyD88/NF-κB

    • Abstract: Inflammatory injury and neuronal apoptosis participate in the period of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Suppression of inflammation has recently been shown to reduce neuronal death and neurobehavioral dysfunction post SAH. Biochanin A (BCA), a natural bioactive isoflavonoid, has been confirmed to emerge the anti-inflammatory pharmacological function. This original study was aimed at evaluating and identifying the neuroprotective role of BCA and the underlying molecular mechanism in an experimental Sprague-Dawley rat SAH model. Neurobehavioral function was evaluated via the modified water maze test and modified Garcia neurologic score system. Thus, we confirmed that BCA markedly decreased the activated level of TLRs/TIRAP/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and the production of cytokines. BCA also significantly ameliorated neuronal apoptosis which correlated with the improvement of neurobehavioral dysfunction post SAH. These results indicated that BCA may provide neuroprotection against EBI through the inhibition of inflammatory injury and neuronal apoptosis partially via the TLRs/TIRAP/MyD88/NF-κB signal pathway.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Metabolic Risk Factors of Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia with Lewy
           Bodies, and Normal Elderly: A Population-Based Study

    • Abstract: Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) share many risk factors. Evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors are important to AD; however, their association with DLB is unclear. The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with AD and DLB is also uncertain. Thus, this nationwide, population-based study was designed to evaluate the metabolic and CVD risks in AD and DLB. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. AD patients, DLB patients, and normal control (NC) individuals from 1996 to 2013 were enrolled for risk assessment. Results. In total, 7544 NC individuals, 1324 AD patients, and 562 DLB patients were enrolled. Participants with one or more metabolic risk factors had significantly higher odds of AD or DLB. No significant differences in metabolic risk factors were observed between DLB and AD patients. AD patients had a lower risk of CVD (aHR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59–0.76, value 
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Incidence and Comorbidity of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: A Population-Based
           Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the third most common form of dementia. Epidemiological studies of DLB in Taiwan are scarce. In this study, we estimated the incidence of DLB and comorbidity in the population of Taiwan. Methods. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). DLB patients between 2000 and 2013 were enrolled in assessments of incidence and comorbidity. Results. The incidence of DLB was shown to be 7.10 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 6.63–7.59), which increased with age. The average age at diagnosis was 76.3, and this was higher for males than for females. The comorbidity rates of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in DLB patients were higher in females than in males. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data from large-scale retrospective studies is crucial to the prevention of DLB.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Neurohealth Properties of Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Enriched with

    • Abstract: Hericium erinaceus, an ideal culinary-medicinal mushroom, has become a well-established candidate in promoting positive brain and nerve health-related activities by inducing the nerve growth factor from its bioactive ingredient. Among its active compounds, only erinacine A has confirmed pharmacological actions in the central nervous system in rats. Hence, this review has summarized the available information on the neurohealth properties of H. erinaceus mycelia enriched with erinacines, which may contribute to further research on the therapeutic roles of these mycelia. The safety of this mushroom has also been discussed. Although it has been difficult to extrapolate the in vivo studies to clinical situations, preclinical studies have shown that there can be improvements in ischemic stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression if H. erinaceus mycelia enriched with erinacines are included in daily meals.
      PubDate: Mon, 21 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Age- and Gender-Based Differences in Nest-Building Behavior and Learning
           and Memory Performance Measured Using a Radial Six-Armed Water Maze in
           C57BL/6 Mice

    • Abstract: Background. Understanding age-based and gender-based behavioral changes is becoming more important as a greater percentage of people lives longer worldwide. In this study, a C57BL/6 mouse animal model was used to study age-based and gender-based behavioral differences using nest building and radial six-armed water maze (RAWM) testing. Methods. In C57BL/6 mice, nest-building behavior was recorded as nesting scores, while spatial learning and memory behaviors were assessed using RAWM platform search errors and latencies. Results. In the nest-building test, nest building significantly declined in nineteen 25-month-old mice compared to that of twenty-three 7-month-old mice. Meanwhile, nest building in 25-month-old mice was lower for eight male mice than for eleven female mice, while no significant gender differences were observed in nest building of 7-month-old mice. RAWM performance also declined in aged versus nonaged adult mice, while no significant gender differences were observed in average RAWM performance regardless of age. Conclusions. In adult C57BL/6 mice, nest building is a sensitive indicator for detecting both age- and gender-based behavioral declines, while RAWM performance, an assessment of spatial learning and memory behaviors, is not sensitive to gender but significantly declines with aging. Therefore, for a C57BL/6 mouse model of aging, both nest building and RAWM should be useful to further study mechanisms involved in behavioral decline with aging.
      PubDate: Wed, 09 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Glucose Metabolic Brain Network Differences between Chinese Patients with
           Lewy Body Dementia and Healthy Control

    • Abstract: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common degenerative dementia of the central nervous system. The technique 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F FDG PET) was used to investigate brain metabolism patterns in DLB patients. Conventional statistical methods did not consider intern metabolism transforming connections between various brain regions; therefore, most physicians do not understand the underlying neuropathology of DLB patients. In this study, 18F FDG-PET images and graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate alterations in whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in a Chinese DLB group and healthy control (HC) group. This experimental study was performed on 22 DLB patients and 22 HC subjects in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China. Experimental results indicate that compared with the HC group, the DLB group has severely impaired small-world network. Compared to those of the HC group, the clustering coefficients of the DLB group were higher and characteristic path lengths were longer, and in terms of global efficiencies, those of the DLB group was also lower. Moreover, four significantly altered regions were observed in the DLB group: Inferior frontal gyrus, opercular part (IFG.R), olfactory cortex (OLF.R), hippocampus (HIP.R), and fusiform gyrus (FFG.L). Amongst them, in the DLB group, betweenness centrality became strong in OLF.R, HIP.R, and FFG.L, whereas betweenness centrality became weaker in IFG.R. Finally, IFGoperc.R was selected as a seed and a voxel-wise correlation analysis was performed. Compared to the HC group, the DLB group showed several regions of strengthened connection with IFGoperc.R; these regions were located in the prefrontal cortex and regions of weakened connection were located in the occipital cortex. The results of this paper may help physicians to better understand and characterize DLB patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Delusions in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies and the Associated

    • Abstract: Objective. Delusions are common neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors of delusions in patients with DLB. Method. A retrospective study of outpatients with DLB registered in a regional hospital’s database was performed. The associated factors including cognitive performance, clinical features, vascular risk factors, and neuropsychiatric symptoms between delusional and nondelusional patients with DLB were compared. Results. Among 207 patients with DLB, 106 (51.2%) were delusional and 101 (48.8%) were not. Delusion of other persons are stealing was the most common symptom (35.3%). The delusional group had a significantly higher diagnostic rate of probable than possible DLB, higher disease severity, poorer cognitive performance, more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms, and higher caregiver burden (all ). In addition, the delusional group had a significantly lower frequency of diabetes compared to the nondelusional group (odds , ). Conclusion. Delusion of other persons are stealing was the most common delusional symptom. The patients with DLB who presented with delusions had poorer cognitive function and more severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. A novel finding is that the DLB patients with diabetes had a lower frequency of delusions.
      PubDate: Mon, 07 May 2018 09:04:23 +000
  • Dynamic Evaluation of Notch Signaling-Mediated Angiogenesis in Ischemic
           Rats Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    • Abstract: Objective. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in angiogenesis induced by brain ischemia and can be efficiently inhibited by the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). The aim of the present study was to noninvasively investigate the effect of DAPT treatment on angiogenesis in brain repair after stroke using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats () were subjected to 90 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and treated with PBS () or DAPT () at 72 hours after the onset of ischemia. MRI measurements including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed at 24 hours after reperfusion and weekly up to 4 weeks using a 3-Tesla system. Histological measurements were obtained at each time point after MRI scans. Results. SWI showed that DAPT treatment significantly enhanced angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) with respect to the control group, with local CBF in the angiogenic area elevated, along with increases in vascular density confirmed by histology. Conclusion. Treatment of ischemic stroke with DAPT significantly augments angiogenesis, which promotes poststroke brain remodeling by elevating CBF level, and these processes can be dynamically monitored and evaluated by MRI.
      PubDate: Sun, 06 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cerebral Responses to Acupuncture at GV24 and Bilateral GB13 in Rat Models
           of Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Abstract: Acupuncture has been widely used in China to treat neurological diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, its mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, eighty healthy Wistar rats were divided into a normal control group () and premodel group (). Forty-five rats that met the criteria for the AD model were then randomly divided into the model group (MG), the nonacupoint group (NG), and the acupoint group (AG). All rats received positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, and the images were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping 8.0. MG exhibited hypometabolism in the olfactory bulb, insular cortex, orbital cortex, prelimbic cortex, striatum, parietal association cortex, visual cortex, cingulate gyrus, and retrosplenial cortex. AG exhibited prominent and extensive hypermetabolism in the thalamus, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, cerebral peduncle, midbrain tegmentum, and pontine tegmentum compared to NG. These results demonstrated that acupuncturing at GV24 and bilateral GB13 acupoints may improve the learning and memory abilities of the AD rats, probably via altering cerebral glucose metabolism (CGM) in the hypothalamus, thalamus, and brain stem. The observed effects of acupuncture may be caused by regulating the distribution of certain kinds of neurotransmitters and enhancing synaptic plasticity.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Social Cognition Dysfunctions in Neurodegenerative Diseases:
           Neuroanatomical Correlates and Clinical Implications

    • Abstract: Social cognitive function, involved in the perception, processing, and interpretation of social information, has been shown to be crucial for successful communication and interpersonal relationships, thereby significantly impacting mental health, well-being, and quality of life. In this regard, assessment of social cognition, mainly focusing on four key domains, such as theory of mind (ToM), emotional empathy, and social perception and behavior, has been increasingly evaluated in clinical settings, given the potential implications of impairments of these skills for therapeutic decision-making. With regard to neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), most disorders, characterized by variable disease phenotypes and progression, although similar for the unfavorable prognosis, are associated to impairments of social cognitive function, with consequent negative effects on patients’ management. Specifically, in some NDs these deficits may represent core diagnostic criteria, such as for behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), or may emerge during the disease course as critical aspects, such as for Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. On this background, we aimed to revise the most updated evidence on the neurobiological hypotheses derived from network-based approaches, clinical manifestations, and assessment tools of social cognitive dysfunctions in NDs, also prospecting potential benefits on patients’ well-being, quality of life, and outcome derived from potential therapeutic perspectives of these deficits.
      PubDate: Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Association between Body Mass Index and Migraine: A Survey of Adult
           Population in China

    • Abstract: Both migraine and obesity are prevalent disorders in the general population, which are characterized by disability and impaired quality of life. Although so many researches had studied the association between migraine and obesity, there are still no full knowledge of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and migraine, especially chronic migraine (CM). In this study, we analyzed a previous epidemiological survey data of primary headache patients in Chongqing, which surveyed consecutive neurological outpatients through face-to-face interview with physicians using a headache questionnaire. 166 episodic migraine (EM) patients and 134 chronic migraine (CM) patients were included in the study out of 1327 primary headache patients. And 200 healthy adults from the physical examination center were included as a control group. Finally, we found that the patients with migraine (EM and CM) were more likely to be overweight, obese, or morbidly obese compared to those in the healthy group. Significant difference was found between BMI and frequency of migraine attacks but not severity or duration of headache onset. And no significant difference was found in severity and duration of headache onset between episodic and chronic migraine among different BMI classifications. Such may update our knowledge about the clinical features of migraine and BMI, revealing that the frequency of attacks may be associated with being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in patients with migraine and that the extent of being overweight, obese, or morbidly obese in CM patients was lower than that in EM patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Sentence Context and Word-Picture Cued-Recall Paired-Associate Learning

    • Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to employ the word-picture paradigm to examine the effectiveness of combined pictorial illustrations and sentences as strong contextual cues. The experiment details the performance of word recall in healthy older adults (HOA) and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The researchers enhanced the words’ recall with word-picture condition and when the pair was associated with a sentence contextualizing the two items. Method. The sample was composed of 18 HOA and 18 people with mild AD. Participants memorized 15 pairs of words under word-word and word-picture conditions, with and without a sentence context. In the paired-associate test, the first item of the pair was read aloud by participants and used to elicit retrieval of the associated item. Results. The findings suggest that both HOA and mild-AD pictures improved item recall compared to word condition such as sentences which further enabled item recall. Additionally, the HOA group performs better than the mild-AD group in all conditions. Conclusions. Word-picture and sentence context strengthen the encoding in the explicit memory task, both in HOA and mild AD. These results open a potential window to improve the memory for verbalized instructions and restore sequential abilities in everyday life, such as brushing one’s teeth, fastening one’s pants, or drying one’s hands.
      PubDate: Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Allergic Rhinitis in Rats Is Associated with an Inflammatory Response of
           the Hippocampus

    • Abstract: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a major concern in personal and public health, which negatively affects emotions and behavior, leading to cognitive deficits, memory decline, poor school performance, anxiety, and depression. Several cellular and molecular mediators are released in the inflammatory process of AR and activate common neuroimmune mechanisms, involving emotionally relevant circuits and the induction of anxiety. Responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to allergic processes have been reported, which may also include responsiveness of the hippocampus, cortex, and other brain regions. Here, we have used an optimized rat model of AR to explore whether the disease has a relationship with inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. AR was established in adult rats by ovalbumin sensitization, and the expression of various inflammatory substances in the hippocampus was measured by specific assays. Comparison between experimental and various control groups of animals revealed an association of AR with significant upregulation of substance P, microglia surface antigen (CD11b), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the hippocampus. Thus, we hypothesize that the AR challenge may activate these inflammatory mediators in the hippocampus, which in turn contribute to the abnormal behavior and neurological deficits associated with AR.
      PubDate: Mon, 16 Apr 2018 06:21:39 +000
  • Behavioural and Cognitive Effects of Cerebrovascular Diseases

    • PubDate: Sun, 15 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Prophylactic Use of Troxerutin Can Delay the Development of Diabetic
           Cognitive Dysfunction and Improve the Expression of Nrf2 in the
           Hippocampus on STZ Diabetic Rats

    • Abstract: Background. With the change in lifestyle and the aging population, the incidence of cognitive dysfunction in diabetes mellitus is rising sharply. Oxidative stress is an important mechanism in the development of diabetic cognitive dysfunction. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the core transcription factor of antioxidative stress. Early prevention and treatment of diabetic cognitive dysfunction can reduce the incidence of dementia and improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Aim. This study was aimed at determining effect of troxerutin on the development of cognitive dysfunction and the expression level of Nrf2 in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats, when used in the early preventive stage. Methods. An STZ-induced diabetic rat model was established (), and the animals were randomly divided into 2 groups: diabetic control group (DC, ) and diabetic troxerutin intervention group (DT, ). Another 10 normoglycemic rats were put into a normal control group (NC, ). While the DT group was injected with troxerutin (60 mg/kg), the DC group and the NC group were injected with physiological saline for 12 weeks daily. Learning and memory behaviors were tested using the Morris water maze test. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, mRNA level, and protein level of Nrf2 were measured. Data were collected and analyzed by the statistical software package SPSS 19.0, which included one-way analysis of variance with completely randomized design. Results. Learning and memory levels were significantly improved in the DT group compared with the DC group. Moreover, in the DT group, the expression level of Nrf2 in the hippocampus was increased, activity of SOD was elevated, and MDA content was decreased. Conclusion. Prophylactic use of troxerutin delays the development of diabetic cognitive dysfunction and increases the expression level of Nrf2 in the hippocampus of STZ diabetic rats.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Functional Connectivity Changes in Behavioral, Semantic, and Nonfluent
           Variants of Frontotemporal Dementia

    • Abstract: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) affects behavior, language, and personality. This study aims to explore functional connectivity changes in three FTD variants: behavioral (bvFTD), semantic (svPPA), and nonfluent variant (nfvPPA). Seventy-six patients diagnosed with FTD by international criteria and thirty-two controls were investigated. Functional connectivity from resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was estimated for the whole brain. Two types of analysis were done: network basic statistic and topological measures by graph theory. Several hubs in the limbic system and basal ganglia were compromised in the behavioral variant apart from frontal networks. Nonfluent variants showed a major disconnection with respect to the behavioral variant in operculum and parietal inferior. The global efficiency had lower coefficients in nonfluent variants than behavioral variants and controls. Our results support an extensive disconnection among frontal, limbic, basal ganglia, and parietal hubs.
      PubDate: Sun, 01 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Evaluating the Utility of a Structured Clinical Protocol for Reducing the
           Impact of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in
           Progressive Neurological Diseases: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) cause significant distress to both aged care residents and staff. Despite the high prevalence of BPSD in progressive neurological diseases (PNDs) such as multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, the utility of a structured clinical protocol for reducing BPSD has not been systematically evaluated in PND populations. Method. Staff () and individuals with a diagnosis of PND () were recruited into the study, which aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a PND-specific structured clinical protocol for reducing the impact of BPSD in residential aged care (RAC) and specialist disability accommodation (SDA) facilities. Staff were trained in the clinical protocol through face-to-face workshops, which were followed by 9 weeks of intensive clinical supervision to a subset of staff (“behaviour champions”). Staff and resident outcome measures were administered preintervention and immediately following the intervention. The primary outcome was frequency and severity of BPSD, measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version (NPI-NH). The secondary outcome was staff coping assessed using the Strain in Dementia Care Scale (SDCS). Results. In SDA, significant reductions in staff ratings of job-related stress were observed alongside a statistically significant decrease in BPSD from T1 to T2. In RAC, there was no significant time effect for BPSD or staff coping; however, a medium effect size was observed for staff job stress. Conclusions. Staff training and clinical support in the use of a structured clinical protocol for managing BPSD were linked to reductions in staff job stress, which may in turn increase staff capacity to identify indicators of resident distress and respond accordingly. Site variation in outcomes may relate to organisational and workforce-level barriers that may be unique to the RAC context and should be systematically addressed in future RCT studies of larger PND samples.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000
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