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Showing 1 - 200 of 339 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 54)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 76)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 33, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 198)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [339 journals]
  • Frontal Anatomical Correlates of Cognitive and Speech Motor Deficits in
           Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    • Abstract: The goal of this study was to identify neurostructural frontal lobe correlates of cognitive and speaking rate changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 17 patients diagnosed with ALS and 12 matched controls underwent clinical, bulbar, and neuropsychological assessment and structural neuroimaging. Neuropsychological testing was performed via a novel computerized frontal battery (ALS-CFB), based on a validated theoretical model of frontal lobe functions, and focused on testing energization, executive function, emotion processing, theory of mind, and behavioral inhibition via antisaccades. The measure of speaking rate represented bulbar motor changes. Neuroanatomical assessment was performed using volumetric analyses focused on frontal lobe regions, postcentral gyrus, and occipital lobes as controls. Partial least square regressions (PLS) were used to predict behavioral (cognitive and speech rate) outcomes using volumetric measures. The data supported the overall hypothesis that distinct behavioral changes in cognition and speaking rate in ALS were related to specific regional neurostructural brain changes. These changes did not support a notion of a general dysexecutive syndrome in ALS. The observed specificity of behavior-brain changes can begin to provide a framework for subtyping of ALS. The data also support a more integrative framework for clinical assessment of frontal lobe functioning in ALS, which requires both behavioral testing and neuroimaging.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Mar 2019 12:05:02 +000
  • The Clinical and Vascular Characteristics of RNF213 c.14576G>A
           Variant-Related Intracranial Major Artery Disease in China

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. Recently, several studies indicated the c.14576G>A variant on the ring finger protein 213 (RNF213), a founder variant of moyamoya diseases (MMD), was associated with non-MMD intracranial major artery stenosis/occlusion (non-MMD ICASO). We proposed that RNF213 variant-related ICASO including MMD might be a special entity with its own characteristics based on a genetic background. The aim of the study was to learn the clinical and vascular features of RNF213 variant-related ICASO. Moreover, we tried to explore the clinical significance of a testing variant in ICASO patients in China. Methods. Clinical material and routine image data were collected in 160 Chinese patients with ICASO, including 41 verified MMD and 119 non-MMD. DNA samples were extracted, and the c.14576G>A variant on RNF213 was genotyped. Then, the clinical and vascular features were compared between the patients with and without a relevant variant. Furthermore, the patients with RNF213 mutation were performed with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) examination to conclude features of the artery wall. Results. There were 16 (10%) patients (including 9 MMD and 7 non-MMD ICASO) presenting a heterozygous c.14576G>A variant while none of homozygote was found. Compared to the patients without the c.14576G>A variant, the variant group had more female, less symptomatic patients, and more possibility of having collateral vessels in vascular imaging. In the symptomatic subgroup, there is no significant difference in clinical presentation () between two groups. However, RNF213 variant-related ICASO had lower scores in NIHSS ( vs. ,) but not in mRS. In the symptomatic subgroup, in addition, most of the HR-MRI images of variant ICASO (77.8%, 7 of 9) were characterized by a shrunken outer diameter, concentric thickening vessel wall, and collateral vessel structures on the stenotic portion, which was prone to be diagnosed as HR-MMD (a MMD diagnosis diagnosed by HR-MRI). The rest of the two variants showed a relatively eccentric luminal narrow, normal outer diameter without collateral vessel findings, identified as HR-ICAD (intracranial atherosclerotic disease diagnosed by HR-MRI). Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that the c.14576G>A variant on RNF213 may be a biomarker to good outcome of ICASO in Chinese. The variant-related ICASO was characterized by both features of MMD and ICAD diagnosed by HR-MRI.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Mar 2019 07:05:04 +000
  • The Incidence of Diagnosis of Munchausen Syndrome, Other Factitious
           Disorders, and Malingering

    • Abstract: Background. Systematic studies on factitious disorders and malingering in large populations are rare. To address this issue, we performed a nationwide epidemiological study in Norway on the incidence of these diagnoses in an unselected patient population. In particular, we tried to confirm the diagnoses and to estimate the contribution of Munchausen syndrome to the spectrum of factitious disorders. Methods. We analyzed data obtained from the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR), which provided a deidentified list of all patients from 2008 to 2016 who had received the ICD-10 diagnosis of F68.1 or the diagnosis code Z76.5. Results. Altogether, 237 patients (99 females; 138 males) received a diagnosis of F68.1. Code Z76.5 was applied to 52 patients (12 females; 40 males), all diagnosed within health institutions. Three of 1700 specialists (somatic specialist, psychologist, or psychiatrist) in private practice had diagnosed a factitious disorder in altogether 87 patients. After contacting these specialists, we could identify no true case of F68.1. For 24 of 146 patients who were equally distributed by gender within health institutions, we managed to identify the diagnosing healthcare providers. Of these 24 patients, only 11 correctly qualified for code F68.1. Only two female patients qualified for a Munchausen syndrome diagnosis. Conclusions. There is a male predominance for the diagnosis of malingering. An earlier suspicion of a female predominance for Munchausen syndrome is upheld. There is significant underdiagnosing and misdiagnosing for both conditions and for factitious disorders in general. To separate the most serious form of factitious disorders from milder forms and to facilitate more systematic research, we recommend a specific ICD diagnosis for Munchausen syndrome.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:05:12 +000
  • Traumatic Brain Injury by Weight-Drop Method Causes Transient Amyloid-β
           Deposition and Acute Cognitive Deficits in Mice

    • Abstract: There has been growing awareness of the correlation between an episode of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) later in life. It has been reported that TBI accelerated amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology and cognitive decline in the several lines of AD model mice. However, the short-term and long-term effects of TBI by the weight-drop method on amyloid-β pathology and cognitive performance are unclear in wild-type (WT) mice. Hence, we examined AD-related histopathological changes and cognitive impairment after TBI in wild-type C57BL6J mice. Five- to seven-month-old WT mice were subjected to either TBI by the weight-drop method or a sham treatment. Seven days after TBI, the WT mice exhibited significantly lower spatial learning than the sham-treated WT mice. However, 28 days after TBI, the cognitive impairment in the TBI-treated WT mice recovered. Correspondingly, while significant amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation were observed in the TBI-treated mouse hippocampus 7 days after TBI, the Aβ deposition was no longer apparent 28 days after TBI. Thus, TBI induced transient amyloid-β deposition and acute cognitive impairments in the WT mice. The present study suggests that the TBI could be a risk factor for acute cognitive impairment even when genetic and hereditary predispositions are not involved. The system might be useful for evaluating and developing a pharmacological treatment for the acute cognitive deficits.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Mar 2019 00:05:08 +000
  • A Repeated Measures Pilot Comparison of Trajectories of Fluctuating
           Endogenous Hormones in Young Women with Traumatic Brain Injury, Healthy

    • Abstract: Objective. To compare baseline and 72-hour hormone levels in women with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and controls. Setting. Hospital emergency department. Participants. 21 women ages 18-35 with TBI and 21 controls. Design. Repeated measures. Main Measures. Serum samples at baseline and 72 hours; immunoassays for estradiol (E2), progesterone (PRO), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and cortisol (CORT); and health history. Results. Women with TBI had lower E2 () and higher CORT () levels over time. Lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) and OCs were associated with lower FSH (GCS ; OCs ) and higher CORT (GCS ; OCs ).Conclusion. Acute TBI may suppress E2 and increase CORT in young women. OCs appeared to independently affect CORT and FSH responses. Future work is needed with a larger sample to characterize TBI effects on women’s endogenous hormone response to injury and OC use’s effects on post-TBI stress response and gonadal function, as well as secondary injury.
      PubDate: Tue, 12 Feb 2019 10:05:02 +000
  • Cognitive and Emotional Empathy in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    • Abstract: Background. Empathy has been conceptualized as comprising a cognitive and an emotional component, the latter being further divided into direct and indirect aspects, which refer, respectively, to the explicit evaluation of the observer’s feelings while attending someone in an emotional situation and to the physiological response of the observer. Empathy has been previously investigated in several neurological disorders. Objective. This study is aimed at investigating empathy in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). We hypothesize that, due to deafferentation following their injury, SCI patients will display difficulty in the processing of emotional stimuli and blunted empathic responses as compared to healthy controls. Materials and Methods. 20 patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) (12 males and 8 females, mean , standard deviation years; mean , years) were included in the study and compared to 20 matched healthy subjects. Participants were investigated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Form Y) (STAI-Y), the Beck Depression Scale, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Moreover, participants were further evaluated by means of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), which explores both cognitive and emotional aspects of empathy, and through an experimental protocol based on the use of a modified version of the computerized Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET) to evaluate emotional (direct and indirect) empathy and the ability to judge the valence of complex emotional scenes. Results. As compared to healthy controls, SCI patients reported higher scores on the Perspective-Taking subscale of the IRI, while, on the modified MET, they were less accurate in identifying the valence of neutral scenes, notwithstanding their spared direct and indirect emotional empathy ability. Furthermore, we found a significant negative correlation between the time interval since injury and the direct emotional empathy scores on the positive images, as well as a negative correlation with the indirect emotional empathy scores on both positive and neutral images, indicating a blunting of the empathic responses as time elapses. Conclusion. Results suggest that SCI patients, when analyzing the meaning of emotional stimuli, tend to rely on a cognitive empathy strategy rather than on emotion simulation.
      PubDate: Sun, 10 Feb 2019 09:05:02 +000
  • The Effect of Metformin in Experimentally Induced Animal Models of
           Epileptic Seizure

    • Abstract: Background. Epilepsy is one of the common neurological illnesses which affects millions of individuals globally. Although the majority of epileptic patients have a good response for the currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), about 30-40% of epileptic patients are developing resistance. In addition to low safety profiles of most of existing AEDs, there is no AED available for curative or disease-modifying actions for epilepsy so far. Objectives. This systematic review is intended to evaluate the effect of metformin in acute and chronic animal models of an epileptic seizure. Methods. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, Sciences Direct, and grey literature in order to explore articles published in English from January 2010 to November 2018, using key terms “epilepsy,” “seizure,” “metformin,” “oral hypoglycemic agents,” and “oral antidiabetic drugs”. The qualities of all the included articles were assessed according to the Collaborative Approach to Meta-Analysis and Review of Animal Data from Experimental Studies (CAMARADES). Results. Out of six hundred fifty original articles retrieved, eleven of them fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included for final qualitative analysis. In these studies, metformin showed to control seizure attacks by attenuating seizure generation, delaying the onset of epilepsy, reducing hippocampal neuronal loss, and averting cognitive impairments in both acute and chronic models of an epileptic seizure. The possible mechanisms for its antiseizure or antiepileptic action might be due to activation of AMPK, antiapoptotic, antineuroinflammatory, and antioxidant properties, which possibly modify disease progression through affecting epileptogenesis. Conclusion. This review revealed the benefits of metformin in alleviating symptoms of epileptic seizure and modifying different cellular and molecular changes that affect the natural history of the disease in addition to its good safety profile.
      PubDate: Mon, 04 Feb 2019 10:05:02 +000
  • Screening for Problematic Internet Use May Help Identify Impulse Control
           Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) represent emerging problems with potentially devastating consequences. The standard screening methods for impulse control disorders are clinically imperfect. Although it is rarely reported, many patients utilize the Internet to fulfill their compulsive behaviors because of its easy accessibility. We designed a study to test the hypothesis that an active screening for excessive Internet use and Internet addiction might improve the sensitivity of identification of impulse control disorders. Methods. The standard screening method included the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson’s Disease and the modified Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. In the second round, the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire was also assessed for detecting excessive Internet use. Results. While the standard approach identified 19 patients out of 106 (17.9%) with any type of impulse control disorders, screening for the problematic Internet use detected 29 patients with impulse control disorders (27.4%) having significantly better efficacy over the standard method (, the McNemar test). Conclusions. Our study suggests that the screening for problematic Internet use by the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire is an effective, feasible, and easy-to-use add-on method for identifying PD patients with impulse control disorders more efficiently and probably at earlier stages.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:06:03 +000
  • Assessing Treatment Fidelity within an Epilepsy Randomized Controlled
           Trial: Seizure First Aid Training for People with Epilepsy Who Visit
           Emergency Departments

    • Abstract: Purpose. To measure fidelity with which a group seizure first aid training intervention was delivered within a pilot randomized controlled trial underway in the UK for adults with epilepsy who visit emergency departments (ED) and informal carers. Estimates of its effects, including on ED use, will be produced by the trial. Whilst hardly ever reported for trials of epilepsy interventions—only one publication on this topic exists—this study provides the information on treatment fidelity necessary to allow the trial’s estimates to be accurately interpreted. This rare worked example of how fidelity can be assessed could also provide guidance sought by neurology trialists on how to assess fidelity. Methods. 53 patients who had visited ED on ≥2 occasions in prior year were recruited for the trial; 26 were randomized to the intervention. 7 intervention courses were delivered for them by one facilitator. Using audio recordings, treatment “adherence” and “competence” were assessed. Adherence was assessed by a checklist of the items comprising the intervention. Using computer software, competence was measured by calculating facilitator speech during the intervention (didacticism). Interrater reliability was evaluated by two independent raters assessing each course using the measures and their ratings being compared. Results. The fidelity measures were found to be reliable. For the adherence instrument, raters agreed 96% of the time, PABAK-OS kappa 0.91. For didacticism, raters’ scores had an intraclass coefficient of 0.96. In terms of treatment fidelity, not only were courses found to have been delivered with excellent adherence (88% of its items were fully delivered) but also as intended they were highly interactive, with the facilitator speaking for, on average, 55% of course time. Conclusions. The fidelity measures used were reliable and showed that the intervention was delivered as attended. Therefore, any estimates of intervention effect will not be influenced by poor implementation fidelity.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +000
  • Influence of Environmental Factors on Social Participation Post-Stroke

    • Abstract: Objectives. For rehabilitation professionals to adequately address meaningful participation in social activities with their patients after a stroke, there must be a better understanding of neurobehavior, that is, how neurological impairment and its sequelae and environmental factors support or limit social participation. The current study examines how stroke severity (NIH Stroke Scale), its impact on perceived mobility (Stroke Impact Scale mobility domain), and the environment (MOS Social Support–Positive Social Interactions scale and Measure of Stroke Environment receptivity and built environment domains) influence social participation (Activity Card Sort: ACS). Methods. A correlational, cross-sectional design examined the relationships among neurological impairment, perceived limitations in activity, environmental factors, and social participation. Participants included 48 individuals who were at least 6 months post-stroke both with aphasia () and without aphasia () living in the community for whom all measures were available for analysis. Results. No differences in social participation were found between those with and without aphasia, though both groups reported a large (25-30%) decline in participating in their prestroke social activities. For the ACS Social Domain activities and ACS Partner to Do With activities (percent retained), 37% and 35% of the variance, respectively, was accounted for by the predictor variables, with only MOS Social Support making an independent contribution to social participation. In this sample, neurological impairment was not a significant correlate of social participation. Additionally, perceived mobility and the built environment were not found to independently predict participation in social activities. Conclusions. Perceived social support was found to predict social participation in individuals living in the community 6 months or greater post-stroke. Focusing on social support during post-stroke rehabilitation may provide an avenue for increased social participation and more successful community reintegration.
      PubDate: Wed, 16 Jan 2019 08:05:11 +000
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration Related to C9orf72
           Hexanucleotide Repeat Expansion

    • Abstract: Two clinically distinct diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), have recently been classified as two extremes of the FTD/ALS spectrum. The neuropathological correlate of FTD is frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), characterized by tau-, TDP-43-, and FUS-immunoreactive neuronal inclusions. An earlier discovery that a hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene causes ALS and FTD established a special subtype of ALS and FTLD with TDP-43 pathology (C9FTD/ALS). Normal individuals carry 2–10 hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeats in the C9orf72 gene, while more than a few hundred repeats represent a risk for ALS and FTD. The proposed molecular mechanisms by which C9orf72 repeat expansions induce neurodegenerative changes are C9orf72 loss-of-function through haploinsufficiency, RNA toxic gain-of-function, and gain-of-function through the accumulation of toxic dipeptide repeat proteins. However, many more cellular processes are affected by pathological processes in C9FTD/ALS, including nucleocytoplasmic transport, RNA processing, normal function of nucleolus, formation of membraneless organelles, translation, ubiquitin proteasome system, Notch signalling pathway, granule transport, and normal function of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). Although the exact molecular mechanisms through which C9orf72 repeat expansions account for neurodegeneration have not been elucidated, some potential therapeutics, such as antisense oligonucleotides targeting hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeats in mRNA, were successful in preclinical trials and are awaiting phase 1 clinical trials. In this review, we critically discuss each proposed mechanism and provide insight into the most recent studies aiming to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of C9FTD/ALS.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Jan 2019 10:05:02 +000
  • Psychiatric Assessment in Patients with Mild Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    • Abstract: Objectives. The findings of previous studies focused on personality disorders in epileptic patients are difficult to interpret due to nonhomogeneous samples and noncomparable methods. Here, we aimed at studying the personality profile in patients with mild temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with psychiatric comorbidity. Materials and Methods. Thirty-five patients with mTLE (22 males, mean age ) underwent awake and sleep EEG, 3T brain MRI, and an extensive standardized diagnostic neuropsychiatric battery: Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Beck Depression Inventory-2, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Drug history was collected in detail. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis was performed on TCI-R data, while all other clinical and psychological variables were compared across the resulting clusters. Results. Scores of Harm Avoidance (HA), Reward Dependence (RD), Persistence (P), Cooperativeness (C), and Self-Transcendence (ST) allowed the identification of two clusters, describing different personality subtypes. Cluster 1 was characterized by an early onset, more severe anxiety traits, and combined drug therapy (antiepileptic drug and Benzodiazepine/Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) compared to Cluster 2. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that different personality traits may play a role in determining the clinical outcome in patients with mTLE. Specifically, lower scores of HA, RD, P, C, and ST were associated with worse clinical outcome. Thus, personality assessment could serve as an early indicator of greater disease severity, improving the management of mTLE.
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Jan 2019 14:05:04 +000
  • Visuoperceptual Impairment in Children with NF1: From Early Visual
           Processing to Procedural Strategies

    • Abstract: Visual-spatial impairment has long been considered a hallmark feature of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). No study investigating the cognitive and neuropsychological profile of NF1 used the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) task as the primary measure of visual-perceptual abilities taking into consideration all functions involved including the strategic processing style. We compared 18 children with NF1, 17 siblings (S), and 18 typically developing children (TD) at intelligence scale and RCFT copy, recall, and recognition trials; we also evaluated the copy strategy as a measure of a visual-processing style. Children with NF1 had normal total IQ, with cognitive weaknesses in the perceptual organization and working memory in line with the existing literature. At the RCFT copy, immediate and delay recall scores are significantly lower in NF1 than S and TD, while recognition is in the normal range in all groups. Copy style was poor and less efficient in children with NF1 and correlated to copy and recall ability, but the effect of the group in the RCFT copy and recall remained significantly controlling for strategic approach. The present study confirms visuospatial impairment in children with NF1, due to a deficit in perceptual analysis of shape and their spatial features, in visuomotor integration efficiency and strategies, in recall memory, while recognition memory is preserved. A more configural/holistic style may facilitate both the visual-perceptual and visuomotor ability and the recall process. Visuoperceptual impairment in NF1 seems to be a unified process from early visual processing to higher order functions (planning, strategy, and executive functioning).
      PubDate: Sun, 13 Jan 2019 13:30:01 +000
  • A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Functional Electrical Stimulation Mimic
           to Gait Promotes Motor Recovery and Brain Remodeling in Acute Stroke

    • Abstract: Functional electrical stimulation can improve motor function after stroke. The mechanism may involve activity-dependent plasticity and brain remodeling. The aim of our study was to investigate the effectiveness of a patterned electrical stimulation FES mimic to gait in motor recovery among stroke survivors and to investigate possible mechanisms through brain fMRI. Forty-eight subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to a four-channel FES group (), a placebo group (), or a dual-channel FES group (). Stimulation lasted for 30 minutes in each session for 3 weeks. All of the subjects were assessed at baseline and after weeks 1, 2, and 3. The assessments included the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients, Brunel’s Balance Assessment, the Berg Balance Scale, and the modified Barthel Index. Brain fMRI were acquired before and after the intervention. All of the motor assessment scores significantly increased week by week in all the three groups. The four-channel group showed significantly better improvement than the dual-channel group and placebo groups. fMRI showed that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in both the four-channel and dual-channel groups compared with the placebo group and fiber bundles had increased significantly on the ipsilateral side, but not on the contralateral side in the group given four-channel stimulation. In conclusion, when four-channel FES induces cycling movement of the lower extremities based on a gait pattern, it may be more effective in promoting motor recovery and induce more plastic changes and brain remodeling than two-channel stimulation. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration unique identifier ChiCTR-TRC-11001615.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Psychometric Properties of the Dental Activities Test: An Exploratory
           Factor Analysis in Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment

    • Abstract: Objective. The Dental Activities Test (DAT) was developed to be used by dental, nursing, and other health professionals to assess the ability of persons with dementia to perform oral health-related activities and aid care planning. The instrument was designed as a unitary scale and has excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, and construct validity. This study examines the underlying factor structure of the DAT among older adults in assisted living settings. Methods. In a secondary analysis of the data from the original study, the results of testing of 90 older adults with normal to severely impaired cognition from three assisted living communities in North Carolina from March 2013 to February 2014 were studied. An exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the dimensionality of the presumed unitary assessment scale. Results. Two-factor structures were explored. A one-factor model demonstrated acceptably mixed model fit, and a two-factor model had good model fit with moderate correlation between the two factors (,). All the items in the one-factor model demonstrated significant factor loadings (loadings ≥ 0.39, all ), while the loadings of some items in the two-factor model (nonsignificant or cross-loadings, loadings 
      PubDate: Mon, 17 Dec 2018 06:43:32 +000
  • System Framework of Robotics in Upper Limb Rehabilitation on Poststroke
           Motor Recovery

    • Abstract: Neurological impairments such as stroke cause damage to the functional mobility of survivors and affect their ability to perform activities of daily living. Recently, robotic treatment for upper limb stroke rehabilitation has received significant attention because it can provide high-intensity and repetitive movement therapy. In this review, the current status of upper limb rehabilitation robots is explored. Firstly, an overview of mechanical design of robotics for upper-limb rehabilitation and clinical effects of part robots are provided. Then, the comparisons of human-machine interactions, control strategies, driving modes, and training modes are described. Finally, the development and the possible future directions of the upper limb rehabilitation robot are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Sociodemographic, Clinical Variables, and Quality of Life in Patients with
           Epilepsy in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked recurrent seizure episodes. The disease has detrimental effects on social, cognitive, psychological, and physical components of life consequently quality of life of the patients. The level of the effect of the disease on quality life is influenced by different factors including the use of antiepileptic medications. Objectives. The study was aimed at assessing quality of life in patients with epilepsy and the variables affecting it in Mekelle city, northern Ethiopia. Methods. 175 patients with epilepsy aging 18 years old and above attending neurologic clinics of the two governmental hospitals available in Mekelle city were interviewed using standard and validated Tigrigna version of Quality of Life in Epilepsy Scale-31 (QOLIE-31). One-way ANOVA and independent t-test and analysis of covariance were used for data analysis. Result. The mean age of the patients was 29.36 (standard deviation (SD) 12.77) years old, and 61% of them were males while 52% of the respondents were on phenobarbitone monotherapy. The mean total QOLIE-31 score was 77.97 (SD 20.78) with the highest subscale score for medication effects and the lowest for overall quality of life (QOL) functioning with a score of 86.2 (SD 22.12) and 70.97 (SD 26.43), respectively. The patients with high seizure frequency in the past month before the current visit had a significantly low quality of life 76.81 (SD 21.11). Conversely, patients with tertiary education and above had shown a significantly high quality of life 89.52 (SD 11.85). Conclusion. The overall QOL of the patients was good. Seizure frequency and level of education were found significant predictors of QOL showing the necessity of seizure control and patient education for improving quality of life in patients with epilepsy.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Sociodemographic, Electrophysiological, and Biochemical Profiles in
           Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Epilepsy

    • Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most prevalent neurobehavioral disorders affecting children worldwide. The prevalence of ADHD is higher in children with epilepsy. Despite the plethora of conducted work, the precise cause of ADHD is not identified yet. We studied here the sociodemographic, clinical, electrophysiological, and biochemical profiles of children with ADHD, epilepsy, and ADHD with epilepsy. Subjects were divided into 4 groups (25 child/group): I—control, II—ADHD, III—epilepsy, and IV—ADHD with epilepsy. Male to female ratio was significantly () higher in the ADHD (3.1) and ADHD with epilepsy (2.1) groups when compared to the control (1.08) or epilepsy (1.08) groups. Positive family history was significantly evident in patients with epilepsy and ADHD with epilepsy, but not in the control or ADHD groups. Speech development was significantly delayed in the ADHD and ADHD with epilepsy groups. EEG abnormalities were detected in patients with ADHD (12%) and ADHD with epilepsy (68%). Focal frontal activities were significantly detectable in the ADHD (100%) and ADHD with epilepsy (77.8%) groups, whereas focal temporal activity was significantly present in the epilepsy (83.3%) group. Serum ferritin was significantly lower in the ADHD group (110.27 ± 6.64 ηg/ml) when compared to the control (134.23 ± 14.82 ηg/ml), epilepsy (159.66 ± 33.17 ηg/ml), and ADHD with epilepsy (203.04 ± 50.64 ηg/ml) groups. Serum zinc was significantly higher in the ADHD, epilepsy, and ADHD with epilepsy groups (236.63 ± 20.89, 286.74 ± 43.84, and 229.95 ± 67.34 μg/dl, respectively), when compared to the control group (144.21 ± 17.40 μg/dl). Serum adenosine deaminase was insignificantly different among the groups. Our results indicate that gender and family history are significant moderators in the aetiology of ADHD and epilepsy or their comorbidity. We also demonstrated that EEG could be central in the assessment of ADHD with epilepsy cases. Serum ferritin and zinc alteration may contribute significantly in ADHD and epilepsy pathophysiology.
      PubDate: Thu, 29 Nov 2018 06:25:29 +000
  • Practice Variability Combined with Task-Oriented Electromyographic
           Biofeedback Enhances Strength and Balance in People with Chronic Stroke

    • Abstract: Objectives. To investigate the effects of practice variability combined with task-oriented electromyographic biofeedback (EMGBFB) on strength and balance in people with chronic stroke. Methods. Thirty-three participants were randomly assigned into the constant force EMGBFB tibialis anterior (TA) exercise (constant) group, the variable force EMGBFB tibialis anterior exercise (variable) group, or the upper extremity exercise without EMGBFB (control) group. Subjects in each group received 6 weekly sessions of exercise training (18 sessions, 40 minutes each). Motor outcomes were TA strength, balance (anteroposterior sway amplitude defined by limits of stability test in dynamic posturography), walking speed, Timed Up and Go test (TUGT), and six-minute walk test (6MWT). Data were measured at baseline, 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks posttraining. Results. TA strength increased significantly in both the constant and variable groups after training. Balance significantly improved only in the variable group. All participants showed improvements in walking speed, TUGT, and 6MWT. Conclusions. Task-oriented EMGBFB-assisted TA exercise training improved muscle strength in people with chronic stroke. Practicing to reach varying force levels during EMGBFB-assisted tibialis anterior exercises facilitated improvements in the ability to sway in the anteroposterior direction while standing. Our findings highlight the importance of task-oriented and motor learning principles while using the EMGBFB as an adjunct therapy in stroke rehabilitation. This trial was registered with trial registration number NCT01962662.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Mechanisms Underlying Aggressive Behavior Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs:
           Focus on Topiramate, Levetiracetam, and Perampanel

    • Abstract: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective against seizures, but their use is often limited by adverse effects, among them psychiatric and behavioral ones including aggressive behavior (AB). Knowledge of the incidence, risk factors, and the underlying mechanisms of AB induced by AEDs may help to facilitate management and reduce the risk of such side effects. The exact incidence of AB as an adverse effect of AEDs is difficult to estimate, but frequencies up to 16% have been reported. Primarily, levetiracetam (LEV), perampanel (PER), and topiramate (TPM), which have diverse mechanisms of action, have been associated with AB. Currently, there is no evidence for a specific pharmacological mechanism solely explaining the increased incidence of AB with LEV, PER, and TPM. Serotonin (5-HT) and GABA, and particularly glutamate (via the AMPA receptor), seem to play key roles. Other mechanisms involve hormones, epigenetics, and “alternative psychosis” and related phenomena. Increased individual susceptibility due to an underlying neurological and/or a mental health disorder may further explain why people with epilepsy are at an increased risk of AB when using AEDs. Remarkably, AB may occur with a delay of weeks or months after start of treatment. Information to patients, relatives, and caregivers, as well as sufficient clinical follow-up, is crucial, and there is a need for further research to understand the complex relationship between AED mechanisms of action and the induction/worsening of AB.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Behavioural and Cognitive Changes in Lewy Body Dementias

    • PubDate: Sun, 11 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Longitudinal Screening Detects Cognitive Stability and Behavioral
           Deterioration in ALS Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. To evaluate longitudinal cognitive/behavioral change over 12 months in participants enrolled in the ALS Multicenter Cohort Study of Oxidative Stress (ALS COSMOS). Methods. We analyzed data from 294 ALS participants, 134 of whom were studied serially. Change over time was evaluated controlling for age, sex, symptom duration, education, race, and ethnicity. Using multiple regression, we evaluated associations among decline in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) scores, forced vital capacity (FVC), and cognitive/behavioral changes. Change in cognitive/behavioral subgroups was assessed using one-way analyses of covariance. Results. Participants with follow-up data had fewer baseline behavior problems compared to patients without follow-up data. We found significant worsening of behavior (ALS Cognitive Behavioral Screen (ALS CBS) behavioral scale, ; Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS (FBI-ALS) disinhibition subscale, ). Item analysis suggested change in frustration tolerance, insight, mental rigidity, and interests (). Changes in ALSFRS-R correlated with the ALS CBS. Worsening disinhibition (FBI-ALS) did not correlate with ALSFRS-R, FVC, or disease duration. Conclusion. We did not detect cognitive change. Behavioral change was detected, and increased disinhibition was found among patients with abnormal baseline behavioral scores. Disinhibition changes did not correlate with disease duration or progression. Baseline behavioral problems were associated with advanced, rapidly progressive disease and study attrition.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Therapeutic Strategies for Poststroke Neurological Behavior: From
           Molecular to Cellular

    • PubDate: Sun, 28 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Apathy Is Correlated with Widespread Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)
           Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    • Abstract: Apathy is recognized as the most common behavioral change in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder. Particularly, apathy has been reported to be associated with poor ALS prognosis. However, the brain microstructural correlates of this behavioral symptom, reported as the most common in ALS, have not been completely elucidated. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), here we aimed to quantify the correlation between brain microstructural damage and apathy scores in the early stages of ALS. Twenty-one consecutive ALS patients, in King’s clinical stage 1 or 2, and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological examination. Between-group comparisons did not show any significant difference on cognitive and behavioral variables. When compared to HCs, ALS patients exhibited a decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) [, threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) corrected] in the corpus callosum and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortices. Self-rated Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES) scores and self-rated apathy T-scores of the Frontal Systems Behavior (FrSBe) scale were found inversely correlated to FA measures (, TFCE corrected) in widespread white matter (WM) areas, including several associative fiber tracts in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. These results point towards an early microstructural degeneration of brain areas biologically involved in cognition and behavior regulation in ALS. Moreover, the significant correlations between apathy and DTI measures in several brain areas may suggest that subtle WM changes may be associated with mild behavioral symptoms in ALS even in the absence of overt cognitive and behavioral impairment.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy Administered Early after Narcolepsy
           Type 1 Onset in Three Patients Evaluated by Clinical and Polysomnographic

    • Abstract: Narcolepsy type 1 is a rare disabling sleep disorder mainly characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, an emotion-triggered sudden loss of muscle tone. Patients have a selective degeneration of hypocretin-producing neurons in the dorsolateral posterior hypothalamus with growing evidence supporting the hypothesis of an autoimmune mechanism. Few case studies that reported intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) suggest the efficacy of IVIg when administered early after disease onset, but the results are controversial. In these retrospective case observations, IVIg cycles were initiated within one to four months after cataplexy onset in a twenty-seven-year-old man, a ten-year-old girl, and a seven-year-old boy, all three with early onset typical narcolepsy type 1. Efficacy of treatment (three IVIg cycles of 1 g/kg administered at four-week intervals) was evaluated based on clinical, polysomnographic, and multiple sleep latency test (mean latency and SOREM) follow-up. Two patients reported decreased cataplexy frequency and ameliorated daytime sleepiness, but no significant amelioration of polysomnographic parameters was observed. Given the possibility of spontaneous improvement of cataplexy frequency with self-behavioral adjustments, these observations would need to be confirmed by larger controlled studies. Based on the present study and current literature, proof of concept is still missing thus prohibiting the consideration of IVIg as an efficient treatment option.
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Oct 2018 06:33:40 +000
  • Stroke Survivor and Caregiver Perspectives on Post-Stroke Visual Concerns
           and Long-Term Consequences

    • Abstract: Approximately 800,000 people in the United States have a stroke annually. Up to two thirds of stroke survivors have some visual problems, which result in disability and can affect survivors’ overall rehabilitation outcomes. Although some post-stroke visual impairments can be corrected and respond well to intervention, ocular signs can be subtle and may not be recognized or reported by the stroke survivor but rather by a vigilant caregiver. The purpose of this study was to explore the post-stroke visual concerns and consequences expressed by stroke survivors and caregivers. This study employed a qualitative design using semistructured interviews conducted with a convenience sample of stroke survivors and caregivers recruited from either a community support group or skilled nursing and long-term care facilities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Comparative content analysis was used to identify vision-related themes by two independent coders. All research team members completed quality checking of coding. Twenty participants (11 stroke survivors and 9 caregivers) expressed visual concerns or consequences following stroke: (1) eye movement problems, (2) perceptual issues, and (3) consequences of vision problems or issues, which affected their daily life/quality of life. Stroke survivors and caregivers reported receiving vision care from (1) eye doctors, (2) occupational therapists, and (3) other healthcare professionals. All vision care providers need to be observant of potential post-stroke visual concerns. Stroke survivors should have a thorough vision evaluation to optimize their independence in everyday activities and quality of life.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Cognitive-Enhancing Effect of a Hydroethanolic Extract of Crinum macowanii
           against Memory Impairment Induced by Aluminum Chloride in BALB/c Mice

    • Abstract: Crinum macowanii is a bulbous plant indigenous to many parts of Southern Africa. Extracts of C. macowanii have gained interest since the discovery of various alkaloids, few of which possess acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a crude hydroethanolic extract of C. macowanii against aluminum chloride-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze and the novel object recognition task. C. macowanii (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg p.o) was administered daily for five weeks, while donepezil (3 mg/kg p.o) was used as the positive control. C. macowanii at a dosage of 40 mg/kg showed a significantly lower escape latency than the negative control () and was found to be comparable to donepezil 3 mg/kg in the Morris water maze test. C. macowanii at 40 mg/kg exhibited a significantly higher discrimination index than aluminum chloride-treated mice in the novel object recognition task. The results may support the usefulness of C. macowanii in the management of dementia and related illnesses.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Comparing Sensitivity and Specificity of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive
           Examination-I, III and Mini-Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination in
           Parkinson’s Disease

    • Abstract: Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. Neurocognitive disorders (NCD) are one of the most troublesome problems and their diagnosis is often challenging. Methods. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of several versions of Addenbrooke Cognitive Examination (ACE, ACE-III, and Mini-ACE) on 552 subjects with PD. Normal cognition, mild and major NCD were judged in accordance with the respective criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition. Subsequently, we applied the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) analysis in comparison of different education levels. Results. For subjects with education level 0–8 and 9–12 years, the ACE-III had the best discriminating capabilities for mild NCD (cut-off scores: 83.5 and 85.5 points, respectively), while Mini-ACE was the best for subjects having education > 12 years (cut-off score: 25.5 points). For detecting major NCD, ACE-III had the best diagnostic accuracy in all levels of education (cut-off scores: 70.5, 77.5, and 78.5 points for subjects having education level 0–8, 9–12, and >12 years, respectively). Conclusion. ACE-III and its nested version, the Mini-ACE, had the best screening abilities for detecting mild and major NCD in PD.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Oct 2018 06:33:57 +000
  • Associations between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
           Treatment and Patient Nutritional Status and Height

    • Abstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to co-occur frequently with obesity, although the reasons for this association are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional profile of a Brazilian cohort of ADHD patients with that of the general population and to analyze the association between ADHD drug treatment (with methylphenidate), nutritional status, and height of these individuals. In the first phase of the study, we designed the nutritional and height profile of 93 ADHD patients (5.1 to 13.8 years old) and compared it to a control group. In the second phase, we analyzed the association of the use of methylphenidate with nutritional status and height. The results showed that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was statistically higher in the cohort of ADHD patients compared to controls (40.9% vs. 34.7%; ). After treating ADHD patients with methylphenidate, a statistically significant decrease in the BMI z-score was observed (0.695 vs. 0.305; ). On the other hand, no significant impact on height was detected after treatment (0.189 vs. 0.248; ). In conclusion, the results suggest that the use of methylphenidate in patients who have ADHD and obesity is relevant not only for controlling ADHD symptoms but also for improving the nutritional status of these individuals. Moreover, the treatment did not affect the patients’ height.
      PubDate: Tue, 02 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +000
  • Effects of Ficus umbellata (Moraceae) Aqueous Extract and
           7-Methoxycoumarin on Scopolamine-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment in
           Ovariectomized Wistar Rats

    • Abstract: The present work was undertaken to evaluate the ability of F. umbellata aqueous extract and its major component 7-methoxycoumarin (MC) to improve scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in ovariectomized Wistar rats. For this to be done, 10 sham-operated and 30 postmenopausal-like rats were randomly distributed in eight groups () and treated with distilled water (2 mL/250 g), estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), piracetam (1.5 mg/kg BW), F. umbellata aqueous extract (50 and 200 mg/kg BW), or MC (1 mg/kg BW) for 21 consecutive days. Before and after the memory impairment with scopolamine (2 mg/kg BW), animals underwent behavioral evaluations on Y- and radial mazes. As results, age and ovariectomy did not induce significant changes in the reference memory errors. While age decreased working memory errors, ovariectomy increased it. The MC as well as F. umbellata extract significantly increased () the percentage of spontaneous alternation and decreased () working and spatial reference memory errors and anxiety parameters (rearing and grooming) in ovariectomized rats. MC significantly reduced () the MDA level, but resulted in an increase in GSH level in brain homogenates. These results suggest that MC is endowed with neuroprotective effects and could account for the neuroprotective effects of F. umbellata in rats.
      PubDate: Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
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