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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 37, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 40, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 39, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.454, CiteScore: 1)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.424, CiteScore: 1)
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 74, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 189)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

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Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Gait and Conditioned Fear Impairments in a Mouse Model of Comorbid TBI and
           PTSD

    • Abstract: Study Objectives. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly cooccur. Approaches to research and treatment of these disorders have been segregated, despite overlapping symptomology. We and others have hypothesized that comorbid TBI + PTSD generates worse symptoms than either condition alone. We present a mouse model of comorbid TBI + PTSD to further explore this condition. Methods. A mouse model of TBI + PTSD was generated using the single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol in combination with the controlled cortical impact (CCI) protocol. This resulted in four experimental groups: control, TBI, PTSD, and TBI + PTSD. Behavioral phenotyping included gait analysis, contextual fear conditioning, acoustic startle response, and prepulse inhibition. Results. Mice in the TBI + PTSD group showed a significantly impaired gait compared to their counterparts with TBI alone as well as control mice. Mice in the TBI + PTSD group showed significantly impaired contextual fear recall compared to controls. Prepulse inhibition testing revealed intact acoustic startle and auditory sensory gating. Conclusions. These results indicate that SPS paired with CCI in mice produces unique behavioral impairments in gait and fear recall that are not present in either condition alone. Further studies are underway to examine additional behavioral, physiological, and pathological phenotypes in this combined model of TBI + PTSD.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Sep 2018 03:41:43 +000
       
  • The Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Carotid Artery Stenting among the
           Elderly: A Single-Center Study in China

    • Abstract: Compared to carotid endarterectomy, carotid artery stenting (CAS) is reportedly associated with higher perioperative risks in elderly patients. To verify the long-term safety and efficacy of CAS with embolic protection in elderly patients, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with carotid stenosis treated between January 2003 and March 2010 at the Department of Neurology of a large university hospital in China. We included patients with symptomatic, moderate, or severe carotid stenosis of atherosclerotic etiology (other etiologies were excluded), with a disability score ≤ 3 on the modified Rankin Scale, and who received CAS instead of carotid endarterectomy. The clinical endpoints studied were stroke recurrence and all-cause death. The 84 patients included in this study (median follow-up, 8.08 years) were stratified according to age at surgery (
      PubDate: Wed, 12 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Scoping Review: The Trajectory of Recovery of Participation Outcomes
           following Stroke

    • Abstract: Participation is a central concept in health and well-being and healthcare, yet operationalizing this concept has been difficult. Its definition, uses in healthcare, and impacts on recovery require ongoing research. Our review question goes like this: from the longitudinal evidence investigating participation among stroke survivors, what are the patterns of participation recovery in stroke survivors over time, and what interventions are used to improve participation' To fully understand these questions, we also ask, how is participation defined in the stroke literature, and what are the measures of participation used in the stroke literature' A systematic scoping review was undertaken using the search terms “stroke,” “longitudinal,” “participation,” and “outcome” in seven databases. Articles included were published until April 2017, written in English, and had at least two longitudinal assessments of participation. Fifty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was the most frequent definition of participation used (34%). There were 22 different measures of participation. Eight of ten studies demonstrated significant improvements in participation up to 12 months poststroke. Efficacy of interventions and their impact on participation varied. The various definitions, measures, and intervention efficacies of participation highlight the need for further research worldwide into achieving meaningful participation and quality of life among stroke survivors. Future practice should include participation as a main outcome measure.
      PubDate: Sun, 09 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Altered Small-World Networks in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients
           during Cool Executive Function Task

    • Abstract: At present, little is known about brain functional connectivity and its small-world topologic properties in first-episode schizophrenia (SZ) patients during cool executive function task. In this paper, the Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B) task was used to evaluate the cool executive function of first-episode SZ patients and electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from 14 first-episode SZ patients and 14 healthy controls during this cool executive function task. Brain functional connectivity between all pairs of EEG channels was constructed based on mutual information (MI) analysis. The constructed brain functional networks were filtered by three thresholding schemes: absolute threshold, mean degree, and a novel data-driven scheme based on orthogonal minimal spanning trees (OMST), and graph theory was then used to study the topographical characteristics of the filtered brain graphs. Results indicated that the graph theoretical measures of the theta band showed obvious difference between SZ patients and healthy controls. In the theta band, the characteristic path length was significantly longer and the cluster coefficient was significantly smaller in the SZ patients for a wide range of absolute threshold T. However, the cluster coefficient showed no significant changes, and the characteristic path length was still significantly longer in SZ patients when calculated as a function of mean degree K. Interestingly, we also found that only the characteristic path length was significantly longer in SZ patients compared with healthy controls after using the OMST scheme. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the characteristic path length was positively correlated with executive time of TMT-B for the combined SZ patients and healthy controls (, ), but not for SZ patients alone (, ). The above results suggested a less optimal organization of the brain network and could be useful for understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying cool executive dysfunction in first-episode SZ patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 05 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Indication of Disrupted Temporal Structure in the Case of Thought Blocks
           in Schizophrenia: The Role of the Metastable Balance

    • Abstract: This study is aimed at investigating probable disruption of the metastable balance relevant to a disruption of the mental processes observed in the neurophenomenal level. This disruption was found to occur under dense auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) which are accompanied by thought blocking (TB) phenomena. The entropy that quantifies the complexity of the spontaneous coupling has been used to describe the observed transitions. According to our findings, the high synchrony-derived entropy (SE) defines a metastable state, where formations of cortical areas are able to coordinate transiently under the demands of stimulus-oriented processes or other internal cognitive associations. It was also found that the disruption of the sensitive balance to the side of oversynergy (overconnectedness) rather than the side of independence (coincidental coupling) is relevant with functional fixations under the specific symptom of schizophrenia. An introduced measure relative to the persistence of coupling indicated that the overcoupled brain areas exhibit a kind of “stiffness” in processing incoherent phasic components. Our consideration enhances the understanding of the role the metastability plays in the interpretation of deeply subjective phenomena, such as AVHs and TBs that affect the normal information routing in the brain.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Scoping Review of the Driving Behaviour of and Driver Training Programs
           for People on the Autism Spectrum

    • Abstract: Gaining a driver’s licence represents increased independence and can lead to improved quality of life for individuals and their families. Learning to drive a motor vehicle and maintaining safe on-road skills are often more difficult for people on the autism spectrum. Many countries currently have no autism-specific licencing requirements for learner drivers, and there is a general lack of ASD-specific support and training packages for individuals, their families, and driving instructors. This review synthesises the peer-reviewed literature about the driving characteristics of drivers on the spectrum and driver training available for the cohort. The evidence in this review showed that individuals on the autism spectrum drive differently from their neurotypical counterparts. There are shortcomings in tactical skills of drivers on the autism spectrum, but the extent to which this affects their own safety or the safety of other road users is unclear. Tactical skills can be improved through training programs. There are few autism spectrum-specific learner training programs available. Development of an effective training program will benefit individuals on the spectrum to learn to drive, be independent, and be safe on the road.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effect of Carotid Artery Morphological Variations on Cognitive Function

    • Abstract: Background. Carotid artery morphological variations (CAMV) are common variations on medical imaging; the effects of CAMV on cognition were still unknown. This study is aimed at investigating whether carotid artery morphological variations (CAMV) cause cognitive impairment. Methods. Hospitalized patients from March 2017 to October 2017 who underwent digital subtract angiography (DSA) were divided into non-CAMV group, T-type group, K-type group, and C-type group according to their carotid artery morphology. Cognitive function in each group was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Scale (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), and the Digital Span Test (DST). Results. A total of 96 patients were included in the study (32 in non-CAMV group, 34 in T-type group, 30 in K-type group, and none in C-group). The positive rate of MMSE in the non-CAMV group, the T-type group, and the K-type group was 15.6%, 14.7%, and 20.0%, respectively, with no statistical difference in the three groups (). The positive rate of MoCA in the K-type group was significantly higher than that in the non-CAMV and the T-type groups (), but there was no significant difference between the non-CAMV group and the T-type group (). The VFT, DST forward score, and backward score in the K-type group were significantly lower than those in the non-CAMV and the T-type groups (). Conclusions. K-type CAMV may cause cognitive impairment, and MoCA is superior to MMSE in identifying mild cognitive impairment caused by CAMV.
      PubDate: Thu, 16 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Scriptaid Alleviated Neurological
           Dysfunction after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    • Abstract: Objectives. To investigate the role of Scriptaid in reducing brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in mice. Methods. An ICH model was constructed by injecting autologous blood into the right basal ganglia in mice. The animals were administered 3.5 mg/kg of Scriptaid intraperitoneally after ICH. The hematoma volume and hemoglobin level were measured to examine hematoma resolution. A behavior test and brain edema and white matter injury examinations indicated brain injury after ICH. Results. Scriptaid treatment promoted hematoma resolution and reduced the hematoma volume 7 d after ICH compared with the vehicle group (). Scriptaid treatment also alleviated the brain water content in the ipsilateral basal ganglia () and cortex () 3 d after ICH. In addition, Scriptaid improved neurological function recovery and alleviated white matter injury 35 d after ICH. Conclusions. Scriptaid can protect against brain injury after ICH and may be considered a new medical therapy method for ICH.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hypertriglyceridemia Is Associated with Reduced Leukoaraiosis Severity in
           Patients with a Small Vessel Stroke

    • Abstract: Intracranial hemorrhage or microbleeds and leukoaraiosis have an overlap in biology. Hyperlipidemia may reduce the risk of ICH or cerebral microbleeds; studies focusing on the relationship between different lipid profiles and severity of periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and subcortical white matter lesions (SWMLs) in the cerebral small vessel disease are limited. Methods. Patients with recent first lacunar infarct were recruited. PVH and SWMLs were accessed on MRI with the Fazekas scale, and lipid levels were measured. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the relation between different lipid profiles and severity of PVH and SWMLs. Results. In univariate analyses, advancing age was correlated with increasing severity of leukoaraiosis (). There was an inverse relationship between hypertriglyceridemia (hyper-TG) (≥1.7 mmol/l) and severity of leukoaraiosis (). In the multivariable analysis, after controlling for age, sex, and significant risk factors in the univariate and age-adjusted analyses, hyper-TG demonstrated a protective effect on the severity of PVH and SWMLs (). Higher total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were not associated with leukoaraiosis. Conclusions. Hyper-TG is associated with the severity of leukoaraiosis independent of other risk factors, and it might be a protective role in cerebral small vessel disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 09 Aug 2018 04:11:00 +000
       
  • Inhibiting of GRASP65 Phosphorylation by DL-3-N-Butylphthalide Protects
           against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via ERK Signaling

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. The aim of this study was to explore the role of DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) mice model. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was also investigated. Methods. All mice were divided into five groups: sham-operated group, CIRI group, NBP pretreatment group, NBP treatment group, and NBP pretreatment + treatment group. The CIRI mice model was established by the use of the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion method. Pretreatment mice received NBP (90 mg/kg/d) three times a day within four days before reperfusion by gavage. Treatment mice received NBP (90 mg/kg/d) three times a day within five days after reperfusion by gavage. We detected the infarction area, the neurological severity, and the superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels. Furthermore, we observed the expressions of GRASP65, phosphorylation of GRASP65 (pGRASP65), ERK, and phosphorylation of ERK (pERK) by the use of Western blotting. Results. The result showed that the ERK pathway was activated in response to CIRI. NBP decreases the expressions of pERK and pGRASP65 following CIRI. Additionally, NBP could decrease MDA and increase SOD level in brain tissues. Decreased infarct volume was also observed in the NBP group. Thereby, NBP inhibited the activation of the ERK pathway induced by CIRI and reduced the GRASP65 phosphorylation. Conclusions. The current finding suggested that NBP protected the cerebrum from CIRI mediated by inhibiting the ERK signaling pathway and subsequently reducing GRASP65 phosphorylation.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 10:01:39 +000
       
  • Ceftriaxone Treatment for Neuronal Deficits: A Histological and MEMRI
           Study in a Rat Model of Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    • Abstract: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by neuronal deficits and α-synuclein inclusions in the brain. Ceftriaxone (CEF), a β-lactam antibiotic, has been suggested as a therapeutic agent in several neurodegenerative disorders for its abilities to counteract glutamate-mediated toxicity and to block α-synuclein polymerization. By using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) and immunohistochemistry, we measured the effects of CEF on neuronal activity and α-synuclein accumulation in the brain in a DLB rat model. The data showed that CEF corrected neuronal density and activity in the hippocampal CA1 area, suppressed hyperactivity in the subthalamic nucleus, and reduced α-synuclein accumulation, indicating that CEF is a potential agent in the treatment of DLB.
      PubDate: Wed, 01 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Exploring the Neuroplastic Effects of Biofeedback Training on Smokers

    • Abstract: Smoking and stress cooccur in different stages of a nicotine addiction cycle, affecting brain function and showing additive impact on different physiological responses. Resting-state functional connectivity has shown potential in identifying these alterations. Nicotine addiction has been associated with detrimental effects on functional integrity of the central nervous system, including the organization of resting-state networks. Prolonged stress may result in enhanced activation of the default mode network (DMN). Considering that biofeedback has shown promise in alleviating physiological manifestations of stress, we aimed to explore the possible neuroplastic effects of biofeedback training on smokers. Clinical, behavioral, and neurophysiological (resting-state EEG) data were collected from twenty-seven subjects before and after five sessions of skin temperature training. DMN functional cortical connectivity was investigated. While clinical status remained unaltered, the degree of nicotine dependence and psychiatric symptoms were significantly improved. Significant changes in DMN organization and network properties were not observed, except for a significant increase of information flow from the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and right temporal pole cortex towards other DMN components. Biofeedback aiming at stress alleviation in smokers could play a protective role against maladaptive plasticity of connectivity. Multiple sessions, individualized interventions and more suitable methods to promote brain plasticity, such as neurofeedback training, should be considered.
      PubDate: Sun, 29 Jul 2018 07:52:37 +000
       
  • Behavioural and Cognitive Changes in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Brain
           Injury

    • PubDate: Wed, 25 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Pathogenesis of Necroptosis-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Cerebral
           Ischemic Disease

    • Abstract: Necroptosis is the best-described form of regulated necrosis at present, which is widely recognized as a component of caspase-independent cell death mediated by the concerted action of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3). Mixed-lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) was phosphorylated by RIPK3 at the threonine 357 and serine 358 residues and then formed tetramers and translocated onto the plasma membrane, which destabilizes plasma membrane integrity leading to cell swelling and membrane rupture. Necroptosis is downstream of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family, and also interaction with NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) induced inflammasome activation. Multiple inhibitors of RIPK1 and MLKL have been developed to block the cascade of signal pathways for procedural necrosis and represent potential leads for drug development. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the study of roles for necroptosis in cerebral ischemic disease and discuss how these modifications delicately control necroptosis.
      PubDate: Sun, 22 Jul 2018 06:47:25 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function
           after Cervical Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological
           Verification”

    • PubDate: Wed, 18 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients with Antidepressants: A
           Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    • Abstract: Antidepressants are the most commonly and widely used medication for its effectiveness in the treatment of anxiety and depression. A few epidemiological studies have documented that antidepressant is associated with increased risk of dementia so far. Here, our aim is to assess the association between antidepressant use and risk of dementia in elderly patients. We searched articles through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar from inception to December 1, 2017, that reported on the association between antidepressant use and dementia risk. Data were collected from each study independently, and study duplication was checked by at least three senior researchers based on a standardized protocol. Summary relative risk (RR) with 95% CI was calculated by using a random-effects model. We selected 9 out of 754 unique abstracts for full-text review using our predetermined selection criteria, and 5 out of these 9 studies, comprising 53,955 participants, met all of our inclusion criteria. The overall pooled RR of dementia was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.033–2.964) for SSRIs whereas the overall pooled RR of dementia was 2.131 (95% CI: 1.427–3.184) for tricyclic use. Also, MAOIs showed a high rate of increase with significant heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that antidepressant use is significantly associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Therefore, we suggest physicians to carefully prescribe antidepressants, especially in elder patients. Additionally, treatment should be stopped if any symptoms related to dementia are to be noticed.
      PubDate: Tue, 10 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • PPAR-γ Promotes Hematoma Clearance through Haptoglobin-Hemoglobin-CD163
           in a Rat Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    • Abstract: Background and Purpose. PPAR-γ is a transcriptional factor which is associated with promoting hematoma clearance and reducing neurological dysfunction after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Haptoglobin- (Hp-) hemoglobin- (Hb-) CD163 acts as a main pathway to Hb scavenging after ICH. The effect of PPAR-γ on the Hp-Hb-CD163 signaling pathway has not been reported. We hypothesized that PPAR-γ might protect against ICH-induced neuronal injury via activating the Hp-Hb-CD163 pathway in a rat ICH model. Methods. 107 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this research. They were randomly allocated to 4 groups as follows: sham group, vehicle group, monascin-treated group, and Glivec-treated group. Animals were euthanized at 3 days after the model was established successfully. We observed the effects of PPAR-γ on the brain water content, hemoglobin levels, and the expressions of CD163 and Hp in Western blot and real-ime PCR; meanwhile, we measured hematoma volumes and edema areas by MRI scanning. Result. The results showed that PPAR-γ agonist significantly reduced hematoma volume, brain edema, and hemoglobin after ICH. It also enhanced CD163 and Hp expression while PPAR-γ antagonist had the opposite effects. Conclusions. PPAR-γ promotes hematoma clearance and plays a protective role through the Hp-Hb-CD163 pathway in a rat collagenase infusion ICH model.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Quality of Life in Patients with Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    • Abstract: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a complex, multisymptom disorder. When making decisions regarding the treatment of DLB, the patient’s quality of life (QoL) should always be the main consideration. To our knowledge, this is the first review article focusing on the QoL in DLB patients. We searched the PubMed database using the keywords “quality of life” and “dementia with Lewy bodies.” Previously, no specific instrument had been developed for assessing the QoL in DLB patients. Patients with DLB have a decreased QoL compared to patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which is reportedly caused by several factors including level of independence in instrumental activities of daily living, whether the patient is living with the caregiver, apathy, delusion, and dysautonomia. The direct effect of visual hallucination, sleep, and movement disorders on the QoL in DLB patients has not been previously studied. The role of cognitive function on the QoL is still controversial. In a randomized controlled study, memantine may improve the QoL in PDD or DLB patients. We concluded that it is important to develop a specific instrument to assess the QoL in DLB patients. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for large clinical trials to identify factors associated with the QoL and how they can be managed.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hand Dexterity Impairment in Patients with Cervical Myelopathy: A New
           Quantitative Assessment Using a Natural Prehension Movement

    • Abstract: Cervical myelopathy (CM) caused by spinal cord compression can lead to reduced hand dexterity. However, except for the 10 sec grip-and-release test, there is no objective assessment system for hand dexterity in patients with CM. Therefore, we evaluated the hand dexterity impairment of patients with CM objectively by asking them to perform a natural prehension movement. Twenty-three patients with CM and 30 age-matched controls were asked to reach for and grasp a small object with their right thumb and index finger and to subsequently lift and hold it. To examine the effects of tactile afferents from the fingers, objects with surface materials of differing textures (silk, suede, and sandpaper) were used. All patients also underwent the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) test. Preoperative patients showed significantly greater grip aperture during reach-to-grasp movements and weaker grip force than controls only while attempting to lift the most slippery object (silk). Patients, immediately after surgery, () tended to show improvements in the JOA score and in reaction time and movement time with respect to reaching movements. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that some parameters of the prehension task could successfully predict subjective evaluations of dexterous hand movements based on JOA scores. These results suggest that quantitative assessments using prehension movements could be useful to objectively evaluate hand dexterity impairment in patients with CM.
      PubDate: Wed, 04 Jul 2018 06:19:16 +000
       
  • COGEVIS: A New Scale to Evaluate Cognition in Patients with Visual
           Deficiency

    • Abstract: We evaluated the cognitive status of visually impaired patients referred to low vision rehabilitation (LVR) based on a standard cognitive battery and a new evaluation tool, named the COGEVIS, which can be used to assess patients with severe visual deficits. We studied patients aged 60 and above, referred to the LVR Hospital in Paris. Neurological and cognitive evaluations were performed in an expert memory center. Thirty-eight individuals, 17 women and 21 men with a mean age of 70.3 ± 1.3 years and a mean visual acuity of 0.12 ± 0.02, were recruited over a one-year period. Sixty-three percent of participants had normal cognitive status. Cognitive impairment was diagnosed in 37.5% of participants. The COGEVIS score cutoff point to screen for cognitive impairment was 24 (maximum score of 30) with a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 95%. Evaluation following 4 months of visual rehabilitation showed an improvement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (), National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (), and Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (). This study introduces a new short test to screen for cognitive impairment in visually impaired patients.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Neuroprotective Effect of DAHP via Antiapoptosis in Cerebral Ischemia

    • Abstract: Aberrant production of nitric oxide following inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression has been implicated in cell death and contributes to ischemic brain injury. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of NOS activity. Herein, we evaluated antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), a guanosine 5-triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) inhibitor on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO) and investigated the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Experimental groups were subjected to 1.5 h transient MCAO. T2-weighted imaging was performed to evaluate brain edema lesions in the stroke rats. Infarct volume was estimated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining after 24 h reperfusion. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect iNOS, caspase-3, Bcl-2, COX-2, and TNF-α protein expressions. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL staining. T2 hyperintensity changes were observed in primary ischemic region. DAHP pretreatment significantly suppressed iNOS overexpression, caspase-3, and TNF-α. There was also attenuation of neuronal apoptosis with decrement in proteins Bcl-2 and COX-2 expressions. On the basis of our results, we hypothesize DAHP to have a neuroprotective function against focal cerebral ischemia and might attenuate brain injury by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, subsequently inhibiting apoptosis.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Xiao-Xu-Ming Decoction Reduced Mitophagy Activation and Improved
           Mitochondrial Function in Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury

    • Abstract: We investigated whether Xiao-Xu-Ming decoction reduced mitophagy activation and kept mitochondrial function in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham, ischemia and reperfusion (IR), IR plus XXMD (60 g/kg/day) (XXMD60), IR plus cyclosporin A (10 mg/kg/day) (CsA), and IR plus vehicle (Vehicle). Focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion models were induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral infarct areas were measured by triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Cerebral ischemic injury was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining (HE) and Nissl staining. Ultrastructural features of mitochondria and mitophagy in the penumbra of the ischemic cortex were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Mitophagy was detected by immunofluorescence labeled with LC3B and VDAC1. Autophagy lysosome formation was observed by immunofluorescence labeled with LC3B and Lamp1. The expression of LC3B, Beclin1, and Lamp1 was analyzed by Western blot. The rats subjected to MCAO showed worsened neurological score and cell ischemic damage. These were all significantly reversed by XXMD or CsA. Moreover, XXMD/CsA notably downregulated mitophagy and reduced the increase in LC3, Beclin1, and Lamp1 expression induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. The findings demonstrated that XXMD exerted neuroprotective effect via downregulating LC3, Beclin1, Lamp1, and mitochondrial p62 expression level, thus leading to the inhibition of mitophagy.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • MST1 Suppression Reduces Early Brain Injury by Inhibiting the NF-κB/MMP-9
           Pathway after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice

    • Abstract: Background. Mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1), the key component of the Hippo-YAP pathway, exhibits an important role in the pathophysiological process of various neurological disorders, including ischemic stroke and spinal cord injury. However, during subarachnoid hemorrhage, the involvement of MST1 in the pathophysiology of early brain injury remains unknown. Methods. We employed intravascular filament perforation to establish the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) mouse model. The MST1 inhibitor XMU-MP-1 was intraperitoneally injected at 1 h after SAH, followed by daily injections. MST1 in vivo knockdown was performed 3 weeks prior to SAH via intracerebroventricular injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) packaged with MST1 shRNA. The SAH grade, behavioral deficits, TUNEL staining, Evans blue dye extravasation and fluorescence, brain water content, protein and cytokine expressions by Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and proteome cytokine array were evaluated. Results. Following SAH, the phosphorylation level of MST1 was upregulated at 12 h, with a peak at 72 h after SAH. It was colocalized with the microglial marker Iba1. Both XMU-MP-1 and MST1 shRNA alleviated the neurological deficits, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, brain edema, neuroinflammation, and white matter injury, which were induced by SAH in association with nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65 and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) activation and downregulated endothelial junction protein expression. Conclusions. The current findings indicate that MST1 participates in SAH-induced BBB disruption and white matter fiber damage via the downstream NF-κB-MMP-9 signaling pathway. Therefore, MST1 antagonists may serve as a novel therapeutic target to prevent early brain injury in SAH patients.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

    • Abstract: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia, with abnormal dream-enacting behavior during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. RBD is either idiopathic or secondary to other neurologic disorders and medications. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the third most common cause of dementia, and the typical clinical presentation is rapidly progressive cognitive impairment. RBD is one of the core features of DLB and may occur either in advance or simultaneously with the onset of DLB. The association between RBD with DLB is widely studied. Evidences suggest that both DLB and RBD are possibly caused by the shared underlying synucleinopathy. This review article discusses history, clinical manifestations, possible pathophysiologies, and treatment of DLB and RBD and provides the latest updates.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Risk Factors for the Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Different
           Types of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    • Abstract: Objective. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a transitional state between normal aging and early dementia. It has a heterogeneous etiology and clinical course. This study aimed to examine the factors associated with the progression of MCI in different types of dementia disorders. Method. A retrospective, longitudinal, observational study of outpatients with MCI was conducted at a medical center in northern Taiwan. Patient medical records were reviewed, and risk factors were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results. Among 279 patients with MCI, 163 (58.4%), 68 (24.4%), and 48 (17.2%) were diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, vascular cognitive impairment, and Lewy body diseases, respectively. During the observation period, 37.2% of patients progressed to dementia. Older age and a higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes were associated with the risk of progression. Hyperlipidemia was associated with a decreased risk. Converters were more likely to receive an antidementia prescription. Conclusion. Our study suggests the importance of comprehensive clinical profiling, risk factor assessment, and detailed drug history evaluations in improving our understanding and management of dementia subtypes.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 07:13:48 +000
       
  • Sleep Quality and Emotion Regulation Interact to Predict Anxiety in
           Veterans with PTSD

    • Abstract: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating and common consequence of military service. PTSD is associated with increased incidence of mood disturbances (e.g., anxiety). Additionally, veterans with PTSD often have poor-quality sleep and poor emotion regulation ability. We sought to assess whether such sleep and emotion regulation deficits contribute to mood disturbances. In 144 veterans, using a double moderation model, we tested the relationship between PTSD and anxiety and examined whether sleep quality and emotion regulation interact to moderate this relationship. We found that PTSD predicts higher anxiety in veterans with poor and average sleep quality who utilize maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. However, there was no relationship between PTSD and anxiety in individuals with good sleep quality, regardless of emotion regulation. Similarly, there was no relationship between PTSD and anxiety in individuals with better emotion regulation, regardless of sleep quality. Results were unchanged when controlling for history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), despite the fact that those with both PTSD and TBI had the poorest emotion regulation overall. Taken together, these results suggest that good-quality sleep may be protective against poor emotion regulation in veterans with PTSD. Sleep may therefore be a target for therapeutic intervention in veterans with PTSD and heightened anxiety.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 06:57:19 +000
       
  • Neural Basis of Depression Related to a Dominant Right Hemisphere: A
           Resting-State fMRI Study

    • Abstract: Background. In the past, studies on the lateralization of the left and right hemispheres of the brain suggested that depression is dominated by the right hemisphere of the brain, but the neural basis of this theory remains unclear. Method. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 22 depressive patients and 15 healthy controls. The differences in the mean values of the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of two groups were compared, and the low-frequency amplitudes of these differential brain regions were compared. Results. The results show that compared with healthy subjects, depressive patients had increased ReHo values in the right superior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, triangular part of the right inferior frontal gyrus, orbital part of the right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, and paracingulate gyri; reduced ReHo values were seen in the right fusiform gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus, left lingual gyrus, and left inferior parietal except in the supramarginal and angular gyri. Conclusions. The results show that regional homogeneity mainly occurs in the right brain, and the overall performance of the brain is such that right hemisphere synchronization is enhanced while left hemisphere synchronization is weakened. ReHo abnormalities in the resting state can predict abnormalities in individual neurological activities that reflect changes in the structure and function of the brain; abnormalities shown with this indicator are the neuronal basis for the phenomenon that the right hemisphere of the brain has a dominant effect on depression.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Jun 2018 06:55:41 +000
       
  • Biochanin A Reduces Inflammatory Injury and Neuronal Apoptosis following
           Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Suppression of the TLRs/TIRAP/MyD88/NF-κB
           Pathway

    • Abstract: Inflammatory injury and neuronal apoptosis participate in the period of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Suppression of inflammation has recently been shown to reduce neuronal death and neurobehavioral dysfunction post SAH. Biochanin A (BCA), a natural bioactive isoflavonoid, has been confirmed to emerge the anti-inflammatory pharmacological function. This original study was aimed at evaluating and identifying the neuroprotective role of BCA and the underlying molecular mechanism in an experimental Sprague-Dawley rat SAH model. Neurobehavioral function was evaluated via the modified water maze test and modified Garcia neurologic score system. Thus, we confirmed that BCA markedly decreased the activated level of TLRs/TIRAP/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and the production of cytokines. BCA also significantly ameliorated neuronal apoptosis which correlated with the improvement of neurobehavioral dysfunction post SAH. These results indicated that BCA may provide neuroprotection against EBI through the inhibition of inflammatory injury and neuronal apoptosis partially via the TLRs/TIRAP/MyD88/NF-κB signal pathway.
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Metabolic Risk Factors of Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia with Lewy
           Bodies, and Normal Elderly: A Population-Based Study

    • Abstract: Background. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) share many risk factors. Evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors are important to AD; however, their association with DLB is unclear. The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with AD and DLB is also uncertain. Thus, this nationwide, population-based study was designed to evaluate the metabolic and CVD risks in AD and DLB. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. AD patients, DLB patients, and normal control (NC) individuals from 1996 to 2013 were enrolled for risk assessment. Results. In total, 7544 NC individuals, 1324 AD patients, and 562 DLB patients were enrolled. Participants with one or more metabolic risk factors had significantly higher odds of AD or DLB. No significant differences in metabolic risk factors were observed between DLB and AD patients. AD patients had a lower risk of CVD (aHR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59–0.76, value 
      PubDate: Sun, 03 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Incidence and Comorbidity of Dementia with Lewy Bodies: A Population-Based
           Cohort Study

    • Abstract: Background and Aims. Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the third most common form of dementia. Epidemiological studies of DLB in Taiwan are scarce. In this study, we estimated the incidence of DLB and comorbidity in the population of Taiwan. Methods. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). DLB patients between 2000 and 2013 were enrolled in assessments of incidence and comorbidity. Results. The incidence of DLB was shown to be 7.10 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 6.63–7.59), which increased with age. The average age at diagnosis was 76.3, and this was higher for males than for females. The comorbidity rates of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in DLB patients were higher in females than in males. Conclusions. Epidemiologic data from large-scale retrospective studies is crucial to the prevention of DLB.
      PubDate: Tue, 29 May 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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