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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 269 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 269 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.512, h-index: 32)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 15)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.259, h-index: 6)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.351, h-index: 17)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.421, h-index: 8)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 36, SJR: 0.338, h-index: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.248, h-index: 10)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.231, h-index: 6)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.258, h-index: 7)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 18)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.892, h-index: 19)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.439, h-index: 9)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 32, SJR: 0.263, h-index: 11)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.332, h-index: 10)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.498, h-index: 10)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.191, h-index: 10)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.343, h-index: 7)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 16)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.973, h-index: 16)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.695, h-index: 13)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.297, h-index: 7)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.26, h-index: 6)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.267, h-index: 6)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.629, h-index: 16)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.04, h-index: 12)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.125, h-index: 14)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.334, h-index: 12)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.991, h-index: 11)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.513, h-index: 12)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.53, h-index: 9)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.23, h-index: 13)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 1.248, h-index: 27)
Arthritis     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.909, h-index: 17)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.696, h-index: 34)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 1.085, h-index: 17)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.286, h-index: 19)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.725, h-index: 59)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.856, h-index: 53)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.409, h-index: 25)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.503, h-index: 42)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.941, h-index: 17)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (SJR: 0.326, h-index: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Cholesterol     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.906, h-index: 12)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.526, h-index: 27)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.415, h-index: 22)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.232, h-index: 30)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.932, h-index: 34)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.916, h-index: 14)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.8, h-index: 12)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.77, h-index: 11)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.576, h-index: 15)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.651, h-index: 18)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.323, h-index: 24)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.774, h-index: 49)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.457, h-index: 18)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.615, h-index: 50)
Experimental Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 1.591, h-index: 30)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.664, h-index: 21)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.693, h-index: 38)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.798, h-index: 22)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.976, h-index: 34)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.763, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 68, SJR: 0.241, h-index: 6)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.223, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 1.193, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Analysis     Open Access  
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.157, h-index: 2)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.385, h-index: 15)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.485, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.581, h-index: 23)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 2.658, h-index: 25)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.361, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.213, h-index: 12)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.19, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.558, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.363, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.144, h-index: 10)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.961, h-index: 24)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.721, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.823, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 0.876, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.346, h-index: 27)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.006, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.411, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.926, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.262, h-index: 7)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.73, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.348, h-index: 28)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.578, h-index: 20)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.265, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.182, h-index: 8)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.015, h-index: 18)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.402, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.234, h-index: 19)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.753, h-index: 11)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.757, h-index: 14)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.865, h-index: 16)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.389, h-index: 8)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 207)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.911, h-index: 24)
J. of Aging Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.259, h-index: 23)
J. of Analytical Methods in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.296, h-index: 13)
J. of Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
J. of Applied Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.341, h-index: 22)
J. of Biomedical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Blood Transfusion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
J. of Botany     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.101, h-index: 2)
J. of Cancer Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 1.427, h-index: 12)
J. of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 11)
J. of Combustion     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 0.27, h-index: 8)
J. of Complex Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
J. of Computer Networks and Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.257, h-index: 8)
J. of Construction Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Control Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.299, h-index: 9)
J. of Diabetes Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.024, h-index: 13)
J. of Drug Delivery     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 4.523, h-index: 2)
J. of Electrical and Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.225, h-index: 10)
J. of Energy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Engineering     Open Access  
J. of Environmental and Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 17, SJR: 1.136, h-index: 16)
J. of Food Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.497, h-index: 30)
J. of Function Spaces     Open Access   (SJR: 0.414, h-index: 10)
J. of Geological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
J. of Healthcare Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.345, h-index: 10)
J. of Immunology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.346, h-index: 41)
J. of Lipids     Open Access  
J. of Marine Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
J. of Materials     Open Access  
J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
J. of Nanomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.383, h-index: 24)
J. of Nanoscience     Open Access  
J. of Nanotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.283, h-index: 9)

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Journal Cover Behavioural Neurology
  [SJR: 0.696]   [H-I: 34]   [7 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
   Published by Hindawi Homepage  [269 journals]
  • Effects of Early-Life Stress on Social and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Adult
           Mice: Sex-Specific Effects

    • Abstract: Stressful events in an early postnatal period have critical implications for the individual’s life and can increase later risk for psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of early-life stress on the social behavior of adult male and female mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day) or handling (HD, 15 min once a day) on postnatal day 2 through 14. Adult male and female mice were tested for social behavior in the social interaction test and for individual behavior in the plus-maze and open-field tests. Female mice exposed to maternal separation had increased social behavior and increased anxiety. MS male mice had no changes in social behavior but had significantly disrupted individual behavior, including locomotor and exploratory activity. Handling had positive effects on social behavior in males and females and decreased anxiety in males. Our results support the hypothesis that brief separation of pups from their mothers (handling), which can be considered as moderate stress, may result in future positive changes in behavior. Maternal separation has deleterious effects on individual behavior and significant sex-specific effects on social behavior.
      PubDate: Tue, 09 Jan 2018 09:10:42 +000
       
  • Efficacy of a Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation Intervention in
           Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Multicenter Randomized
           Controlled Trial

    • Abstract: Cognitive impairment is frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS) affecting between 40–65% of individuals, irrespective of disease duration and severity of physical disability. In the present multicenter randomized controlled trial, fifty-eight clinically stable RRMS patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment and relatively low disability status were randomized to receive either computer-assisted (RehaCom) functional cognitive training with an emphasis on episodic memory, information processing speed/attention, and executive functions for 10 weeks (IG; ) or standard clinical care (CG; ). Outcome measures included a flexible comprehensive neuropsychological battery of tests sensitive to MS patient deficits and feedback regarding personal benefit gained from the intervention on four verbal questions. Only the IG group showed significant improvements in verbal and visuospatial episodic memory, processing speed/attention, and executive functioning from pre - to postassessment. Moreover, the improvement obtained on attention was retained over 6 months providing evidence on the long-term benefits of this intervention. Group by time interactions revealed significant improvements in composite cognitive domain scores in the IG relative to the demographically and clinically matched CG for verbal episodic memory, processing speed, verbal fluency, and attention. Treated patients rated the intervention positively and were more confident about their cognitive abilities following treatment.
      PubDate: Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Autistic, Aberrant, and Food-Related Behaviors in Adolescents and Young
           Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome: The Effects of Age and Genotype

    • Abstract: The effects of age and genotype were examined, with regard to the severity of aberrant, autistic, and food-related behaviors in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), with an emphasis on the contrast between adolescents and young adults. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist Japanese version (ABC-J), the Food Related Problem Questionnaire (FRPQ), and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS) were administered to 65 PWS patients, including 20 adolescents (ages 12 to 17) and 45 young adults (ages 18 to 29). Significant differences (Mann–Whitney U tests) were found in ABC-J () and PARS (), with lower scores in adolescents than in young adults. While DEL subgroups showed no significant differences between the two age groups in ABC-J () and PARS (), mUPD subgroups showed a statistically significant difference in terms of ABC-J (). No significant differences were found between adolescents and young adults, in terms of FRPQ (). These results suggest that aberrant and autistic behaviors follow a marked worsening trend from around the age of 18. On the other hand, food-related behaviors give no sign of change at this transitory stage. Young adults with mUPD were found to be significantly more severe than adolescents with mUPD, in terms of aberrant behaviors.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis and Cognition: A Review of Clinical,
           Neuropsychologic, and Neuroradiologic Features

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Although cognitive impairment has been well established in adult patients with MS, its occurrence in patients with pediatric-onset MS has recently been reported. In this review, I discuss the main features of cognitive impairment in pediatric MS as determined by long-term follow-up studies, neuropsychiatric test batteries, and the results of neuroradiological imaging studies that investigated the pathogenesis of pediatric MS. The most commonly affected cognitive domains in adults are attention, processing speed, and visuomotor skills; language and intelligence are also affected in pediatric MS. A young age at disease onset is the strongest risk factor for these impairments, which may be due to the effect of inflammatory demyelination and neurodegeneration on the developing central nervous system and neural networks in children. Cognitive impairment has long-term effects on patients’ academic life and the quality of their social life. Therefore, all patients with pediatric MS should be screened and monitored for cognitive impairment. This review also highlights the need for neuropsychological test batteries that assess different cognitive domains in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis and for cognitive rehabilitation programs to improve the quality of their academic and social life.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Association between Scale-Free Brain Dynamics and Behavioral Performance:
           Functional MRI Study in Resting State and Face Processing Task

    • Abstract: The scale-free dynamics of human brain activity, characterized by an elaborate temporal structure with scale-free properties, can be quantified using the power-law exponent (PLE) as an index. Power laws are well documented in nature in general, particularly in the brain. Some previous fMRI studies have demonstrated a lower PLE during cognitive-task-evoked activity than during resting state activity. However, PLE modulation during cognitive-task-evoked activity and its relationship with an associated behavior remain unclear. In this functional fMRI study in the resting state and face processing + control task, we investigated PLE during both the resting state and task-evoked activities, as well as its relationship with behavior measured using mean reaction time (mRT) during the task. We found that (1) face discrimination-induced BOLD signal changes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), amygdala, and fusiform face area; (2) PLE significantly decreased during task-evoked activity specifically in mPFC compared with resting state activity; (3) most importantly, in mPFC, mRT significantly negatively correlated with both resting state PLE and the resting-task PLE difference. These results may lead to a better understanding of the associations between task performance parameters (e.g., mRT) and the scale-free dynamics of spontaneous and task-evoked brain activities.
      PubDate: Thu, 21 Dec 2017 02:12:18 +000
       
  • Advances in Neural Engineering for Rehabilitation

    • PubDate: Wed, 20 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Face-to-Face or Telematic Cognitive Stimulation in Patients with Multiple
           Sclerosis and Cognitive Impairment: Why Not Both'

    • Abstract: Introduction. Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40–65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Few studies address telematic cognitive stimulation (TCS) in MS. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and impact of telestimulation or distance cognitive stimulation (TCS), with and without the support of face-to-face cognitive stimulation (FCS) in cognitive impairment in MS. Methods. Multicentre, prospective, randomised, controlled study. We will include 98 MS patients with EDSS ≤ 6, symbol digit modality test (SDMT) ≤ Pc 25, and Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ) > 26 points. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups, a TCS group, a mixed TCS/FCS group, and a control group. CS is performed 3 days a week for 3 months. Processing speed, memory, attention, and executive functions will be rehabilitated. FCS will include ecological exercises and strategies. EDSS and a cognitive evaluation (SDMT, CTMT, PASAT, and TAVEC), MSNQ, psychological impact scales (MSIS), and depression (BDI) will be carried out, baseline, postrehabilitation, and also 6 and 12 months later, to evaluate the effect of CS in the longer term. Conclusion. This study could help to establish the usefulness of TCS or, in its absence, TCS with face-to-face help for CI in MS. The interest lies in the clear benefits of remote rehabilitation in the daily life of patients.
      PubDate: Wed, 13 Dec 2017 07:24:35 +000
       
  • Effect of Voluntary Wheel Running on Striatal Dopamine Level and
           Neurocognitive Behaviors after Molar Loss in Rats

    • Abstract: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of voluntary wheel running on striatal dopamine level and behavior of cognition and emotion in molar loss rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into following 4 groups: control group (C group), molar loss group (ML group), 1-week physical exercise before molar loss group (1W-ML group), and 4-week physical exercise before molar loss group (4W-ML group). The rats both in 4W-ML and 1W-ML groups were placed in the voluntary running wheel in order to exercise for 4 weeks and 1 week, respectively. Then, the rats in 4W-ML, 1W-M, and ML groups received bilateral molar loss operation. After 10 days, striatal dopamine level was detected by in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electrochemical detection. All the rats received behavior test after microdialysis detection. The behavior tests including passive avoidance test were used to assess cognition and elevated plus maze test for emotion. The results indicated that voluntary wheel running promoted striatal dopamine level in rats of molar loss. Behavioral data indicated that voluntary wheel running promoted cognition and emotion recovery after molar loss. Therefore, we concluded physical exercise significantly improved the neurocognitive behaviors and increased the striatal dopamine level after molar loss in rats.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Dec 2017 06:12:00 +000
       
  • Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Depressive Symptoms, and Fatigue after a
           TIA or Transient Neurological Attack: A Prospective Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), depressive symptoms, and fatigue are common after stroke and are associated with reduced quality of life. We prospectively investigated their prevalence and course after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or nonfocal transient neurological attack (TNA) and the association with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions. Methods. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Subjective Fatigue subscale from the Checklist Individual Strength were used to assess subjective complaints shortly after TIA or TNA and six months later. With repeated measure analysis, the associations between DWI lesion presence or clinical diagnosis (TIA or TNA) and subjective complaints over time were determined. Results. We included 103 patients (28 DWI positive). At baseline, SCI and fatigue were less severe in DWI positive than in DWI negative patients, whereas at follow-up, there were no differences. SCI () and fatigue () increased in severity only in DWI positive patients. There were no differences between TIA and TNA. Conclusions. Subjective complaints are highly prevalent in TIA and TNA patients. The short-term prognosis is not different between DWI-positive and DWI negative patients, but SCI and fatigue increase in severity within six months after the event when an initial DWI lesion is present.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Acyclovir and IVIG on Behavioral Outcomes after HSV1 CNS
           Infection

    • Abstract: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) has serious neurological complications, involving behavioral and cognitive impairments that cause significant morbidity and a reduced quality of life. We showed that HSE results from dysregulated central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that CNS inflammation is casually involved in behavioral abnormalities after HSE and that treatment with ACV and pooled human immunoglobulin (IVIG), an immunomodulatory drug, would improve outcomes compared to mice treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or ACV alone. Anxiety levels were high in HSV-infected PBS and ACV-treated mice compared to mice treated with ACV + IVIG, consistent with reports implicating inflammation in anxiety induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or stress. Female, but not male, PBS-treated mice were cognitively impaired, and unexpectedly, ACV was protective, while the inclusion of IVIG surprisingly antagonized ACV’s beneficial effects. Distinct serum proteomic profiles were observed for male and female mice, and the antagonistic effects of ACV and IVIG on behavior were paralleled by similar changes in the serum proteome of ACV- and ACV + IVIG-treated mice. We conclude that inflammation and other factors mediate HSV-induced behavioral impairments and that the effects of ACV and IVIG on behavior involve novel mechanisms.
      PubDate: Sun, 19 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Mechanism of Restoration of Forelimb Motor Function after Cervical Spinal
           Cord Hemisection in Rats: Electrophysiological Verification

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to electrophysiologically assess the corticospinal tracts of adult rats and the recovery of motor function of their forelimbs after cervical cord hemisection. Of 39 adult rats used, compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) of the forelimbs of 15 rats were evaluated, before they received left C5 segmental hemisection of the spinal cord, by stimulating the pyramid of the medulla oblongata on one side using an exciting microelectrode. All 15 rats exhibited contralateral electrical activity, but their CMAPs disappeared after hemisection. The remaining 24 rats received hemisection first, and CMAPs of 12 rats were assessed over time to study their recovery time. All of them exhibited electrical activity of the forelimbs in 4 weeks after surgery. The remaining 12 rats received additional right C2 segmental hemisection, and variation of CMAPs between before and after surgery was examined. The right side of the 12 rats that received the additional hemisection exhibited no electrical activity in response to the stimulation of the pyramids on both sides. These results suggest that changes in path between the resected and healthy sides, activation of the ventral corticospinal tracts, and propriospinal neurons were involved in the recovery of motor function after cervical cord injury.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Neurogenesis
           and Cognitive Behavior in an Experimental Model of Hippocampal Injury

    • Abstract: Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields may induce constant modulation in neuronal plasticity. In recent years, tremendous efforts have been made to design a suitable strategy for enhancing adult neurogenesis, which seems to be deterred due to brain senescence and several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ELF-EMF on neurogenesis and memory, following treatment with trimethyltin chloride (TMT) as a neurotoxicant. The mice in all groups () were injected with BrdU during the experiment for seven consecutive days to label newborn cells. Spatial memory was assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM) test. By the end of the experiment, neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation were assessed in the hippocampus, using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Based on the findings, exposure to ELF-EMF enhanced spatial learning and memory in the MWM test. ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the number of BrdU+ and NeuN+ cells in the dentate gyrus of adult mice ( and , resp.). Western blot analysis revealed significant upregulation of NeuroD2 in ELF-EMF-exposed mice compared to the TMT-treated group (). These findings suggest that ELF-EMF might have clinical implications for the improvement of neurodegenerative processes and could help develop a novel therapeutic approach in regenerative medicine.
      PubDate: Sun, 12 Nov 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Hand Rehabilitation Robotics on Poststroke Motor Recovery

    • Abstract: The recovery of hand function is one of the most challenging topics in stroke rehabilitation. Although the robot-assisted therapy has got some good results in the latest decades, the development of hand rehabilitation robotics is left behind. Existing reviews of hand rehabilitation robotics focus either on the mechanical design on designers’ view or on the training paradigms on the clinicians’ view, while these two parts are interconnected and both important for designers and clinicians. In this review, we explore the current literature surrounding hand rehabilitation robots, to help designers make better choices among varied components and thus promoting the application of hand rehabilitation robots. An overview of hand rehabilitation robotics is provided in this paper firstly, to give a general view of the relationship between subjects, rehabilitation theories, hand rehabilitation robots, and its evaluation. Secondly, the state of the art hand rehabilitation robotics is introduced in detail according to the classification of the hardware system and the training paradigm. As a result, the discussion gives available arguments behind the classification and comprehensive overview of hand rehabilitation robotics.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 Nov 2017 04:22:22 +000
       
  • The Incidence of Depression among the Population of Central Kazakhstan and
           Its Relationship with Sociodemographic Characteristics

    • Abstract: It has been established that the presence of depression is accompanied by an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. The aim of this research was to estimate depressive symptom prevalence among the population in Central Kazakhstan and to define the relationship with social-demographic and behavioral factors. 1820 respondents of the population of Central Kazakhstan, aged 25 to 65, were performed. Participants included 777 urban and 1043 rural residents. Depressive symptoms assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). The results showed that some degree of depressive symptoms was detected in 75.7% of the respondents. A minimal degree of depressive symptoms was observed in 28.51%, mild in 27.7%, moderate in 13.7%, and severe and very severe degree of depressive symptoms in 4.6% and 1.2%, respectively; the absence of depression symptoms was reported in 24.3% of the respondents. The study found a relationship between the prevalence of depressive symptoms and factors such as gender, education, income, presence of chronic diseases, and physical activity. We have not found a correlation between the frequencies of depressive symptoms with age, employment, character of labor, and marital status.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Criterion Validity of the “HRQOLISP-E”: A New Context-Specific
           Screening Tool for Poststroke Depression

    • Abstract: Objectives. The optimal tool for identifying postsroke depression (PSD) is yet to be identified. In the present study, we rely on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) as a meaningful criterion to investigate the psychometric properties of the HRQOLISP-E, a new context-specific screening tool for PSD developed from a large cross-cultural sample. Methods. We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤one month) stroke survivors. Depression was measured using the HADS-D and the HRQOLISP-E. We determined sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probability. The area under a receiver operator curve (AUC) and the most appropriate HRQOLISP-E cut-off were also determined using standard procedures. Results. Using data derived from 387 recent stroke survivors, the HRQOLISP-E showed high agreement with the HADS-D, sensitivity = 73.7%, specificity = 79.3%, and posterior test probability = 88% (95% CI = 84%–91%). The AUC was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86). The HRQOLISP-E cut-off, corresponding to HADS-D score ≥ 8, was 20/21 (out of a total score of 30). Conclusions. Within limitations of using the HADS-D as a referent criterion, the present results provide justification for further development of the HRQOLISP-E as the first stroke-specific screening tool for depression.
      PubDate: Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Prevalence of Anxiety among Hungarian Subjects with Parkinson’s
           Disease

    • Abstract: Although anxiety is one of the most frequent symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), only a few clinical tools can efficiently and reliably detect its presence. The aim of the present study was to validate the Hungarian patient-rated version of Parkinson Anxiety Scale (PAS). A total of 190 PD patients were enrolled into the clinimetric validation phase of the study and another 590 participated in the cross-sectional screening phase. The presence of anxiety disorder was diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. The cutoff value for PAS which best discriminated the presence of anxiety from the absence was 12.5 points (sensitivity of 88.6%, specificity of 79.9). The area under the curve was 0.847 whereas the ROC analysis yielded the statistical significance level (). The optimal threshold values for mild (Hoehn and Yahr Stage, HYS 1 and 2), moderate (HYS 3), and severe (HYS 4 and 5) disease stages were 10.5, 12.5, and 13.5 points, respectively. Based on the general threshold anxiety occurred in 35.8% of the patients (persistent anxiety: 29.2%, episodic anxiety: 20.7%, and avoidant anxiety disorder: 16.8%). We demonstrate that the PAS is a valid, highly reliable, and sensitive tool for assessing anxiety.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Sep 2017 07:46:54 +000
       
  • The Italian Version of the Five-Word Test: A Simple Diagnostic Test for
           Dementia due to Alzheimer’s Disease in Routine Clinical Practice

    • Abstract: Background. The five-word test (FWT) is a neuropsychological tool (derived from the Grober and Buschke paradigm), measuring hippocampal memory trace consolidation. The study aimed to validate the test for the Italian language and to verify its ability to discriminate patients affected by mild cognitive impairment and dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease from healthy matches. Methods. 217 subjects (127 controls, 47 MCI due to AD, and 43 AD) underwent neuropsychological evaluation. The Spearman rank coefficient (ρ) was used to assess the correlation between immediate (IRS), delayed (DRS), and total score (TRS) of the FWT and correspondent matches of a specific short story test, while receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curves were built to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of both. Results. Correlation between almost all the scores was significant in all the diagnostic subgroups; the ROC curves of the two tests were not statistically different. A TRS of the FWT with a cut-off of ≤9/10 could accurately discriminate AD patients (sensitivity: 97%, specificity: 94%) and MCI due to AD (sensitivity: 76%, specificity: 68%) from control matches. Conclusion. FWT is a simple and valid test of hippocampal memory which appears recommendable in routine clinical practice.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 06:23:05 +000
       
  • Spatial Navigation Impairment Is Associated with Alterations in
           Subcortical Intrinsic Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A
           Resting-State fMRI Study

    • Abstract: Impairment of spatial navigation (SN) skills is one of the features of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) already at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We used a computer-based battery of spatial navigation tests to measure the SN performance in 22 MCI patients as well as 21 normal controls (NC). In order to evaluate intrinsic activity in the subcortical regions that may play a role in SN, we measured ALFF, fALFF, and ReHo derived within 14 subcortical regions. We observed reductions of intrinsic activity in MCI patients. We also demonstrated that the MCI versus NC group difference can modulate activity-behavior relationship, that is, the correlation slopes between ReHo and allocentric SN task total errors were significantly different between NC and MCI groups in the right hippocampus (interaction , ), pallidum (, ), and thalamus (, ), which were negative in NC (right hippocampus, ; right pallidum, ; right thalamus, ; all ) but absent in MCI (right hippocampus, ; right pallidum, ; right thalamus ; all ). These findings may provide a novel insight of the brain mechanism associated with SN impairment in MCI and indicated a stage specificity of brain-behavior correlation in dementia. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-BRC-17011316.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Central Poststroke Pain: Its Profile among Stroke Survivors in Kano,
           Nigeria

    • Abstract: Background. Central poststroke pain (CPSP) caused by sensory dysfunction of central origin is a disabling condition that significantly affects the quality of life of stroke patients. Aim. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical profiles and pattern of CPSP among stroke patients in Kano, Nigeria. Methods. The study was a cross-sectional design involving stroke survivors who were ≥18 years old and with no significant cognitive impairment approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Participants were assessed using diagnostic criteria form, the douleur neuropathique 4 questions (DN4 questionnaire), and Leeds assessment of neuropathic symptoms and signs (LANNS). Results. A total of 120 stroke patients participated in the study, in which 6 (5%) were diagnosed with CPSP occurring within the first 3 months in 50% of the participants. The pain characteristics were mainly moderate (83.3%), burning (62.5%), and continuously experienced (66.7%). The frequently affected parts were extremities or occurring as hemisyndrome. Conclusion. Prevalence of CPSP following stroke is low. The clinical features are variable and can occur at a varied time and different intensities and locations. However, it majorly occurs within the first few months post stroke.
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Sep 2017 07:26:25 +000
       
  • Gesture Decoding Using ECoG Signals from Human Sensorimotor Cortex: A
           Pilot Study

    • Abstract: Electrocorticography (ECoG) has been demonstrated as a promising neural signal source for developing brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). However, many concerns about the disadvantages brought by large craniotomy for implanting the ECoG grid limit the clinical translation of ECoG-based BMIs. In this study, we collected clinical ECoG signals from the sensorimotor cortex of three epileptic participants when they performed hand gestures. The ECoG power spectrum in hybrid frequency bands was extracted to build a synchronous real-time BMI system. High decoding accuracy of the three gestures was achieved in both offline analysis (85.7%, 84.5%, and 69.7%) and online tests (80% and 82%, tested on two participants only). We found that the decoding performance was maintained even with a subset of channels selected by a greedy algorithm. More importantly, these selected channels were mostly distributed along the central sulcus and clustered in the area of 3 interelectrode squares. Our findings of the reduced and clustered distribution of ECoG channels further supported the feasibility of clinically implementing the ECoG-based BMI system for the control of hand gestures.
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Cognitive Impairment in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients
           with Very Mild Clinical Disability

    • Abstract: Cognitive dysfunction affects 40–65% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and can occur in the early stages of the disease. This study aimed to explore cognitive functions by means of the Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in MS (MACFIMS) in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients with very mild clinical disability to identify the primarily involved cognitive functions. Ninety-two consecutive RRMS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores ≤ 2.5 and forty-two healthy controls (HC) were investigated. Our results show that 51.1% of MS patients have cognitive dysfunction compared to HC. An impairment of verbal and visual memory, working memory, and executive functions was found in the RRMS group. After subgrouping RRMS by EDSS, group 1 (EDSS ≤ 1.5) showed involvement of verbal memory and executive functions; moreover, group 2 (2 ≤ EDSS ≤ 2.5) patients were also impaired in information processing speed and visual memory. Our results show that utilizing a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, approximately half of MS patients with very mild physical disability exhibit cognitive impairment with a primary involvement of prefrontal cognitive functions. Detecting impairment of executive functions at an early clinical stage of disease could be useful to promptly enroll MS patients in targeted rehabilitation.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • LncRNA NONRATT021972 Was Associated with Neuropathic Pain Scoring in
           Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    • Abstract: Background. Long noncoding RNAs were involved in the processes of diabetes. Our study was aimed to explore clinical potential of LncRNA NONRATT021972 in diabetic neuropathic pain and investigate detailed mechanisms. Methods. 154 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled as experimental group paired with control. Patients without diabetes but neuropathy were enrolled to explore exclusive role of LncRNA NONRATT021972 in neuropathy. Real-time PCR and ELISA were performed to examine expression of LncRNA and TNF-α in flood. Neuropathic pain scores were calculated with data from NPQ. Streptozotocin was used for SD adult male rats to establish diabetes for NONRATT021972 siRNA or saline treatment. Neuropathic pain behaviors and expression of TNF-α were assessed. Result. Patients with type 2 diabetes had a significantly higher concentration of LncRNA NONRATT021972 in blood and more severe symptoms of neuropathic pain. LncRNA NONRATT021972 was positively associated with neuropathic pain scores of type 2 diabetes. TNF-α level increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. Animal experiment showed that LncRNA NONRATT021972 siRNA attenuated inflammation via decreasing TNF-α and alleviated neuropathic pain. Conclusion. LncRNA NONRATT021972 increased in type 2 diabetes and was positively associated with neuropathic pain scoring in type 2 diabetes. LncRNA NONRATT021972 exacerbated neuropathic pain via TNF-α related pathways.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 05:16:56 +000
       
  • Functional Capacity and Motor Performance of Upper Limbs in Individuals
           with Cerebellar Disorders: A Pilot Study

    • Abstract: In simple daily activities carried out by the upper limbs, the cerebellum is responsible for the adaptations required for the accurate movement based on previous experiences and external references. This paper aims to characterize the performance of the upper limbs after a cerebellar disease. We evaluated the digital and handgrip strength, dexterity, and function of the upper limbs. The motor performance of the upper limbs was assessed through the use of a digitizing tablet by performing aiming movements with the upper limb most affected by cerebellar disease and the paired limb of the healthy group. The results showed differences between groups: the cerebellar group had higher latency to movement onset, was slower, and presented less smooth trajectories and higher initial direction errors. Moreover, the movement direction influenced the peak velocity and the smoothness for both groups (contralateral directions were slower and less smooth). We concluded that cerebellar disorder leads to movement planning impairment compromising the formulation of an internal model. Alterations on movement execution seem to be a consequence from disruptions in the anticipatory model, leading to more adaptations. These findings are compatible with the roles of the cerebellum on the control of voluntary movement.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Aug 2017 04:41:53 +000
       
  • Depression after Stroke in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and
           Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objective. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method). Results. Seventeen studies, comprising 1483 stroke survivors, met the criteria for syntheses. The pooled frequency of clinically diagnosed PSD was 31% (95% CI = 26%–36%), versus 13.9% in healthy control pairs. Prevalence did not vary much across healthcare settings but was affected by methods of depression ascertainment. PSD was significantly associated with low education, cognitive impairment, physical disability, poor quality of life, and divorced marital status. Conclusion. Almost 1 in 3 individuals with stroke in SSA has clinical depression. Despite limitations around quality of identified studies, results of the present systematic review overlap with findings in the global literature and highlight useful targets for the design and trial of tailored intervention for PSD in SSA.
      PubDate: Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Autism: Elucidating
           Shared Mechanisms”

    • PubDate: Sun, 16 Jul 2017 07:30:28 +000
       
  • Characterizing Patients with Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction Using
           Kinematic Variability and Local Dynamic Stability during Treadmill Walking
           

    • Abstract: Here, we aimed to compare the unstable gait caused by unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) with the normal gait. Twelve patients with UVH and twelve age-matched control subjects were enrolled in the study. Thirty-four markers were attached to anatomical positions of each participant, and a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system was used to capture marker coordinates as the participants walked on a treadmill. The mean standard deviation of the rotation angles was used to represent gait variability. To explore gait stability, local dynamic stability was calculated from the trunk trajectory. The UVH group had wider step width and greater variability of roll rotation at the hip than the control group (). Also, the UVH group had lower local dynamic stability in the medial-lateral (ML) direction than the control group (). By linear regression analysis, we identified a linear relationship between the short-term Lyapunov exponent and vestibular functional asymmetry. The result implies that UVH-induced asymmetry can increase posture variability and gait instability. This study demonstrates the potential for using kinematic parameters to quantitatively evaluate the severity of vestibular functional asymmetry. Further studies will be needed to explore the clinical effectiveness of such approaches.
      PubDate: Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Effects of Robot-Assisted Training for the Unaffected Arm in Patients with
           Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    • Abstract: On a voluntary basis, 10 adolescents with hemiparesis due to cerebral palsy and 11 neurologically healthy control subjects participated in this proof-of-concept pilot study. The aim was to examine the effects of robot-assisted training for the unaffected arm in patients with hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Baseline comparison between the unaffected arm of the hemiparetic patients with cerebral palsy and the dominant arm of healthy control subjects showed significant differences on the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test and action planning ability tests. Within-group comparison after ten 30-minute sessions (five days a week for two consecutive weeks) of robot-assisted training for the unaffected arm showed significant improvements in patients with cerebral palsy on the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function test (performed at both hands) and action planning ability test (evaluated at the unaffected arm). Our findings are in line with previous evidences of action planning deficits at the unaffected arm in patients with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and support the hypothesis that robot-assisted training for the unaffected arm may be useful to improve manual dexterity and action planning in patients with hemiparesis due to cerebral palsy.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Social Cognition Deficits: Current Position and Future Directions for
           Neuropsychological Interventions in Cerebrovascular Disease

    • Abstract: Neuropsychological assessments of cognitive dysfunction in cerebrovascular illness commonly target basic cognitive functions involving aspects of memory, attention, language, praxis, and number processing. Here, I highlight the clinical importance of often-neglected social cognition functions. These functions recruit a widely distributed neural network, making them vulnerable in most cerebrovascular diseases. Sociocognitive deficits underlie most of the problematic social conduct observed in patients and are associated with more negative clinical outcomes (compared to nonsocial cognitive deficits). In clinical settings, social cognition deficits are normally gleaned from collateral information from caregivers or from indirect inferences made from patients’ performance on standard nonsocial cognitive tests. Information from these sources is however inadequate. I discuss key social cognition functions, focusing initially on deficits in emotion perception and theory of mind, two areas that have gained sizeable attention in neuroscientific research, and then extend the discussion into relatively new, less covered but crucial functions involving empathic behaviour, social awareness, social judgements, and social decision making. These functions are frequently impaired following neurological change. At present, a wide range of psychometrically robust social cognition tests is available, and this review also makes the case for their inclusion in neuropsychological assessments.
      PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 06:41:31 +000
       
  • Corrigendum to “Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement
           after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from
           Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu”

    • PubDate: Mon, 03 Jul 2017 04:01:05 +000
       
  • Cerebral Reorganization in Subacute Stroke Survivors after Virtual
           Reality-Based Training: A Preliminary Study

    • Abstract: Background. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. Methods. Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion. Gait speed and clinical scales were also measured before and after intervention. Results. Increased activation in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere and supplementary motor areas of both sides for the paretic foot () was observed postintervention. Statistically significant improvements were observed in gait velocity (). The change in voxel counts in the primary sensorimotor cortex of the lesioned hemisphere is significantly correlated with improvement of 10 m walk time after VRET (). Conclusions. We observed improved walking and increased activation in cortical regions of stroke survivors after VRET training. Moreover, the cortical recruitment was associated with better walking function. Our study suggests that cortical networks could be a site of plasticity, and their recruitment may be one mechanism of training-induced recovery of gait function in stroke. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-15006064.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Jun 2017 10:37:57 +000
       
 
 
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