Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 343 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 343 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 62)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 47, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 51, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 101)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 25, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 30, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 37)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 42, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Biology J.     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.354, CiteScore: 1)
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part B, Magnetic Resonance Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.26, CiteScore: 1)
Conference Papers in Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 29, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 78, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 234)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [343 journals]
  • Machine Learning Based on a Multiparametric and Multiregional Radiomics
           Signature Predicts Radiotherapeutic Response in Patients with Glioblastoma

    • Abstract: Background and Objective. Although radiotherapy has become one of the main treatment methods for cancer, there is no noninvasive method to predict the radiotherapeutic response of individual glioblastoma (GBM) patients before surgery. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a machine learning-based radiomics signature to predict the radiotherapeutic response of GBM patients. Methods. The MRI images, genetic data, and clinical data of 152 patients with GBM were analyzed. 122 patients from the TCIA dataset (training set: ; validation set: ) and 30 patients from local hospitals were used as an independent test dataset. Radiomics features were extracted from multiple regions of multiparameter MRI. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to verify the ability of the imaging signature to predict the response of GBM patients to radiotherapy before an operation. Multivariate Cox regression including radiomics signature and preoperative clinical risk factors was used to further improve the ability to predict the overall survival (OS) of individual GBM patients, which was presented in the form of a nomogram. Results. The radiomics signature was built by eight selected features. The -index of the radiomics signature in the TCIA and independent test cohorts was 0.703 () and 0.757 (), respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that the radiomics signature (HR: 0.290, ), age (HR: 1.023, ), and KPS (HR: 0.968, ) were independent risk factors for OS in GBM patients before surgery. When the radiomics signature and preoperative clinical risk factors were combined, the radiomics nomogram further improved the performance of OS prediction in individual patients ( and 0.758 in the TCIA and test cohorts, respectively). Conclusion. This study developed a radiomics signature that can predict the response of individual GBM patients to radiotherapy and may be a new supplement for precise GBM radiotherapy.
      PubDate: Sat, 24 Oct 2020 09:05:00 +000
  • Burnout among Nurses Working in Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Burnout is a condition of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment that can occur among individuals who work with people in some capacity. Nursing is a stressful profession that deals with human aspects of health and illness and can ultimately lead to job dissatisfaction and burnout. Although burnout among nurses has been addressed in previous research, the heterogeneous nature of the result findings highlights the need for a detailed meta-analysis in Ethiopia. Thus, this review is aimed at identifying the prevalence of burnout among nurses in Ethiopia. Methods. A search strategy was implemented using electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Africa-Wide Information, and African Index Medicus) which were systematically searched online to retrieve related articles using keywords. Studies which were included in this review were written in the English language because writing articles in other languages in Ethiopia is uncommon. The combination of key terms including “burnout”, “nurse” and “Ethiopia”, “systematic review” and protocols was used. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis checklist guideline was followed stepwise. All published articles starting from inception to February 2020 were included, and we did not find unpublished studies. Heterogeneity across the included studies was evaluated by the inconsistency index. All statistical analysis was done using R and RStudio software for Windows, and a random-effects model was applied to estimate the overall prevalence of burnout among nurses in Ethiopia. It is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020188092). Results. The database searched produced 1060 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven articles with 1654 total nurses were found suitable for the review. Except for one cohort study, all studies were cross-sectional. The overall pooled prevalence of burnout among Ethiopian nurses was estimated to be 39% (95% CI: 27%-50%). Conclusions. Burnout affects two out of five nurses in Ethiopia. Therefore, effective interventions and strategies are required to reduce burnout among nurses.
      PubDate: Sat, 17 Oct 2020 14:35:01 +000
  • Association between Neuron-Specific Enolase Gene Polymorphism and Delayed
           Encephalopathy after Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    • Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between neuron-specific enolase (NSE) gene polymorphism and delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP) and provide a theoretical basis for DEACMP pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis. Methods. To investigate this relationship, we screened 6 NSE single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), based on the results of the previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 1,201 patients, including 416 in the DEACMP group and 785 in the acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACMP) group, were detected by the Sequenom MassARRAY® method. The genotype frequencies and alleles of the 6 NSE SNPs (rs2071074, rs2071417, rs2071419, rs11064464, rs11064465, and rs3213434) were compared using different genetic models. Results. In the SNPs rs2071419 and rs3213434, we found that the genotypes and allele frequencies in the two groups significantly correlated with the grouping of patients (,;,). The haplotypes GGTTTC and CCTTTC of ACMP and DEACMP were different (,;,). We also observed that rs2071419 and rs3213434 significantly correlated with DEACMP-increased risk in the dominant, codominant, and overdominant genetic models. In addition, we speculated that the C allele of the rs2071419 polymorphism and the T allele of the rs3213434 polymorphism in NSE may increase the DEACMP risk (,).Conclusions. The results show that rs2071419 and rs3213434 are susceptible sites of DEACMP. The NSE C allele of rs2071419 and T allele of rs3213434 and the haplotypes GGTTTC and CCTTTC may be risk factors for DEACMP.
      PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2020 02:50:00 +000
  • Sexual Satisfaction in Fully Ambulatory People with Multiple Sclerosis:
           Does Disability Matter'

    • Abstract: Primary sexual dysfunctions (SD) are a direct result of neurological changes that affect the sexual response. Secondary SD result from the symptoms that do not directly involve nervous pathways to the genital system, such as bladder and bowel problems, fatigue, spasticity, or muscle weakness. Tertiary SD are the result of disability-related psychosocial and cultural issues that can interfere with sexual feelings and experiences. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual satisfaction (SS) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) without significant mobility impairment and to estimate the influence of SD, the score on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), lowered mood, and stress coping strategies on SS. Methods. 76 PwMS with the points were enrolled in the study. The subjects completed the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale (MADRS), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSISQ-19), and the Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ). Results. The level of SS in PwMS was not significantly lower compared to that of the general population. It correlated with the primary, secondary, and tertiary SD and lowered mood. However, it did not correlate with disability measured by the EDSS. Conclusions. The level of SS in PwMS with the EDSS score below 5.0 points was not significantly lower. SS depended on SD, lowered mood, and stress coping style, and it was not significantly related to the level of disability in patients with the EDDS score below 5.0.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Oct 2020 10:05:00 +000
  • Atypical EEG Responses to Nonverbal Emotionally Charged Stimuli in
           Children with ASD

    • Abstract: This study focused on auditory emotional perception in children with low-functioning autism and investigated the children’s response to emotionally charged nonverbal sounds which regularly induced emotional response in typically developing (TD) peers. An EEG was conducted, and emotional reactions were assessed using analog scales and images of presented sounds with additional images during the presentation of emotional stimuli. The results showed that EEG and emotional responses to the fearful sounds were similar in TD children and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Both groups of children showed an increase in peak alpha frequency and power of alpha2-band and a decrease in low-frequency bands. Sounds of crying and laughter induced an atypical EEG response in children with ASD, with no change in alpha-band’s power and frequency observed in them; this was contrary to the observation in TD children. The decrease in the fractal dimension detected in children with ASD only for sounds of crying and laughter correlated with the accuracy of assessment of these stimuli.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Oct 2020 10:50:02 +000
  • Corrigendum to “A Longitudinal Examination of the Hopelessness Theory of
           Depression in People Who Have Multiple Sclerosis”

    • PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2020 12:05:00 +000
  • Wild Bitter Melon Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Upregulating
           Injury-Attenuated CISD2 Expression following Spinal Cord Injury

    • Abstract: Background. Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) induce secondary neuroinflammation through astrocyte reactivation, which adversely affects neuronal survival and eventually causes long-term disability. CDGSH iron sulfur domain 2 (CISD2), which has been reported to be involved in mediating the anti-inflammatory responses, can serve as a target in SCI therapy. Wild bitter melon (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) contains an anti-inflammatory agent called alpha-eleostearic acid (α-ESA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β (PPAR-β) ligand. Activated PPAR-β inhibits the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway via the inhibition of IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) degradation. The role of astrocyte deactivation and CISD2 in anti-inflammatory mechanisms of WBM in acute SCIs is unknown. Materials and Methods. A mouse model of SCI was generated via spinal cord hemisection. The SCI mice were administered WBM intraperitoneally (500 mg/kg bodyweight). Lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated ALT cells (astrocytes) were used as an in vitro model for studying astrocyte-mediated inflammation post-SCI. The roles of CISD2 and PPAR-β in inflammatory signaling were examined using LPS-stimulated SH-SY5Y cells transfected with si-CISD2 or scramble RNA. Results. WBM mitigated the SCI-induced downregulation of CISD2, PPAR-β, and IκB and upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; marker of astrocyte reactivation) in the spinal cord of SCI mice. Additionally, WBM (1 μg/mL) mitigated LPS-induced CISD2 downregulation. Furthermore, SH-SY5Y neural cells with CISD2 knockdown exhibited decreased PPAR-β expression and augmented NF-κB signaling. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that CISD2 is an upstream modulator of the PPAR-β/NF-κB proinflammatory signaling pathway in neural cells, and that WBM can mitigate the injury-induced downregulation of CISD2 in SCI mice and LPS-stimulated ALT astrocytes.
      PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2020 10:50:00 +000
  • Retinal Levels of Amyloid Beta Correlate with Cerebral Levels of Amyloid
           Beta in Young APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice before Onset of Alzheimer’s

    • Abstract: Objectives. Retina abnormalities are related to cognitive disorders in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Retinal amyloid beta (Aβ) can be labeled by curcumin. We measured Aβ content in the cerebrum and retina of APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP) transgenic mice with early age to investigate the correlation between cerebrum and retina. Methods. APP mice and age-matched wild-type mice were investigated every month from age 2 months to 6 months to assess changes in Aβ content in the retina and cerebrum. At the beginning of each month, mice were fed a curcumin diet (50 mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days. The Aβ levels in the retina and cerebrum were measured by ELISAs. Correlations were identified between retinal and cerebral Aβ contents using Pearson’s correlation. Results. In the absence of curcumin, there was a significant correlation between Aβ contents in the retina and cerebrum of APP mice (,). With increasing age, Aβ-mediated degenerative change in the cerebrum ( in 5 months) and retina ( in 5 months) increased significantly. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on the Aβ level was significant in the cerebrum () and retina () of older APP mice in the early stage of life. Conclusion. We observed a significant correlation between the Aβ content in the retina and Aβ content in the cerebrum of APP mice. Our data suggest an appropriate time to measure retinal Aβ. Although curcumin can label Aβ in the retina, it also suppresses Aβ levels and weakens the degree of correlation between Aβ in cerebrum and retina tissues.
      PubDate: Thu, 24 Sep 2020 09:35:00 +000
  • Comparison of Performance on the Clock Drawing Test Using Three Different
           Scales in Dialysis Patients

    • Abstract: Background. The clock drawing test (CDT) is frequently used to detect changes in cognition. Multiple scales of varying length have been published to assess performance. The aim of this study is to compare the CDT performance measured by three scales among a sample of nondemented patients on renal dialysis and identify the variables that affect performance. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study performed at the dialysis unit at King Saud University Medical City. Eighty-nine dialysis patients performed the CDT. The CDT was scored by the methods of Rouleau et al. (RCS 10-point), Babins et al. (BCS 18-point), and the MoCA (MCS 3-point). Regression models were used to determine influencing demographic and dialysis variables. Scores were then correlated, and a combined factor analysis of scale components was done. Results. Females represented 44.6%, the mean (SD) age was 49.99 (15.49) years, and education duration was 10.29 (5.5) years. Dialysis vintage was 55.81 (62.91) months. The scores for the MCS, RCS, and BCS were 2.18 (1.08), 6.67 (3.07), and 11.8 (5.5), respectively, with significant correlation (). In all scales, increasing age was associated with a lower score (each ). The scores increased with increasing education (each ). Diabetics had a lower score on both the BCS and MCS by 2.56 (SE 1.2) () and 0.71 () points, respectively. However, only age and years of education were significant in the multivariable analysis. In factor analysis, two shared factors appeared between the three scales: hand and number placement and the clock face. Conclusion. Age and education influence the performance on the CDT, and factors diverged into executive and visuospatial components. The MCS is likely to yield useful information but should be interpreted as part of the MoCA.
      PubDate: Tue, 22 Sep 2020 11:20:00 +000
  • Evaluating Executive Functions in Patients with Juvenile Myoclonic
           Epilepsy Using Frontal Assessment Battery

    • Abstract: Objective. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the executive profile of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients using the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) as a bedside screening tool and investigate its association with seizure proximity, family history of epilepsy, and polytherapy/monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Background. JME patients have deficits in various aspects of executive functions. FAB has proved to be a useful tool for evaluating executive functions in clinical settings. Methods. Thirty-one JME patients and 110 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled in this study. The participants were assessed using six subsets of FAB, including conceptualization, mental flexibility, motor programming, sensitivity to interference, inhibitory control, and environmental autonomy. Results. Compared to HCs, JME patients showed lower scores in conceptualization, mental flexibility, programming, sensitivity to interference, and total FAB. The number of AEDs (polytherapy versus monotherapy) and duration of time since the last seizure had no significant effect on FAB scores in JME patients. We found significant associations between disease duration and conceptualization, mental flexibility, inhibitory control, and total FAB score only in JME patients with recent seizure. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed area under the curve (AUC) of 0.971 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.947–0.994) for FAB total score, 0.933 for conceptualization (95% CI: 0.973-894), and 0.836 for mental flexibility (95% CI: 0.921-751). Conclusions. In summary, JME patients had deficits in different aspects of executive functions. FAB is a useful clinical tool for evaluation of executive functions in JME patients.
      PubDate: Thu, 10 Sep 2020 11:05:01 +000
  • Abnormal Homocysteine Metabolism: An Insight of Alzheimer’s Disease
           from DNA Methylation

    • Abstract: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease in the central nervous system that has complex pathogenesis in the elderly. The current review focuses on the epigenetic mechanisms of AD, according to the latest findings. One of the best-characterized chromatin modifications in epigenetic mechanisms is DNA methylation. Highly replicable data shows that AD occurrence is often accompanied by methylation level changes of the AD-related gene. Homocysteine (Hcy) is not only an intermediate product of one-carbon metabolism but also an important independent risk factor of AD; it can affect the cognitive function of the brain by changing the one-carbon metabolism and interfering with the DNA methylation process, resulting in cerebrovascular disease. In general, Hcy may be an environmental factor that affects AD via the DNA methylation pathway with a series of changes in AD-related substance. This review will concentrate on the relation between DNA methylation and Hcy and try to figure out their rule in the pathophysiology of AD.
      PubDate: Tue, 08 Sep 2020 23:50:00 +000
  • A Novel Metabolic Connectome Method to Predict Progression to Mild
           Cognitive Impairment

    • Abstract: Objective. Glucose-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely used to predict the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into Alzheimer’s disease (AD) clinically. However, existing discriminant methods are unsubtle to reveal pathophysiological changes. Therefore, we present a novel metabolic connectome-based predictive modeling to predict progression from MCI to AD accurately. Methods. In this study, we acquired fluorodeoxyglucose PET images and clinical assessments from 420 MCI patients with 36 months follow-up. Individual metabolic network based on connectome analysis was constructed, and the metabolic connectivity in this network was extracted as predictive features. Three different classification strategies were implemented to interrogate the predictive performance. To verify the effectivity of selected features, specific brain regions associated with MCI conversion were identified based on these features and compared with prior knowledge. Results. As a result, 4005 connectome features were obtained, and 153 in which were selected as efficient features. Our proposed feature extraction method had achieved 85.2% accuracy for MCI conversion prediction (sensitivity: 88.1%; specificity: 81.2%; and AUC: 0.933). The discriminative brain regions associated with MCI conversion were mainly located in the precentral gyrus, precuneus, lingual, and inferior frontal gyrus. Conclusion. Overall, the results suggest that our proposed individual metabolic connectome method has great potential to predict whether MCI patients will progress to AD. The metabolic connectome may help to identify brain metabolic dysfunction and build a clinically applicable biomarker to predict the MCI progression.
      PubDate: Tue, 18 Aug 2020 06:20:01 +000
  • Neuropsychological and Emotional Functioning in Patients with
           Cushing’s Syndrome

    • Abstract: Patients with Cushing’s syndrome (CS) frequently report impairments in cognitive and emotional functioning. Given neuroimaging research that implicates alterations in structure and function in the brain in this population, goals of this study were to investigate neuropsychological and emotional functioning, with particular emphasis on complex attention and memory. In a clinical sample of 18 adults with CS referred for neuropsychological evaluation (age , 72% Caucasian), patients’ most common subjective complaints were in attention and increased irritability. On objective testing, patients exhibited significant declines in the consistency of their sustained attention and visual-spatial functioning compared to normative peers. Patients exhibited on average significantly reduced initial learning following first exposure to visual and verbal stimuli but intact retention of information learned. Patients with CS endorsed highly elevated levels of somatization, depression, and anxiety, and 59% of them scored in the clinically elevated range for somatization and depressive symptomatology. Exploratory analyses suggested that the 11 patients with active Cushing’s exhibited lower processing speed, poorer sustained attention, naming, and cognitive flexibility compared to the 7 patients who achieved biochemical remission. Patients with active Cushing’s also reported higher levels of somatization and anxiety compared to patients in biochemical remission. Overall, this study provides new insights into complex attention and memory deficits in patients with CS and concern regarding cognitive and emotional issues despite resolution of hypercortisolism. Our study opens several avenues for further exploration.
      PubDate: Fri, 07 Aug 2020 08:05:00 +000
  • Conversational Therapy through Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality Environments

    • Abstract: Aphasia is a highly disabling acquired language disorder generally caused by a left-lateralized brain damage. Even if traditional therapies have been shown to induce an adequate clinical improvement, a large percentage of patients are left with some degree of language impairments. Therefore, new approaches to common speech therapies are urgently needed in order to maximize the recovery from aphasia. The recent application of virtual reality (VR) to aphasia rehabilitation has already evidenced its usefulness in promoting a more pragmatically oriented treatment than conventional therapies (CT). In the present study, thirty-six chronic persons with aphasia (PWA) were randomly assigned to two groups. The VR group underwent conversational therapy during VR everyday life setting observation, while the control group was trained in a conventional setting without VR support. All patients were extensively tested through a neuropsychological battery which included not only measures for language skills and communication efficacy but also self-esteem and quality of life questionnairies. All patients were trained through a conversational approach by a speech therapist twice a week for six months (total 48 sessions). After the treatment, no significant differences among groups were found in the different measures. However, the amount of improvement in the different areas was distributed over far more cognitive and psychological aspects in the VR group than in the control group. Indeed, the within-group comparisons showed a significant enhancement in different language tasks (i.e., oral comprehension, repetition, and written language) only in the VR group. Significant gains, after the treatment, were also found, in the VR group, in different psychological dimensions (i.e., self-esteem and emotional and mood state). Given the importance of these aspects for aphasia recovery, we believe that our results add to previous evidence which points to the ecological validity and feasibility of VR treatment for language recovery and psychosocial well-being.
      PubDate: Thu, 06 Aug 2020 13:35:01 +000
  • Effects of Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation on Facial Emotion
           Recognition in Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Literature Review

    • Abstract: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD). Nevertheless, DBS has been associated with certain nonmotor, neuropsychiatric effects such as worsening of emotion recognition from facial expressions. In order to investigate facial emotion recognition (FER) after STN DBS, we conducted a literature search of the electronic databases MEDLINE and Web of science. In this review, we analyze studies assessing FER after STN DBS in PD patients and summarize the current knowledge of the effects of STN DBS on FER. The majority of studies, which had clinical and methodological heterogeneity, showed that FER is worsening after STN DBS in PD patients, particularly for negative emotions (sadness, fear, anger, and tendency for disgust). FER worsening after STN DBS can be attributed to the functional role of the STN in limbic circuits and the interference of STN stimulation with neural networks involved in FER, including the connections of the STN with the limbic part of the basal ganglia and pre- and frontal areas. These outcomes improve our understanding of the role of the STN in the integration of motor, cognitive, and emotional aspects of behaviour in the growing field of affective neuroscience. Further studies using standardized neuropsychological measures of FER assessment and including larger cohorts are needed, in order to draw definite conclusions about the effect of STN DBS on emotional recognition and its impact on patients’ quality of life.
      PubDate: Fri, 17 Jul 2020 07:05:00 +000
  • The Influence of Depression and Anxiety on Neurological Disability in
           Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    • Abstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting mostly young-aged people. As a chronic incurable disease, in most cases, it can lead to progressive neurological impairment and severe disability. Depression and anxiety are major distress factors for MS patients, being considerably aggravating elements for their functional capacity. In this study, we analysed the mood disorder distribution and the possible correlations between depression, anxiety, automatic negative thoughts, and MS disability. We took into consideration 146 MS patients, who completed a series of questionnaires: Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), Endler Multidimensional Anxiety Scales-State (EMAS-S), and Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ). The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was used to measure the neurological disability. Of all patients, 30.1% had symptoms for depression and 11% presented suicidal thoughts. After analysing the correlation index between each variable, we found that there is a mild positive correlation between depression and the EDSS score and between anxiety and the EDSS score. A difference is found in the test scores according to the type of the MS disease. Also, automatic negative thoughts are strongly correlated with depression and anxiety, but do not mediate the path between psychological comorbidities and neurological impairment. Sociodemographic features and interferon-beta treatment were not related to the intensity of the mood disorders. The study suggests that depression and anxiety are frequently encountered among MS patients and these mental disfunctions have an impact on their disability. A proper identification of these risk factors may improve the quality of life for these patients.
      PubDate: Fri, 03 Jul 2020 07:50:00 +000
  • Identifying the Symptom Severity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder for
           Classification and Prediction: An Artificial Neural Network Approach

    • Abstract: The present study is aimed at identifying the most prominent determinants of OCD along with their strength to classify the OCD patients from healthy controls. The data for this cross-sectional study were collected from 200 diagnosed OCD patients and 400 healthy controls. The respondents were selected through purposive sampling and interviewed by using the Y-BOCS scale with the addition of a factor, worth of an individual in his family. The validity and reliability of data were assessed through Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling was adopted to determine threatening determinants along with their strength to predict OCD in an individual. The results of ANN modeling depicted 98% accurate classification of OCD patients from healthy controls. The most contributing factors in determining the OCD patients according to normalized importance were the contamination and cleaning (100%); symmetric and perfection (72.5%); worth of an individual in the family (71.1%); aggressive, religious, and sexual obsession (50.5%); high-risk assessment (46.0%); and somatic obsessions and checking (24.0%).
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jun 2020 14:20:00 +000
  • Rutin via Increase in the CA3 Diameter of the Hippocampus Exerted
           Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mouse Model of Maternal Separation Stress:
           Possible Involvement of NMDA Receptors

    • Abstract: Background and Aim. Rutin is a flavonol with neuroprotective activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the glutamatergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of rutin in a mouse model of maternal separation (MS) stress focusing on histological changes in the CA3 area of the hippocampus. Methods. Mouse neonates were exposed to MS paradigm 3 hours daily from postnatal days (PND) 2 to 14. The control and MS mice were divided separately into 16 groups () (8 groups for each set) including mice that received normal saline, mice that received rutin at doses of 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, mice that received NMDA at a dose of 150 mg/kg, mice that received ketamine (NMDA antagonist) at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg, mice that received NMDA antagonist plus a subeffective dose of rutin, and mice that received NMDA plus an effective dose of rutin. Forced swimming test (FST) was performed. Afterwards, the hippocampus was evaluated in cases of histopathological changes as well as expression of NR2A and NR2B genes. Results. Rutin significantly reduced immobility time in the FST. The expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptor in MS mice was significantly higher than that in the control group. Rutin significantly decreased the expression of NR2B and NR2A subunits in the hippocampus. The CA3 diameter and percentage of dark neurons in the hippocampus of MS mice significantly decreased and increased, respectively, which partially reversed following rutin administration. Conclusion. Rutin, partially, through a neuroprotective effect on the hippocampus exerted antidepressant-like effect. We concluded that NMDA receptors, at least in part, mediated the beneficial effect of rutin.
      PubDate: Sun, 07 Jun 2020 05:20:01 +000
  • A Novel PRRT2 Variant in Chinese Patients Suffering from Paroxysmal
           Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsion

    • Abstract: PRRT2 mutations are the major causative agent of paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsion (PKD/IC). The study is aimed at screening PRRT2 gene mutations in patients who suffered from PKD/IC in Chinese population. Thirteen Chinese patients with PKD/IC were screened randomly for coding exons of the PRRT2 gene mutation along with 50 ethnically coordinated control people. Nine (2 unaffected) and 4 of the patients showed familial PKD/IC and apparently sporadic cases, respectively. We identified 5 different PRRT2 mutations in 10 individuals, including 8 familial and 2 apparently sporadic cases. However, no mutations were found in the 50 ethnically matched controls. Unknown (novel) NM_145239.2:c.686G>A and previously reported NM_145239.2:c.743G>C variants were identified in two familial and sporadic patients. All affected members of family A showed mutation NM_145239.2:c.650_670delinsCAATGGTGCCACCACTGGGTTA. The previously identified NM_145239.2:c.412 C>G and NM_145239.2:c.709G>A variants are seen in two individuals assessed in family B. Other than the previously identified variants, some of the patients with PRRT2-PKD/IC showed a new PRRT2 substitution variant. Thus, the spectrum of PRRT2 variants is expanded. The possible role and probability of PRRT2 variants involved in PKD/IC are highlighted.
      PubDate: Mon, 18 May 2020 08:05:00 +000
  • Factors Associated with Anxiety and Depression among Diabetes,
           Hypertension, and Heart Failure Patients at Dessie Referral Hospital,
           Northeast Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Background. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. However, they are usually unrecognized and untreated especially in developing countries. Identifying factors associated with anxiety and depression is helpful for early screening and management. Objective. This study is aimed at assessing factors associated with anxiety and depression among diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure patients at Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Dessie Referral Hospital from February 22, 2019 to April 6, 2019. A total of 404 diabetic, hypertension, and heart failure patients were included through systematic sampling technique. The data were collected by face-to-face interview. After data collection, the data were cleaned and presented with text, graphs, and tables. Multivariable binary logistic regression was deployed to identify factors at a value of < 0.05. Result. A total of 384 patients participated with a 94.8% response rate. Among these, 32% and 5.73% of them had anxiety and depression, respectively. Patients who did not read and write develop anxiety 7.89 times more likely compared with those whose educational status is diploma and above (AOR: 7.89; 95% CI: 3.08-20.26; ). Patients who took substances like chat, cigarette, shisha, hashish, and alcohol develop anxiety 2.56 times more likely compared with their counterparts (AOR: 2.56; 95% CI: 1.05–6.23; ). Patients whose level of physical activity is inactive develop depression 24 times more likely than patients who did a health-enhancing physical activity. Patients who are widowed develop depression 5 times more likely compared with married patients. Conclusion and Recommendations. Low educational level, being single and widowed, substance use, poor perception towards prognosis of illness, and monthly income were factors associated with anxiety. On the other hand, being single and unable to do physical activity were statistically associated with depression. Patients with low educational level and monthly income should be screened and supported for anxiety. Health care providers should provide advice to patients about the importance of physical activity to prevent depression.
      PubDate: Sat, 16 May 2020 06:05:01 +000
  • Changes in the Rhythm of Speech Difference between People with
           Nondegenerative Mild Cognitive Impairment and with Preclinical Dementia

    • Abstract: This study explores several speech parameters related to mild cognitive impairment, as well as those that might be flagging the presence of an underlying neurodegenerative process. Speech is an excellent biomarker because it is not invasive and, what is more, its analysis is rapid and economical. Our aim has been to ascertain whether the typical speech patterns of people with Alzheimer’s disease are also present during the disorder’s preclinical stages. To do so, we shall be using a task that involves reading out aloud. This is followed by an analysis of the recordings, looking for the possible parameters differentiating between those older people with MCI and a high probability of developing dementia and those with MCI that will not do so. We found that the disease’s most differentiating parameters prior to its onset involve changes in speech duration and an alteration in rhythm rate and intensity. These parameters seem to be related to the first difficulties in lexical access among older people with AD.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Apr 2020 13:20:01 +000
  • Primary Cognitive Factors Impaired after Glioma Surgery and Associated
           Brain Regions

    • Abstract: Previous studies have shown that cognitive impairments in patients with brain tumors are not severe. However, to preserve the postsurgical QOL of patients with brain tumors, it is important to identify “primary” cognitive functions and associated brain regions that are more vulnerable to cognitive impairments following surgery. The objective of this study was to investigate primary cognitive factors affecting not only simple cognitive tasks but also several other cognitive tasks and associated brain regions. Patients with glioma in the left () and the right () hemisphere participated in the study. Seven neuropsychological tasks from five cognitive domains were conducted pre- and 6 months postoperation. Factor analyses were conducted to identify “primary” common cognitive functions affecting the task performance in left and right glioma groups. Next, lesion analyses were performed using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) to identify critical brain regions related to impairments of the primary cognitive functions. Factor analysis revealed two primary cognitive components in each glioma group. The first cognitive component in the left glioma group affected the digit span forward and backward tasks and concept shifting and the letter-digit substitution tasks. VLSM analysis revealed significant regions from the posterior middle temporal gyri to the supramarginal gyrus. The second cognitive component affected verbal memory, and verbal fluency tasks and VLSM analysis indicated two different significant regions, the medial temporal regions and the middle temporal gyrus to the posterior parietal lobes. The first cognitive component in the right glioma group affected positive and negative factor loadings on the task, such that the positive cognitive component affected only the Stroop color-word task. VLSM related to deficits of the Stroop task revealed significant regions in the anterior medial frontal cortex. On the other hand, the negative component affected concept shifting, word fluency, and digit span forward tasks, and VLSM revealed significant regions in the right inferior frontal cortex. It is suggested that primary cognitive functions related to specific brain regions were possibly affected by glioma resection.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 07:35:01 +000
  • Neurocognitive Complications after Ventricular Neuroendoscopy: A
           Systematic Review

    • Abstract: In recent years, neuroendoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus and various ventricular pathologies has become increasingly popular. It is considered by many as the first-choice treatment for the majority of these cases. However, neurocognitive complications following ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures may occur leading mostly to amnesia, which might have a grave effect on the patient’s quality of life. Studies assessing neurocognitive complications after ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures are sparse. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review assessing the available literature of neurocognitive complications and outcome after ventricular neuroendoscopy. Of 1216 articles screened, 46 were included in this systematic review. Transient and permanent neurocognitive complications in 2804 ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures occurred in 2.0% () and 1.04% () of the patients, respectively. Most complications described are memory impairment, followed by psychiatric symptoms (psychosyndrome), cognitive impairment not further specified, declined executive function, and confusion. However, only in 20% of the series describing neurocognitive complications or outcome () was neurocognition assessed by a trained neuropsychologist in a systematic manner. While in most of these series only a part of the included patients underwent neuropsychological testing, neurocognitive assessment was seldom done pre- and postoperatively, long-term follow up was rare, and patient’s cohorts were small. A paucity of studies analyzing neurocognitive complications and outcome, through systematic neuropsychological testing, and the correlation with intraoperative lesions of neuronal structures (e.g., fornix) exists in the literature. Therefore, the neurocognitive and emotional morbidity after ventricular neuroendoscopic procedures might be underestimated and warrants further research.
      PubDate: Wed, 25 Mar 2020 07:35:00 +000
  • Chronic Pain Hurts the Brain: The Pain Physician’s Perspective

    • PubDate: Sat, 21 Mar 2020 15:50:00 +000
  • Too Real to Be Virtual: Autonomic and EEG Responses to Extreme Stress
           Scenarios in Virtual Reality

    • Abstract: The evolution of virtual reality (VR) technologies requires setting boundaries of its use. In this study, 3 female participants were experiencing VR scenarios with stressful content and their activity of the autonomic nervous system and EEG were recorded. It has been discovered that virtual reality can evoke acute stress reactions accompanied by activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a decrease in the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system. The high-stress response is accompanied by a decrease in the power of the EEG, and, on the contrary, the activation of the avoidance reaction is accompanied by an increase in the power of the EEG alpha waves. Therefore, the use of stressful VR content can cause high emotional stress to a user and restrictions should be considered.
      PubDate: Thu, 12 Mar 2020 03:50:01 +000
  • Changes in Physiological and Pathological Behaviours Produced by Deep
           Microelectrode Implantation Surgery in Rats: A Temporal Analysis

    • Abstract: Physiological behaviours such as the sleep-wake cycle and exploratory behaviours are important parameters in intact and sham-operated animals and are usually thought to be unaffected by experimental protocols in which neurosurgery is performed. However, there is insufficient evidence in the literature on the behavioural and cognitive effects observed after deep microelectrode implantation surgery in animal models of neurological diseases. Similarly, in studies that utilize animal models of neurological diseases, the impact of surgery on the pathological phenomena being studied is often minimized. Based on these considerations, we performed a temporal analysis of the effects of deep microelectrode implantation surgery in the hippocampus of rats on quiet wakefulness, sleep, and exploratory activity and the pathological behaviours such as convulsive seizures according to the Racine scale. Male Wistar rats (210-300 g) were used and grouped in sham and epileptic animals. Single doses of pilocarpine hydrochloride (2.4 mg/2 μl; i.c.v.) were administered to the animals to generate spontaneous and recurrent seizures. Deep microelectrode implantation surgeries in both groups and analysis of Fast ripples were performed. Physiological and pathological behaviours were recorded through direct video monitoring of animals (24/7). Our principal findings showed that in epileptic animals, one of the main behaviours affected by surgery is sleep; as a consequence of this behavioural change, a decrease in exploratory activity was also found as well as the mean time spent daily in seizures of scale 4 and the number of seizure events of scales 4 and 5 was increased after surgery. No significant correlations between the occurrence of FR and seizure events of scale 4 (rho 0.63, value 0.25) or 5 (rho -0.7, value 0.18) were observed. In conclusion, microelectrode implantation surgeries modified some physiological and pathological behaviours; therefore, it is important to consider this fact when it is working with animal models.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Mar 2020 10:35:00 +000
  • Maternal Separation Early in Life Alters the Expression of Genes Npas4 and
           Nr1d1 in Adult Female Mice: Correlation with Social Behavior

    • Abstract: Early-life stress affects neuronal plasticity of the brain regions participating in the implementation of social behavior. Our previous studies have shown that brief and prolonged separation of pups from their mothers leads to enhanced social behavior in adult female mice. The goal of the present study was to characterize the expression of genes (which are engaged in synaptic plasticity) Egr1, Npas4, Arc, and Homer1 in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of adult female mice with a history of early-life stress. In addition, we evaluated the expression of stress-related genes: glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2) and Nr1d1, which encodes a transcription factor (also known as REVERBα) modulating sociability and anxiety-related behavior. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either maternal separation (MS, 3 h once a day) or handling (HD, 15 min once a day) on postnatal days 2 through 14. In adulthood, the behavior of female mice was analyzed by some behavioral tests, and on the day after the testing of social behavior, we measured the gene expression. We found increased Npas4 expression only in the prefrontal cortex and higher Nr1d1 expression in both the prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of adult female mice with a history of MS. The expression of the studied genes did not change in HD female mice. The expression of stress-related genes Nr3c1 and Nr3c2 was unaltered in both groups. We propose that the upregulation of Npas4 and Nr1d1 in females with a history of early-life stress and the corresponding enhancement of social behavior may be regarded as an adaptation mechanism reversing possible aberrations caused by early-life stress.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Mar 2020 14:05:01 +000
  • Propofol Causes Consciousness Loss by Affecting GABA-A Receptor in the
           Nucleus Basalis of Rats

    • Abstract: Objective. Propofol is a classical anesthetic and induces consciousness loss, and gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-A (GABA-A) receptor is its target. Righting reflex is associated with conscious response. The nucleus basalis (NB) acts as a major relay between the reticular activating system and the frontal cortex (FC). Propofol may mediate righting reflex by affecting GABA-A receptor in NB. Methods. Fifty male SD rats (250-350 g) were divided into parts I and II. In part I, 20 male SD rats were randomly divided into control group (CG) and NB-lesion group (NG, ibotenic acid-induced NB lesion). In part II, 30 male SD rats were treated with saline (0.9% NaCl, SG group), muscimol (a GABA-A receptor agonist, MG group), and gabazine (a GABA-A receptor antagonist, GG group) in NB, respectively. Two weeks later, the activity of the rats was measured between CG and NG groups. The rats were intravenously injected with propofol (50 mg/kg/h) to test the time of loss of righting reflex (LORR) in all rats. When LORR occurred, the rats received single administration of propofol (12 mg/kg) to measure the time of return of righting reflex (RORR). Electroencephalogram (EEG) activity of the frontal cortex (FC) was recorded. Results. The numbers of NB neurons were reduced by 44% in the NG group compared to the CG group () whereas the activity of rats was reduced a little in the NG group when compared with the CG group, but the statistical difference was insignificant (). The dose-response curve of propofol shifted to the left in the NG group, and the statistical difference for the time of LORR was insignificant between the two groups (). However, the time of RORR and FC delta power increased in the NG group compared with the CG group (). In part II, the time of RORR and FC powder increased in the MG group when compared to the SG group while reverse results were observed in the GG group (). There was no significant influence on the time of LORR and ED50 among the three groups ().Conclusions. The unilateral NB lesion increased the recovery time and FC delta power, and the NB region might be involved in the emergence after propofol administration. Propofol plays a crucial role for causing conscious loss by affecting GABA-A receptor in NB.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Feb 2020 08:50:00 +000
  • False Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease

    • Abstract: Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) not only are suffering from amnesia but also are prone to memory distortions, such as experiencing detailed and vivid recollections of episodic events that have never been encountered (i.e., false memories). To describe and explain these distortions, we offer a review to synthesize current knowledge on false memory in AD into a framework allowing for better understanding of the taxonomy and phenomenology of false memories and of the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie false memory formation in AD. According to this review, certain phenomenological characteristics of memories (e.g., high emotional load, high vividness, or high familiarity) result in misattributions in AD. More specifically, this review proposes that generalized decline in cognitive control and inhibition in AD may result in difficulties in suppressing irrelevant information during memory monitoring, especially when irrelevant (i.e., false) information is characterized by high emotion, vividness, or familiarity. This review also proposes that binding deficits in AD decrease the ability to retrieve relevant contextual details, leading to source monitoring errors and false memories. In short, this review depicts how phenomenological characteristics of memories and failures of monitoring during retrieval contribute to the occurrence of false memory in AD.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 13:20:00 +000
  • Personality Factors and Subjective Cognitive Decline: The FACEHBI Cohort

    • Abstract: Individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) have the perception of memory problems without showing impairment on standardized cognitive tests. SCD has been associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neuroticism and openness personality dimensions have also been associated with SCD and AD. From the aforementioned, we aimed to ascertain whether the dimensions and traits defined by the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) differentiate between individuals with SCD and the general population (GP). A total of 187 participants with SCD and mild affective symptomatology recruited from the Fundació ACE Health Brain Initiative (FACEHBI) project completed the ZKPQ. Each SCD participant was matched by sex and age to an individual from the GP. Both samples included 71 men and 116 women with a mean age of 65.9 years. Results indicated that the SCD group scored significantly lower in Neuroticism-Anxiety and Activity than the GP group. Only Activity remained statistically significant in a multivariate analysis. These findings suggest that individuals with SCD have a low energy level and a dislike for an active and busy life. From the obtained results and knowing additional physical activities may delay the conversion from normal aging to cognitive impairment, we encourage promoting this lifestyle in daily routine. The assessment of personality may result in an SCD plus feature, which may serve as an upgrading strategy for future research.
      PubDate: Wed, 19 Feb 2020 04:05:01 +000
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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