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Publisher: Hindawi   (Total: 338 journals)

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Showing 1 - 200 of 338 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abstract and Applied Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.343, CiteScore: 1)
Active and Passive Electronic Components     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Acoustics and Vibration     Open Access   (Followers: 43, SJR: 0.147, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 57)
Advances in Agriculture     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Artificial Intelligence     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Astronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 41, SJR: 0.257, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 19, SJR: 0.565, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advances in Civil Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 48, SJR: 0.539, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Computer Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Condensed Matter Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Decision Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.303, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Electrical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 42)
Advances in Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 90)
Advances in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Environmental Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Fuzzy Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.161, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Geology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Geriatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.661, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in High Energy Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.866, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction     Open Access   (Followers: 21, SJR: 0.186, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 31, SJR: 0.315, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Mathematical Physics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.218, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Meteorology     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.48, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Multimedia     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.173, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Nonlinear Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Numerical Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Nursing     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Advances in Operations Research     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.205, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optical Technologies     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.214, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in OptoElectronics     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.141, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.922, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.591, CiteScore: 2)
Advances in Physical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.179, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.299, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Power Electronics     Open Access   (Followers: 38, SJR: 0.184, CiteScore: 0)
Advances in Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Public Health     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Software Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Advances in Statistics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Toxicology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 0.265, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.51, CiteScore: 1)
Advances in Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.838, CiteScore: 2)
AIDS Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.758, CiteScore: 2)
Analytical Cellular Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.886, CiteScore: 2)
Anatomy Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Anemia     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.669, CiteScore: 2)
Anesthesiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 1)
Applied and Environmental Soil Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.451, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Bionics and Biomechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.288, CiteScore: 1)
Applied Computational Intelligence and Soft Computing     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Archaea     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.852, CiteScore: 2)
Autism Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 34)
Autoimmune Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.805, CiteScore: 2)
Behavioural Neurology     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.786, CiteScore: 2)
Biochemistry Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.437, CiteScore: 2)
Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.419, CiteScore: 2)
BioMed Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.935, CiteScore: 3)
Biotechnology Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Gastroenterology & Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.867, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian J. of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.548, CiteScore: 1)
Canadian Respiratory J.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.474, CiteScore: 1)
Cardiology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 1.237, CiteScore: 4)
Cardiovascular Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 1.075, CiteScore: 2)
Case Reports in Anesthesiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Cardiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.219, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Critical Care     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.229, CiteScore: 0)
Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Case Reports in Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Hematology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Case Reports in Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.204, CiteScore: 1)
Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Orthopedics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Case Reports in Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pathology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Case Reports in Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Case Reports in Pulmonology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Case Reports in Radiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Case Reports in Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Case Reports in Transplantation     Open Access  
Case Reports in Urology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Case Reports in Vascular Medicine     Open Access  
Case Reports in Veterinary Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Child Development Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18, SJR: 0.144, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.114, CiteScore: 0)
Chinese J. of Mathematics     Open Access  
Chromatography Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Complexity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.531, CiteScore: 2)
Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 1)
Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.326, CiteScore: 1)
Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.842, CiteScore: 3)
Critical Care Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 12, SJR: 0.499, CiteScore: 1)
Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.512, CiteScore: 2)
Depression Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 15, SJR: 0.816, CiteScore: 2)
Dermatology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.806, CiteScore: 2)
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy     Open Access   (SJR: 0.201, CiteScore: 1)
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Disease Markers     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.9, CiteScore: 2)
Economics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Education Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Emergency Medicine Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Enzyme Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.653, CiteScore: 3)
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 24, SJR: 0.683, CiteScore: 2)
Game Theory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gastroenterology Research and Practice     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.768, CiteScore: 2)
Genetics Research Intl.     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.61, CiteScore: 2)
Geofluids     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.952, CiteScore: 2)
Hepatitis Research and Treatment     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.389, CiteScore: 2)
Heteroatom Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.333, CiteScore: 1)
HPB Surgery     Open Access   (Followers: 7, SJR: 0.824, CiteScore: 2)
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 1.27, CiteScore: 2)
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.627, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Aerospace Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 75, SJR: 0.232, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.311, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Alzheimer's Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.787, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Analytical Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 22, SJR: 0.285, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Antennas and Propagation     Open Access   (Followers: 11, SJR: 0.233, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Atmospheric Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Intl. J. of Biodiversity     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Biomaterials     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.511, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Biomedical Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.501, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Breast Cancer     Open Access   (Followers: 14, SJR: 1.025, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Cell Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.887, CiteScore: 4)
Intl. J. of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 9, SJR: 0.327, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Chronic Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Combinatorics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intl. J. of Computer Games Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.287, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Corrosion     Open Access   (Followers: 10, SJR: 0.194, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Dentistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.649, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.191, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.296, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Electrochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Endocrinology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 1.012, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Engineering Mathematics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.44, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Forestry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.373, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.868, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Geophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.182, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Hepatology     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.874, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Hypertension     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.578, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Inflammation     Open Access   (SJR: 1.264, CiteScore: 3)
Intl. J. of Inorganic Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.177, CiteScore: 0)
Intl. J. of Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6, SJR: 0.31, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Metals     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Intl. J. of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.662, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Microwave Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.136, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Navigation and Observation     Open Access   (Followers: 20, SJR: 0.267, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Nephrology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.697, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Oceanography     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Optics     Open Access   (Followers: 8, SJR: 0.231, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Otolaryngology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Intl. J. of Partial Differential Equations     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intl. J. of Pediatrics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Intl. J. of Peptides     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.46, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Photoenergy     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.341, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Plant Genomics     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.583, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 28, SJR: 0.298, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Population Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Intl. J. of Quality, Statistics, and Reliability     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Intl. J. of Reconfigurable Computing     Open Access   (SJR: 0.123, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Reproductive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Intl. J. of Rheumatology     Open Access   (Followers: 4, SJR: 0.645, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Rotating Machinery     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.193, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Spectroscopy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Intl. J. of Stochastic Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 3, SJR: 0.279, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. J. of Surgical Oncology     Open Access   (Followers: 1, SJR: 0.573, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Telemedicine and Applications     Open Access   (Followers: 5, SJR: 0.403, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Vascular Medicine     Open Access   (SJR: 0.782, CiteScore: 2)
Intl. J. of Zoology     Open Access   (Followers: 2, SJR: 0.209, CiteScore: 1)
Intl. Scholarly Research Notices     Open Access   (Followers: 214)
ISRN Astronomy and Astrophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
J. of Addiction     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
J. of Advanced Transportation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13, SJR: 0.581, CiteScore: 1)
J. of Aerodynamics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Behavioural Neurology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.786
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 9  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0953-4180 - ISSN (Online) 1875-8584
Published by Hindawi Homepage  [338 journals]
  • Behavioral and Neural Changes Induced by a Blended Essential Oil on Human
           Selective Attention

    • Abstract: Selective attention refers to the selecting and preferential processing of specific information while simultaneously suppressing irrelevant distractors, activities linked to various cognitive skills and academic achievements. The influence of essential oils on the cognition of humans has been extensively explored. However, the effects of essential oils on human selective attention and the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, participants were divided into a “blended essential oil” group and a “no essential oil” group and enrolled on a negative priming task, including a control condition and a negative priming condition. The event-related potential technique was used to examine the brain mechanisms underlying the blended essential oil effects on human selective attention. Behavioral results showed that individuals responded more quickly in the negative priming condition when exposed to the blended essential oil. In addition, the blended essential oil eliminated the differences in the P300 amplitude in the postcentral area of the brain between the negative priming condition and the control condition. Moreover, the blended essential oil led to stronger functional connectivity during the task. The present study thus suggests that blended essential oil can significantly change brain activity and functional connections in human beings, which may improve human selective attention.
      PubDate: Tue, 15 Oct 2019 07:05:06 +000
       
  • Recent Medico-Legal Developments on the Issue of Epilepsy and Driver’s
           License Requirements in the Italian and European Legislation

    • Abstract: Epilepsy is a condition that comprises a group of neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Forms of epilepsy that produce abrupt bouts that cause lapses in consciousness may pose a major road safety problem for drivers who, while going through a seizure, could seriously harm themselves as well as others. A fundamental strategy for the purpose of reducing the risk of car accidents caused by epileptic drivers is constituted by prevention, in addition to adequate pharmacological therapies. In that respect, forensic medicine plays a pivotal role, since it deals with the set of requirements that must be met by those who have been diagnosed with epilepsy in order to get a driver’s license, and with the obligation to signal such individuals to the national Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (in Italian: Motorizzazione Civile). In that regard, the Italian legislative framework is partly hazy in some respects, which the authors have set out to analyze herein, taking into account recently issued European norms. The aim of this paper was to better understand the current Italian legislation in the matter of epilepsy and driver’s license requirements, especially regarding the medical criteria that must be met in order to obtain the driving license. The importance of those criteria is underlined by the fact that they directly influence (and are influenced by) the safety for the drivers and for the persons involved in car accidents. Thus, we can consider the issue not only strictly of medico-legal relevance but also from the standpoint of primary prevention. The analysis was conducted by reviewing the most recent documents of medico-legal relevance, in the light of European Union legislation. The authors have ultimately stressed the need for clearer and straightforward regulations, given that professional liability may arise whenever a driver’s license is issued, in disregard of legal norms, to an individual who then causes a road accident.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 04:05:02 +000
       
  • Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms in Patients with
           Myasthenia Gravis: A Cross-Sectional Study of Two Tertiary Hospitals in
           Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    • Abstract: Objectives. This study is aimed at elucidating the prevalence of depression in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and examining the risk factors associated with depression. Methods. We evaluated adult patients with MG who were recruited from two tertiary hospitals in the central region (Riyadh) of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected with a two-part standardized questionnaire: the first part included data on sociodemographic and clinical features of MG including disease type and duration, therapies, prednisolone dose, time of the last relapse, previous critical care unit admissions, MG status (controlled, partially controlled, or uncontrolled), and comorbid diseases; the second part included items from the previously validated Arabic version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results. In total, 104/150 (69.3%) patients participated (72 females) with a mean age of years. The mean PHQ-9 score was . Among all the participants, 27 (26.0%) patients had depression (). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that uncontrolled MG status (,,) was the only factor independently associated with depression. Collectively, the prevalence of depression among patients of the primary care clinics (PCC) as reported by 5 previous studies across multiple regions of the country was 15.8%. The odds of depression among MG patients were twofold higher than those among PCC patients (,,).Conclusions. Approximately a quarter of MG patients have depression. Achieving a minimal manifestation or better MG status may decrease the depression rate in these patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 15 Sep 2019 00:06:05 +000
       
  • Social Aspects of Dementia Prevention from a Worldwide to National
           Perspective: A Review on the International Situation and the Example of
           Italy

    • Abstract: At the moment, dementia is affecting around 47 million people worldwide, with a forecast amount of 135 million affected people in 2050. Dementia is a growing health concern worldwide with no treatment currently available, but only symptomatic medication. Effective interventions in the prevention and management of dementia are urgently needed to contain direct and indirect costs of this disease. Indeed, the economic impact of dementia is a vast and continually growing figure, but it is still difficult to quantify. Due to an increase in both the disease spreading and its direct and indirect costs, national and international action plans have to be implemented. As a virtuous example, the Italian national plan for dementia has been summarized. Faced with an increasingly less sustainable disease impact at national and international levels, the plan suggests that it is certainly the entire welfare model that should be rethought, strengthening the network of services and providing interventions to support affected people and their caregivers. Alongside this synergistic approach, scientific research could play a crucial role for pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments capable of delaying the state of loss of self-sufficiency of the patient, with a significant impact on social and health costs.
      PubDate: Sun, 08 Sep 2019 00:05:57 +000
       
  • Emotional Intelligence in Children with Severe Sleep-Related Breathing
           Disorders

    • Abstract: Background. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) affects up to 4% of a pediatric population, with many comorbidities in the medium-long term. Functional alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may explain why OSAS impacts aspects such as executive functions, memory, motor control, attention, visual-spatial skills, learning, and mood regulation. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a complex neuropsychological function that could be impaired in many clinical conditions. Purpose. The aim of the study is to evaluate the difference in emotional intelligence skills among children with OSAS and healthy subjects (nOSAS). Methods. 129 children (72 males; mean age years) affected by OSAS were compared to 264 non-OSAS (nOSAS) children (138 males; mean age ) similar for gender, age, and socioeconomic status. In order to assess the emotional quotient, the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV) was used. Results. The comparison for means and standard deviation between OSAS children and nOSAS children for EQ-i:YV scores showed significant differences for Interpersonal, Adaptability, and Stress Management scales and EQ Total score. Conclusions. Our findings highlighted the role of intermittent hypoxia in the genesis of the effects of sleep-related respiratory disorders, which involves also aspects different from physical impairments.
      PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2019 13:05:20 +000
       
  • Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients with Unknown
           Onset Stroke: A Meta-Analysis

    • Abstract: Objectives. Unknown onset stroke (UOS) is usually excluded from intravenous thrombolysis concerning the unclear symptom onset time. Attempts have been done to use thrombolytic therapy in these patients. The current meta-analysis was done to examine the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis in UOS. Methods. PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies comparing thrombolysis with conservative therapy among UOSs. Data of good outcome (mRS, 0-2), mortality, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and symptomatic ICH (sICH) were extracted and analyzed using the Revman 5.2 software. Results. In total, 8 studies with 1271 subjects (542 with thrombolysis and 729 with conservative therapy) were included in this meta-analysis. The data showed that patients receiving thrombolysis had a higher incidence of 90-day good outcome () than conservative therapy. The comparison of discharge () and 90-day mortality () in both groups did not find any significances. The incidences of ICH () and sICH () were relatively comparable between the two therapies. Conclusions. Intravenous thrombolysis is a better choice for UOS patients for its efficacy and safety. In addition, pretreatment imaging assessment is beneficial for improving the efficacy of thrombolytic therapy. However, it needs more supporting evidences for clinical use in the future.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Sep 2019 08:05:35 +000
       
  • Using Partial Directed Coherence to Study Alpha-Band Effective Brain
           Networks during a Visuospatial Attention Task

    • Abstract: Previous studies have shown that the neural mechanisms underlying visual spatial attention rely on top-down control information from the frontal and parietal cortexes, which ultimately amplifies sensory processing of stimulus occurred at the attended location relative to those at unattended location. However, the modulations of effective brain networks in response to stimulus at attended and unattended location are not yet clear. In present study, we collected event-related potentials (ERPs) from 15 subjects during a visual spatial attention task, and a partial directed coherence (PDC) method was used to construct alpha-band effective brain networks of two conditions (targets at attended and nontargets at unattended location). Flow gain mapping, effective connectivity pattern, and graph measures including clustering coefficient (), characteristic path length (), global efficiency (), and local efficiency () were compared between two conditions. Flow gain mapping showed that the frontal region seemed to serve as the main source of information transmission in response to targets at attended location while the parietal region served as the main source in nontarget condition. Effective connectivity pattern indicated that in response to targets, there existed obvious top-down connections from the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortexes to the visual cortex compared with in response to nontargets. Graph theory analysis was used to quantify the topographical properties of the brain networks, and results revealed that in response to targets, the brain networks were characterized by significantly smaller characteristic path length and larger global efficiency than in response to nontargets. Our findings suggested that smaller characteristic path length and larger global efficiency could facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for more efficient perceptual processing of targets at attended location compared with processing of nontargets at ignored location, which revealed the neural mechanisms underlying visual spatial attention from the perspective of effective brain networks and graph theory for the first time and opened new vistas to interpret a cognitive process.
      PubDate: Tue, 03 Sep 2019 08:05:34 +000
       
  • Long-Term Follow-Up of Disability, Cognitive, and Emotional Impairments
           after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    • Abstract: Aim. To assess the clinical course of disability, cognitive, and emotional impairments in patients with severe TBI (s-TBI) from 3 months to up to 7 years post trauma. Methods. A prospective cohort study of s-TBI in northern Sweden was conducted. Patients aged 18-65 years with acute Glasgow Coma Scale 3-8 were assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) at 3 months, 1 year, and 7 years after the injury. Results. The scores on both GOSE and BNIS improved significantly from 3 months (GOSE mean: , BNIS mean: ) to 1 year (GOSE mean: ,, BNIS mean: ,), but no significant improvement was found from 1 year to 7 years (GOSE mean: ,, BNIS mean: ,) after the injury. The BNIS subscale “speech/language” at 1 year was significantly associated with favourable outcomes on the GOSE at 7 years (, CI: 1.004-4.456, ).Conclusions. These findings indicate that disability and cognition seem to improve over time after s-TBI and appear to be relatively stable from 1 year to 7 years. Since cognitive function on some of the BNIS subscales was associated with outcome on the GOSE, these results indicate that both screening and follow-up of cognitive function could be of importance for the rehabilitation of persons with s-TBI.
      PubDate: Tue, 27 Aug 2019 13:30:01 +000
       
  • Remote Technology-Based Training Programs for Children with Acquired Brain
           Injury: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analytic Exploration

    • Abstract: Introduction. Multidisciplinary rehabilitation interventions are considered to be a need for children with acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to remediate the important sequelae and promote adjustment. Technology-based treatments represent a promising field inside the rehabilitation area, as they allow delivering interventions in ecological settings and creating amusing exercises that may favor engagement. In this work, we present an overview of remote technology-based training programs (TP) addressing cognitive and behavioral issues delivered to children with ABI and complement it with the results of a meta-analytic exploration. Evidence Acquisition. We performed the review process between January and February 2019. 32 studies were included in the review, of which 14 were further selected to be included in the meta-analysis on TP efficacy. Evidence Synthesis. Based on the review process, the majority of TP addressing cognitive issues and all TP focusing on behavioral issues were found to be effective. Two meta-analytic models examining the means of either cognitive TP outcomes or behavioral TP outcomes as input outcome yielded a nonsignificant effect size for cognitive TP and a low-moderate effect size for behavioral TP. Additional models on outcomes reflecting the greatest beneficial effects of TP yielded significant moderate effect sizes for both types of TP. Nevertheless, consistent methodological heterogeneity was observed, pointing to cautious interpretation of findings. A subgroup analysis on visuospatial skill outcomes showed a smaller yet significant effect size of cognitive TP, with low heterogeneity, providing a more reliable estimation of overall cognitive TP effects. Conclusions. Promising results on remote cognitive and behavioral TP efficacy emerged both at the review process and at the meta-analytic investigation. Nevertheless, the high heterogeneity that emerged across studies prevents us from drawing definite conclusions. Further research is needed to identify whether specific training characteristics and population subgroups are more likely to be associated with greater training efficacy.
      PubDate: Thu, 01 Aug 2019 10:05:18 +000
       
  • Imagery Ability and Imagery Perspective Preference: A Study of Their
           Relationship and Age- and Gender-Related Changes

    • Abstract: This study examined if imagery ability (i.e., vividness and temporal congruence between imagined and executed knee extensions) and imagery perspective preference were affected by ageing and gender. Ninety-four participants, 31 young, 43 intermediate, and 20 older adults completed the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 and a knee extension temporal congruence test to reflect on their imagery ability and an imagery perspective preference test. Male participants had a better imagery ability than the female participants (,,). However, significant age-related changes in imagery ability were not found in the three age groups. Change in imagery perspective preference with a trend towards an external imagery perspective was observed with ageing (,,) but not between male and female. The results suggest that imagery ability may be preserved with ageing. As individuals age, their preference for using an imagery perspective shifts from a more internal to a more external perspective. This understanding is important when designing future imagery research and real-life application or clinical intervention.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2019 12:05:03 +000
       
  • Improving Cognitive Function after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clinical
           Trial on the Potential Use of the Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality

    • Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most common cause of long-term disability and death among young adults, and it represents an enormous socioeconomic and healthcare burden. Our purpose is to evaluate the effects of a virtual reality training with BTs-Nirvana (BTs-N) on the recovery of cognitive functions in TBI subjects, using the interactive semi-immersive program. One hundred patients with TBI were enrolled in this study and randomized into either the Traditional Cognitive Rehabilitation Group (TCRG: ) or the Virtual Reality Training Group (VRTG: ). The VRTG underwent a VRT with BTs-N, whereas the TCRG received a standard cognitive treatment. Each treatment session lasted 60 minutes and was repeated three times a week for 8 weeks. All of the patients were evaluated by a specific psychometric battery before (T0) and immediately (T1) after the end of the training. VRTG and TCRG had a significant improvement in cognitive functioning and in mood, but only VRTG presented with a significant increase in cognitive flexibility and shifting skills and in selective attention. In conclusion, our results suggest that VR may be a useful and effective approach for the rehabilitation of patients with TBI, leading to better cognitive and behavioral outcomes.
      PubDate: Tue, 30 Jul 2019 13:05:18 +000
       
  • Efforts of Systematic Categorization Training on Cognitive Performance in
           Healthy Older Adults and in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury

    • Abstract: This study investigated the effects of hierarchical cognitive training using the categorization program (CP), designed initially for adults with cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Fifty-eight participants were included: a group of fifteen young adults with TBI (ages 18-48), another group of fifteen noninjured young adults (ages 18-50), and two groups of adults over 60 randomly assigned into the experimental group () or the control group (). Following neuropsychological testing, the two young adult groups and the experimental older adult group received the CP training for 10-12 weeks. The CP training consisted of 8 levels targeting concept formation, object categorization, and decision-making abilities. Two CP tests (administered before and after the training) and three probe tasks (administered at specified intervals during the training) assessed skills relating to categorization. All treated groups showed significant improvement in their categorization performance, although younger participants (with or without TBI) demonstrated greater gains. Gains on the categorization measures were maintained by a subgroup of older adults up to four months posttraining. Implications of these findings in terms of adult cognitive learning and directions for future research on adult cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive stimulation programs are discussed.
      PubDate: Mon, 29 Jul 2019 13:05:01 +000
       
  • Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: A Diagnostic Algorithm

    • Abstract: Functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of neurological symptoms in the absence of any neurological abnormality that can be linked to a known pathology. Few studies have taken interest in this subject probably because of the heterogeneity of results. It is most often a diagnosis of exclusion which often means that patients undergo many tests and find themselves erring for a diagnosis with very little satisfaction of the outcomes. A reliable imagery pattern would therefore provide some relief and confirmation for both patients and clinicians. It could also facilitate acceptation of the diagnosis and reduce the societal cost associated with FNSD for the patient. The aim of this present study was to describe a clinicoradiological correspondence algorithm of FNSD using the PET scan and SPECT scan (PoSPs) and grant the clinician with a reliable tool to facilitate the diagnosis of FNSD. A systematic review according to the 2009 PRISMA criteria statement was used to guide the review. Our study included 3 of our own consenting patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition criteria as well as 25 other patients from 7 different studies. Our results showed a hypoactivation with poor clinicoradiological correspondence and poor stability in time. This hypoactivation was mostly in the frontal lobe, which could explain some behavioral alterations. These findings oppose the ones found in organic pathologies and therefore should orient towards FNSD. In the light of these findings, we recommend the clinicians to perform two PoSPs, searching for clinicoradiological lack of correspondence and time stability using our algorithm.
      PubDate: Thu, 25 Jul 2019 08:05:13 +000
       
  • From Broca and Wernicke to the Neuromodulation Era: Insights of Brain
           Language Networks for Neurorehabilitation

    • Abstract: Communication in humans activates almost every part of the brain. Of course, the use of language predominates, but other cognitive functions such as attention, memory, emotion, and executive processes are also involved. However, in order to explain how our brain “understands,” “speaks,” and “writes,” and in order to rehabilitate aphasic disorders, neuroscience has faced the challenge for years to reveal the responsible neural networks. Broca and Wernicke (and Lichtheim and many others), during the 19th century, when brain research was mainly observational and autopsy driven, offered fundamental knowledge about the brain and language, so the Wernicke-Geschwind model appeared and aphasiology during the 20th century was based on it. This model is still useful for a first approach into the classical categorization of aphasic syndromes, but it is outdated, because it does not adequately describe the neural networks relevant for language, and it offers a modular perspective, focusing mainly on cortical structures. During the last three decades, neuroscience conquered new imaging, recording, and manipulation techniques for brain research, and a new model of the functional neuroanatomy of language was developed, the dual stream model, consisting of two interacting networks (“streams”), one ventral, bilaterally organized, for language comprehension, and one dorsal, left hemisphere dominant, for production. This new model also has its limitations but helps us to understand, among others, why patients with different brain lesions can have similar language impairments. Furthermore, interesting aspects arise from studying language functions in aging brains (and also in young, developing brains) and in cognitively impaired patients and neuromodulation effects on reorganization of brain networks subserving language. In this selective review, we discuss methods for coupling new knowledge regarding the functional reorganization of the brain with sophisticated techniques capable of activating the available supportive networks in order to provide improved neurorehabilitation strategies for people suffering from neurogenic communication disorders.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Jul 2019 07:05:17 +000
       
  • Addressing Evidence Linking Secondary Alexithymia to Aberrant Humor
           Processing

    • Abstract: In this review, we explore current literature and assess evidence linking secondary (acquired) alexithymia to aberrant humor processing, in terms of their neurobiological underpinnings. In addition, we suggest a possible common neuropathological substrate between secondary alexithymia and deficits in humor appreciation, by drawing on neurophysiologic and neuroradiological evidence, as well as on a recent and unique single-case study showing the cooccurrence of secondary alexithymia and deficit in humor appreciation. In summary, what emerges from the literature is that the cortical midline structures, in particular the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the insular cortex, seem to play a crucial role in the expression of both alexithymia and defective humor processing, while though to a lesser extent, a right hemisphere and bilateral frontoparietal contribution becomes evident. Neurobiological evidence of secondary alexithymia and aberrant humor processing points to the putative role of ACC/mPFC and the insular cortex in representing crucial processing nodes whose damage may produce both the above clinical conditions. We believe that the association of secondary alexithymia and aberrant humor processing, especially humor appreciation deficit, and their correlation with specific brain regions, mainly ACG/mPFC, as emerged from the literature, may be of some heuristic importance. Increased awareness on this topic may be of aid for neurosurgeons when accessing emotion-relevant structures, as well as for neuropsychologists to intensify their efforts to plan evidence-based neurorehabilitative interventions to alleviate the deleterious effects of such interpersonal communication deficits.
      PubDate: Thu, 18 Jul 2019 11:05:02 +000
       
  • Short-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Term Neonates Treated with
           Phenobarbital versus Levetiracetam: A Single-Center Experience

    • Abstract: Background. Phenobarbital (PB) has been traditionally used as the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. More recently, levetiracetam (LEV) has been increasingly used as a promising newer antiepileptic medication for treatment of seizures in neonates. Objectives. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of PB vs. LEV on short-term neurodevelopmental outcome in infants treated for neonatal seizures. Method. This randomized, one-blind prospective study was conducted on term neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Bambino Hospital, University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele,” Catania, Italy, from February 2016 to February 2018. Thirty term neonates with seizures were randomized to receive PB or LEV; the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) was used at baseline (T0) and again one month after the initial treatment (T1). Results. We found a significantly positive HNNE score for the developmental outcomes, specifically tone and posture, in neonates treated with LEV. There was no significant improvement in the HNNE score at T1 in the neonates treated with PB. Conclusion. This study suggests a positive effect of levetiracetam on tone and posture in term newborns treated for neonatal seizures. If future randomized-controlled studies also show better efficacy of LEV in the treatment of neonatal seizures, LEV might potentially be considered as the first-line anticonvulsant in this age group.
      PubDate: Sun, 02 Jun 2019 12:05:00 +000
       
  • Attention Deficits in Stroke Patients: The Role of Lesion Characteristics,
           Time from Stroke, and Concomitant Neuropsychological Deficits

    • Abstract: Attention impairments are frequent in stroke patients with important consequences on the rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life. The aim of the study was to perform a comprehensive assessment of selective and intensive attention processes in a large population of brain-damaged patients, evaluating the influence of the side and site of the brain lesion, the time from stroke, and the concomitant presence of aphasia or neglect. We assessed 204 patients with a first unilateral brain lesion and 42 healthy individuals with three subtests of the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP): Alertness, Go-No Go, and Divided Attention. 44.4% of patients had an impairment in both intensive and selective aspects of attention, 5.6% had deficits only in the intensive component, and 31.8% had deficits only in selective tasks. More than 80% of the patients fell below the cut-off point on at least one task. Patients with a right hemispheric lesion (RHL) were more impaired than patients with a left hemispheric lesion (LHL) especially in tonic and phasic alertness. Patients with total anterior infarcts (TACI) presented the worst profile compared to other stroke subtypes, with a difference between total and lacunar subtypes in the Alertness test, independent of the presence of warning. Patients in the chronic phase had shorter RTs than acute patients only in the Alertness test. In patients with LHL, the presence of aphasia was associated with a greater deficit in selective attention. In patients with RHL, the presence of unilateral neglect was associated with impaired alertness and selective attention. Attention deficits are common after a unilateral first stroke. In keeping with the hierarchical organization of attention functions, results confirm the important role of the right hemisphere for the intensive components of attention, also highlighting the involvement of left hemisphere functioning for the selective aspects, possibly indicating a role of its linguistic functions.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 May 2019 09:05:12 +000
       
  • Coping Strategies in Migraine without Aura: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Background. In the context of a causal relationship between stress and migraine, coping strategies are aimed at managing stressful life events and reducing the distressing emotions connected to them. Methods. Sixty-one consecutive patients with migraine without aura (MwoA) and sixty-one healthy controls (HCs) completed three self-report questionnaires assessing a broad range of coping (cognitive and behavioural) strategies: the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE), the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS), and the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI). Moreover, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), a scale measuring self-perception of stress, global cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms, apathy, state, and trait anxiety, was administered to all participants. Results. No significant difference was found on the scales and subscales of PCI and CISS as well as in the PSS between MwoA patients and HCs. However, the two groups showed different scores in the subscale “turning to religion” of COPE ( in migraineurs vs. in HCs, ). A significant negative correlation of the turning to religion score with the HIT-6 score was found. Conclusions. The present study revealed that MwoA patients show a significantly reduced use of the “turning to religion” approach, an emotion-focused coping strategy. Although migraine patients appeared to be less oriented to transcendent (that means a reduced utilization of an adaptive coping strategy), they did not perceive daily living as more stressful than HCs. Finally, the reduced utilization of the “turning to religion” coping strategy is associated with a great impact of migraine on ability to function on the job or at school, at home, and in social situations in migraine patients.
      PubDate: Sun, 05 May 2019 00:05:04 +000
       
  • Depression and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Expression Pattern of Calbindin
           Immunoreactivity in Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus of Patients Who Underwent
           Epilepsy Surgery with and without Comorbid Depression

    • Abstract: Purpose. Changes in calbindin (CB) expression have been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with controversial implications on hippocampal functions. The aim of this study was to determine the CB immunoreactivity in hippocampal dentate gyrus of patients who underwent epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant TLE with and without comorbid depression and/or memory deficits. Methods. Selected hippocampal samples from patients with TLE who underwent epilepsy surgery were included. Clinical and complementary assessment: EEG, video-EEG, MRI, psychiatric assessment (structured clinical interview, DSM-IV), and memory assessment (Rey auditory verbal learning test, RAVLT; Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, RCFT), were determined before surgery. Hippocampal sections were processed using immunoperoxidase with the anti-calbindin antibody. The semiquantitative analysis of CB immunoreactivity was determined in dentate gyrus by computerized image analysis (ImageJ). Results. Hippocampal sections of patients with TLE and HS () and postmortem controls () were included. A significant reduction of CB+ cells was found in patients with TLE (, Student’s -test). Among TLE cases (), depression () and memory deficit () were determined. Depression was associated with a higher % of cells with the CB dendritic expression (CB-sprouted cells) (,,), a higher CB+ area (μm2) (,,), and a higher optical density (,,) (two-way ANOVA). The GAF scale (general assessment of functioning) of DSM-IV inversely correlated with the % of CB-sprouted cells (,) and with the CB+ area (,).Conclusions. In this exploratory study, comorbid depression was associated with a differential pattern of CB cell loss in dentate gyrus combined with a higher CB sprouting. These changes may indicate granular cell dysmaturation associated to the epileptic hyperexcitability phenomena. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm these preliminary findings.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 16:05:01 +000
       
  • Nonpharmacologic Interventions for the Self-Management of Anxiety in
           Parkinson’s Disease: A Comprehensive Review

    • Abstract: Anxiety in Parkinson’s disease (aPD) is underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied. As many as 50% of persons diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are reported to suffer from anxiety. Current treatment is largely pharmacologic, which can result in a myriad of undesirable and unsafe side effects. The aim of this paper is to examine intervention studies of self-managed nonpharmacological strategies for the treatment of anxiety. A comprehensive review was conducted on experimental or quasi-experimental trials that included self-management approaches for the nonpharmacologic treatment of anxiety as a primary or secondary aim or outcome measure. Thirteen studies were identified from four databases. Study quality demonstrated variability in design and delivery of self-managed interventions; sample sizes were small; anxiety was most commonly a secondary aim; and the use of anxiety measures varied widely. Statistical significance was evident in slightly more than 50% of the anxiety intervention studies. A common element in the interventions in all studies was the focused use of breath. Further research is needed to determine the feasibility of using focused breathing, alone, as an intervention for the self-management of anxiety in Parkinson’s disease.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:06:14 +000
       
  • Psychological Intervention in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    • Abstract: Objective. To provide a brief and comprehensive summary of recent research regarding psychological interventions for patients surviving a traumatic brain injury. Methods. A bibliographical search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycNET, Scopus, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar online databases. Analysis included distribution by year of publication, age stage of participants (paediatric, adult), location of the research team, study design, type of intervention, and main outcome variables. Results. The initial search eliciting 1541 citations was reduced to 62 relevant papers. Most publications had adult samples (88.7%). The United States outstands as the country with more research (58.1%); Latin America countries provided no results. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was the most widely used approach for treatment of (sub)clinical mental disturbances (41.9%). Neuropsychological interventions were scarce (4.8%). Outcome measures included psychiatric disorders (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety) (37.1%), postconcussive symptoms (16.1%), cognitive and functional deficits (48.1%), and social and psychological dimensions (62.9%). Conclusions. CBT outstands as the preferred therapeutic approach for treating behavioural and emotional disturbances. Also, other related therapies such as dialectical behaviour, mindfulness, and acceptance and commitment therapies have been proposed, and probably in the years to come, more literature regarding their effectiveness will be available. On the other hand, evidence showed that interventions from the field of neuropsychology are minimal if compared with its contribution to assessment. Future research should be aimed at performing studies on more diverse populations (e.g., nonmilitary communities and paediatric and Latin American populations) and at controlling designs to examine the therapeutic efficacy of psychotherapeutic and neurocognitive rehabilitation interventions and compare amelioration by injury severity, age of patients, and clinical profile, in the hopes of creating better guidelines for practitioners.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:06:12 +000
       
  • Assessment and Management of Depression and Anxiety in Children and
           Adolescents with Epilepsy

    • Abstract: Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents with epilepsy are common comorbidities which place a significant burden on patients and families and complicate the clinical management of epilepsy. This paper presents a narrative review on the aetiology, phenomenology, assessment, and management of depression and anxiety among paediatric patients with epilepsy. The recognition of affective comorbidity in paediatric epilepsy is limited at present, and the contributory role of antiepileptic medication towards such comorbidity must be considered by clinicians.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2019 00:06:10 +000
       
  • Degree of Functionality and Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life
           in People with Moderate Stroke: Differences between Ischemic and
           Hemorrhagic Typology

    • Abstract: Objectives. The objectives of this pilot study were to analyze the functional differences and the differences regarding the perception of health-related quality of life between people affected by ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively, and between these and their normative groups. Methods. A pre-post design study was conducted with 30 patients aged during eight weeks. It assessed disability, mobility, and health-related quality of life. Exact nonparametric tests were used to compare both types of stroke, and -tests and effect size estimates were employed to compare the stroke group and the normative group. Results. At baseline, there were differences in disability (“getting along” domain), where a poorer result was obtained by the hemorrhagic stroke group, and in the “vitality” and “mental health” domains of the health-related quality of life test, where the ischemic group obtained poorer results. Both groups made significant progress in their health assessments and functionality after eight weeks, and no significant differences were found between them at that time. The scores obtained in both groups differed statistically from the normative values, both at baseline and at posttest. Conclusions. Regardless of the stroke type, divergent results were only found in two domains, “vitality” and “mental health.” There was an improvement over time, but the scores obtained were still lower than those observed in the normative group, which indicated that the participants’ health was highly compromised. This study provides more information for faster rehabilitation after stroke; even so, more studies are needed.
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:05:40 +000
       
  • Medication Belief and Adherence among Patients with Epilepsy

    • Abstract: Background. Medication adherence and belief are crucial to achieving the desired goal of therapy in epileptic patients. However, there is a lack of study regarding medication adherence and belief in our setting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate medication adherence and belief and associated factors among ambulatory patients with epilepsy. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected epileptic patients at the neurologic clinic of Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. Medication adherence and belief were assessed using self-reported questionnaires which were developed based on the review of different literatures. Data were analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Result. We included a total of 292 patients. Almost two-thirds (65.4%) of the patients were nonadherent to their medications. The most common cause of nonadherence was forgetfulness (48.7%) followed by inability to get medicine (28.8) and safety concern (23.5%). The majority (78.4%) of the patients had high medication necessity belief while 44.1% had high concern belief about the potential adverse effect of their medications. Overall, 39.4% of the patients had a negative belief toward their medications. Comorbidity (AOR: 3.51, 95% CI: 1.20-10.31), seizure encounter within the last 3 months (AOR: 5.45, 95% CI: 2.48-12.00), low medication necessity belief (AOR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.14-10.00), high medication concern belief (AOR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.07-8.63), and negative medication belief (AOR: 4.17, 95% CI: 1.74-10.02) were predictors of medication nonadherence. Conclusion. Majority of the epileptic patients were nonadherent to their medications, and more than one-third of the patients had a negative medication belief. Low medication necessity belief, high medication concern belief, negative medication belief, comorbidity, and seizure encounter were predictors of medication nonadherence. Therefore, healthcare providers should design educational programs to enhance the patients’ believe about their medication in order to improve medication adherence and overall treatment outcome.
      PubDate: Tue, 23 Apr 2019 15:05:02 +000
       
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among Children Aged 6 to
           17 Years Old Living in Girja District, Rural Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Objective. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood with long-term outcomes. Although ADHD is the most studied behavioral disorders of childhood in developed countries, few studies have been conducted in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ADHD in rural parts of Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to June 2015 among children aged 6 to 17 years living in rural areas. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 1302 participants. The Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale was used to collect the data. Logistic regression analysis was used to see statistically significant variables. Result. The prevalence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children was 7.3%. Being male (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.81, 95% CI: (1.13, 2.91)); living with a single parent (AOR = 5.0, 95% CI: (2.35, 10.65)); child birth order/rank (AOR = 2.35, 95% CI: (1.30, 4.25)); and low family socioeconomic status (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: (1.29, 4.59)) were significantly associated with ADHD. Conclusion. The ADHD prevalence rate was found to be similar with global reports. Prevention and early management of maternal complications is important to reduce the prevalence of ADHD among children.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:05:05 +000
       
  • Psychometric Evaluation of Anxiety, Depression, and Sleep Quality after a
           Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study

    • Abstract: Introduction. Over 1 million mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases are reported annually worldwide and may result in cognitive, physical, and emotional deterioration; depression; anxiety; and sleep problems. However, studies on long-term mTBI effects are limited. This study included 440 patients, and regular follow-ups of psychological assessments were performed for 2 years. Four questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Beck’s anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck’s depression inventory (BDI), were used to evaluate sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and depression, respectively. Results show that BAI and BDI scores considerably improved at the 6th-week, 1st-year, and 2nd-year follow-ups compared to baseline, yet these remained significantly different. In addition, anxiety and depression were prominent symptoms in a select subgroup of patients with poor initial evaluations, which improved over the 2 years. However, the ESS and PSQI scores fluctuated only mildly over the same time span. In conclusion, the mTBI patients showed a gradual improvement of anxiety and depression over the 2 years following injury. While anxiety and depression levels for mTBI patients in general did not return to premorbid status, improvements were observed. Sleep disorders persisted and were consistent with initial levels of distress.
      PubDate: Sun, 14 Apr 2019 00:05:03 +000
       
  • Timing of Acupuncture during LTP-Like Plasticity Induced by
           Paired-Associative Stimulation

    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependent effects of acupuncture on the excitability and long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like plasticity induced by paired-associative stimulation (PAS) over the primary motor cortex (M1). The present examination is the first to report the influence of acupuncture on the motor-evoked potential (MEP) throughout the treatment process, including baseline (before acupuncture), the needle in situ, and the needle removal. Subsequently, the LTP-like plasticity induced by paired-associative stimulation (PAS) was explored, which consisted of 200 pairs of electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve at the first dorsal interosseous (FDI), followed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the bilateral M1. TMS-MEP amplitudes over the bilateral M1 in resting conditions were measured throughout the whole treatment process. Finally, we confirmed the behavioral measurements. Significant changes were found in both the contralateral and ipsilateral acupuncture sizes as compared to the baseline values. Our results indicated that acupuncture modulated the excitability of M1, and the synaptic plasticity was time-dependent. We concluded that acupuncture should be combined with rehabilitation techniques to improve the motor function in stroke patients. Therefore, we put forward the combined application of the acupuncture timing and rehabilitation for higher therapeutic effectiveness. This trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration no. ChiCTR-IPR-1900020515).
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 13:30:02 +000
       
  • Behavioral and Cognitive Impacts of Mindfulness-Based Interventions on
           

    • Abstract: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are becoming increasingly popular as treatments for physical and psychological problems. Recently, several studies have suggested that MBIs may also be effective in reducing symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most studies have examined the effectiveness in children, but there are now a sufficient number of individual treatment trials to consider a systematic review in adults. Majority of existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses only consider ADHD symptoms as an outcome, and most of them do not fully report potential biases of included studies, thus limiting considerably their conclusions. This is an important facet because some studies could be found ineligible to be included in future analysis due to their low quality. In this systematic review, we followed the PRISMA/PICO criteria and we thoroughly assessed the risks of bias for each of the selected studies according to Cochrane guidelines. We searched the available literature concerning MBIs in adult participants with ADHD using PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC databases. In total, 13 studies conducted with 753 adults (mean age of 35.1 years) were identified as eligible. Potential moderators such as participants’ age, ADHD subtypes, medication status, comorbidity, intervention length, mindfulness techniques, homework amount, and training of therapists were carefully described. Aside from measuring the symptoms of ADHD, outcome measures were categorized into executive/cognitive functioning, emotional disturbances, quality of life, mindfulness, and grade point average at school. According to presented descriptive results, all the studies (100%) showed improvement of ADHD symptoms. In addition, mindfulness meditation training improves some aspects of executive function and emotion dysregulation. Although these are promising findings to support treatment efficacy of MBIs for ADHD, various biases such as absence of randomization and lack of a control group may affect the actual clinical value and implications of the studies. Moreover, the relatively low quality of selection and performance criteria in several studies, as well as relatively high attrition bias across studies, call for caution before considering conducting further analysis.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 10:05:15 +000
       
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation of Acquired Calculation Disturbances

    • Abstract: Acalculia is an acquired disorder in calculation abilities, usually associated with left posterior parietal damage. Two types of acalculic disorders are usually distinguished: (1) primary acalculia or anarithmetia, where the patient presents a loss of numerical concepts (difficulties are observed both in oral and written calculations), and (2) secondary acalculia due to a different disturbance in cognition and affecting mathematical abilities. Secondary acalculias are associated with aphasia, alexia, agraphia, executive function disorders, or visuospatial difficulties. This paper is a proposal for clinical intervention to rehabilitation of acquired primary and secondary acalculias.
      PubDate: Thu, 04 Apr 2019 10:05:13 +000
       
  • Probable RBD Associates with the Development of RLS in Parkinson’s
           Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    • Abstract: Objectives. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and exploring the contributing factors that affect the development of RLS in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted consisting of 178 consecutive PD patients from our hospital between October 2015 and August 2016. We divided the participants into two groups, which were PD with RLS and PD with non-RLS. Then, we recorded their demographics and clinical data to draw a comparison between PD with RLS and PD with non-RLS. Results. 23 (12.92%) were diagnosed with RLS among all the enrolled PD patients. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III (UPDRS III) and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) scores, probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (PRBD), and daily levodopa equivalent dose (LED) in the PD with the RLS group were significantly different from those in the PD with the non-RLS group. Daily LED and the scores of UPDRS III and HAMD in PD patients with RLS were all higher than those in PD patients with non-RLS. PRBD, daily LED, and HAMD scores were significantly independent factors contributing to the development of RLS (, 95% CI 1.372~15.944, ;, 95% CI 1.001~1.005, ;, 95% CI 1.002~1.193, ). The severity of RLS was positively correlated with the duration of PD and daily LED (,;,).Conclusion. PRBD existence, daily LED, and HAMD scores are independent factors for developing RLS in PD patients. PRBD existence is firstly proposed as an independent factor in developing RLS among PD patients. RLS severity in PD patients are positively associated with the duration of PD and daily LED.
      PubDate: Mon, 01 Apr 2019 01:05:06 +000
       
 
 
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