Abstract: This paper presents a study of differential AoA (Angle-of-Arrival) based 2D localization method utilizing FM radio signals (88 MHz–108 MHz) as Signals of Opportunity (SOP). Given prior knowledge of the transmitters’ position and signal characteristics, the proposed technique utilizes triangulation to localize receiver’s 2D position. Dual antenna interferometry provides the received signals’ AoA required for triangulation. Reliance on precise knowledge of antenna system’s orientation is removed by utilizing differential Angle of Arrivals (dAoAs). The 2D localization accuracy is improved by utilizing colocated transmitters, a concept proposed in this paper as supertowers. Analysis, simulation, and ground-based experiments have been presented; results showed that when the SNR (Signal-to-Noise Ratio) is higher than 45 dB, the proposed method localizes the receiver’s 2D position with an error of less than 15 m. PubDate: Sun, 25 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Comparison of high-performance time scales generated by atomic clocks in laboratories of time and frequency metrology is usually performed by means of the Common View method. Laboratories are equipped with specialized GNSS receivers which measure the difference between a local time scale and a time scale of the selected satellite. Every receiver generates log files in CGGTTS data format to record measured differences. In order to calculate time differences recorded by two receivers, it is necessary to obtain these logs from both receivers and process them. This paper deals with automation and speeding up of these processes. PubDate: Tue, 24 Oct 2017 09:02:32 +000

Abstract: Nowadays, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) unit is embedded in nearly every smartphone. This unit allows a smartphone to detect the user’s location and motion, and it makes functions, such as navigation, tracking, and compass applications, available to the user. Therefore, the GNSS unit has become one of the most important features in modern smartphones. However, because most smartphones incorporate relatively low-cost GNSS chips, their localization accuracy varies depending on the number of accessible GNSS satellites, and it is highly dependent on environmental factors that cause interference such as forests and buildings. This research evaluated the performance of the GNSS units inside two different models of smartphones in determining pedestrian locations in different environments. The results indicate that the overall performances of the two devices were related directly to the environment, type of smartphone/GNSS chipset, and the application used to collect the information. PubDate: Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: Performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning in urban environments is hindered by poor satellite availability because there are many man-made and natural objects in urban environments that obstruct satellite signals. To evaluate the availability of GNSS in cities, this paper presents a software simulation of GNSS availability in urban areas using a panoramic image dataset from Google Street View. Photogrammetric image processing techniques are applied to reconstruct fisheye sky view images and detect signal obstacles. Two comparisons of the results from the simulation and real world observation in Bangkok and Tokyo are also presented and discussed for accuracy assessment. PubDate: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +000

Abstract: The GNSS measurements are strongly affected by ionospheric effects, due to the signal propagation through ionosphere; these effects could severely degrade the position; hence, a model to limit or remove the ionospheric error is necessary. The use of several techniques (DGPS, SBAS, and GBAS) reduces the ionospheric effect, but implies the use of expensive devices and/or complex architectures necessary to meet strong requirements in terms of accuracy and reliability for safety critical application. The cheapest and most widespread GNSS devices are single frequency stand-alone receivers able to partially correct this kind of error using suitable models. These algorithms compute the ionospheric delay starting from ionospheric model, which uses parameters broadcast within the navigation messages. NeQuick is a three-dimensional and time-dependent ionospheric model adopted by Galileo, the European GNSS, and developed by International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) together with Institute for Geophysics, Astrophysics, and Meteorology of the University of Graz. The aim of this paper is the performance assessment in single point positioning of the NeQuick Galileo version provided by ESA and the comparison with respect to the Klobuchar model used for GPS; the analysis is performed in position domain and the errors are examined in terms of RMS and maximum error for the horizontal and vertical components. A deep analysis is also provided for the application of the exanimated model in the first possible Galileo only position fix. PubDate: Wed, 27 Nov 2013 08:27:56 +000

Abstract: This paper presents an extended Kalman filter-based hybrid indoor position estimation technique which is based on integration of fingerprinting and trilateration approach. In this paper, Euclidian distance formula is used for the first time instead of radio propagation model to convert the received signal to distance estimates. This technique combines the features of fingerprinting and trilateration approach in a more simple and robust way. The proposed hybrid technique works in two stages. In the first stage, it uses an online phase of fingerprinting and calculates nearest neighbors (NN) of the target node, while in the second stage it uses trilateration approach to estimate the coordinate without the use of radio propagation model. The distance between calculated NN and detective access points (AP) is estimated using Euclidian distance formula. Thus, distance between NN and APs provides radii for trilateration approach. Therefore, the position estimation accuracy compared to the lateration approach is better. Kalman filter is used to further enhance the accuracy of the estimated position. Simulation and experimental results validate the performance of proposed hybrid technique and improve the accuracy up to 53.64% and 25.58% compared to lateration and fingerprinting approaches, respectively. PubDate: Sun, 22 Sep 2013 16:48:25 +000

Abstract: The time model of Beidou satellite clocks is analyzed. The general relations of satellite clocks with the system time are studied. The error sources of two-way radio time transfer between satellites and uplink stations are analyzed. The uncertainty of type A is about 0.3 ns in Beidou system. All the satellite clocks in orbit of Beidou satellite navigation system are evaluated by the clock offsets observed by the two-way radio time transfer. The frequency stabilities at a sample time of 10000 s and 1 day for all the satellite clocks are better than . It means that the performance of Beidou satellite clocks in orbit is consistent with the ground test, and the results in orbit are a little better than those in ground vacuum. PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2013 13:34:32 +000

Abstract: The paper focuses on a navigation facility, relying on commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology, developed to generate high-accuracy attitude and trajectory measurements in postprocessing. Target performance is cm-level positioning with tenth of degree attitude accuracy. The facility is based on the concept of GPS-aided inertial navigation but comprises carrier-phase differential GPS (CDGPS) processing and attitude estimation based on multiantenna GPS configurations. Expected applications of the system include: (a) performance assessment of integrated navigation systems, developed for general aviation aircraft and medium size unmanned aircraft systems (UAS); (b) generation of reference measurements to evaluate the flight performance of airborne sensors (e.g., radar or laser); and (c) generation of reference trajectory and attitude for improving imaging quality of airborne remote sensing data. The paper describes system architecture, selected algorithms for data processing and integration, and theoretical performance evaluation. Experimental results are also presented confirming the effectiveness of the implemented approach. PubDate: Thu, 05 Sep 2013 08:30:47 +000

Abstract: A simple approach to gyro and accelerometer bias estimation is proposed. It does not involve Kalman filtering or similar formal techniques. Instead, it is based on physical intuition and exploits a duality between gimbaled and strapdown inertial systems. The estimation problem is decoupled into two separate stages. At the first stage, inertial system attitude errors are corrected by means of a feedback from an external aid. In the presence of uncompensated biases, the steady-state feedback rebalances those biases and can be used to estimate them. At the second stage, the desired bias estimates are expressed in a closed form in terms of the feedback signal. The estimator has only three tunable parameters and is easy to implement and use. The tests proved the feasibility of the proposed approach for the estimation of low-cost MEMS inertial sensor biases on a moving land vehicle. PubDate: Tue, 02 Jul 2013 11:13:45 +000

Abstract: Multiconstellation satellite navigation is critical in signal-degraded environments where signals are strongly corrupted. In this case, the use of a single GNSS system does not guarantee an accurate and continuous positioning. A possible approach to solve this problem is the use of multiconstellation receivers that provide additional measurements and allows robust reliability testing; in this work, a GPS/GLONASS combination is considered. In urban scenario, a modification of the classical RAIM technique is necessary taking into account frequent multiple blunders. The FDE schemes analysed are the “Observation Subset Testing,” “Forward-Backward Method,” and “Danish Method”; they are obtained by combining different basic statistical tests. The considered FDE methods are modified to optimize their behaviour in urban scenario. Specifically a preliminary check is implemented to screen out bad geometries. Moreover, a large blunder could cause multiple test failures; hence, a separability index is implemented to avoid the incorrect exclusion of blunder-free measurements. Testing the RAIM algorithms of GPS/GLONASS combination to verify the benefits relative to GPS only case is a main target of this work too. The performance of these methods is compared in terms of RMS and maximum error for the horizontal and vertical components of position and velocity. PubDate: Tue, 26 Mar 2013 14:47:43 +000

Abstract: Vehicle-to-vehicle relative navigation of a network of vehicles travelling in an urban canyon is assessed using least-squares and Kalman filtering covariance simulation techniques. Between-vehicle differential GPS is compared with differential GPS augmented with between-vehicle ultrawideband range and bearing measurements. The three measurement types are combined using both least-squares and Kalman filtering to estimate the horizontal positions of a network of vehicles travelling in the same direction on a road in a simulated urban canyon. The number of vehicles participating in the network is varied between two and nine while the severity of the urban canyon was varied from 15-to 65-degree elevation mask angles. The effect of each vehicle’s azimuth being known a priori, or unknown is assessed. The resulting relative positions in the network of vehicles are then analysed in terms of horizontal accuracy and statistical reliability of the solution. The addition of both range and bearing measurements provides protection levels on the order of 2 m at almost all times where DGPS alone only rarely has observation redundancy and often exhibits estimated accuracies worse than 200 m. Reliability is further improved when the vehicle azimuth is assumed to be known a priori. PubDate: Sun, 10 Mar 2013 10:52:09 +000